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Sample records for middle aged adults

  1. Conservation Abilities in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selzer, S. Claire; Denney, Nancy W.

    This study investigated the relationship between both age and conservation and education and conservation. The participants were 16 middle-aged adults, 16 institutionalized adults, and 16 noninstitutionalized adults. Each individual was given three conservation of substance problems, three conservation of weight problems, and three conservation of…

  2. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-11-01

    Young and middle-aged adults (ages ≤50 years) are increasingly prone to stroke, kidney disease, and worsening cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. An alarming increase in the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) may underlie the adverse trend. However, there is often uncertainty in BP management for young and middle-aged adults. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is one such example. Whether ISH in young and middle-aged adults represents "pseudo" or "spurious" hypertension is still being debated. ISH in young and middle-aged adults is a heterogeneous entity; some individuals appear to have increased stroke volume, whereas others have stiffened aortae, or both. One size does not seem to fit all in the clinical management of ISH in young and middle-aged adults. Rather than treating ISH as a monolithic condition, detailed phenotyping of ISH based on (patho)physiology and in the context of individual global cardiovascular risks would seem to be most useful to assess an individual expected net benefit from therapy. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of ISH in young and middle-aged adults, including the prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  3. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S

    2010-05-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers' leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers' leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults' leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer.

  4. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  5. Geriatric conditions develop in middle-aged adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cigolle, Christine T; Lee, Pearl G; Langa, Kenneth M; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Tian, Zhiyi; Blaum, Caroline S

    2011-03-01

    Geriatric conditions, collections of symptoms common in older adults and not necessarily associated with a specific disease, increase in prevalence with advancing age. These conditions are important contributors to the complex health status of older adults. Diabetes mellitus is known to co-occur with geriatric conditions in older adults and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some conditions. To investigate the prevalence and incidence of geriatric conditions in middle-aged and older-aged adults with diabetes. Secondary analysis of nationally-representative, longitudinal health interview survey data (Health and Retirement Study waves 2004 and 2006). Respondents 51 years and older in 2004 (n=18,908). Diabetes mellitus. Eight geriatric conditions: cognitive impairment, falls, incontinence, low body mass index, dizziness, vision impairment, hearing impairment, pain. Adults with diabetes, compared to those without, had increased prevalence and increased incidence of geriatric conditions across the age spectrum (p< 0.01 for each age group from 51-54 years old to 75-79 years old). Differences between adults with and without diabetes were most marked in middle-age. Diabetes was associated with the two-year cumulative incidence of acquiring new geriatric conditions (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 1.6-2.0). A diabetes-age interaction was discovered: as age increased, the association of diabetes with new geriatric conditions decreased. Middle-aged, as well as older-aged, adults with diabetes are at increased risk for the development of geriatric conditions, which contribute substantially to their morbidity and functional impairment. Our findings suggest that adults with diabetes should be monitored for the development of these conditions beginning at a younger age than previously thought.

  6. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  7. Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

  8. Age-Related Changes in Cognitive and Sensory Processing: Focus on Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Humes, Larry E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the effects of age on (a) various psychophysical measures of threshold sensitivity and temporal processing in hearing, vision, and touch and (b) measures of cognitive processing as assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (Wechsler, 1997). Age group differences and correlations with age were examined, as were associations among age, sensory processing, and cognition. The group analyses showed significant differences on most sensory and cognitive measures such that middle-aged adults performed significantly worse than young adults and significantly better than older adults. Correlations of performance with age were also significant when analyses were restricted to just the young and middle-aged adults. Last, sensory processing, but not age, was significantly correlated with cognitive processing when analyses were restricted to just the young and middle-aged adults. Middle-aged adults experienced declines in both sensory and cognitive processing. The declines in both the cognitive and sensory domains were such that, for most measures in each domain, the performance of middle-aged adults fell somewhere between that of young and older adults.

  9. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Workshop on Aging in Changing Middle-Aged Adults' Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Knott, Elizabeth S.

    A study examined whether middle-aged adults' attitudes toward persons could be changed in a positive direction through planned educational experiences designed specifically to change attitudes. A sample of 162 middle-aged adults from various sections of North Carolina (89 of whom constituted the experimental group and 79 of whom comprised the…

  10. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  11. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  12. Middle-Aged Adults Facing Skin Cancer Information: Fixation, Mood and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Harris, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Older adults fixate less on negative parts of skin cancer videos than younger adults, leading them to feel better (Isaacowitz & Choi, 2012). We extended this paradigm to middle-aged adults (ages 35–59, n=63), whose fixation patterns were measured as they viewed skin cancer videos; mood and behavior were also assessed. Middle-aged adults looked even less at the videos than the other age groups, especially at the negative clips. They also reported the best moods, but relatively low levels of learning and positive skin cancer behavior. In some cases, middle-aged adults may show larger “age-related positivity effects” than older adults. PMID:24956002

  13. Age stereotypes in middle-aged through old-old adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Neil Carter; Friedrich, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare adult age groups on aging bias, with measures of knowledge of aging in the physical, psychological, and social domains and life satisfaction. The study sample, consisting of 752 men and women, 40 to 95 years of age, was tested using Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Satisfaction Index (LSI) and Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (1998) modified to extract bias toward older adults and categorized into 3 domains: physical, psychological, and social. Independent variables were 3 levels of LSI from the Neugarten et al. quiz. Aging bias was measured among the age groups, gender, life satisfaction, and knowledge of aging domains. Significant bias differences were found in age group, life satisfaction, and knowledge of aging domain variables. Financial, health, and volunteer status interacted with these effects. Among other significant findings, the data indicate that middle-aged adults 40-59 have the most negative bias in the psychological and social domains and the least negative bias in the physical domain compared to the older participants. Both middle aged and old-old adults have the most negative aging biases. These differential aging stereotypes (positive and negative) among the physical, psychological, and social perceptions of aging over adult age groups are interpreted within aging stereotyping and aging self-stereotyping.

  14. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  15. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  16. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  17. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults With Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function.

    PubMed

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance (EA) data were collected at 30 frequencies using a prototype commercial instrument developed by Interacoustics. Results showed that the young adult group had significantly lower EA (between 400 and 560 Hz) than the middle-aged group. However, the middle-aged group showed significantly lower EA (between 2240 and 5040 Hz) than the young adult group. In addition, the older adult group had significantly lower EA than the young adult group (between 2520 and 5040 Hz). No significant difference in EA was found at any frequency between middle-aged and older adults. Across age groups, gender differences were found with men having significantly higher EA values than women at lower frequencies, whereas women had significantly higher EA at higher frequencies. This study provides evidence of the influence of gender and age on EA in adults with normal outer and middle ear function. These findings support the importance of establishing age- and gender-specific EA norms for the adult population.

  18. Characteristics of the middle-age adult inpatient fall.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Donna; Crawford, Sybil; Quigley, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe characteristics of middle-age inpatients' (ages 45-64) fallers and their fall and fall injury risk factors. Middle-age falls were 42-46% of inpatient falls. Studies related to inpatient falls have not targeted this population. A 439 retrospective chart review was performed. Middle-age fall and injury rates were compared with ages 21-44 and 65-90. The mean age was 55.75years (SD 5.26). 28.7% (n=126) of falls resulted in injury. Individual fallers (n=386) had a mean of four comorbidities (SD 1.843), including hypertension (46.5%), anxiety/depression (40.2%), and alcohol and drug abuse (32.9%). There was no significant difference (p=.637) in fall rates per 1,000 patient days between ages 45-64 and 65-90. Middle-age inpatients' acute illness makes them as vulnerable for fall and injury as the older population. They should not be overlooked for fall prevention measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex Differences in Preschoolers' Perceptions of Young, Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris; Walz, Patricia J.

    This study examines the sex differences in preschool children's perception of male and female adults of different ages (young, middle-aged and elderly) and the degree to which physical attractiveness plays a role in children's attributions concerning adults. Forty 3- and 4-year-old children (20 boys, 20 girls) from middle-income families served as…

  20. Conservation Abilities in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selzer, S. Claire; Denney, Nancy Wadsworth

    1980-01-01

    Education, not age per se, is related to conservation ability during the adult years. Age differences should not be interpreted as age changes without using the more appropriate designs which separate age and cohort effects. Results emphasize the relationship between education and cognitive abilities among the elderly. (Author)

  1. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.

  2. Martial Arts Training Attenuates Arterial Stiffness in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter C.; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Methods Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. Results There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). Conclusion The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness. PMID:24427479

  3. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  4. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  5. Sex Differences in Preschoolers' Perceptions of Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris; Walz, Patricia J.

    1981-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to replicate research regarding preschoolers' attitudes toward young, middle-aged, and elderly adults; (2) to examine sex differences in responses to male and female adults; and (3) to study the degree to which physical attractiveness influences children's reactions toward adults. (Author/DB)

  6. A pilot study of performance in young and middle-aged adults on verbal recall.

    PubMed

    Burda, Angela; Flatness, Jamie; Lyons, Ashley; Sorensen, Emily

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to explore whether middle-aged adults (M age = 48.9 yr.; n = 26) differed on verbal recall from young adults (M age = 26.3 yr.; n = 26). Little data exist on the performance of middle-aged, healthy adults. Groups of young and middle-aged adults recalled words from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test across six trials during a single session. The same 15 words were used for recall in Trials 1-5. Prior to the sixth trial, 15 distractor words were presented. Participants then recalled the original set of 15 words. No significant differences occurred on any of the recall trials. Although the power of this study was low, the effect of age is apparently quite small.

  7. Kinematic characteristics of gait in middle-aged adults during level walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Xiao, Fei; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Middle-aged people have shown a high fall incidence and degeneration in gait stability, while few studies concern that. This study aimed to assess the kinematic characteristics of gait in middle-aged people compared with younger and older ones during level walking, and to find sensitive indicators to characterize degenerated gait stability in middle-aged people. 13 middle-aged (mean age=52.1 years), with 13 older (mean age=74.8 years) and 13 young (mean age=23.3 years) healthy adults participated in this study. We assessed following gait parameters of the subjects during their level walking: 1) temporal-spatial gait parameters: normalized gait velocity, stride length, step length and their variability; 2) gait stability parameters: acceleration root mean square (RMS) of COM and its variability; and instantaneous COM-COP inclination angles. Compared with young and older subjects, middle-aged adults showed no significant difference in temporal-spatial gait parameters and their stride-to-stride variability (P>0.050); Compared with young subjects, middle-aged adults showed a significant higher value in medial-lateral (ML) direction of acceleration RMS of COM (P=0.038) and its stride-to-stride variability (P=0.030), as well as in COM-COP inclination angle (P=0.003). There was no significant difference in the above two parameters of gait stability between middle-aged and older subjects (P>0.050). Results illustrated that middle-aged subjects showed similar degenerated pattern in gait stability as the older ones in ML direction. Gait stability parameters, including ML acceleration of COM and its variability, as well as ML COM-COP inclination angle may help to characterize this degenerated gait stability. It's necessary for us to develop early interventions for middle-aged adults to prevent falls during walking.

  8. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  9. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  10. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  11. Flavonol Intake and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin; Ravine, Erin; Harper, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The change in each score over 6 years was calculated, and a combined standardized change score was calculated. Generalized linear models controlled for age, ethnicity, gender, education level, energy intake, current smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake. Total flavonols across quintiles of intake were positively associated with preserved combined cognitive function (P<.001). This pattern with preserved combined cognitive function was consistent for the three major individual flavonols in the diet, myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin (each P<.001). The positive association with total flavonols was strongest for the digit symbol subtest (P<.001). In this cohort, flavonol intake was correlated with protected cognitive function over time.

  12. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved.

  13. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Nutrient intake and cerebral metabolism in healthy middle-aged adults: Implications for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Stephanie; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Tarumi, Takashi; Davis, Jaimie N; Cassill, Carolyn K; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2017-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests dietary factors influence cognition, but the effects of nutrient intake on cerebral metabolism in adults are currently unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between major macronutrient intake (fat, carbohydrate, and protein) and cerebral neurochemical profiles in middle-aged adults. Thirty-six adults recorded dietary intake for 3 days prior to completing cognitive testing and a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) scan. (1)H-MRS of occipitoparietal gray matter was used to assess glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) relative to creatine (Cr) levels. Regression analyses revealed that high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with lower cerebral Glu/Cr (P = 0.005), and high intake of saturated fat (SFA) was associated with poorer memory function (P = 0.030) independent of age, sex, education, estimated intelligence, total caloric intake, and body mass index. In midlife, greater PUFA intake (ω-3 and ω-6) may be associated with lower cerebral glutamate, potentially indicating more efficient cellular reuptake of glutamate. SFA intake, on the other hand, was linked with poorer memory performance. These results suggest that dietary fat intake modification may be an important intervention target for the prevention of cognitive decline.

  15. Differences in grip force control between young and late middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Wenhui; Song, Rong; Liu, Guanzheng

    2017-08-22

    Grip force control is a crucial function for human to guarantee the quality of life. To examine the effects of age on grip force control, 10 young adults and 11 late middle-aged adults participated in visually guided tracking tasks using different target force levels (25, 50, and 75% of the subject's maximal grip force). Multiple measures were used to evaluate the tracking performance during force rising phase and force maintenance phase. The measurements include the rise time, fuzzy entropy, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation, and target deviation ratio. The results show that the maximal grip force was significantly lower in the late middle-aged adults than in the young adults. The time of rising phase was systematically longer among late middle-aged adults. The fuzzy entropy is a useful indicator for quantitating the force variability of the grip force signal at higher force levels. These results suggest that the late middle-aged adults applied a compensatory strategy that allow allows for sufficient time to reach the required grip force and reduce the impact of the early and subtle degenerative changes in hand motor function.

  16. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  17. Healthy behavior and memory self-reports in young, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Small, Gary W; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Chen, Stephen T; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that healthy behaviors, such as regular physical exercise, a nutritious diet, and not smoking, are associated with a lower risk for Alzheimer's disease and dementia. However, less is known about the potential link between healthy behaviors and mild memory symptoms that may precede dementia in different age groups. A daily telephone survey (Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index) of US residents yielded a random sample of 18,552 respondents ranging in age from 18 to 99 years, including 4,423 younger (age 18-39 years), 6,356 middle-aged (40-59 years), and 7,773 older (60-99 years) adults. The questionnaire included demographic information and the Healthy Behavior Index (questions on smoking, eating habits, and frequency of exercise). General linear models and logistic regressions were used in the analysis. Older adults were more likely to report healthy behaviors than were middle-aged and younger adults. Reports of memory problems increased with age (14% of younger, 22% of middle-aged, and 26% of older adults) and were inversely related to the Healthy Behavior Index. Reports of healthy eating were associated with better memory self-reports regardless of age, while not smoking was associated with better memory reports in the younger and middle-aged and reported regular exercise with better memory in the middle-aged and older groups. These findings indicate a relationship between reports of healthy behaviors and better self-perceived memory abilities throughout adult life, suggesting that lifestyle behavior habits may protect brain health and possibly delay the onset of memory symptoms as people age.

  18. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior: Differences in Middle Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Jennifer R; Randall, Brandy A

    2016-10-01

    Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors. Given this, it was expected that community cohesion would predict prosocial behavior despite age, and that grit would provide motivation for older adults, so the current study examined whether age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior. Data were used from 188 upper-Midwest adults (aged 37-89). Multiple regression analyses showed that age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior such that grit predicted prosocial behavior in older adults but not middle age adults. A sense of community cohesion was predictive of prosocial behavior despite age. While grit may promote generative acts in different ways depending on age, a sense of community cohesion may foster community contributions despite age. The discussion focuses on future directions and ways to promote generativity using this research.

  19. Social networks and alcohol use among older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungyoun; Spilman, Samantha L; Liao, Diana H; Sacco, Paul; Moore, Alison A

    2016-12-22

    This study compared the association between social networks and alcohol consumption among middle-aged (MA) and older adults (OA) to better understand the nature of the relationship between those two factors among OA and MA. We examined Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Current drinkers aged over 50 were subdivided into two age groups: MA (50-64, n = 5214) and OA (65 and older, n = 3070). Each age group was stratified into drinking levels (low-risk vs. at-risk) based on alcohol consumption. The size and diversity of social networks were measured. Logistic regression models were used to examine age differences in the association between the social networks (size and diversity) and the probability of at-risk drinking among two age groups. A significant association between the social networks diversity and lower odds of at-risk drinking was found among MA and OA. However, the relationship between the diversity of social networks and the likelihood of at-risk drinking was weaker for OA than for MA. The association between social networks size and at-risk drinking was not significant among MA and OA. The current study suggests that the association between social networks diversity and alcohol use among OA differs from the association among MA, and few social networks were associated with alcohol use among OA. In the future, research should consider an in-depth exploration of the nature of social networks and alcohol consumption by using longitudinal designs and advanced methods of exploring drinking networks.

  20. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  1. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  2. Strategies Underlying Psychometric Test Responses in Young and Middle-aged Adults of Varying Educational Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Kristina S.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies leading to test item responses in 60 young (20-25 years) and 60 middle-aged (35-40 years) adults, whose highest level of education had been either secondary, technical or university. Subjects were individually administered a 12 item test similar to Raven's Progressive Matrices, and were…

  3. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  4. Perspective-Taking Judgments Among Young Adults, Middle-Aged, and Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligneau-Herve, Catherine; Mullet, Etienne

    2005-01-01

    Perspective-taking judgments among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly people were examined. In 1 condition, participants were instructed to judge the likelihood of acceptance of a painkiller as a function of 3 cues: severity of the condition, potential side effects, and level of trust in the health care provider. In the other condition,…

  5. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; de Looze, Michiel P

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-65 years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six components but which had to be assembled in a partly different order. Assembly accuracy and movement time during tests, which were performed before and after the practice sessions, were compared to determine proactive and retroactive transfer. The results showed proactive facilitation (i.e., benefits from having learned the first product on learning the second one) in terms of an overall shortening of movement time in both age-groups. In addition, only the middle-aged adults were found to show sequence-specific proactive facilitation, in which the shortening of movement time was limited to components that had the same the order in the two products. Most likely, however, the sequence-specific transfer was an epiphenomenon of the comparatively low rate of learning among the middle-aged adults. The results, however, did reveal genuine differences between the groups for retroactive transfer (i.e., effects from learning the second product on performance of the first). Middle-aged adults tended to show more pronounced retroactive interference in terms of a general decrease in accuracy, while younger adults showed sequence-specific retroactive facilitation (i.e., shortening of movement times for components that had the same order in the two products), but only when they were fully accurate. Together this suggests that in the learning of sequential motor tasks the effects of age are more marked for retroactive transfer than for proactive transfer.

  6. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J

    2014-03-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4-1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment.

  7. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  8. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  9. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs.

  10. Cancer treatment decision-making among young adults with lung and colorectal cancer: a comparison with adults in middle age.

    PubMed

    Mack, Jennifer W; Cronin, Angel; Fasciano, Karen; Block, Susan D; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    Our aim is to understand experiences with treatment decision-making among young adults with cancer. We studied patients with lung cancer or colorectal cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium, a prospective cohort study. We identified 148 young adult patients aged 21-40 years who completed baseline interview questions about cancer treatment decision-making; each was propensity score matched to three middle adult patients aged 41-60 years, for a cohort of 592 patients. Patients were asked about decision-making preferences, family involvement in decision-making, and worries about treatment. An ordinal logistic regression model evaluated factors associated with more treatment worries. Young and middle-aged adults reported similar decision-making preferences (p = 0.80) and roles relative to physicians (p = 0.36). Although family involvement was similar in the age groups (p = 0.21), young adults were more likely to have dependent children in the home (60% younger versus 28% middle-aged adults, p < 0.001). Young adults reported more worries about time away from family (p = 0.002), and, in unadjusted analyses, more cancer treatment-related worries (mean number of responses of 'somewhat' or 'very' worried 2.5 for younger versus 2.2 for middle-aged adults, p = 0.02.) However, in adjusted analyses, worries were associated with the presence of dependent children in the home (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07-2.24, p = 0.02), rather than age. Young adults involve doctors and family members in decisions at rates similar to middle-aged adults but experience more worries about time away from family. Patients with dependent children are especially likely to experience worries. Treatment decision-making strategies should be based on individual preferences and needs rather than age alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Age Stereotypes in Middle-Aged through Old-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil Carter; Friedrich, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare adult age groups on aging bias, with measures of knowledge of aging in the physical, psychological, and social domains and life satisfaction. The study sample, consisting of 752 men and women, 40 to 95 years of age, was tested using Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Satisfaction Index (LSI)…

  12. Age Stereotypes in Middle-Aged through Old-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil Carter; Friedrich, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare adult age groups on aging bias, with measures of knowledge of aging in the physical, psychological, and social domains and life satisfaction. The study sample, consisting of 752 men and women, 40 to 95 years of age, was tested using Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Satisfaction Index (LSI)…

  13. Sex differences in endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Brian L; Westby, Christian M; Greiner, Jared J; Van Guilder, Gary P; Desouza, Christopher A

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower in middle-aged and older women than men. Increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction has been linked to the etiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, heart failure, and hypertension. It is unknown whether a sex difference in endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone exists in middle-aged and older adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged and older men would demonstrate greater ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone than age-matched women. Forearm blood flow in response to intra-arterial infusions of endothelin (ET)-1, BQ-123 (a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist), and BQ-788 (a selective ET(B) receptor antagonist) was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography in 21 women (age: 58 + or - 1 yr; body mass index: 26.0 + or - 1.0 kg/m(2)) and 25 men (age: 57 + or - 2 yr; body mass index: 26.8 + or - 0.7 kg/m(2)). In response to BQ-123, the increase in forearm blood flow from baseline was significantly higher in the men than the women (24 + or - 5% vs. 9 + or - 5%; P < 0.05). In contrast, the increase in forearm blood flow in response to BQ-123 coinfused with BQ-788 was greater in the women than the men, such that the maximum vasodilation to dual endothelin receptor blockade was similar between men and women (approximately 25%). There was no difference in the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 between the sexes. These results indicate that middle-aged and older men are under greater ET(A) receptor-mediated vasoconstrictor tone than age-matched women. Since the ET(A) receptor is the predominant receptor subtype in the coronary vasculature, this sex difference in vasoconstrictor tone may be a mechanism contributing to the sex difference in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged and older adults.

  14. Leucine Transamination Is Lower in Middle-Aged Compared with Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Paolo

    2017-09-20

    Background: Insulin and age affect leucine (and protein) kinetics in vivo. However, to our knowledge, leucine transamination and the effects of insulin have not been studied in participants of different ages.Objective: The aims of the study were to measure whole-body leucine deamination to α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and KIC reamination to leucine in middle-aged and younger healthy adults, both in the postabsorptive state and after hyperinsulinemia.Methods: Younger (mean ± SE age: 26 ± 2 y) and middle-aged (54 ± 3 y) healthy men and women were enrolled. Isotope dilution methods with 2 independent leucine and KIC tracers, a dual isotope model and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, were used.Results: Leucine deamination [expressed as μmol/(kg × min)] was consistently greater than KIC reamination. In middle-aged adults, postabsorptive leucine deamination (0.77 ± 0.05), reamination (0.49 ± 0.04), and net deamination (0.28 ± 0.04) were ∼30% lower than in the younger group (deamination: 1.12 ± 0.07; reamination: 0.70 ± 0.09; net deamination: 0.42 ± 0.04) (P < 0.002, P < 0.05, and P < 0.015, respectively). After the hyperinsulinemic clamp, plasma leucine and KIC concentrations were reduced by ∼50% in both groups. Deamination and reamination also were suppressed by ∼40-50% in both groups (P < 0.001); however, they remained lower [-35% (P = 0.02) and -25% (P = 0.036), respectively] in the middle-aged than in the younger participants. The leucine rate of appearance and its suppression by insulin were similar in the middle-aged and in the younger subjects. By using both the basal and the clamp data, deamination was directly correlated with the plasma leucine concentration (r = 0.61, P < 0.0025) and reamination to that of plasma KIC (r = 0.79, P < 0.00002). Expressing the data relative to lean body mass did not substantially alter the results.Conclusions: Leucine deamination and reamination are lower in middle-aged than in younger adults, both in

  15. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  16. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: regional and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-06-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital-frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial-temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEepsilon4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample.

  17. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Grønbæk, Morten; O’Reilly, Eilis; Bälter, Katarina; Goldbourt, Uri; Hallmans, Göran; Knekt, Paul; Liu, Simin; Pereira, Mark; Pietinen, Pirjo; Spiegelman, Donna; Stevens, June; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. CHD Incidence is low in men younger than 40 and in women younger than 50 years and for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate effects of alcohol on CHD risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD depends on age. Methods and results A pooled analysis of eight prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline. Average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups: hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0–29.9 g/day) aged 39–50, 50–59, and 60+ years were 0.58 (95% C.I. 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.60–0.86), and 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference (IRD) between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (IRD=45 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 8 to 84), than in middle-aged (IRD=64 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 24 to 102) and older adults (IRD=89 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 44 to 140). Similar results were observed in women. Conclusions Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of CHD in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. PMID:20351238

  18. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood.

  19. Aging in movement representations for sequential finger movements: a comparison between young-, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (>64years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger (fine-motor) movements. The task required number recognition and ordering and was presented in three levels of complexity. Results for movement duration indicated no differences between young- and middle-aged adults, however both performed faster than the older group. In regard to the association between imagined and executed actions, correlation analyses indicated that values for all groups were positive and moderate (r's .80,.76,.70). In summary, whereas the older adults were significantly slower in processing actions than their younger counterparts, the ability to mentally represent their actions was similar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. fMRI subsequent source memory effects in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to remember the spatial context in which our experiences occur declines linearly across the adult lifespan. However, little is known about whether this source memory decline is associated with neural activity changes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were recorded in young, middle-aged and old adults to investigate brain activity variations across the adult lifespan during encoding of subsequent spatial source memory retrieval. Twelve healthy individuals of both sexes were enrolled in each age group. During encoding, participants performed natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. During retrieval, the images presented at encoding were randomly mixed with new ones and displayed at the center of the screen. Participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if an image was old, they were instructed to indicate in which quadrant the image was presented in the encoding session. The contrast between study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment with those whose sources were subsequently forgotten revealed that positive subsequent memory effects disappear by middle age in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and appear in the left superior occipital gyrus. This under-recruitment and over-recruitment brain activity was also present in old adults. The results allowed us to identify the specific brain regions that first fail to encode spatial information into an episodic representation during the adult lifespan.

  1. Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Among Middle Age and Older Adults Who Use Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Dunne, Eugene M; Latimer, William W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported high rates of Trichomonas vaginalis among middle age and older adults. Though trichomoniasis risk factors in this age cohort remain largely unknown, illicit drug use has been associated with increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The number of mid-older adults using illicit drugs has increased significantly in recent years suggesting the need to understand the relationship between drug use and STIs in this age cohort. This study examined the relationship between drug use, sexual-risk behaviors, and biologically confirmed T. vaginalis in a sample of mid-older and younger adults who reported recent drug use. The cross-sectional design examined the relationship between past 6-month drug use, sexual risk-behaviors, and PCR-confirmed T. vaginalis in 264 adults age 18-64 who were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland. These relationships were also explored in the age-stratified sample among those 18-44 years ("younger") and individuals 45+ years ("mid-older"). Trichomoniasis prevalence did not differ significantly between younger (18.8%) and mid-older (19.1%) adults. Mid-older adults that tested positive for T. vaginalis were more likely to have used marijuana and crack in the past 6 months. Among younger adults, there were no associations between trichomoniasis and past 6-month drug use and sexual-risk behavior. Age- and drug-related immune decline is hypothesized to contribute to increase susceptibility to T. vaginalis in mid-older adults. Broad screening for trichomoniasis, particularly among older adults who are often not regarded as at risk for STIs, is needed to control this often asymptomatic infection.

  2. Expected possible selves and coping skills among young and middle-aged adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tse, S; Yuen, Y M Y; Suto, M

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study explored expected possible selves and coping skills among young and middle-aged adults with bipolar disorder in Hong Kong. Disruptive or positive experiences associated with bipolar disorder can shape the development of the sense of possible selves. Guided by narrative inquiry methodology, 14 Chinese participants (8 women; age range, 22-65 years), recruited from community mental health services and the public, were interviewed. Young participants (18-40 years) elaborated on their expected possible selves as they related to health, work, and family, whereas middle-aged participants (41-65 years) talked about independent possible selves. The participants used problem-focused, emotion-focused, and cultural coping methods to deal with their bipolar disorder and achieve their expected possible selves. Furthermore, the young participants expressed ambivalence towards self-help strategies to manage high mood episodes. This study not only improves our understanding of possible selves among young and middle-aged adults with bipolar disorder, but also provides information for designing self-help interventions. Limitations of the study along with directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Brain activation changes during locomotion in middle-aged to older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Holtzer, Roee; Chaparro, Gioella; Jean, Kharine; Balto, Julia M; Sandroff, Brian M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Motl, Robert W

    2016-11-15

    Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks. Eight middle-aged to older adults with MS and eight healthy controls underwent fNIRS recording while performing the NW and WWT tasks with an fNIRS cap consisting of 16 optodes positioned over the forehead. The MS group had greater elevations in PFC oxygenation levels during WWT compared to NW than healthy controls. There was no walking performance difference between groups during locomotion. These findings suggest that middle-aged to older individuals with MS might be able to achieve similar levels of performance through the use of increased brain activation. This study is the first to investigate brain activation changes during the performance of simple and divided-attention locomotion tasks in MS using fNIRS.

  4. Insomnia is Associated with Suicide Attempt in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Szanto, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia increases in prevalence with age, is strongly associated with depression, and has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether insomnia severity varies between those who have attempted suicide (n = 72), those who only contemplate suicide (n = 28), and those who are depressed but have no suicidal ideation or attempt history (n = 35). Methods Participants were middle-aged and older adults (Age 44–87, M = 66 years) with depression. Insomnia severity was measured as the sum of the early, middle, and late insomnia items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. General linear models examined relations between group status as the independent variable and insomnia severity as the dependent variable. Results The suicide attempt group suffered from more severe insomnia than the suicidal ideation and non-suicidal depressed groups (p < .05). Differences remained after adjusting for potential confounders including demographics, cognitive ability, alcohol dependence in the past month, severity of depressed mood, anxiety, and physical health burden. Moreover, greater insomnia severity in the suicide attempt group could not be explained by interpersonal difficulties, executive functioning, benzodiazepine use, or by the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion Our results suggest that insomnia may be more strongly associated with suicidal behavior than with the presence of suicidal thoughts alone. Accordingly, insomnia is a potential treatment target for reducing suicide risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26552935

  5. Oral and maxillofacial pathologies in young- and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Almoznino, G; Zadik, Y; Vered, M; Becker, T; Yahalom, R; Derazne, E; Aframian, D J; Czerninski, R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the distribution of oral and maxillofacial pathologies (OMFPs) and its association with patient age in young- and middle-aged adults. Distribution of histopathologically diagnosed OMFPs (n = 385) treated during 2007-2010 was recorded and the association with patient age was retrospectively analyzed. The main diagnostic categories included benign exophytic lesions (45.3%), white benign lesions (13.5%), potentially malignant lesions/disorders (10.1%), intrabony lesions (9.8%), mucosal discoloration (7.8%), benign pigmented lesions (7.3%), chronic trauma/inflammation (3.9%), and oral malignancy (2.1%). Potentially malignant lesions/disorders as a diagnostic category were positively associated with age (OR = 1.07 for 1 year; P < 0.001) and specifically the diagnoses of oral lichen planus (OR = 1.04 for 1 year; P = 0.037) and dysplastic changes (OR = 1.08 for 1 year; P = 0.013) that comprised this category. Pigmented melanocytic lesions were negatively associated with age (OR = 0.94 for 1 year; P = 0.039) as well as benign/reactive exophytic lesions (OR = 0.98 for 1 year; P = 0.038), the latter included the histopathological diagnosis of benign salivary gland pathologies (OR = 0.90 for 1 year; P < 0.001). This study provided baseline information regarding the distribution OMFPs among young- and middle-aged adults. It is important to highlight the high frequency of potentially malignant lesions/disorders and oral malignancy in young- and middle-aged adults, as these lesions require lifelong follow-up. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed.

  7. Subjective age and sleep in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Bayard, Sophie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Chronological age is commonly used to explain change in sleep. The present study examines whether subjective age is associated with change in sleep difficulties across middle adulthood and old age. Participants were drawn from the second (2004-2005) and third (2013-2014) waves of the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS, N = 2350; Mean Age: 55.54 years), the 2008 and 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 4066; Mean Age: 67.59 years) and the first (2011) and fourth (2014) waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Survey (NHATS, N = 3541; Mean Age: 76.46). In each sample, subjective age, sleep difficulties, depressive symptoms, anxiety and chronic conditions were assessed at baseline. Sleep difficulties was assessed again at follow-up. Sleep difficulties. An older subjective age at baseline was related to an increase in sleep difficulties over time in the three samples, and was mediated, in part, through more depressive symptoms, anxiety and chronic conditions. Feeling older was associated with an increased likelihood of major sleeping difficulties at follow-up in the three samples. Subjective age is a salient marker of individuals' at risk for poor sleep quality, beyond chronological age.

  8. Theory of mind through the ages: older and middle-aged adults exhibit more errors than do younger adults on a continuous false belief task.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Wendy Loken; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n=37), middle-aged (n=20), and older (n=37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited more false belief bias than did younger adults, irrespective of language ability, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The authors conclude that ToM declines from younger to older adulthood, independent of age-related changes to domain-general cognitive functioning.

  9. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  10. Increasing Incidence of Melanoma among Middle-Aged Adults: An Epidemiologic Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Garrett C.; Saavedra, Alexandra; Reed, Kurtis B.; Velazquez, Ana I.; Dronca, Roxana S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Lohse, Christine M.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify changes in incidence of cutaneous melanoma over time in the fastest-growing segment of the US population, middle-aged adults. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resource, we identified patients aged 40 to 60 years who had a first lifetime diagnosis of melanoma between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 2009, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Incidence of melanoma and overall and disease-specific survival rates were compared by age, sex, year of diagnosis, and stage of disease. Results From 1970 through 2009, age- and sex-adjusted incidence increased significantly over time (P<.001) from 7.9 to 60.0 per 100,000 person-years, with a 24-fold increase in women and a 4.5-fold increase in men. Although not significant (P=.06), incidence of melanoma increased with age. Overall and disease-specific survival improved over time, with hazard ratios of 0.94 (P<.001) and 0.93 (P<.001) for each 1-year increase in year of diagnosis, respectively. Each 1-year increase in age at diagnosis was associated with increased risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.07; P=.01) but was not significantly associated with disease-specific death. Sex was not significantly associated with death from any cause or death from disease. No patient with malignant melanoma in situ died from disease. Patients with stage II, III, and IV disease were over 14 times more likely to die from disease compared with patients with stage 0 or I disease (P<.001). Conclusion The incidence of cutaneous melanoma among middle-aged adults increased over the past 4 decades, especially in middle-aged women, while mortality decreased. PMID:24388022

  11. Insight, quality of life, and functional capacity in middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Ashley S; Kasckow, John; Fellows, Ian; Osatuke, Katerine; Patterson, Thomas L; Mohamed, Somaia; Zisook, Sidney

    2008-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) for individuals with schizophrenia is determined by a number of factors, not limited to symptomatology. The current study examined lack of insight as one such factor that may influence subjective QOL or functional capacity. It was hypothesized that insight would significantly interact with symptom severity to influence subjective QOL. Insight was not expected to influence the relation between symptom severity and functional capacity. Participants were middle-aged and older outpatients who met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and subsyndromal depression. Insight, psychopathology, and subjective QOL were assessed via semi-structured interviews and functional capacity was assessed via performance-based measures. Insight interacts with negative symptom severity to predict subjective QOL. Severity of negative symptoms and insight contribute directly to functional capacity. Individuals with intact insight may be better able to manage their symptoms, resulting in improved QOL. Treatment implications for improving the QOL of middle age and older adults with schizophrenia are discussed.

  12. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  13. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  14. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall—but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation—were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory. PMID:28210062

  15. Cellular Aging and Restorative Processes: Subjective Sleep Quality and Duration Moderate the Association between Age and Telomere Length in a Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew R.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Uchino, Bert N.; Williams, Paula G.; Smith, Timothy W.; Gunn, Heather E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Design: Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Setting: Social Neuroscience Laboratory. Participants: One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging. Citation: Cribbet MR; Carlisle M; Cawthon RM; Uchino BN; Williams PG; Smith TW; Gunn HE; Light KC. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and

  16. Physiognomy and teeth: an ethnographic study among young and middle-aged Hong Kong adults.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Liu, K S; Lam, C W

    2002-05-11

    To determine knowledge and beliefs about traditional physiognomy (judging an individual's character from their facial appearance) concerning teeth among young (17-26) and middle-aged (35-44) Hong Kong adults. In a cross sectional ethnographical telephone survey, 400 adults were interviewed about 16 traditional physiognomy concerning teeth (in consultation with a Feng Shui specialist). Most completed the interview (93%, 373). Over half the study group (63%, 234) claimed they had heard of aspects of physiognomy concerning teeth, and a quarter (24%, 88) believed in such ideologies. Variations in knowledge and beliefs were apparent among people of different age (P < 0.01), gender (P < 0.05), educational attainment (P < 0.01), economic status (P < 0.01), place of birth (P < 0.01) and religion (P < 0.01). Their knowledge and belief in aspects of physiognomy concerning teeth was also associated with reported use of dental services (P < 0.01). Among young and middle-aged adults in Hong Kong, knowledge and beliefs concerning traditional physiognomy regarding teeth is strong, and socio-demographic variations exist in these perceptions. These findings have implications for all those involved in the delivery of dental care in multicultural societies and in raising cultural awareness about traditional health beliefs.

  17. Active Workstations Do Not Impair Executive Function in Young and Middle-Age Adults.

    PubMed

    Ehmann, Peter J; Brush, Christopher J; Olson, Ryan L; Bhatt, Shivang N; Banu, Andrea H; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of self-selected low-intensity walking on an active workstation on executive functions (EF) in young and middle-age adults. Using a within-subjects design, 32 young (20.6 ± 2.0 yr) and 26 middle-age (45.6 ± 11.8 yr) adults performed low-intensity treadmill walking and seated control conditions in randomized order on separate days, while completing an EF test battery. EF was assessed using modified versions of the Stroop (inhibition), Sternberg (working memory), Wisconsin Card Sorting (cognitive flexibility), and Tower of London (global EF) cognitive tasks. Behavioral performance outcomes were assessed using composite task z-scores and traditional measures of reaction time and accuracy. Average HR and step count were also measured throughout. The expected task difficulty effects were found for reaction time and accuracy. No significant main effects or interactions as a function of treadmill walking were found for tasks assessing global EF and the three individual EF domains. Accuracy on the Tower of London task was slightly impaired during slow treadmill walking for both age-groups. Middle-age adults displayed longer planning times for more difficult conditions of the Tower of London during walking compared with sitting. A 50-min session of low-intensity treadmill walking on an active workstation resulted in accruing approximately 4500 steps. These findings suggest that executive function performance remains relatively unaffected while walking on an active workstation, further supporting the use of treadmill workstations as an effective approach to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time in the workplace.

  18. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  19. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  20. Correlates of cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, J R; Folsom, A R; Mortimer, J A; Shahar, E; Knopman, D S; McGovern, P G; Hays, M A; Crum, L D; Heiss, G

    1998-01-01

    The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990-1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women than in men, and better in managers/professionals compared with other occupations. After controlling for these factors, race and community, the findings most consistent for both sexes were that Delayed Word Recall was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, diabetes, and fibrinogen level; the Digit Symbol Subtest was associated with marital status, negatively associated with depressive symptoms, smoking status, fibrinogen level, and carotid intima-media thickness, and positively associated with alcohol drinking and FEV1; and the Word Fluency test was positively associated with marital status, alcohol drinking, sports participation, and FEV1. Most of these cross-sectional results were in the predicted direction and have biologic plausibility, but mean differences between extreme categories were small (generally on the order of 0.1 to 0.2 of a standard deviation). Longitudinal study is warranted to evaluate whether small differences in middle-age lead to larger, clinically meaningful deficits with aging.

  1. Subclinical atherosclerotic calcification and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Launer, Lenore J; Terry, James G; Loria, Catherine M; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Jacobs, David R; Whitlow, Christopher T; Zhu, Na; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in middle-age are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in older age. Less is known about the burden of calcified subclinical atherosclerosis and cognition, especially in midlife. We examined the association of coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (CAC and AAC, respectively) with cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study included 2510 black and white adults (age: 43-55 years) without heart disease or stroke who completed a year 25 follow-up exam (2010-11) as part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. CAC and AAC were measured with non-contrast computed tomography. Cognition was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) (psychomotor speed), Stroop Test (executive function), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (verbal memory). A greater amount of CAC and AAC was associated with worse performance on each test of cognitive function after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and study center. Associations were attenuated, but remained significant for the DSST and RAVLT following additional adjustment for vascular risk factors, including adiposity, smoking, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Compared to participants without CAC or AAC, those with both CAC and AAC, but not CAC or AAC alone was associated with lower DSST scores (p < 0.05). In this community-based sample, greater subclinical atherosclerotic calcification was associated with worse psychomotor speed and memory in midlife. These findings underscore the importance of a life course approach to the study of cognitive impairment with aging. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    English, Kirk L; Mettler, Joni A; Ellison, Jennifer B; Mamerow, Madonna M; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Pattarini, James M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    Physical inactivity triggers a rapid loss of muscle mass and function in older adults. Middle-aged adults show few phenotypic signs of aging yet may be more susceptible to inactivity than younger adults. The aim was to determine whether leucine, a stimulator of translation initiation and skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), can protect skeletal muscle health during bed rest. We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess changes in skeletal MPS, cellular signaling, body composition, and skeletal muscle function in middle-aged adults (n = 19; age ± SEM: 52 ± 1 y) in response to leucine supplementation (LEU group: 0.06 g ∙ kg(-1) ∙ meal(-1)) or an alanine control (CON group) during 14 d of bed rest. Bed rest decreased postabsorptive MPS by 30% ± 9% (CON group) and by 10% ± 10% (LEU group) (main effect for time, P < 0.05), but no differences between groups with respect to pre-post changes (group × time interactions) were detected for MPS or cell signaling. Leucine protected knee extensor peak torque (CON compared with LEU group: -15% ± 2% and -7% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) and endurance (CON compared with LEU: -14% ± 3% and -2% ± 4%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05), prevented an increase in body fat percentage (group × time interaction, P < 0.05), and reduced whole-body lean mass loss after 7 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -0.8 ± 0.3 kg; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) but not 14 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -1.0 ± 0.3 kg) of bed rest. Leucine also maintained muscle quality (peak torque/kg leg lean mass) after 14 d of bed-rest inactivity (CON compared with LEU: -9% ± 2% and +1% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05). Bed rest has a profoundly negative effect on muscle metabolism, mass, and function in middle-aged adults. Leucine supplementation may partially protect muscle health during relatively brief periods of physical inactivity. This trial was registered at

  3. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  4. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  5. Exploring the dynamics of middle-aged and older adult residents' perceptions of neighborhood safety.

    PubMed

    Pitner, Ronald O; Yu, Mansoo; Brown, Edna

    2011-07-01

    This study examined what variables best predict concerns about neighborhood safety among middle-aged and older adults. Eighty-five participants were selected from a Midwestern urban area. Participants completed a 22-item questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of neighborhood safety and vigilance. These items were clustered as: (a) community care and vigilance, (b) safety concerns, (c) physical incivilities, and (d) social incivilities. Police crime data were also used in the analyses. Our findings suggest that aspects of the broken window theory, collective efficacy, and place attachments play a role in affecting residents' perceptions of neighborhood safety.

  6. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts.

  7. Altered declarative memory in introverted middle-aged adults carrying the BDNF val66met allele.

    PubMed

    De Beaumont, Louis; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Quesnel, Geneviève; Lupien, Sonia; Poirier, Judes

    2013-09-15

    The val66met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNFMet) is associated with impaired learning/memory function, affective dysregulation and maladaptive personality traits. Here, we examine the potential relationship between the BDNFMet allele, introversion and declarative memory in middle-age adults. A total of 132 middle-aged healthy adults took part in this study that included taking a blood sample for genetic profiling, a short battery of neuropsychological tests and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), widely used to assess the Big Five personality. Controlling for age, level of education and sex, a multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) computing the effect of BDNF polymorphism on extraversion and declarative memory revealed a significant association (D1,128=4.79; p=0.03; ηp(2)=0.053). Using the Sobel Goodman Mediation Test, it was found that 25.61% of the relationship between genotype and declarative memory performance was mediated by introversion. Subsequent correlational analyses yielded a strong and significant correlation (β=0.53; p<0.001) between introversion and declarative memory specific to BDNFMet individuals. this study highlights the pertinence of further investigating gene×personality×environment interactions to account for the significant variability that is observed in cognitive function in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katyoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. The relationship between FMD and task-related brain activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using hierarchical linear regression. Brachial FMD, was significantly related to reduced working memory-related activation in the right superior parietal lobule (β=0.338, p=0.027), independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and full scale IQ (F(5,36)=2.66, p=0.038). These data provide preliminary support for the association between a preclinical marker of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic alterations in healthy middle-aged adults. Considering the modifiable nature of endothelial function, additional investigations on the prognostic significance of FMD on future cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:20493622

  9. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Clinically Relevant Cognitive Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults With Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Jennings, J. Richard; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Costacou, Tina; Boudreau, Robert M.; Miller, Rachel; Orchard, Trevor J.; Saxton, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and correlates of clinically relevant cognitive impairment in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During 2010–2013, 97 adults diagnosed with T1D and aged <18 years (age and duration 49 ± 7 and 41 ± 6 years, respectively; 51% female) and 138 similarly aged adults without T1D (age 49 ± 7 years; 55% female) completed extensive neuropsychological testing. Biomedical data on participants with T1D were collected periodically since 1986–1988. Cognitive impairment status was based on the number of test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than demographically appropriate published norms: none, mild (only one test), or clinically relevant (two or more tests). RESULTS The prevalence of clinically relevant cognitive impairment was five times higher among participants with than without T1D (28% vs. 5%; P < 0.0001), independent of education, age, or blood pressure. Effect sizes were large (Cohen d 0.6–0.9; P < 0.0001) for psychomotor speed and visuoconstruction tasks and were modest (d 0.3–0.6; P < 0.05) for measures of executive function. Among participants with T1D, prevalent cognitive impairment was related to 14-year average A1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol) (odds ratio [OR] 3.0; P = 0.009), proliferative retinopathy (OR 2.8; P = 0.01), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (OR 2.6; P = 0.03) measured 5 years earlier; higher BMI (OR 1.1; P = 0.03); and ankle-brachial index ≥1.3 (OR 4.2; P = 0.01) measured 20 years earlier, independent of education. CONCLUSIONS Clinically relevant cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among these middle-aged adults with childhood-onset T1D. In this aging cohort, chronic hyperglycemia and prevalent microvascular disease were associated with cognitive impairment, relationships shown previously in younger populations with T1D. Two additional potentially modifiable risk factors for T1D-related cognitive impairment, vascular health and BMI

  11. Coping with chronic pain among younger, middle-aged, and older adults living with neurological injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Carter, Gregory T; Kraft, George; Cardemas, Diana D

    2008-01-01

    Objective. This article compares use of pain coping strategies among older, middle-aged, and younger adults living with chronic pain and seeks to determine whether the relationship between pain severity and coping is moderated by age. Method. Participants were 464 adults reporting chronic pain secondary to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or neuromuscular disease. Participants completed a survey including measures of pain severity and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. Results. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, older adults (older than 60) reported a wider range of frequently used strategies and significantly more frequent engagement in activity pacing, seeking social support, and use of coping self-statements than did younger or middle-aged adults. Moderation analyses suggest that, for younger adults, efforts at coping generally increased with greater pain severity, whereas this relationship did not exist for older adults. Discussion. These data suggest differences in the quantity and quality of pain coping among age groups.

  12. Speed of Processing Training with Middle-Age and Older Adults with HIV: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ross, Lesley A.; Wadley, Virginia; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Adults with HIV are at risk for deficits in speed of processing that can interfere with performing instrumental activities of daily living. In this pilot study, 46 middle-age and older adults with HIV were assigned to 10 hours of computerized speed of processing training (n = 22) or to a no-contact control condition (n = 24). ANCOVAs were used to examine treatment effects on a neurocognitive battery and the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Test. Treatment effects were detected on the Useful Field of View® Test, F(1, 43) = 4.29, p = .04 and the TIADL Test, F(1, 43) = 5.02, p = .03; those in the experimental condition improved on these measures. Many of the participants also indicated that they felt the training improved their cognitive functioning. This study demonstrated that speed of processing training may improve cognitive and everyday functioning in this growing population. PMID:22579081

  13. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  14. Sitting-Time and Exercise Predict Depressive Symptoms Among Taiwanese Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chang, Yi-Ya

    Exercise and sitting-time may influence depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sitting-time, exercise, and depressive symptoms among middle-aged adults. Data from community-based physical examinations between 2013 and 2014 in northern Taiwan were used for this cross-sectional study. We collected demographic data and data on exercise behaviours, sitting-time, and depressive symptoms. A total of 655 participants completed this survey. Of these, 21.2% had depressive symptoms, 33.7% had regular exercise habits, and 24.1% reported a daily average sitting-time of more than 6 hours. Subjects who had regular exercise with lower sitting-time (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49), subjects who had regular exercise with higher sitting-time (OR = 0.55), and subjects who did not have regular exercise with lower sitting-time (OR = 0.34) had less prevalence of depressive symptoms compared to subjects without regular exercise and with higher sitting-time. Middle-aged adults must exercise regularly and reduce sitting-time to prevent depressive symptoms.

  15. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  16. [Daily ailments among healthy, middle-aged adults--situation report and explanatory approaches].

    PubMed

    Krell, J; Kutzner, C; Härtel, S; Bös, K

    2011-10-06

    Physical performance steadily declines with increasing age even among healthy adults. A sport scientific screening-battery was used to determine the relationship between physical performance--that is endurance, strength, coordination, flexibility--and typical daily ailments as measured by a questionnaire among 222 healthy, middle-aged women and men. Cardiopulmonary performance was estimated by a 2-km walking test. Cardiopulmonary performance declined significantly as a result of increasing age and increasing body-mass index. 44% of men and 29% of women reached substandard values when compared to norm tables. Daily ailments such as "Problems while climbing stairs" or "Breathing difficulty" showed a strong correlation to the estimated cardiopulmonary performance. In contrast, they were less influenced by strength or flexibility. The subjects were oblivious of the relationship between the decreased performance of the cardiovascular system and daily ailments. Performing a simple screening-battery may be a good chance to promote the participation of middle-aged and non-athletic people in an adequate and health oriented sports program.

  17. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  18. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  19. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Omori, Keitaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Yamane, Takashi; Nakashima, Taku; Haruta, Yoshinori; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2017-01-01

    While adult asthma has been shown to be a risk factor for COPD, the effect of remitted childhood asthma on adult lung function has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to examine whether remitted childhood asthma is a risk factor for airflow obstruction in a middle-aged general population. A total of 9896 participants (range: 35-60 years) from five healthcare centres were included in the study. The participants were classified into four categories based on the presence or absence of physician-diagnosed childhood/adulthood asthma and asthma symptoms as follows: healthy controls (n = 9154), remitted childhood asthma (n = 287), adulthood-onset asthma (n = 354) and childhood-adulthood asthma (n = 101). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was similar in both the participants with remitted childhood asthma and healthy controls. The prevalence of airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7) was significantly higher in the participants with remitted childhood asthma, those with adult-onset asthma and those with childhood-adulthood asthma (5.2%, 14.4% and 16.8%, respectively) compared with healthy controls (2.2%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that remitted childhood asthma was independently associated with airflow obstruction. Among the participants with remitted childhood asthma, ever-smokers had significantly lower FEV1 /FVC than never-smokers. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults. Smoking and remitted childhood asthma may be additive factors for the development of airflow obstruction. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Sexuality Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Tang, Hui; Gomero, Ada; Vable, Anusha; Huang, Elbert S.; Drum, Melinda L.; Qato, Dima M.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe sexual activity, behavior, and problems among middle-age and older adults by diabetes status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a substudy of 1,993 community-residing adults, aged 57–85 years, from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample (N = 3,005). In-home interviews, observed medications, and A1C were used to stratify by diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, or no diabetes. Logistic regression was used to model associations between diabetes conditions and sexual characteristics, separately by gender. RESULTS The survey response rate was 75.5%. More than 60% of partnered individuals with diagnosed diabetes were sexually active. Women with diagnosed diabetes were less likely than men with diagnosed diabetes (adjusted odds ratio 0.28 [95% CI 0.16–0.49]) and other women (0.63 [0.45–0.87]) to be sexually active. Partnered sexual behaviors did not differ by gender or diabetes status. The prevalence of orgasm problems was similarly elevated among men with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes compared with that for other men, but erectile difficulties were elevated only among men with diagnosed diabetes (2.51 [1.53 to 4.14]). Women with undiagnosed diabetes were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician (11%) than women with diagnosed diabetes (19%) and men with undiagnosed (28%) or diagnosed (47%) diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Many middle-age and older adults with diabetes are sexually active and engage in sexual behaviors similarly to individuals without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely than men to cease all sexual activity. Older women with diabetes are as likely to have sexual problems but are significantly less likely than men to discuss them. PMID:20802158

  1. Is the relative increase in income inequality related to tooth loss in middle-aged adults?

    PubMed

    Goulart, Mariél de Aquino; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether Brazilian middle-aged adults living in cities that experienced a relative increase on income inequality were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition. Data on Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from state capitals and Federal District from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were analyzed. Clinically assessed tooth loss outcomes were severe tooth loss (<9 remaining natural teeth) and lack of functional dentition (<21 natural teeth). Income inequality was assessed by Gini Index in 1991, 2000, and 2003 using tertiles of distribution. Variation in Gini Index was assessed by changes in the tertiles distribution between years. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 percent CI) between variation in income inequality and tooth loss outcomes adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Prevalence of severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 4.8 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively. Individuals living in cities with moderate and high increase in income inequality between 1991 and 2003 were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition in 2010 compared with those living in cities with stable income inequality in the same period. Relationships between low family income and both tooth loss outcomes were significantly attenuated by relative increases in income inequality. Relative increases in income inequality were significantly associated with severe tooth loss and lack of a functional dentition in Brazilian middle-aged adults. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Executive function and functional and structural brain differences in middle-age adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Braden, B Blair; Smith, Christopher J; Thompson, Amiee; Glaspy, Tyler K; Wood, Emily; Vatsa, Divya; Abbott, Angela E; McGee, Samuel C; Baxter, Leslie C

    2017-09-21

    There is a rapidly growing group of aging adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who may have unique needs, yet cognitive and brain function in older adults with ASD is understudied. We combined functional and structural neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests to examine differences between middle-aged men with ASD and matched neurotypical (NT) men. Participants (ASD, n = 16; NT, n = 17) aged 40-64 years were well-matched according to age, IQ (range: 83-131), and education (range: 9-20 years). Middle-age adults with ASD made more errors on an executive function task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) but performed similarly to NT adults on tests of delayed verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) and local visual search (Embedded Figures Task). Independent component analysis of a functional MRI working memory task (n-back) completed by most participants (ASD = 14, NT = 17) showed decreased engagement of a cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical neural network in older adults with ASD. Structurally, older adults with ASD had reduced bilateral hippocampal volumes, as measured by FreeSurfer. Findings expand our understanding of ASD as a lifelong condition with persistent cognitive and functional and structural brain differences evident at middle-age. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We compared cognitive abilities and brain measures between 16 middle-age men with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 17 typical middle-age men to better understand how aging affects an older group of adults with ASD. Men with ASD made more errors on a test involving flexible thinking, had less activity in a flexible thinking brain network, and had smaller volume of a brain structure related to memory than typical men. We will follow these older adults over time to determine if aging changes are greater for individuals with ASD. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  3. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  4. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  5. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  6. Personal theories of substance use among middle-aged and older adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Canham, Sarah L; Mahmood, Atiya; Stalman, Marissa N; King, David; O'Rourke, Norm

    2017-03-08

    Most persons with bipolar disorder (BD) misuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs at some point, yet research specific to older adults with BD is nascent. The current study sought an in-depth understanding of the experiences and meanings of substance use in a sample of adults who self-reported substance misuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed to understand the personal theories of substance use by 12 adults (9 women and 3 men; M = 49 years old) who self-reported diagnoses of BD and regular alcohol or illicit drug use. Findings provide an in-depth picture of the theories middle-aged and older adults with BD have developed to explain their substance use. Participants' theories suggest multiple reasons for substance use, including self-medication; increased confidence with substance use; rejection of prescribed medications; easy access to alcohol; early social exposure/use as facilitator; and living in a culture of substance use. Findings suggest multiple theories for the comorbid link between BD and substance use, primarily that persons with BD use drugs and/or alcohol to relieve stress or manage symptoms. It is clinically relevant to incorporate personal reasons for actively and regularly using substances as part of personalized substance treatment and BD symptom management.

  7. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  9. Age related differences in the strategies used by middle aged adults to solve a block design task.

    PubMed

    Rozencwajg, P; Cherfi, M; Ferrandez, A M; Lautrey, J; Lemoine, C; Loarer, E

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, it was proposed to investigate the effects of aging on the strategies used to solve a block design task and to establish whether these strategies may be associated with differential patterns of ability. Two groups of subjects, 30 young adults (aged 20-35 years) and 30 middle-aged adults (aged 45-60 years) were set a computer version of the Kohs task and a battery of tests. An age-related decrease in fluid intelligence (Gf) and visual-spatial ability (Gv) was observed, along with the fact that most of the older subjects used a global strategy rather than a synthetic one. On the other hand, while continuing to use strategies of the analytic type, the older subjects looked more frequently at the model and scored high on crystallized intelligence (Gc). These findings are discussed from two different points of view: the theory of hierarchical stimuli and the hypothesis that metacognitive ability, which is thought to rely on Gc, may increase with age, and thus compensate for the loss of Gf and Gv.

  10. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Riby, Leigh M; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah M; Graham, Cheryl

    2008-11-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addition, risk factors associated with the development of poor glucose regulation in middle-aged adults were considered. In a repeated measures design, thirty-three middle-aged adults (aged 35-55 years) performed a battery of memory and non-memory tasks after either 25 g or 50 g glucose or a sweetness matched placebo drink. To assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken on four occasions during testing. A lifestyle and diet questionnaire was also administered. Consistent with previous research, episodic memory ability benefited from glucose ingestion when task demands were high. Blood glucose concentration was also found to predict performance across a number of cognitive domains. Interestingly, the risk factors associated with poor glucose regulation were linked to dietary impacts traditionally associated with poor health, e.g. the consumption of high-sugar sweets and drinks. The research replicates earlier work suggesting that task demands are critical to the glucose facilitation effect. Importantly, the data demonstrate clear associations between elevated glycaemia and relatively poor cognitive performance, which may be partly due to the effect of dietary and lifestyle factors.

  11. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Duration and White Matter Quality in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Nasrallah, Ilya; Hoang, Tina D; Lauderdale, Diane S; Knutson, Kristen L; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Launer, Lenore J; Lewis, Cora E; Sidney, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has been associated with risk of dementia and stroke, but few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and brain MRI measures, particularly in middle age. In a prospective cohort of 613 black and white adults (mean age = 45.4 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, participants reported typical sleep duration, dichotomized into moderate sleep duration (> 6 to ≤ 8 h) and short sleep duration (≤ 6 h) at baseline (2005-2006). Five years later, we obtained brain MRI markers of white matter including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and white matter hyperintensities. Compared to moderate sleepers, short sleepers had an elevated ratio of white matter hyperintensities to normal tissue in the parietal region (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.61) adjusted for age, race/sex, education, hypertension, stroke/TIA, depression, smoking status, and physical activity. White matter diffusivity was also higher, approximately a 0.2 standard deviation difference, in frontal, parietal, and temporal white matter regions, among those reporting shorter sleep duration in (P < 0.05 for all). Short sleep duration was associated with worse markers of white matter integrity in midlife. These mid-life differences in white matter may underlie the link between poor sleep and risk of dementia and stroke. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Association of alcohol use and loneliness frequency among middle-aged and older adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.; Mauro, Pia M.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between alcohol use, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking, and loneliness in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods We studied participants aged 50+ years from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study who reported alcohol use. We ran separate multinomial logistic regressions to assess the association of three alcohol use outcomes (i.e., weekly alcohol consumption, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking) and loneliness. Results After adjusting for covariates, being lonely was associated with reduced odds of weekly alcohol consumption 4–7 days per week, but not 1–3 days per week, compared to average alcohol consumption 0 days per week in the last 3 months. No association was found between at-risk drinking or binge drinking and loneliness. Discussion Results suggest that among a sample of community-based adults aged 50+, loneliness was associated with reduced alcohol use frequency, but not with at-risk or binge drinking. PMID:26082130

  14. Performance on a functional motor task is enhanced by sleep in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Sharman, Alham; Siengsukon, Catherine F

    2014-07-01

    Although sleep has been shown to enhance motor skill learning, it remains unclear whether sleep enhances learning of a functional motor task in middle-aged and older individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine whether sleep enhances motor learning of a functional motor task in middle-aged and older adults. Twenty middle-aged and 20 older individuals were randomly assigned to either the sleep condition or the no-sleep condition. Participants in the sleep condition practiced a novel walking task in the evening, and returned the following morning for retesting. Participants in the no-sleep condition practiced the walking task in the morning and returned the same day in the evening for a retest. Outcome measures included time around the walking path and spatiotemporal gait parameters. Only the middle-aged and older adults in the sleep condition demonstrated significant off-line improvement in performance, measured as a decline in time to walk around the novel path and improvement in spatiotemporal gait parameters. The middle-aged and older adults in the no-sleep condition failed to demonstrate off-line improvements in performance of this functional task. This is the first study to provide evidence that sleep facilitates learning a clinically relevant functional motor task in middle-aged and older adults. Because many neurologic conditions occur in the middle-aged and older adults and sleep issues are very prevalent in many neurologic conditions, it is imperative that physical therapists consider sleep as a factor that may impact motor learning and recovery in these individuals. (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A73) for more insights from the authors.

  15. Short communication: dairy consumption among middle-aged and elderly adults in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Magali; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Schmid, Alexandra; Stoffers, Helena; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Walther, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Different studies have shown that people are aware of the benefits of dairy products, but a sizeable part of the world's population still does not consume the recommended amount of dairy produce. The aims of the present research were to determine which dairy products are consumed by the middle-aged and elderly (50-81yr old) living in Switzerland and to explore why some of this population segment are actually reducing their consumption of dairy products. On average, older Swiss adults consumed 2.6 portions of dairy products per day, which is slightly less than the recommended 3 to 4 portions a day. Additionally, about one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they have reduced their milk or dairy consumption. The main reasons given for this decision were to reduce fat or cholesterol. A reported difficulty in digesting some dairy products may be a further reason for limiting dairy intake, particularly cheese. It follows that a need for the propagation of appropriate nutritional information about dairy products to the middle-aged and elderly exists.

  16. Bidirectional Interference Between Speech and Nonspeech Tasks in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Dallin J; Dromey, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine divided attention over a large age range by looking at the effects of 3 nonspeech tasks on concurrent speech motor performance. The nonspeech tasks were designed to facilitate measurement of bidirectional interference, allowing examination of their sensitivity to speech activity. A cross-sectional design was selected to explore possible changes in divided-attention effects associated with age. Sixty healthy participants were separated into 3 groups of 20: younger (20s), middle-aged (40s), and older (60s) adults. Each participant completed a speech task (sentence repetitions) once in isolation and once concurrently with each of 3 nonspeech tasks: a semantic-decision linguistic task, a quantitative-comparison cognitive task, and a manual motor task. The nonspeech tasks were also performed in isolation. Data from speech kinematics and nonspeech task performance indicated significant task-specific divided attention interference, with divided attention affecting speech and nonspeech measures in the linguistic and cognitive conditions and affecting speech measures in the manual motor condition. There was also a significant age effect for utterance duration. The results increase what is known about bidirectional interference between speech and other concurrent tasks as well as age effects on speech motor control.

  17. Relationship Between Ties With Adult Children and Life Satisfaction Among the Middle-Aged, the Young-Old, and the Oldest-Old Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hye Won; Jun, Hey Jung

    2016-01-01

    One of the important determinants of well-being among aging parents is their relationship with adult children. Using the two waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this study examined how different types of ties with adult children affect the life satisfaction of the Korean middle-aged, the young-old, and the oldest-old adults. Multigroup analysis was used to see if the effects of ties with adult children differ by the three age-groups. The results showed that frequency of contact had positive effect on life satisfaction for all of the age-groups. However, coresidence with children had a negative effect for the middle-aged, but a positive effect for the oldest-old. Finally, exchanges of support with adult children had significant effects only for the young-old. These results show that the importance of different types of ties with children change according to aging parents' life stages.

  18. Statin use and cognitive function in middle-aged adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A; Orchard, Trevor J; Ryan, Christopher M; Miller, Rachel; Costacou, Tina; Rosano, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    AIM To test associations between statin use and cognitive impairment in adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS In 2010-13, n = 108 middle-aged participants from ongoing observational Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study underwent neurocognitive assessment (mean age and T1D duration of 49 and 41 years, respectively). All were diagnosed with childhood-onset (i.e., prior to age 18) T1D between 1950 and 1980 and were seen within one year of diagnosis at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh. Self-reported statin use (yes/no and if yes, name of statin) was collected biennially from parent study baseline (1986-1988) to time of neurocognitive testing. Logistic regression models tested associations between statin use groups and cognitive impairment (defined as having two or more cognitive test scores 1.5SD or worse than published norms) while linear regression models tested associations between statin use groups and cognitive domain z-scores (domains: Verbal IQ, memory, executive function, psychomotor speed, and visuo-construction). All models controlled for education and age. To address confounding by indication, models were repeated using a propensity score for statin use. RESULTS Of the 108 participants, 51 reported never using statins. Median duration of statin use among the 57 ever users was 6 years. These 57 ever statin users were split to create two groups (≤ or > median years of statin use): 1-6 years (n = 25), and 7-12 years (n = 32). Compared with never users, using statins 1-6 years tripled the odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.16; 95%CI: 0.93-10.72; P = 0.06) and using statins 7-12 years almost quintupled the odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 4.84; 95%CI: 1.63-14.44; P = 0.005). Compared with never users, using statins 1-6 or 7-12 years was related to worse performance in the memory domain (β = -0.52; P = 0.003, and -0.39; P = 0.014, respectively). Adjusting for coronary artery disease, low density lipoprotein

  19. Falls in young, middle-aged and older community dwelling adults: perceived cause, environmental factors and injury

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Laura A; Musiol, Robin J; Witham, Erica K; Metter, E Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    Background Falls in older people have been characterized extensively in the literature, however little has been reported regarding falls in middle-aged and younger adults. The objective of this paper is to describe the perceived cause, environmental influences and resultant injuries of falls in 1497 young (20–45 years), middle-aged (46–65 years) and older (> 65 years) men and women from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Methods A descriptive study where participants completed a fall history questionnaire describing the circumstances surrounding falls in the previous two years. Results The reporting of falls increased with age from 18% in young, to 21% in middle-aged and 35% in older adults, with higher rates in women than men. Ambulation was cited as the cause of the fall most frequently in all gender and age groups. Our population reported a higher percentage of injuries (70.5%) than previous studies. The young group reported injuries most frequently to wrist/hand, knees and ankles; the middle-aged to their knees and the older group to their head and knees. Women reported a higher percentage of injuries in all age groups. Conclusion This is the first study to compare falls in young, middle and older aged men and women. Significant differences were found between the three age groups with respect to number of falls, activities engaged in prior to falling, perceived causes of the fall and where they fell. PMID:16109159

  20. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  1. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Keith M; Howard, Virginia J; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E; Blair, Steven N; Hooker, Steven P

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine patterns of objectively measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of US middle-age and older adults and to determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. We studied 8096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults 45 yr or older. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating 50% or more of total sedentary time in bouts of 30 min or greater. The number of sedentary bouts greater than or equal to 20, 30, 60, and 90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts per day, respectively. Sedentary bouts greater than or equal to 20, 30, 60, and 90 min accounted for 60.0% ± 13.9%, 48.0% ± 15.5%, 26.0% ± 15.4%, and 14.2% ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): older age (65-74 yr: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; 75 yr or older: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs 45-54 yr), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs female), residence in nonstroke belt/buckle region of the United States (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs summer), and low amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min·wk: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs ≥150 min·wk). In this sample of US middle-age and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts greater than or equal to 30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, and BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior.

  2. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  3. Red Cell Distribution Width and the Risk of Death in Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ershler, William B.; Longo, Dan L.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Red cell distribution width (RDW), a component of an electronic complete blood count, is a measure of heterogeneity in the size of circulating erythrocytes. In patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease (CVD), RDW is associated with mortality. However, it has not been demonstrated that RDW is a predictor of mortality independent of nutritional deficiencies or in the general population. Methods RDW was measured in a national sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 45 and older who participated in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; mortality follow-up occurred through December 31, 2000. Deaths from all causes, CVD, cancer, and other causes were examined as a function of RDW. Results Higher RDW values were strongly associated with an increased risk of death. Compared to the lowest quintile of RDW, the following were adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality (and 95 percent confidence intervals): second quintile, 1.1 (0.9–1.3); third quintile, 1.2 (1.0–1.4); fourth quintile, 1.4 (1.2–1.8); fifth quintile, 2.1 (1.7–2.6). For every 1 percent increment in RDW, all-cause mortality risk increased by 22% [HR = 1.22 (1.15–1.30); p<0.001]. Even when analyses were restricted to non-anemic participants or to those in the normal range of RDW (11–15%) without iron, folate, or vitamin B12 deficiency, RDW remained strongly associated with mortality. The prognostic effect of RDW was observed in both middle-aged and older adults for multiple causes of death. Conclusions RDW is a widely-available test that is a strong predictor of mortality in the general population of adults aged 45 and older. PMID:19273783

  4. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  5. Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Therese; Hyland, Trish; Harrington, Janas; Cadogan, Sharon; Honari, Bahman; Perera, Kanthi; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Perry, Ivan J; Cahill, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and determinants of haematinic deficiency (lack of B12 folate or iron) and macrocytosis in blood from a national population-based study of middle-aged and older adults. A cross-sectional study involving 1,207 adults aged ≥45 years, recruited from a sub-study of the Irish National Survey of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007). Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and a standard food frequency questionnaire. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained for measurement of full blood count and expert morphological assessment, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor assay (sTfR), B12, folate and coeliac antibodies. Blood samples were also assayed for thyroid function (T4, TSH), liver function, aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The overall prevalence (95% C.I.) of anaemia (Hb <13.5 g/dl men and 11.3 g/dl women) was 4.6% (2.9%-6.4%) in men and 1.0% (0.2%-1.9%) in women. Iron deficiency (ferritin <17 ng/ml men and <11 ng/ml in women) was detected in 6.3% of participants (3.7% in males and 8.7% in females, p<0.001). Based on both low ferritin and raised sTfR (>21 nmol/ml) only 2.3% were iron-deficient. 3.0% and 2.7% were found to have low levels of serum folate (<2.3 ng/ml) and serum B12 (<120 ng/l) respectively. Clinically significant macrocytosis (MCV>99fl) was detected in 8.4% of subjects. Strong, significant and independent associations with macrocytosis were observed for lower social status, current smoking status, moderate to heavy alcohol intake, elevated GGT levels, deficiency of folate and vitamin B12, hypothyroidism and coeliac disease. The population attributable fraction (PAF) for macrocytosis associated with elevated GGT (25.0%) and smoking (24.6%) was higher than for excess alcohol intake (6.3%), folate deficiency (10.5%) or vitamin B12 (3.4%). Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis are common in middle-aged/older adults in Ireland. Macrocytosis is more likely to be

  6. Haematinic Deficiency and Macrocytosis in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Janas; Cadogan, Sharon; Honari, Bahman; Perera, Kanthi; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Cahill, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and determinants of haematinic deficiency (lack of B12 folate or iron) and macrocytosis in blood from a national population-based study of middle-aged and older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 1,207 adults aged ≥45 years, recruited from a sub-study of the Irish National Survey of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007). Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and a standard food frequency questionnaire. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained for measurement of full blood count and expert morphological assessment, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor assay (sTfR), B12, folate and coeliac antibodies. Blood samples were also assayed for thyroid function (T4, TSH), liver function, aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Results The overall prevalence (95% C.I.) of anaemia (Hb <13.5g/dl men and 11.3 g/dl women) was 4.6% (2.9%–6.4%) in men and 1.0% (0.2%–1.9%) in women. Iron deficiency (ferritin <17ng/ml men and <11ng/ml in women) was detected in 6.3% of participants (3.7% in males and 8.7% in females, p<0.001). Based on both low ferritin and raised sTfR (>21nmol/ml) only 2.3% were iron-deficient. 3.0% and 2.7% were found to have low levels of serum folate (<2.3ng/ml) and serum B12 (<120ng/l) respectively. Clinically significant macrocytosis (MCV>99fl) was detected in 8.4% of subjects. Strong, significant and independent associations with macrocytosis were observed for lower social status, current smoking status, moderate to heavy alcohol intake, elevated GGT levels, deficiency of folate and vitamin B12, hypothyroidism and coeliac disease. The population attributable fraction (PAF) for macrocytosis associated with elevated GGT (25.0%) and smoking (24.6%) was higher than for excess alcohol intake (6.3%), folate deficiency (10.5%) or vitamin B12 (3.4%). Conclusions Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis are common in middle-aged/older adults in Ireland

  7. Adults with repaired tetralogy: low mortality but high morbidity up to middle age.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mark; Moore, Ben; Kotchetkova, Irina; Pressley, Lynne; Cordina, Rachael; Celermajer, David S

    2017-01-01

    Survival of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) into young adulthood is very good. Concerns exist, however, over long-term morbidity and mortality as these subjects reach middle age. We aimed to assess survival and the prevalence of complications in patients with rToF seen in our Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) service. One hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients with 'simple rToF', aged over 16 years, followed up at our tertiary-level ACHD service in Sydney, Australia since 2000, were included. We documented mortality and analysed the prospectively defined composite end points of (a) 'Serious adverse events', including death, heart failure hospitalisation and/or documented ventricular arrhythmia and (b) 'Adverse events' inclusive of the above and endocarditis, atrial arrhythmia, defibrillator and/or pacemaker implantation. Mean age at the last follow-up was 34±12 years, and 55% were men. There were 10 (6%) deaths, and 26 patients (16%) experienced a 'serious adverse event'. Fifty-one patients (30%) experienced an 'adverse event' and 29 patients had atrial arrhythmias. One hundred and one (61%) patients had at least one pulmonary valve replacement. By age 40 years, 93% were free of serious adverse events, and 83% were free of any adverse event. By age 50 years, only 56% had not had an adverse event. Older age and history of atrial arrhythmia were predictive of serious adverse events. Survival into mid-adulthood in patients with rToF is very good; however, a substantial number of survivors have adverse events by the age of 50 years.

  8. A Study on Body Image, Sexual Quality of Life, Depression, and Quality of Life in Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Sun; Kang, Sook

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations of body image, sexual quality of life (SQOL), depression, and quality of life, and to identify the influencing factors on quality of life of middle-aged adults in the community. The participants of this study were 367 middle-aged adults. Data were collected through personal interviews using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. Body image, SQOL, depression, and quality of life according to the general characteristics and health-related characteristics commonly showed significant differences in age, level of education, duration of marriage, living arrangement, occupation, monthly income, presence of disease, exercise, stressor, frequency of sexual intercourse with spouse, and degree of deep sleep. Quality of life showed significant positive correlations with body image and SQOL, but a significantly negative correlation with depression. Body image, depression, education level, SQOL, and stressor, which accounted for 42.0% of the variance, were significant predictors influencing quality of life in middle-aged adults in the community. To improve quality of life in middle-aged adults ahead of old age, an assessment of their body image, depression, SQOL should be made and a variety of nursing interventions should be followed to improve their positive body image, depression, and SQOL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight. © 2016 APJPH.

  10. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  11. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)1

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Welsh, David A.; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Silva, Jennifer L.; Erwin, Marla J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45–64 years), older (65–89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed. PMID:21461124

  12. Comparisons of prevalence and related factors of depression in middle-aged adults between urban and rural populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujise, Noboru; Abe, Yasuhisa; Fukunaga, Ryuta; Nakagawa, Youichi; Nishi, Yoshitomo; Koyama, Asuka; Ikeda, Manabu

    2016-01-15

    Findings of urban-rural differences in the prevalence of depression have been controversial, and few reports have directly compared the related factors of depression between urban and rural areas. The present study aimed to investigate differences between urban and rural areas in Japan with regards to the prevalence of and related factors of depression in middle-aged adults, in order to further understanding of the features of depression in this demographic. We used a multistage, random sampling procedure and mailing method. In total, 5000 participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Kumamoto Prefecture (2500 in each area). Participants were aged from 40 to 64 years. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The prevalence of middle-aged depression was not different between the urban and rural areas. Logistic regression analysis found that being female, living alone, and having a chronic illness were significantly associated with depression in urban-dwelling middle-aged adults. Younger age, sleep disturbance, and financial strain were significantly associated with depression in both urban and rural areas. The definition of depression was based on CES-D scores, without corroborating clinical evaluation. We found no marked differences in the prevalence of middle-aged depression between the urban and rural areas. Some related factors of depression in middle-aged adults differed between urban and rural areas in Japan. Effective intervention programs for middle-aged adults with depression should consider regional differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The relation between birth weight and intima-media thickness in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Tilling, Kate; Smith, George Davey; Chambless, Lloyd; Rose, Kathryn; Stevens, June; Lawlor, Debbie; Szklo, Moyses

    2004-09-01

    Birth weight has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, although the mechanisms for this association remain unclear. Here, we investigate the relation between reported birth weight and atherosclerosis in middle age. We included the 9817 participants (age 44-65) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were neither a twin nor born prematurely. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as intima-media thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound. We studied the association with recalled exact birth weight, and for those unable to recall exact birth weight, with recalled birth weight category. Mean intima-media thickness (+/- standard deviation) was 0.73 +/- 0.17 mm. Mean birth weight for the 4635 participants recalling exact birth weight was 3.49 +/- 0.71 kg. A further 4946 participants recalled birth weight category, with 4730 (96%) reporting "medium" birth weight. In univariate analysis, birth weight and intima-media thickness were positively related. However, adjustment for confounding factors reduced the association to only a 0.004 mm higher intima-media thickness (95% CI = - 0.003 to 0.011) mm per 1 kg of birth weight. The same pattern of univariate positive relationship and attenuation with adjustment was seen for birth weight category and intima-media thickness. There was no evidence of interaction between adult body mass index (BMI) and birth weight, or of interaction between category of adult BMI and birth weight category. An inverse relation between birth weight category and intima-media thickness was seen only for those in the lowest category of adult BMI (BMI <25 kg/m). We found no evidence of a clinically significant relation between birth weight and carotid atherosclerosis.

  14. Youth are more Vulnerable to False Memories than Middle-Aged Adults due to Liberal Response Bias

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Liesel-Ann C.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Jaswal, Gurpreet; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies show changes in vulnerability to false memory formation across development and into senescence. No study, however, has compared false memory formation in the critical transition period spanning late adolescence to middle adulthood. Method: Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we explored the effects of age and of emotion on false memory formation in youth (16 to 23 years of age) and in middle-aged adults (29 to 58 years of age). Results: We found that youth endorsed more false lure items than middle-aged adults. This increased vulnerability to false memory formation stemmed from a more liberal response bias in the younger group. Conclusions: Youth have a more liberal response criterion than middle-aged adults that contributes to an increased vulnerability to false memory formation. Subsequent age-related changes in response bias may reflect the maturation of frontal and temporal regions. In youth, a more liberal response bias may contribute to the heightened propensity for poor decision-making seen in this population. PMID:23133463

  15. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L.; Rajah, M. Natasha

    2016-01-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife. PMID:25882039

  16. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife.

  17. Use of physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Marcia; Plow, Matthew; Cho, Chi

    2010-11-01

    There is limited understanding of the utilization of and perceived need for physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The resulting knowledge gap compromises efforts for physical therapy service planning for this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of and need for physical therapy services in a sample of adults with MS living in the Midwestern United States. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from telephone interviews with 1,065 people with MS, aged 45 to 90 years, were used for the study. A multinomial regression model was used to determine factors associated with use of physical therapy services (never, within the past year, more than a year ago). Logistic regression analysis examined factors associated with unmet needs for these services. Thirty-six percent of the sample reported never using physical therapy services, 33% reported using physical therapy services within the past year, and 31% reported using physical therapy services more than a year prior to the interview. Factors associated with recent use of physical therapy services included living in an urban or suburban community, deteriorating MS status, experiencing problems with spasticity (ie, hypertonicity), having difficulty moving inside the house, being hospitalized in the past 6 months, and seeing a family physician. These same factors were associated with unmet needs. Limitations Physical therapy service use was self-reported. Data were collected in 5 Midwestern states from people 45 years of age or older, which may limit generalizability. Factors associated with use of and need for physical therapy services reflect issues of access (geographical, referrals), MS status, and mobility difficulties.

  18. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  19. The Influence of Pain Severity and Interference on Satisfaction with Pain Management among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L.; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Brooks, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health outcomes are often contingent on how effective the individual is able to manage existent illness-related symptoms. This is all the more relevant among chronic pain patients. Objective. This study aimed to identify indicators of pain treatment satisfaction among middle-aged and older adults (N = 150) receiving outpatient treatment from a comprehensive cancer center. Methods. Patients were surveyed on questions assessing pain treatment satisfaction, pain severity, and additional social characteristics. Results. Descriptive data showed that middle-aged adults reported more pain locations, greater pain severity, and less satisfaction with pain treatment. A multivariate model was specified, showing older adults being more satisfied with their pain treatment. For the middle-aged adults, treatment satisfaction was generally lower with greater pain severity. This counters that for the older adults, where treatment satisfaction remained consistent despite increased levels of pain severity. Conclusion. These findings address an important issue regarding how pain is experienced across the life course. This suggests that general assumptions cannot be made about the health outcomes of older adults. Beyond the descriptive definitions of pain, there remains the need to develop models that account for determinants that may account for the pain experience among a diverse adult population. PMID:28100956

  20. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  1. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  2. Exploring stress-induced cognitive impairment in middle aged, centrally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lasikiewicz, N; Hendrickx, H; Talbot, D; Dye, L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that psychosocial stress can induce cognitive impairment. However, few studies have explored impairment following acute stress exposure in individuals with central obesity. Central obesity co-occurs with glucocorticoid excess and can lead to elevated cortisol responses to stress. It is not clear whether centrally obese individuals exhibit greater cognitive impairment following acute stress. Cortisol responses to stress versus no-stress control were compared in 66 high- and low waist to hip ratio (WHR) middle-aged adults (mean age of 46 ± 7.17 years). Cognitive performance post exposure was assessed using Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery. It was hypothesised that high WHR would exhibit greater cortisol in response to stress exposure and would show poorer cognitive performance. Males, particularly of high WHR, tended to secrete greater cortisol during stress exposure. Exposure to stress and increasing WHR were specifically associated with poorer performance on declarative memory tasks (spatial recognition memory and paired associates learning). These data tentatively suggest a reduction in cognitive performance in those with central obesity following exposure to acute stress. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of stress on cognition in this population.

  3. Associations between birth weight, preeclampsia and cognitive functions in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Factor-Litvak, P; Straka, N; Cherkerzian, S; Richards, M; Liu, X; Sher, A; Neils, G; Goldstein, J

    2011-12-01

    Both reductions in birth weight and preeclampsia (PE) have been associated with decrements in scores on tests of intelligence in children and adolescents. We examined whether these decrements persist into middle adulthood and expand into other domains of cognitive functioning. Using data from the Early Determinants of Adult Health project and from the ancillary project, Fetal Antecedents of Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease, we selected term same-sex sibling sets or singletons from these sets, from the New England Family Study (NEFS) and the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), discordant on either fetal growth or PE, to test the hypotheses that prenatal exposure to inflammation was associated with decrements in attention, learning and executive function 40 years later. Exposure was defined as a continuous measure of percentile birth weight for gestational age, reduced fetal growth (<20th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) or maternal PE. Given that the sample was comprised, in part, of sibling sets, the analyses were performed using mixed models to account for the inter-sibling correlations. Analyses were performed separately by study site (i.e. NEFS and CHDS). We found few statistically significant associations (suggesting a possible type II error) consistent with previous literature, suggesting that the associations with low birth weight do not persist into midlife. We discuss the possible reasons for the lack of associations, which include the possible mediating effects of the postnatal environment.

  4. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  5. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  6. The effect of Bikram yoga on endothelial function in young and middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep S; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Nualnim, Nantinee; Elmenshawy, Ahmed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if Bikram yoga, a style of heated hatha yoga, would improve endothelial function in young and middle-aged and older, healthy adults. This trial was performed in 36 young (n = 17) and middle-aged and older adults (n = 19) who completed 3 weekly Bikram yoga classes for 8 weeks. Height, body weight and body composition were determined and endothelial function was measured noninvasively using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after the intervention. No changes in body weight, BMI or body fat percentage occurred as a result of the intervention in either group. Brachial artery FMD was significantly increased in middle-aged and older (P < 0.05) but not in young adults as a result of the intervention. The results demonstrate that a relatively short-term Bikram yoga practice might significantly improve vascular endothelial function in middle-aged and older adults. While apparently healthy individuals in this study experienced no adverse events, those with preexisting conditions should take caution and consult with a physician prior to engaging in this style of yoga. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity and onset of depression among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationship between obesity and onset of depression among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Data came from 1994 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Study sample consisted of 6514 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 1994. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Body weight status was classified into normal weight (18.5kg/m(2)≤BMI<25kg/m(2)), overweight (25kg/m(2)≤BMI<30kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m(2)). A score of ≥3 on the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to define clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Kaplan-Meier estimator and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between body weight status and onset of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unhealthy body weight was associated future onset of depression. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, overweight and obese participants were 13% (hazard ratio [HR]=1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-1.23) and 9% (HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.18) more likely to have onset of clinically relevant depressive symptoms during the 16years of follow-up, respectively. The relationship between obesity and depression onset appeared stronger among females and non-Hispanic whites than their male and racial/ethnic minority counterparts. Health care providers should be aware of the potential risk for depression among obese older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity, body functions and disability among middle-aged and older Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; Ayala, Alba; Damián, Javier; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Almazán, Javier; Castellote, Juan Manuel; Comin, Madgalena; Forjaz, Maria João; de Pedro, Jesús

    2017-07-18

    Physical activity (PA) is a health determinant among middle-aged and older adults. In contrast, poor health is expected to have a negative impact on PA. This study sought to assess to what extent specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) health components were associated with PA among older adults. We used a sample of 864 persons aged ≥50 years, positively screened for disability or cognition in a cross-sectional community survey in Spain. Weekly energy expenditure during PA was measured with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) scale. The associations between body function impairment, health conditions or World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) disability scores and energy expenditure were quantified using negative-binomial regression, and expressed in terms of adjusted mean ratios (aMRs). Mean energy expenditure was 4542 Kcal/week. A lower weekly energy expenditure was associated with: severe/extreme impairment of mental functions, aMR 0.38, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.21-0.68), and neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, aMR 0.50 (0.35-0.72); WHODAS 2.0 disability, aMR 0.55 (0.34-0.91); dementia, aMR 0.45 (0.31-0.66); and heart failure, aMR 0.54 (0.34-0.87). In contrast, people with arthritis/osteoarthritis had a higher energy expenditure, aMR 1.27 (1.07-1.51). Our results suggest that there is a strong relationship between selected body function impairments, mainly mental, and PA. Although more research is needed to fully understand causal relationships, strategies to improve PA among the elderly may require targeting mental, neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, disability determinants (including barriers), and specific approaches for persons with dementia or heart failure.

  9. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  10. The Effect of Contextual Organization on Spatial Memory of Middle Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Kathryn J.; Rogoff, Barbara

    Although age-related memory differences in adulthood occur in a variety of memory tasks, most of these tasks represent uncommon memory demands. An investigation of everyday memory demands explored the effect of contextual organization on memory performance of middle aged (N=20) and older (N=20) women. Tasks involved reconstruction of spatial…

  11. Demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged versus younger adults enrolled in a clinical trial of a web-delivered psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Nunes, Edward V

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45-62 years, n = 111) and younger (age 18-44 years, n = 395) substance abusers entering a Web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were nonwhite and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z < -1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. This secondary analysis of a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning.

  12. Cumulative systolic blood pressure exposure in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP exposure and cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly adults. The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006–2007) up to the fourth examination (2012–2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function. Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, aged 40–94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative exposure to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults aged ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults aged 40 to 60 years. Greater exposure to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-aged and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults. PMID:27902618

  13. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  14. Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue may indicate accelerated brain aging in cognitively normal late middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego Z; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F; Mielke, Michelle M; Przybelski, Scott A; Knopman, David S; Machulda, Mary M; Roberts, Rosebud O; Geda, Yonas E; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Vemuri, Prashanthi

    2017-04-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between EDS and fatigue with cortical thickness and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal, late middle-aged and older adults. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 1374 cognitively-normal subjects aged 50 years and older who had a structural MRI. Regional cortical thickness and hippocampal volume were measured. Multiple linear regression models were fit to explore associations between EDS and fatigue and structural MRI measures in different brain regions, adjusting for multiple covariates. EDS was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥10. Fatigue severity was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-2. 208 participants had EDS, 27 had significant fatigue, and 11 had both. Participants with EDS or fatigue had significantly lower cognitive scores, more disturbed sleep, and medical comorbidities. The presence of EDS was associated with both global and regional atrophy, whereas fatigue was more associated with frontal and temporal changes. Cortical thinning predicted by EDS and fatigue was maximal in the temporal region with average reduction of 34.2 μm (95% CI, -54.1, -14.3; P = 0.001) and 90.2 μm (95% CI, -142.1, -38.2; P = 0.001), respectively. Fatigue was also associated with hippocampal volume reduction of -374.2 mm(3) (95% CI, -670.8, -77.7; P = 0.013). Temporal cortical thinning predicted by presence of EDS and fatigue was equivalent to more than 3.5 and 9 additional years of aging, respectively. EDS and fatigue were associated with cortical thickness reduction primarily in regions with increased age-susceptibility, which may indicate accelerated brain aging.

  15. Association between physical activity and neighborhood environment among middle-aged adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rena; Li, Yang; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ding, Yongming; Jiang, Hongwei; Comber, Alexis; Fu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the perceived neighborhood environment (NE) variables that are associated with physical activity (PA) in urban areas in China. Parents of students at two junior high schools in Shanghai, one downtown and the other in the suburbs, were recruited to participate in the study. They completed an International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated (NEWS-A) survey. Participant physical activity was also objectively measured using accelerometers. Participants from downtown areas were more positively associated with transportation PA and leisure-time PA than respondents living in the suburbs. Residential density was found to be a significant positive predictor of recreational or leisure-based PA. Street connectivity was negatively associated with leisure time PA for respondents. Moderate-vigorous PA was found to be negatively associated with traffic safety. There were no significant associations between environmental factors and transportation PA. Women had higher levels of moderate-vigorous PA than men. The results of this study demonstrate that residential density, street connectivity, and traffic safety have a significant impact on Chinese middle-aged adults' PA, suggesting urban planning strategies for promoting positive public health outcomes.

  16. Associations Between Fetal Inflammation and Cognitive Functions in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Straka, Nadine; Cherkerzian, Sara; Richards, Marcus; Liu, Xinhua; Sher, Arnold; Neils, Greg; Buka, Stephen; Susser, Ezra; Goldstein, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal inflammation, measured using proxies such as preterm birth, low birth weight and maternal preeclampsia, has been associated with decrements in scores on tests of intelligence in children and adolescents. We examined whether these decrements persist into middle adulthood and expand into other domains of cognitive functioning. Using data from the Early Determinants of Adult Health project and from the ancillary project, Fetal Antecedents of Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease, we selected term same sex sibling sets or singletons from these sets, from the New England Family Study (NEFS) and the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), discordant on either fetal growth or preeclampsia to test the hypotheses that prenatal exposure to inflammation was associated with decrements in attention, learning and executive function 40 years later. Exposure was defined as a continuous measure of percentile birth weight for gestational age, fetal growth restriction (< 20th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) or maternal preeclampsia. Given that the sample was comprised, in part, of sibling sets, the analyses were performed using mixed models to account for the inter-sibling correlations. Analyses were performed separately by study site (i.e. NEFS and CHDS). In the NEFS we found a small association between fetal growth restriction and working memory for males, such that the working memory score declined by 1.5 points (95% CI -2.4, -0.27). This association was significantly different from the estimated association in females. We discuss the possible reasons for this association which include the possible mediating effects of the postnatal environment. PMID:25140487

  17. Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Patricia; Saremi, Mahnaz; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Rohmer, Odile; Muzet, Alain

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nocturnal railway noise on cardiovascular reactivity in young (25.8 +/- 2.6 years) and middle-aged (52.2 +/- 2.5 years) adults during sleep. Thirty-eight subjects slept three nights in the laboratory at 1-week interval. They were exposed to 48 randomized pass-bys of Freight, Passenger and Automotive trains either at an 8-h equivalent sound level of 40 dBA (Moderate) and 50 dBA (High) or at a silent Control night. Heart rate response (HRR), heart response amplitude (HRA), heart response latency (HRL) and finger pulse response (FPR), finger pulse amplitude (FPA) and finger pulse latency (FPL) were recorded to measure cardiovascular reactivity after each noise onset and for time-matched pseudo-noises in the control condition. Results show that Freight trains produced the highest cardiac response (increased HRR, HRA and HRL) compared to Passenger and Automotive. But the vascular response was similar whatever the type of train. Juniors exhibited an increased HRR and HRA as compared to seniors, but there was no age difference on vasoconstriction, except a shorter FPL in seniors. Noise level produced dose-dependent effects on all the cardiovascular indices. Sleep stage at noise occurrence was ineffective for cardiac response, but FPA was reduced when noise occurred during REM sleep. In conclusion, our study is in favor of an important impact of nocturnal railway noise on the cardiovascular system of sleeping subjects. In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time).

  18. Mild eccentric exercise increases Hsp72 content in skeletal muscles from adult and late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Ramsook, Andrew H; Locke, Marius; Amara, Catherine E

    2013-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age or sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing muscle loss with age is important for maintaining health. Hsp72, the inducible member of the Hsp70 family, is known to provide protection to skeletal muscle and can be increased by exercise. However, ability to increase Hsp72 by exercise is intensity-dependent and appears to diminish with advanced age. Thus, other exercise modalities capable of increasing HSP content and potentially preventing the age related loss of muscle need to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if the stress from one bout of mild eccentric exercise was sufficient to elicit an increase in Hsp72 content in the vastus intermedius (VI) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles, and if the Hsp72 response differed between adult and late middle-aged rats. To do this, 30 adult (6 months) and late middle-aged (24 months) F344BN rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control (C), level exercise (16 m x min(-1)) and eccentric exercise (16 m x min(-1), 16 degree decline). Exercised animals were sacrificed immediately post-exercise or after 48 hours. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to assess muscle damage, while Western Blotting was used to measure muscle Hsp72 content. A nested ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was performed to determine significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups. Hsp72 content was increased in the VI for both adult and late middle-aged rats 48 hours after eccentric exercise when compared to level and control groups but no differences between age groups was observed. Hsp72 was not detected in the WG following any type of exercise. In conclusion, mild eccentric exercise can increase Hsp72 content in the rat VI muscle and this response is maintained into late middle-age.

  19. Adapting a Psychosocial Intervention for Smartphone Delivery to Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Gill, Lydia E; Bruce, Martha L; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    To describe the process of adapting an integrated medical and psychiatric self-management intervention to a smartphone application for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness using an adaptive systems engineering framework and user-centered design. First, we determined the technical abilities and needs of middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illnesses using smartphones. Then, we developed smartphone content through principles of user-centered design and modified an existing smartphone platform. Finally, we conducted a usability test using "think aloud" and verbal probing. We adapted a psychosocial self-management intervention to a smartphone application and tested its usability. Ten participants (mean age: 55.3 years, SD: 6.2 years) with serious mental illness and comorbid chronic health conditions reported a high level of usability and satisfaction with the smartphone application. Middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and limited technical abilities were able to participate in a process involving user-centered design and adaptation of a self-management intervention to be delivered by a smartphone. High usability ratings suggest that middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness have the potential to use tailored smartphone interventions. Future research is indicated to establish effectiveness and to determine the type and intensity of clinical support needed to successfully implement smartphone applications as a component of community-based services for older adults with psychiatric and medical conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. [Development of a web-based senescence preparation education program for successful aging for middle-aged adults].

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based senescence preparation education program to promote successful aging. This program was developed based on Network-Based Instructional System Design (NBISD) model, using the following 5 processes: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The program was operated for 10 weeks from March 17 to May 25, 2008. There were 4 menu bars, introduction, related data, lecture room, and communication on the main page. In the operation of this program, HTML, ASP, JAVA Script, Namo web editor, Edit Plus, Front Page and multimedia technology were applied. The program content consisted of understanding elderly people, physical health, activity & exercise, nutrition, medication use, psychological health, intellectual health, understanding death, welfare system and leisure activity. This program could be a useful means to provide senescence preparation information to middle-aged adults. Also, it is expected to offer individualized learning opportunities to many learners in various settings. Nurses should further develop and facilitate various learning strategies including web- based programs for elder care.

  2. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  3. Beneficial effects of glycine (bioglycin) on memory and attention in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    File, S E; Fluck, E; Fernandes, C

    1999-12-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor complex is involved in the mechanism of long-term potentiation, which is thought to be the biological basis of learning and memory. This complex can be manipulated in a number of ways, one of which is through the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor coagonist site. The effects of Bioglycin(Konapharma, Pratteln, Switzerland), a biologically active form of the amino acid glycine, were therefore studied in healthy students (mean age, 20.7 years) and middle-aged men (mean age, 58.9 years) with tests that measured attention, memory and mood, using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Compared with the young group, the middle-aged group had significantly poorer verbal episodic memory, focused, divided, and sustained attention; they also differed in their subjective responses at the end of testing. Bioglycin significantly improved retrieval from episodic memory in both the young and the middle-aged groups, but it did not affect focused or divided attention. However, the middle-aged men significantly benefited from Bioglycin in the sustained-attention task. The effects of Bioglycin differed from those of other cognitive enhancers in that it was without stimulant properties or significant effects on mood, and it primarily improved memory rather than attention. It is likely to be of benefit in young or older people in situations where high retrieval of information is needed or when performance is impaired by jet lag, shift work, or disrupted sleep. It may also benefit the impaired retrieval shown in patients with schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.

  4. Feasibility of a Home-Based Speed of Processing Training Program in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With HIV.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; Vance, David E

    2015-08-01

    There has been much optimism over the positive impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on life expectancy for people with HIV; however, those aging with HIV fear potential day-to-day challenges associated with the development of cognitive deficits. The presence of cognitive deficits has generated major safety concerns because it has been shown to impact driving, mobility, and employment. Given the efficacy of a computerized speed of processing training program administered in the laboratory to older adults and adults with HIV, this study was designed to determine the feasibility of using a home-based speed of processing training program to improve cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with HIV. In this within-subject pre-post experimental design, 20 middle-aged and older adults (i.e., age of 40+ years) with HIV were administered a brief neuropsychological assessment to gauge their baseline cognitive function before participating in a 10-hour home-based computerized cognitive remediation training program. In addition to self-reported cognitive gains, a 6-week posttest indicated significant improvements on the Useful Field of View, a measure of speed of processing and possible transfer to the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test, a measure of everyday functioning. These findings show that speed of processing training can successfully improve cognitive function in this vulnerable population even when administered in remote settings such as the privacy of one's home.

  5. Notebook input devices put to the age test: the usability of trackpoint and touchpad for middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Armbrüster, C; Sutter, C; Ziefle, M

    2007-03-01

    In two experiments, the usability of input devices integrated into computer notebooks was under study. The most common input devices, touchpad (experiment 1) and trackpoint (experiment 2) were examined. So far, the evaluation of mobile input devices has been restricted to younger users. However, due to ongoing demographic change, the main target group of mobile devices will be older users. Therefore, the present study focused on ageing effects. A total of 14 middle-aged (40-65 years) and 20 younger (20-32 years) users were compared regarding speed and accuracy of cursor control in a point-click and a point-drag-drop task. Moreover, the effects of training were addressed by examining the performance increase over time. In total, 640 trials per task and input device were executed. The results show that ageing is a central factor to be considered in input device design. Middle-aged users were significantly slower than younger users when executing the different tasks. Over time, a significant training effect was observed for both devices and both age groups, although the benefit of training was greater for the middle-aged group. Generally, the touchpad performance was higher than the trackpoint performance in both age groups, but the age-related performance decrements were less distinct when using the touchpad.

  6. Research Forum on Changes in Sensory Perception in Middle-Aged Adults: A Summary of a Special Session at Hearing Across the Lifespan (HEAL) 2014.

    PubMed

    Humes, Larry E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the special research forum on sensory-processing changes in middle-aged adults. This is a brief written introduction to the special session, which included five presentations, each emphasizing a slightly different aspect of sensory perception. The effects of aging on sensory processing, including auditory processing and speech perception, are not confined to older adults but begin in middle age in many cases.

  7. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population: A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M H; Bonacic Marinovic, Axel A; de Rond, Lia G H; van Maurik, Marjan; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group for vaccine interventions. However, knowledge regarding the immunogenicity of primary immunizations in middle-aged adults is lacking. We determined the immunogenicity of a primary meningococcal vaccine towards which no or (very) low pre-vaccination immunity exists in middle-aged adults (NTR4636). A vaccine containing multiple meningococcal groups (tetravalent) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT) was administered to middle-aged adults (50-65 years of age, N = 204) in a phase IV single-center and open-label study. Blood samples were taken pre-, 7 days, 28 days, and 1 year post-vaccination. Functional antibody titers were measured with the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). Meningococcal- and tetanus-specific antibody responses were determined with a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. A bi-exponential decay model was used to estimate long-term protection. In the majority of the participants, the meningococcal vaccine clearly induced naïve responses to meningococci W (MenW) and meningococci Y (MenY) as compared to a booster response to meningococci C (MenC). After 28 days, 94, 99, and 97% of the participants possessed a protective SBA titer for MenC, MenW, and MenY, respectively, which was maintained in 76, 94, and 86% 1 year post-vaccination. At this 1-year time point, significantly lower SBA titers were found in participants without a pre-vaccination SBA titer. Overall, protective antibody titers were predicted to persist after 10 years in 40-60% of the participants. The SBA titers correlated well with the meningococcal-specific IgM responses, especially for MenW and MenY. Interestingly, these IgM responses were negatively correlated with age. Primary

  8. Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-09-04

    Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the immunological fitness of the middle-aged population is ill-defined. It is currently unknown whether effective T-cell help towards B-cells is initiated by conjugate-carrier vaccines at middle-age. We characterized systemic Tetanus Toxoid (TT) specific T-helper cell responses in the circulation of middle-aged adults (50-65years of age, n=31) having received the MenACWY-TT vaccination. Blood samples were taken pre- as well as 7days, 28days, and 1year post-vaccination. TT-specific T-cell responses were determined by IFNγ Elispot and by the secretion of IFNγ, IL13, IL10, IL17, and IL21 in cell culture supernatants. Circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and meningococcal and TT-specific IgG responses by bead-based immunoassays. The correlation between the T-cell help and humoral responses was evaluated. Vaccination with a TT-carrier protein induced a mixed TT-specific Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL13, IL10), and Th17 (IL17) response in most participants. Additionally, circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells were significantly increased 7days post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination TT-specific cytokine production and post-vaccination Th2 responses correlated positively with the increase of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells. No correlation between T-cell help and antibody responses was found. The characteristics of the T-cell response upon a TT-carrier vaccination suggests effective T-cell help towards B-cells in response to meningococcal polysaccharides, although the absence of a correlation with the antibody responses warrants further clarification. However, the robust T-helper cell response in middle-aged adults, decades after previous TT vaccinations, strengthens the classification of

  9. Social Relationships and Salivary Telomere Length Among Middle-Aged and Older African American and White Adults.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Karen D; Lloyd, Donald A; Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-05-09

    A common mechanism underlying premature morbidity may be accelerated biological aging as reflected by salivary telomere length (STL). This study examined the extent to which social relationships, both positive and negative, can be protective or confer risk relative to biological aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study and multiple regression were used to examine cross-sectional associations between STL, self-reported social support, and negative interaction (e.g., conflict, criticism) with family in a nationally representative sample of African American and non-Hispanic White middle-aged and older adults (N = 4,080). Social support from family was associated with shorter STL. Negative interaction with family had no main effect on STL but interactions characterized by high social support and more frequent negative interactions were associated with longer STL. Negative interaction with family was negatively associated with STL for African Americans and Whites but the magnitude of the effect was greater for African Americans. Study findings highlight the role of social relationships in physiological deterioration among middle-aged and older adults and identify a potential mechanism whereby race is linked to accelerated biological aging. Findings highlight the importance of considering positive and negative aspects of social relationships to understand the consequences of social connections for cellular aging in diverse populations.

  10. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility.

  11. Heritability of brain volume on MRI in middle to advanced age: A twin study of Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Lukies, Matthew W; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Hiroto; Ogata, Soshiro; Omura, Kayoko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Brain atrophy is part of the aging process and accelerated by neurodegenerative diseases, so an understanding of the background heritability of brain volume is essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the heritability of brain volume in middle to advanced age East Asian adults, an age group less studied and an ethnicity not previously studied. 3T magnetic resonance images were obtained and volumetric analyses conducted for a total of 74 individuals, 20 monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 61y min 41y max 75y) and 17 dizygotic twin pairs (mean age 64y min 41y max 85y). Total brain volume and a further seven regions were assessed, including lobar volumes, lateral divisions, and separated grey and white matter. Additive genetics and unique environment (AE) models for global brain volumes including total brain (90%), grey matter (91%) and white matter (84%) and many lobar volumes demonstrated high heritability in our study population. Our results present the heritability of brain volume in middle to advanced age as possibly higher in East Asian adults.

  12. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults' memories for the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.

    PubMed

    Holland, Alisha C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Adults, aged 18 to 88 years, recalled details about the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election shortly following the election and 6 months later. Individuals who felt positive about the election outcome reported a greater quantity of information at both time points. However, across the lifespan, individuals who felt negative about the election outcome demonstrated a greater proportion of detail consistency over time, a finding that had previously been shown only for younger adults. Individuals who felt positive about the outcome showed increased confidence in their ability to retain information accurately, as did individuals who felt emotionally intense about the election. These results indicate that for adults of all ages, positive emotion is associated with a reduced ability to retain details consistently over time; yet people may not recognize this tendency when recalling information, thereby retaining higher confidence in their ability to remember event details if they felt positive about the event.

  13. Internet Use and Social Networking among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…

  14. Cognitive Functioning in Middle and Old Age Adults. A Review of Research Based on Piaget's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, D. E.; Bielby, D. Del Vento

    1974-01-01

    A review of literature on Piagetian cognitive functioning generally noted lower levels of functioning for elderly subjects than for comparison groups of adults. Several possible interpretations for these age differences were offered. The effects of certain demographic variables on performance were also reviewed and inconsistent results were noted.…

  15. A parietal-to-frontal shift in the P300 is associated with compensation of tactile discrimination deficits in late middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Winneke, Axel H; Godde, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception declines with age on both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Less well understood is how neurophysiological changes relate to tactile discrimination performance in middle adulthood. A tactile discrimination task was conducted while ERPs were measured in three groups of healthy adults aged 20 to 66 years. Accuracy was lowest in late middle adulthood (56-66 years) while somatosensory ERP components (P50, N70, P100, N140) were comparable across age groups. The cognitive P300 revealed age-related differences in scalp distribution typical for older adults to already be present in late middle adulthood. Increased recruitment of frontal cognitive processes was positively related to performance in later middle adulthood. Our results further the understanding of age-related differences in tactile perception during middle adulthood and the importance of cognitive processes to compensate for age-related decline. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Predicting 3-year incident mobility disability in middle-aged and older adults using physical performance tests.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Guralnik, Jack; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-05-01

    To identify a standard physical performance test, which can predict 3-year incident mobility disability independent of demographics. Longitudinal cohort study. Population-based middle-aged and older adult cohort assessment performed at a local geriatric clinical center. Community-living middle-aged and older persons (age, 50-85y) without baseline mobility disability (N=622). Not applicable. Mobility disability was ascertained at baseline and at 3-year follow-up using an established self-report method: self-reported inability to walk a quarter mile without resting or inability to walk up a flight of stairs unsupported. Physical performance tests included self-selected usual gait speed, time required to complete 5 times sit-to-stand (5TSTS), and 400-m brisk walking. Demographic variables age, sex, height, and weight were recorded. Overall, 13.5% participants reported 3-year incident mobility disability. Usual gait speed <1.2m/s, requiring >13.6 seconds to complete 5TSTS, and completing 400m at <1.19m/s walking speed were highly predictive of future mobility disability independent of demographics. Inability to complete 5TSTS in <13.7 seconds can be a clinically convenient guideline for monitoring and for further assessment of middle-aged and older persons, in order to prevent or delay future mobility disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Ott, Stefanie; Bukowski, Martin; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and gray matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI > 6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group), and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group). All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT) and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials. PMID:26052275

  18. Low dose aspirin and cognitive function in middle aged to elderly adults: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Marlene C; Deary, Ian J; Murray, Gordon D; Sandercock, Peter; Butcher, Isabella; Fowkes, F Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of low dose aspirin on cognitive function in middle aged to elderly men and women at moderately increased cardiovascular risk. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting Central Scotland. Participants 3350 men and women aged over 50 participating in the aspirin for asymptomatic atherosclerosis trial. Intervention Low dose aspirin (100 mg daily) or placebo for five years. Main outcome measures Tests of memory, executive function, non-verbal reasoning, mental flexibility, and information processing five years after randomisation, with scores used to create a summary cognitive score (general factor). Results At baseline, mean vocabulary scores (an indicator of previous cognitive ability) were similar in the aspirin (30.9, SD 4.7) and placebo (31.1, SD 4.7) groups. In the primary intention to treat analysis, there was no significant difference at follow-up between the groups in the proportion achieving over the median general factor cognitive score (32.7% and 34.8% respectively, odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.05, P=0.20) or in mean scores on the individual cognitive tests. There were also no significant differences in change in cognitive ability over the five years in a subset of 504 who underwent detailed cognitive testing at baseline. Conclusion Low dose aspirin does not affect cognitive function in middle aged to elderly people at increased cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ISRCTN 66587262. PMID:18762476

  19. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Has a Modest Positive Association with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Middle-Aged US Adults.

    PubMed

    Beilfuss, Julia; Camargo, Carlos A; Kamycheva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to all-cause mortality and cancer. However, the biological plausibility of these associations is not well established. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with aging and is a hallmark of genomic instability and carcinogenesis.Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and LTL in the general US population.Methods: We analyzed data from the US NHANES 2001-2002. The study population comprised 1542 younger adults (aged 20-39 y), 1336 middle-aged adults (aged 40-59 y), and 1382 older adults (aged ≥60 y). LTL was measured by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L were considered optimal. Linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), total energy and sugar intakes, calcium intake, socioeconomic status, milk and dietary supplement consumption, and physical activity, was applied to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and LTL.Results: In the total population, age, sex, BMI, and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity were significant predictors of LTL. In the participants aged 40-59 y, an increment in serum 25(OH)D of 10 nmol/L was associated with a 0.03- ± 0.01-kbp longer LTL, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other factors (P = 0.001). In the same age group, 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L were associated with a 0.13- ± 0.04-kbp longer LTL than those for 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L (P = 0.01). The association was independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and other factors.Conclusions: In a nationally representative population of adults, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with LTL in middle-aged participants (aged 40-59 y), independently of other factors. These findings suggest that decreased 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with genomic instability, although the clinical impact of this observation remains

  20. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  1. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  2. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  3. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults.

  4. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  5. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  6. Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults1,2

    PubMed Central

    English, Kirk L; Mettler, Joni A; Ellison, Jennifer B; Mamerow, Madonna M; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Pattarini, James M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity triggers a rapid loss of muscle mass and function in older adults. Middle-aged adults show few phenotypic signs of aging yet may be more susceptible to inactivity than younger adults. Objective: The aim was to determine whether leucine, a stimulator of translation initiation and skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), can protect skeletal muscle health during bed rest. Design: We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess changes in skeletal MPS, cellular signaling, body composition, and skeletal muscle function in middle-aged adults (n = 19; age ± SEM: 52 ± 1 y) in response to leucine supplementation (LEU group: 0.06 g ∙ kg−1 ∙ meal−1) or an alanine control (CON group) during 14 d of bed rest. Results: Bed rest decreased postabsorptive MPS by 30% ± 9% (CON group) and by 10% ± 10% (LEU group) (main effect for time, P < 0.05), but no differences between groups with respect to pre-post changes (group × time interactions) were detected for MPS or cell signaling. Leucine protected knee extensor peak torque (CON compared with LEU group: −15% ± 2% and −7% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) and endurance (CON compared with LEU: −14% ± 3% and −2% ± 4%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05), prevented an increase in body fat percentage (group × time interaction, P < 0.05), and reduced whole-body lean mass loss after 7 d (CON compared with LEU: −1.5 ± 0.3 and −0.8 ± 0.3 kg; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) but not 14 d (CON compared with LEU: −1.5 ± 0.3 and −1.0 ± 0.3 kg) of bed rest. Leucine also maintained muscle quality (peak torque/kg leg lean mass) after 14 d of bed-rest inactivity (CON compared with LEU: −9% ± 2% and +1% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Bed rest has a profoundly negative effect on muscle metabolism, mass, and function in middle-aged adults. Leucine supplementation may partially protect muscle health during relatively

  7. Clinical and Biochemical Correlates of Serum L-Ergothioneine Concentrations in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sotgia, Salvatore; Zinellu, Angelo; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Pintus, Gianfranco; Attia, John; Carru, Ciriaco; McEvoy, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing interest towards the biological role of L-ergothioneine, little is known about the serum concentrations of this unusual aminothiol in older adults. We addressed this issue in a representative sample of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods Body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum concentrations of L-ergothioneine, taurine, homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, and glutamylcysteine were evaluated in 439 subjects (age 55–85 years) randomly selected from the Hunter Community Study. Results Median L-ergothioneine concentration in the entire cohort was 1.01 IQR 0.78–1.33 µmol/L. Concentrations were not affected by gender (P = 0.41) or by presence of chronic medical conditions (P = 0.15). By considering only healthy subjects, we defined a reference interval for L-ergothioneine serum concentrations from 0.36 (90% CI 0.31–0.44) to 3.08 (90% CI 2.45–3.76) µmol/L. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis L-ergothioneine was negatively correlated with age (rpartial = −0.15; P = 0.0018) and with glutamylcysteine concentrations (rpartial = −0.13; P = 0.0063). Conclusions A thorough analysis of serum L-ergothioneine concentrations was performed in a large group of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Reference intervals were established. Age and glutamylcysteine were independently negatively associated with L-ergothioneine serum concentration. PMID:24392160

  8. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  9. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Karen A.; Desjardins, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual’s cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants’ aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person’s performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  10. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Karen A; Desjardins, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual's cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants' aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person's performance on auditory working memory tests.

  11. Body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Shi, Yuyan

    2015-07-01

    The sweeping obesity epidemic could further increase the incidence of functional limitations in the U.S. rapidly aging population. To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1992 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Functional limitations were classified into physical mobility limitation (PM), large muscle function limitation (LMF), activities of daily living limitation (ADL), gross motor function limitation (GMF), and fine motor function limitation (FMF). Mixed-effect logistic regressions were performed to estimate the relationship between prior-wave body weight status and current-wave onset of functional limitations, adjusted for individual characteristics and survey design. Prior-wave body weight status prospectively predicted onset of functional limitation, and the relationship showed a U-shaped pattern. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the odds ratios (ORs) in underweight (BMI < 18.5) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) adults were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) and 2.31 (2.11-2.52) for PM, 1.20 (0.96-1.50) and 1.63 (1.49-1.79) for LMF, 2.02 (1.66-2.46) and 1.40 (1.28-1.54) for ADL, 1.96 (1.60-2.39) and 1.77 (1.62-1.93) for GMF, and 1.66 (1.37-2.02) and 1.34 (1.22-1.46) for FMF, respectively. For PM, LMF and GMF, the impact of obesity appeared more pronounced in women, whereas that of underweight more pronounced in men. Proper weight management during aging is crucial in preventing functional limitations in middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive activities and cognitive performance in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jonaitis, Erin; La Rue, Asenath; Mueller, Kimberly D; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive activity is thought to provide some protection against dementia, but the mechanism and timing of these effects are unknown. Data for this study were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), an at-risk middle-aged sample (mean age = 54 years) enriched for parental family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We had two main aims: (a) to determine the relative contribution of three facets of cognitive activity-education, occupational complexity with data, and cognitive leisure activities-to WRAP participants' cognitive performance; and (b) to assess for interactions between genetic risk factors and cognitive activity in explaining cognitive performance. Results from mixed effects models indicate that some of the variance usually attributed to education may be more closely accounted for by cognitive activities later in life. Overall, our analyses suggest cautious optimism for cognitive activities, especially game playing, as a strategy for preserving cognitive strengths in midlife. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Franklin, Stanley S.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. METHODS CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). RESULTS During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH

  14. Acute effects of a dietary non-starch polysaccharide supplement on cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Best, Talitha; Howe, Peter; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Certain plant polysaccharides may provide psychological health benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether they can acutely improve mood and cognitive function. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between subjects design trial, 73 middle-aged adults consumed 4 g of a proprietary mixture of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) (Ambrotose® complex), a rice flour placebo, or a sucrose control. Participants completed testing at baseline and 30 minutes post-consumption. Acute effects of consumption on mood, cognition, and blood glucose were evaluated during mental tests designed to induce mental fatigue. Significant improvement in recognition and working memory performance was observed in the group that consumed NSP compared with placebo or sucrose. Improvements in memory performance following NSP intake were independent of changes in blood glucose. This is the first report of acute behavioural improvement following plant polysaccharide intake in healthy middle-aged adults under conditions of mental fatigue. The findings suggest that certain NSP may enhance memory performance through mechanisms other than elevated blood glucose.

  15. Dissociative Global and Local Task-Switching Costs Across Younger Adults, Middle-Aged Adults, Older Adults, and Very Mild Alzheimer Disease Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Mark J.; Balota, David A.; Minear, Meredith; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Duchek, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A Pure block consisting of single-task trials and a Switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed. Local (switch vs. nonswitch trials) and global (nonswitch vs. pure trials) costs in mean error rates, mean response latencies, underlying reaction time distributions, along with stimulus-response congruency effects were computed. Local costs in errors were group invariant, but global costs in errors systematically increased as a function of age and AD. Response latencies yielded a strong dissociation: Local costs decreased across groups whereas global costs increased across groups. Vincentile distribution analyses revealed that the dissociation of local and global costs primarily occurred in the slowest response latencies. Stimulus-response congruency effects within the Switch block were particularly robust in accuracy in the very mild AD group. We argue that the results are consistent with the notion that the impaired groups show a reduced local cost because the task sets are not as well tuned, and hence produce minimal cost on switch trials. In contrast, global costs increase because of the additional burden on working memory of maintaining two task sets. PMID:26652720

  16. Associations of Low Muscle Mass and the Metabolic Syndrome in Caucasian and Asian Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, D; Park, M S; Kim, T N; Ryu, J Y; Hong, H C; Yoo, H J; Baik, S H; Jones, G; Choi, K M

    2016-03-01

    Age-related declines in skeletal muscle mass may confer significant metabolic consequences for older adults. Associations of low muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Caucasians, and comparisons with associations observed in Asian populations, have not been reported. We examined associations of low muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Asian and Caucasian middle-aged and older men and women using criteria for low muscle mass. Two population-based studies of Australian (Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort Study; TASOAC; N=1005) and Korean (Korean Sarcopenic Obesity Study; KSOS; N=376) community-dwelling adults, mean age 62 and 58 years, respectively. Appendicular lean mass (aLM) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalised to height squared (aLM/Ht2), weight (aLM/Wt) or body mass index (aLM/BMI). Participants in the lowest sex-specific 20% for aLM measures were defined as having low muscle mass. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Although Australians demonstrated generally unfavourable anthropometric and metabolic characteristics compared to Koreans, prevalence of MetS was similar (29.5% in Australians and 31.4% in Koreans, respectively). Low aLM/Ht2 was associated with significantly reduced likelihood of MetS in both Australians (OR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.19 - 0.46) and Koreans (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.62). Conversely, low aLM/BMI was associated with increased odds for MetS in Australians (OR: 1.78, 95% CI 1.12 - 2.84), but not Koreans (OR: 1.33, 95% CI = 0.67 - 2.64). Low aLM/BMI is associated with significantly increased likelihood of MetS in Australian adults, but not Koreans, suggesting potential differences in effects of low muscle mass relative to body mass on cardiometabolic health in Caucasian and Asian middle-aged and older adults. Low muscle mass relative to height is associated with reduced likelihood of MetS in both populations.

  17. Temporal Relationship Between Elevated Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffening Among Middle-Aged Black and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Zhang, Tao; Bazzano, Lydia; Urbina, Elaine M.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the temporal relationship between elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in a biracial (black-white) cohort of middle-aged adults aged 32–51 years from the semirural community of Bogalusa, Louisiana. Measurements of aortic-femoral pulse wave velocity (afPWV; n = 446) and large- and small-arterial compliance (n = 381) were obtained at 2 time points between 2000 and 2010, with an average follow-up period of 7 years. A cross-lagged path analysis model was used to examine the temporal relationship of elevated BP to arterial stiffness and elasticity. The cross-lagged path coefficients did not differ significantly between blacks and whites. The path coefficient (ρ2) from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV was significantly greater than the path coefficient (ρ1) from baseline afPWV to follow-up BP (ρ2 = 0.20 vs. ρ1 = 0.07 (P = 0.048) for systolic BP; ρ2 = 0.19 vs. ρ1 = 0.05 (P = 0.034) for diastolic BP). The results for this 1-directional path from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV were confirmed, although marginally significant, by using large- and small-artery elasticity measurements. These findings provide strong evidence that elevated BP precedes large-artery stiffening in middle-aged adults. Unlike the case in older adults, the large-arterial wall is not stiff enough in youth to alter BP levels during young adulthood. PMID:26960706

  18. Trends in decayed teeth among middle-aged and older adults in the United States: socioeconomic disparities persist over time.

    PubMed

    Hybels, Celia F; Wu, Bei; Landerman, Lawrence R; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M; Plassman, Brenda L

    2016-09-01

    While trends in tooth loss among older adults have been well documented and show a decline over the last few decades, little is known about trends in tooth decay which may lead to tooth loss. The study aim was to examine trends in tooth decay among adults ages 50 years and older in the United States and determine whether these trends were consistent across demographic and socioeconomic subgroups of middle-aged and older adults. Secondary analysis of data collected through detailed oral health examinations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Tooth decay was measured as active caries. Multivariable associations were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Averaged over time, the mean number of decayed teeth was 0.54. Rates of decay remained stable over time. Males, non-Hispanic Blacks, Mexican-Americans, and those of other race/ethnicity as well as those with fewer years of education and lower levels of income had more decayed teeth. The increased number of decayed teeth for Mexican-Americans and those of other race/ethnicity was due in part to differing levels of education and income. Trends over time did not vary by any of these demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Trends in the number of decayed teeth did not meaningfully change when the numbers of missing and filled teeth were controlled. Although studies have shown the number of middle-aged and older Americans experiencing tooth loss has decreased over time, trends in tooth decay have remained relatively stable, with socioeconomic disparities persisting over time. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Influence of visual acuity on anxiety, panic and depression disorders among young and middle age adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Codey, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research, albeit limited, has demonstrated an association of visual acuity with depression and anxiety. However, these studies are limited in that they have focused on older adults, used a convenient sample, and/or used a subjective assessment of visual function. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively-measured visual acuity with depression and anxiety (and panic disorder) among a national sample of young- and middle-age U.S. adults (20-39 years). Using data from the 2003-2004 NHANES (n=602), the presence of anxiety, depression, and panic disorders was assessed from a diagnostic interview. Visual acuity was assessed from a vision exam using the Nidek Auto Lensmeter Model (LM-990A) and expressed as LogMAR units. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, cotinine, diabetes, and physical activity, visual acuity was not associated with panic disorder (p=0.71) or depression disorder (p=0.20), but for every 0.1 LogMAR unit change in vision, participants had a 14% (OR=1.14; p=0.04) higher odds of having an anxiety disorder. The main limitation of this study was the cross-sectional design. Young- and middle-age U.S. adults with worse visual function are at increased odds of having an anxiety disorder. Strategies to prevent and treat anxiety among those with worse visual function are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone With Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dasom; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with hypertension. However, the associations have yet to be studied in Koreans. This study explored the relationship among serum 25(OH)D, PTH concentrations, and the presence of hypertension in middle-aged and older Korean adults using the most recent nationally representative survey data. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with data collected from 5,260 Korean adults (aged ≥50 years) who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or current use of antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased according to the quartiles of serum PTH levels (P < 0.0001), but not of serum 25(OH)D levels. In multivariable logistic analysis, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension were significantly higher among participants in the highest quartile than among those in the lowest quartile of serum PTH level, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.56, P = 0.03). The adjusted ORs for hypertension tended to decrease across the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D level, but the associations were not significant. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with the presence of hypertension, whereas serum PTH was positively associated, suggesting that serum PTH may be an independent risk factor for hypertension in middle-aged and older Korean adults. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Exercise training improves sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with sleep problems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Yu; Ho, Ka-Hou; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chien, Meng-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Does an exercise training program improve the quality of sleep in middle-aged and older adults with sleep problems? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Adults aged over 40 years with sleep problems. A formal exercise training program consisting of either aerobic or resistance exercise. Self-reported sleep quality or polysomnography. Six trials were eligible for inclusion and provided data on 305 participants (241 female). Each of the studies examined an exercise training program that consisted of either moderate intensity aerobic exercise or high intensity resistance exercise. The duration of most of the training programs was between 10 and 16 weeks. All of the studies used the self-reported Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quality. Compared to the control group, the participants who were randomised to an exercise program had a better global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, with a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 0.47 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.86). The exercise group also had significantly reduced sleep latency (SMD 0.58, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.08), and medication use (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.74). However, the groups did not differ significantly in sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, or daytime functioning. Participation in an exercise training program has moderately positive effects on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults. Physical exercise could be an alternative or complementary approach to existing therapies for sleep problems. Copyright © 2012 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in Decayed Teeth among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States: Socioeconomic Disparities Persist Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Hybels, Celia F.; Wu, Bei; Landerman, Lawrence R.; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES While trends in tooth loss among older adults have been well documented and show a decline over the last few decades, little is known about trends in tooth decay which may lead to tooth loss. The study aim was to examine trends in tooth decay among adults ages 50 years and older in the U.S. and determine whether these trends were consistent across demographic and socioeconomic subgroups of middle-aged and older adults. METHODS Secondary analysis of data collected through detailed oral health examinations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys 1988–1994 and 1999–2004. Tooth decay was measured as active caries. Multivariable associations were estimated using negative binomial regression models. RESULTS Averaged over time, the mean number of decayed teeth was 0.54. Rates of decay remained stable over time. Males, Non-Hispanic Blacks, Mexican-Americans and those of Other race/ethnicity as well as those with fewer years of education and lower levels of income had more decayed teeth. The increased number of decayed teeth for Mexican-Americans and those of Other race/ethnicity was due in part to differing levels of education and income. Trends over time did not vary by any of these demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Trends in the number of decayed teeth did not meaningfully change when the numbers of missing and filled teeth were controlled. CONCLUSIONS Although studies have shown the number of middle-aged and older Americans experiencing tooth loss has decreased over time, trends in tooth decay have remained relatively stable, with socioeconomic disparities persisting over time. PMID:27061828

  3. Heterogeneous Depression Responses to Chronic Pain Onset among Middle-Aged Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514

  4. Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affectivity in middle-aged adults: a test of a cognitive-affective model of psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chang, E C; Sanna, L J

    2001-09-01

    This study attempted to address limitations in the understanding of optimism and pessimism among middle-aged adults. Specifically, a model of affectivity as a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms) was presented and examined in a sample of 237 middle-aged adults. Consistent with a mediation model, results of path analyses indicated that optimism and pessimism (particularly the former) had significant direct and indirect links (by means of positive and negative affectivity) with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. These results add to the small but growing literature identifying optimism and pessimism as important concomitants of psychological adjustment in more mature adults.

  5. Sharing the good, sharing the bad: the benefits of emotional self-disclosure among middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L; King, Arlene R

    2009-03-01

    The present study was designed to assess the impact of experimentally manipulating positive and negative self-disclosure on three domains of well-being among healthy middle-aged and older adults: emotional, psychological, and physical. Using a modified self-disclosure paradigm for sad, mixed (sad and happy), and neutral content, the authors examine changes in depressive symptomatology, stress, sad and happy mood, and self-reported health across 4 weeks in a sample (N = 200) of African American and European American men and women (age M = 54 years). Consistent with research on younger groups, health symptomatology declined over time (irrespective of condition). However, although African Americans reported reductions in stress and depressive symptomatology in the sad condition, European Americans experienced similar reductions only in the neutral condition. Results are discussed in terms of applications of the self-disclosure paradigm to developmentally and ethnically diverse groups.

  6. Effect of Tai Chi on gait and obstacle crossing behaviors in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Arun K; Rosengren, Karl S; Yang, Yang; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether long-term, habitual practice of Tai Chi (or Taiji) results in behavioral modifications during gait. Specifically, we examined whether Tai Chi (TC) experience alters gait behavior during normal and obstructed walking. Fifteen experienced TC practitioners and fifteen control subjects (average age 45 years, 23-66 year range) completed level walking trials with or without a stationary obstacle placed in their path. TC practitioners in this study had an average of 6.5 years (1.5-15 year range) of Chen-style Tai Chi experience. Kinematic analyses performed on their step-to-step gait characteristics over multiple steps revealed that TC practitioners used a more cautious strategy by using slower gait speeds and shorter and slower steps than controls (p adults. Future studies will need to determine whether these observed gait behaviors are found in older adults and are related to reductions in fall risk.

  7. Connected Language in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Riedeman, Sarah K.; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R.; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2016-01-01

    Connected language is often impaired among people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), yet little is known about when language difficulties first emerge on the path to a clinical diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with psychometric (preclinical) evidence of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (pMCI) showed deficits in connected language measures. Participants were 39 pMCI and 39 cognitively healthy (CH) adults drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who were matched for age, literacy, and sex. Participants completed a connected language task in which they described the Cookie Theft picture from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Language samples were analyzed across 3 language domains: content, syntactic complexity, and speech fluency. Paired t-tests were used to compare CH and pMCI groups on all variables, and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for each comparison. The CH and pMCI groups differed significantly on measures of content (e.g., CH group produced more semantic units, more unique words and had larger idea density, on average, than the pMCI group). The picture description findings are consistent with previous retrospective studies showing semantic language differences in adults with autopsy-confirmed AD. Given that these comparisons are between cognitively healthy and pMCI individuals (before a clinical MCI diagnosis), these findings may represent subtle language difficulty in spontaneous speech, and may be predictive of larger language changes over time. PMID:27636838

  8. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A

    1999-02-01

    The immune system is highly reliant on accurate cell-cell communication for optimal function, and any damage to the signalling systems involved will result in an impaired immune responsiveness. Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is a particular hazard to the immune system, since phagocytic cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body's defence against infection. Adequate amounts of neutralizing antioxidants are required, therefore, to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components (e.g. Se in the metalloenzyme glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9)). Numerous epidemiological studies have found strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that a boost to the body's immune system by antioxidants might, at least in part, account for this. Although more striking effects have been observed in the elderly, there is also evidence that antioxidant nutrients can modify cell-mediated immune responses in younger individuals. Indeed, it might be essential to have an adequate intake of antioxidant nutrients from an early age in order to help prevent the development of, or at least delay the onset of, several degenerative disorders. The present paper will review the effects of specific nutrients on immune function in young to middle-aged human subjects, focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and on Se. A further review, dealing more specifically with the effects of carotenoids on human immune function, will be presented at a forthcoming meeting of the Nutrition Society.

  9. Long-term obesity and avoidable hospitalization among younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2007-11-12

    Avoidable hospitalizations are considered to result from conditions that are preventable with timely and effective ambulatory care. We examined whether obesity, particularly long-term obesity, is associated with risk for and frequency of avoidable hospital stays. Data were drawn from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Survey, a 20-year study of adults aged 25 to 74 years (N = 6833). Using measures of body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) at baseline and at 25 years of age, we estimated the effect of obesity (BMI > or =30.0) on avoidable hospitalization risk using Cox proportional hazards models, and we estimated its influence on the rate of avoidable stays per year using interval regression models. All multivariate analyses were adjusted for morbidity and other covariates. One thousand twenty-three subjects experienced a hospitalization considered avoidable. Compared with normal-weight subjects, the adjusted hazard ratio of an avoidable stay among obese subjects was 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.51) for those aged 25 to 44 years, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.05-1.59) for those aged 45 to 64 years, and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.23-1.74) for those 65 years and older. Among participants aged 45 to 64 years at baseline, obesity at 25 years of age was strongly associated with both the risk (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.59-2.29) and frequency (beta coefficient, 0.057; SE, 0.018) of avoidable stays when accounting for baseline BMI category and additional covariates. For subjects 65 years and older, obesity at 25 years of age was associated with increased risk of avoidable hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.14-3.08) and with increased frequency of such admissions (beta coefficient, 0.138; SE, 0.038). As indicated by its association with avoidable hospitalizations, long-term obesity is a substantial risk for complications in medical care. Interventions should target

  10. Visceral adiposity predicts subclinical white matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Evan P; Birdsill, Alex; Parker, Paige; Elmenshawy, Ahmed; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    Growing prevalence of neuropathology and cognitive impairment are emerging consequences of the obesity epidemic. Adiposity indices used in examining the relationships between obesity, neuropathology, and cognition vary substantially in the literature leading to incongruent findings. Our aim was to determine the anthropometric measures most strongly associated with early white matter disease and cognitive function at midlife. Multiple adiposity indices were measured in 126 adults aged 40-62 who also completed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to quantify white matter disease and a cognitive test battery. Anthropometric indices of obesity were compared to image-based estimates of visceral adipose tissue with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as predictors of current white matter disease and cognitive function. We also explored sex as a potential moderator of these relationships. Waist circumference (WC) was most strongly correlated with DEXA estimates of visceral adipose tissue (r=0.871, p<0.001). Increasing WC (β=0.231, p=0.034), percent body fat (β=0.230, p=0.045), and VAT (β=0.247, p=0.027) significantly predicted subclinical white matter hyperintensities in the absence of cognitive impairment after accounting for age, sex, years of education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Sex was not a significant moderator of any of the observed relationships. Of the anthropometric indices used in this study, WC, BF, and VAT successfully predicted subclinical white matter disease in cognitively normal adults at midlife. Increasing VAT may independently insidiously affect cerebral white matter prior to detectable cognitive changes, necessitating early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sodium nitrite supplementation on vascular function and related small metabolite signatures in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lawrence C.; Brooks, Forrest A.; Evans, Trent D.; Justice, Jamie N.; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Reisdorph, Nichole; Bryan, Nathan S.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Bassett, Candace J.; Sindler, Amy L.; Giordano, Tony; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening with aging. Supplementation with sodium nitrite, a precursor of NO, ameliorates age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in mice, but effects on humans, including the metabolic pathways altered, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of oral sodium nitrite supplementation for improving vascular function in middle-aged and older adults and to identify related circulating metabolites. Ten weeks of sodium nitrite (80 or 160 mg/day, capsules, TheraVasc; randomized, placebo control, double blind) increased plasma nitrite acutely (5- to 15-fold, P < 0.001 vs. placebo) and chronically (P < 0.10) and was well tolerated without symptomatic hypotension or clinically relevant elevations in blood methemoglobin. Endothelial function, measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, increased 45-60% vs. baseline (P < 0.10) without changes in body mass or blood lipids. Measures of carotid artery elasticity (ultrasound and applanation tonometry) improved (decreased β-stiffness index, increased cross-sectional compliance, P < 0.05) without changes in brachial or carotid artery blood pressure. Aortic pulse wave velocity was unchanged. Nitrite-induced changes in vascular measures were significantly related to 11 plasma metabolites identified by untargeted analysis. Baseline abundance of multiple metabolites, including glycerophospholipids and fatty acyls, predicted vascular changes with nitrite. This study provides evidence that sodium nitrite supplementation is well tolerated, increases plasma nitrite concentrations, improves endothelial function, and lessens carotid artery stiffening in middle-aged and older adults, perhaps by altering multiple metabolic pathways, thereby warranting a larger clinical trial. PMID:26607249

  12. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

  13. Daily marital interaction quality and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nataria Tennille; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time ecological momentary assessments for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT (b = -0.02, F(1,275) = 9.18, p = .002), and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT (b = 0.02 F(1,275) = 10.29, p = .001). These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological CVD risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical CVD in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the use of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health.

  14. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  15. Efficacy and safety of spinning exercise in middle-aged and older adults with metabolic syndrome: randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Verrusio, Walter; Andreozzi, Paola; Renzi, Alessia; Martinez, Andrea; Longo, Giovanni; Musumeci, Marco; Cacciafesta, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of spinning exercise on cardio-vascular weal. To assess whether a 6 months spinning training, combined with proper diet, is more effective than standard training programs and diet alone in improving metabolic abnormalities in middle-aged and older adults. Randomized clinical trial. Rehabilitation Unit of our Department. Patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with diet (group A, n = 10), with diet and general gymnastics program (group B, n = 10), with diet and spinning physical training program (group C, n = 10). During the study period we observed a significant reduction in blood pressure (group C: systolic blood pressure p = 0.03; diastolic blood pressure p = 0.004 / group B: systolic blood pressure p = 0.001), in lipid profile (group B: plasma total cholesterol p = 0.001; triglycerides p = 0.001 / group C: plasma total cholesterol p = 0.04); in fasting blood glucose (group B: p = 0.01; group C: p = 0.008); in Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (group B: p = 0.01; group C: p = 0.001); in waist circumference (group C: p = 0.005; group A: p = 0.02; group B: p = 0.04). No patients reported adverse events during follow-up. Our results confirm the effectiveness of spinning training combined with diet in the management of MetS. The findings provide a preliminary evidence to support that spinning training may represent a useful and safe intervention also in middle-aged and older adults geriatric with multiple CV risk factors.

  16. Body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1996 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, consisting of 6739 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free from cognitive impairment in 1996. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Cognitive impairment was defined by a composite score of 11 or lower on the immediate and delayed word recall, serial 7's, and backwards counting tests. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between base-year body weight status and future onset of cognitive impairment. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for cognitive impairment incidence was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.00), 1.15 (1.02-1.29), 1.28 (1.14-1.43), and 1.59 (1.33-1.92) among underweight (BMI<18.5), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), class I obese (30 ≤ BMI < 35), and class II obese or above (BMI ≥ 35) participants, respectively. The unadjusted relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment onset appeared stronger among females than among males. After adjusting for base-year individual sociodemographics, functional limitations and chronic conditions, the estimated associations between body weight status and cognitive impairment were attenuated but remained statistically significant for underweight participants. Underweight is a robust risk factor for onset of cognitive impairment in later life. Weight management programs targeting middle-aged and older adults should focus on achieving and maintaining optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  18. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-08

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  19. Relative numerousness judgment and summation in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ursula S; Stoinski, Tara S; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2007-02-01

    The ability to select the larger of two quantities ranging from 1 to 5 (relative numerousness judgment [RNJ[) and the ability to select the larger of two pairs of quantities with each pair ranging from 1 to 8 (summation) were evaluated in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (7 Pongo pygmaeus abelii and 2 Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). Summation accuracy and RNJ were similar to those of previous reports in apes; however, the pattern of age-related differences with regard to these tasks was different from that previously reported in gorillas. Older orangutans were less accurate than the young and middle-aged for RNJ, and summation accuracy was equivalent among age groups. Evidence was found to suggest that the young and middle-aged based their selection of the largest quantity pair on both quantities within each pair during the summation task. These results show a relationship between subject age and the quantitative abilities of adult orangutans.

  20. Relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and calcium, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure in young and middle aged Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Kim, Jeongseon

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of dietary sodium, calcium, and potassium, and anthropometric indexes on blood pressure is still inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between dietary factors or anthropometric indexes and hypertension risk, we examined the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with sodium, calcium, and potassium intakes and anthropometric indexes in 19~49-year-olds using data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III. Total of 2,761 young and middle aged adults (574 aged 19~29 years and 2,187 aged 30~49 years) were selected from KNHANES III. General information, nutritional status, and anthropometric data were compared between two age groups (19~29 years old and 30~49 years old). The relevance of blood pressure and risk factors such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and the intakes of sodium, potassium, and calcium was determined by multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression models showed that waist circumference, weight, and BMI were positively associated with SBP and DBP in both age groups. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with either SBP or DBP. Among 30~49-year-olds, calcium was inversely associated with both SBP and DBP (P = 0.012 and 0.010, respectively). Our findings suggest that encouraging calcium consumption and weight control may play an important role in the primary prevention and management of hypertension in early adulthood.

  1. Life-space mobility of middle-aged and older adults at various stages of usage of power mobility devices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Demers, Louise; Gélinas, Isabelle; Miller, William C; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Noreau, Luc

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether the impact of power mobility devices (PMDs) varies as a function of stage of usage and to explore key factors associated with greater life-space mobility for middle-aged and older adults. Multicohort study with respondents grouped as a function of stage of PMD usage (reference group with mobility impairments, n=42; initial users, 1-6mo, n=35; long-term users, 12-18mo, n=39). Cohorts were compared with respect to life-space mobility in a continuum of environments ranging from home to outside town, using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Baseline personal, assistive device, intervention, and environmental factors associated with life-space mobility were explored with age-adjusted linear regression models. Four Canadian rehabilitation centers. Random sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=116; 50-89y) living in the community or residential care. Procurement of a powered wheelchair or scooter. Life-Space Assessment composite score. Cohort comparisons showed higher frequency of outings for PMD users in the neighborhood (P<.001) and around home (P<.05) and significantly greater Life-Space Assessment composite scores for initial and long-term users than for the reference group (P<.05). Factors such as sex, the nature of activities, and device type explained variances in Life-Space Assessment composite score ranging from 15.9% to 18.0% (P<.006). Life-space mobility increases after PMD use and remains stable across the stages of initial and long-term use. To appreciate the impact of PMDs, clinicians should consider the environment and a combination of personal and device factors that are associated with the range of life-space mobility in the first 18 months after procurement.

  2. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults.

  3. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity: 5-year associations with falls risk in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Sanders, Kerrie M; Aitken, Dawn; Hayes, Alan; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether obesity concurrent with sarcopenia (low muscle mass) or dynapenia (low muscle strength) is associated with increased falls risk in middle-aged and older adults. 5-year prospective cohort study including 674 community-dwelling volunteers (mean ± SD age 61.4 ± 7.0 years; 48% female). Sarcopenia and dynapenia were defined as lowest sex-specific tertiles for dual-energy X-ray (DXA)-assessed appendicular lean mass (adjusted for height and fat mass) or lower-limb strength, respectively. Obesity was defined as the highest tertiles of DXA-assessed total or trunk fat mass. Change in falls risk was calculated using the Physiological Profile Assessment (z-scores: 0-1 = mild increased risk; 1-2 = moderate increased risk; >2 = marked increased risk). Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed mild but significantly increased falls risk scores for dynapenic obesity (change in mean z-score compared to non-dynapenic, non-obese group: 0.33, 95% CI 0.06-0.59 [men] and 0.46, 95% CI 0.21-0.72 [women]) and dynapenia (0.25, 95% CI 0.05-0.46 [women only]). Dynapenic obesity, but not sarcopenic obesity, is predictive of increased falls risk score in middle-aged and older adults. In clinical settings, muscle function assessments may be useful for predicting falls risk in obese patients. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Poor Heart Rate Recovery Is Associated With the Development of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Avi; Berkovitch, Anat; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Ben Zekry, Sagit; Beinart, Roy; Segev, Shlomo; Glikson, Michael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in middle-aged adults. Heart rate recovery was calculated using the exercise stress test in 15,729 apparently healthy self-referred men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between January 2000, and December 2015. All participants completed the maximal exercise stress test according to the Bruce protocol and were followed clinically on a yearly basis for a median of 6.4±4 years. The primary end point was new-onset AF. Participants were grouped according to HRR at 5 minutes, dichotomized at the median value (<73 beats/min). Participants with low HRR were older, were more commonly men, had a higher rate of comorbidities, and were less fit. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the cumulative probability of AF at 6 years was higher in participants with low HRR (2.1%) than in those with high HRR (0.6%) (log-rank, P<.001). Older age, male sex, obesity resting heart rate, and ischemic heart disease were all associated with increased AF risk in a univariate Cox regression model (P<.05 for all). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low HRR was independently associated with increased AF risk (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P<.001) after adjustment for multiple confounders. Lower HRR is independently associated with the development of new-onset AF during long-term follow-up in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging and low-grade inflammation reduce renal function in middle-aged and older adults in Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Costello-White, Reagan; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-grade inflammation on age-related changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in middle-aged and older white Americans, African-Americans, and Japanese adults. Serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined for 1570 adult participants in two surveys of aging in the USA and Japan (N = 1188 and 382, respectively). Kidney function declined with age in both countries and was associated with IL-6 and CRP. IL-6 and CRP also influenced the extent of the arithmetic bias when calculating the GFR using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formula with just serum creatinine. Younger African-Americans initially had the highest GFR but showed a steep age-related decrement that was associated with elevated inflammation. Japanese adults had the lowest average GFR but evinced a large effect of increased inflammatory activity when over 70 years of age. Importantly, our results also indicate that low-grade inflammation is important to consider when evaluating kidney function solely from serum creatinine.

  6. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife.

  7. Low-load high-repetition resistance training improves strength and gait speed in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effect of 26 weeks of low-load high-repetition resistance training (BodyPump™) on maximal strength, gait speed, balance and self-reported health status in healthy, active middle-aged and older adults. Two-group randomised control trial. Sixty-eight apparently healthy, active adults aged over 55 years completed either 26 weeks of BodyPump™ training (PUMP) or served as control participants (CON). The BodyPump™ group (n = 32, age = 66 ± 4 years) trained twice per week for 26 weeks while the control group (n = 36, age = 66 ± 5 years) continued with their normal activities. Leg-press and Smith-machine bench-press one repetition maximum (1RM), gait speed, balance, and self-reported health status were all assessed at baseline and follow-up. Significant group-by-time interactions in favour of the BodyPump™ group were found for leg-press 1RM (PUMP + 13%, CON + 3%, p = 0.007, partial eta(2) = 0.11), Smith-machine bench-press 1RM (PUMP + 14%, CON +5%, p = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.18), normal gait speed (PUMP + 23%, CON +9 %, p = 0.028, partial eta(2) = 0.08) and single leg balance right (PUMP + 24%, CON - 7%, p = 0.006, partial eta(2) = 0.12). There were no group-by-time interactions for health status measures. Three participants in the BodyPump™ group withdrew from training due to injury or fear of injury related to training. Low-load high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ is effective at improving maximal strength, gait speed and some aspects of standing balance in adults over 55 years. The training was well tolerated by the majority of participants. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and underdiagnosis of airway obstruction among middle-aged adults in northern France: The ELISABET study 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Quach, Alexandre; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Chérot-Kornobis, Natalie; Ciuchete, Alina; Clément, Guillaume; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Dauchet, Luc

    2015-12-01

    Airway obstruction (AO), mainly due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, is a major cause of mortality and poor quality of life. However, few data are available for France. This study was designed to calculate the prevalence AO among middle-aged adults in northern France, explore the associated risk factors and evaluate the underdiagnosis. The Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement (ELISABET) was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 3276 adults aged from 40 to 64 in two urban areas in northern France (Lille and Dunkirk). Participants filled out a questionnaire and performed spirometry testing, without a reversibility test. The age-standardized estimated prevalence [95% confidence interval] of AO was 16.0% [13.9; 17.9] in Lille and 13.7% [11.7; 15.7] in Dunkirk with the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) definition and 10.8% [9.2; 12.5] and 9.5% [7.9; 11.2] respectively with the lower limit of normal calculated with the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) 2012 equations. AO was associated with age, male gender, tobacco consumption and low body mass index. The underdiagnosis rate was greater than 70%. Previously undiagnosed participants with AO displayed more respiratory symptoms compared with participants without AO and less than participants with previously diagnosed AO. The prevalence of AO in northern France ranged from 9.5 to 16.0%, depending on the centre and definition used. The high underdiagnosis rate observed here suggests that greater efforts should be made to identify individuals presenting with the symptoms and/or risk factors associated with AO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Periovulatory morphometric and vascular modifications of the clitoris in young adult and middle-aged women. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Cesare; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Cianciosi, Arianna; Busacchi, Paolo; Sisti, Giovanni; Paradisi, Roberto; Venturoli, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    A decline in sexual activity has been reported as women age. To compare, in young adult and middle-aged women, the clitoral volumetric and vascular modifications during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, and to analyze their relationship with circulating hormones, nitric oxide levels, and with questionnaires on sexuality, relationship, and depression. Fifteen young (18-25 years; Group I), and 16 middle-aged (35-45 years; Group II) eumenorrheic women were submitted, on day 14 of their menstrual cycle, to utero-ovarian and clitoral ultrasonographic analysis, and to color Doppler evaluation of the uterine and dorsal clitoral arteries. On the same day, hormonal parameters and plasma concentrations of nitrites/nitrates were assayed, and the two-factor Italian McCoy female questionnaire and the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire were administered. Utero-ovarian and clitoral ultrasonographic analysis, color Doppler evaluation of the uterine and dorsal clitoral arteries; evaluation of hormonal and nitrites/nitrates plasma concentrations; administration of the two-factor Italian McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire. RESULTS. The plasma levels of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and nitrites/nitrates were similar in both groups. Neither the ultrasonographic assessment of the clitoral body volume (0.82 +/- 0.24 mL vs. 0.73 +/- 0.26 mL) nor the Doppler analysis of the dorsal clitoral artery [pulsatility index (PI) = 1.35 +/- 0.31 vs. PI = 1.36 +/- 0.19] evidenced any significant differences in either Group I or Group II. The two-factor Italian McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire gave the same results in Group I and Group II. The relationship between the different parameters evidenced that the NO(2-)/NO(3-) circulating levels are inversely correlated with uterine artery (r = -0.4611; P = 0.008) and dorsal clitoral artery (r = -0.331; P = 0

  10. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  11. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  12. Stressful events, social support, and cognitive function in middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Engelman, Corinne D; Friedman, Elliot M; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Rue, Asenath La; Sager, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    To examine the associations of stressful experiences and social support with cognitive function in a sample of middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using data from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP; N = 623), we evaluated relationships between stressful events experienced in the past year, as well as social support, and cognitive performance in four domains: speed and flexibility, immediate memory, verbal learning and memory, and working memory. We assessed interactions between psychosocial predictors, and with APOE ε4 status. Greater number of stressful events was associated with poorer performance on tests of speed and flexibility. Greater social support was associated with better performance in the same domain; this relationship was diminished by the presence of the ε4 allele. No associations were seen in the remaining three domains. Psychosocial factors may influence cognition in at-risk individuals; influence varies by cognitive domain and ε4 status.

  13. Predictors of improvement following speed of processing training in middle-aged and older adults with HIV: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Dodson, Joan E; Steadman, Laura; Vance, David E

    2014-02-01

    Speed of processing training has been shown to improve cognitive functioning in normal older adults. A recent study demonstrated that middle-aged and older adults with HIV also improved on a measure of speed of processing and a measure of everyday functioning after such training. The primary objective was to examine what predicts the speed of processing training gains observed in the previous study. Participants were administered an extensive battery of demographic, psychosocial, and neuropsychological measures at baseline. They were randomized either to the speed of processing training group (n = 22) or to a no-contact control group (n = 24). Participants received approximately 10 hours of computerized speed of processing training. Predictors of training gains on the Useful Field of View (UFOV) Test and the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Test were examined through correlational analyses. In general, those who performed worse on the UFOV and TIADL at baseline demonstrated significantly more training gains. Also, higher HIV viral load, poorer medication adherence, a higher number of years diagnosed with HIV, and lower baseline scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (an executive functioning measure) were correlated with better TIADL training gains. TIADL performance improved in those with higher HIV viral load, poorer medication adherence, and poor executive functioning. Speed of processing training may be a way to improve everyday functioning and therefore quality of life in more medically and cognitively vulnerable adults with HIV.

  14. Physical Aspects of Healthy Aging: Assessments of Three Measures of Balance for Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.; Grove, John; Chen, Randi; Masaki, Kamal H.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Donlon, Tim A.; Guralnik, Jack; Willcox, Bradley J.; Willcox, D. Craig; Nigg, Claudio; Curb, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the reliability and correlations with age of the balance components of the EPESE, NHANES, and the Good Balance Platform System (GBPS) in a normal population of adults. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Urban Medical Center in the Pacific. Participants. A random sample of 203 healthy offspring of Honolulu Heart Program participants, ages 38–71. Measurements. Subjects were examined twice at visits one week apart using the balance components of the EPESE, NHANES, and the good balance system tests. Results. The EPESE and NHANES batteries of tests were not sufficiently challenging to allow successful discrimination among subjects in good health, even older subjects. The GBPS allowed objective quantitative measurements, but the test-retest correlations generally were not high. The GBPS variables correlated with age only when subjects stood on a foam pad; they also were correlated with anthropometric variables. Conclusion. Both EPESE and NHANES balance tests were too easy for healthy subjects. The GBPS had generally low reliability coefficients except for the most difficult testing condition (foam pad, eyes closed). Both height and body fat were associated with GBPS scores, necessitating adjusting for these variables if using balance as a predictor of future health. PMID:21437003

  15. Recent trends of cancer mortality in Romanian adults: mortality is still increasing, although young adults do better than the middle-aged and elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tereanu, Carmen; Baili, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Micheli, Andrea; Furtunescu, Florentina L; Minca, Dana G; Sant, Milena

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the mortality trends (1986-2009) for all cancers combined and selected cancers in adult Romanians by three age groups (15-49, 50-69 and older than 70 years of age) in comparison with 11 other European countries. We extracted mortality data from the WHO database and grouped the countries into four regions: central and eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary), Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands and Finland), and southern Europe (Croatia and Slovenia). Mortality rates were age-standardized against the standard European population. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified by Joinpoint regression and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated for periods with uniform trends. Cancer mortality in Romania was among the lowest in Europe in 1986, but was higher than most countries by 2009. Despite the declining mortality (APC) in younger Romanians for all cancers combined (men-1.5% from 1997, women-1.2% 1997-2004 and -3.8% 2004-2009), male lung cancer (-2.8% from 1997), female breast (-3.5% from 1999) and cervical (-5.4% from 2004) cancers, mortality has increased in middle-aged and elderly patients for most cancers analysed. The exception was declining stomach cancer mortality in most Romanians, except elderly men. For most cancers analysed, mortality declined in the Baltic countries in young and middle-aged patients, and in western and northern countries for all ages. Lung cancer mortality in women increased in all countries except Latvia. We urge immediate steps to reverse the alarming increase in cancer mortality among middle-aged and elderly Romanians.

  16. Suitability of verification testing to confirm attainment of VO₂max in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dalleck, Lance C; Astorino, Todd A; Erickson, Rachel M; McCarthy, Caitlin M; Beadell, Alyssa A; Botten, Brigette H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the utility of the verification testing procedure in confirming "true" VO₂max in older adults completing maximal cycle ergometry. Eighteen physically active men and women (age = 59.7 ± 6.3 yr, ht = 173.0 ± 8.8 cm, body mass = 83.2 ± 16.4 kg, VO₂max = 27.7 ± 5.0 mL/kg/min) completed incremental exercise, and returned 1 h after incremental exercise to complete a verification phase of constant load exercise at 105% peak work rate. During exercise, gas exchange data and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. VO₂max was similar (p > 0.05) between incremental and verification bouts (2329 ± 762 mL/min vs. 2309 ± 760 mL/min). Findings support use of the verification procedure to confirm VO₂max attainment in active, middle-aged and older adults completing incremental cycle ergometry. This is particularly relevant to interpretation of studies that have used repeated measurements of VO₂max to establish a training effect or when VO₂max is used for designing exercise prescriptions.

  17. Predictors of preventive health care use among middle-aged and older adults in Mexico: the role of religion.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R

    2007-06-01

    Research has shown that religion is associated with a wide range of health behaviors among adults of all ages. Although there is strong support for religion's influence on behaviors such as drinking and smoking, less is known about the possible relationship between religion and the use of preventive health services. This relationship may be particularly important in Mexico, a country with high levels of religiousness and low levels of preventive service utilization. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in Mexico (n = 9,890) to test the association between three facets of religion and three preventive services aimed at detecting chronic conditions or underlying risk factors. The findings show that religious salience is significantly related to the use of blood pressure and cholesterol screenings, even after controlling for a variety of social, demographic, and health-related factors. In addition, attending religious services and participating in religious activities are both positively associated with blood pressure and diabetes screening. This type of research adds to our knowledge of the determinants of preventive service utilization, as well as to the burgeoning literature on religion and health. Furthermore, because the vast majority of research in this field takes place in more developed and Westernized countries, such as the US and Western Europe, analyzing this relationship in a sample of older Mexicans is critical for providing the field with a more comparative orientation.

  18. Strategies Adopted by Late Middle-Age and Older Adults with HIV/AIDS to Explain their Physical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the attributions individuals make about what causes their physical symptoms are known to influence their care seeking and self-care behaviors, much less is known about the strategies they use to arrive at these attributions. The strategies employed to understand the causes of their symptoms were investigated using in-depth interviews with 100 late-middle-age and older adults with HIV/AIDS in New York City. The data revealed that most actively sought to explain their symptoms. The explanatory strategies identified included: relying upon illness or medication representations, lay beliefs about the body and aging, invoking pre-existing vulnerabilities, engaging in lay experimentation, social comparison processes, considering temporal ordering, and consulting authoritative sources. While most offered a single cause for their symptoms, some offered more complex multi-causal explanations. These findings provide understanding into the reasons why some older adults with HIV/AIDS misattribute symptoms resulting in delay in care or care over-utilization, suggesting the need for patient education. PMID:21337262

  19. Functional disability and social participation restriction associated with chronic conditions in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Lauren E; Raina, Parminder; Levasseur, Mélanie; Sohel, Nazmul; Payette, Hélène; Tuokko, Holly; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Wister, Andrew; Gilsing, Anne; Patterson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We examine the population impact on functional disability and social participation of physical and mental chronic conditions individually and in combination. Cross-sectional, population-based data from community-dwelling people aged 45 years and over living in the 10 Canadian provinces in 2008-2009 were used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for functional disability in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living and social participation restrictions for individual and combinations of chronic conditions, stratified by age and gender, after adjusting for confounding variables. Five chronic conditions (arthritis, depression, diabetes, heart disease and eye disease) made the largest contributions to ADL-related and IADL-related functional disability and social participation restrictions, with variation in magnitude and ranking by age and gender. While arthritis was consistently associated with higher PARs across gender and most age groups, depression, alone and in combination with the physical chronic conditions, was associated with ADL and IADL disability as well as social participation restrictions in the younger age groups, especially among women. Compared to women, the combinations of conditions associated with higher PARs in men more often included heart disease and diabetes. Our findings suggest that in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults, the impact of combinations of mental and physical chronic conditions on functional disability and social participation restriction is substantial and differed by gender and age. Recognising the differences in the drivers of PAR by gender and age group will ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical and public health interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Adult Education in Sweden: Possibilities for the Middle Aged and Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thang, Per-Olof; Warvik, Gun-Britt

    2000-01-01

    Older adults in Sweden lack access to funding for education and training, a gap partly filled by popular education. Study circles, one form of popular education, enable older adults to learn and adapt to the challenges of global society. They promote humanistic rather than economic goals of education. (SK)

  1. Childlessness, Parenthood, and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Loree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has examined whether parenthood is associated with higher levels of well-being among older adults, but definitions of parental status have varied. The authors examine links between parental status and depressive symptoms among older adults, comparing biological and social definitions of parenthood. The study finds few differences…

  2. Childlessness, Parenthood, and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Loree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has examined whether parenthood is associated with higher levels of well-being among older adults, but definitions of parental status have varied. The authors examine links between parental status and depressive symptoms among older adults, comparing biological and social definitions of parenthood. The study finds few differences…

  3. Age Effects and Sex Differences in Human Brain White Matter of Young to Middle-Aged Adults: A DTI, NODDI, and q-Space Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodiweera, Chandana; Alexander, Andrew L.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; McAllister, Thomas W.; Wu, Yu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural changes in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults were studied using advanced diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI). Multiple shell diffusion-weighted data were acquired using the Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI). The HYDI method is extremely versatile and data were analyzed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI), and q-space imaging approaches. Twenty-four females and 23 males between 18 and 55 years of age were included in this study. The impact of age and sex on diffusion metrics were tested using least squares linear regressions in 48 white matter regions of interest (ROIs) across the whole brain and adjusted for multiple comparisons across ROIs. In this study, white matter projections to either the hippocampus or the cerebral cortices were the brain regions most sensitive to aging. Specifically, in this young to middle-aged cohort, aging effects were associated with more dispersion of white matter fibers while the tissue restriction and intra-axonal volume fraction remained relatively stable. The fiber dispersion index of NODDI exhibited the most pronounced sensitivity to aging. In addition, changes of the DTI indices in this aging cohort were correlated mostly with the fiber dispersion index rather than the intracellular volume fraction of NODDI or the q-space measurements. While men and women did not differ in the aging rate, men tend to have higher intra-axonal volume fraction than women. This study demonstrates that advanced dMRI using a HDYI acquisition and compartmental modeling of NODDI can elucidate microstructural alterations that are sensitive to age and sex. Finally, this study provides insight into the relationships between DTI diffusion metrics and advanced diffusion metrics of NODDI model and q-space imaging. PMID:26724777

  4. Physical function limitations among middle-aged and older adults with prediabetes: one exercise prescription may not fit all.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pearl G; Cigolle, Christine T; Ha, Jinkyung; Min, Lillian; Murphy, Susan L; Blaum, Caroline S; Herman, William H

    2013-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of physical function limitations among a nationally representative sample of adults with prediabetes. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,991 respondents≥53 years of age from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. All respondents self-reported physical function limitations and comorbidities (chronic diseases and geriatric conditions). Respondents with prediabetes reported no diabetes and had a measured glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 5.7-6.4%. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare respondents with prediabetes versus diabetes (diabetes history or HbA1c≥6.5%) or normoglycemia (no diabetes history and HbA1c<5.7%). Twenty-eight percent of respondents≥53 years of age had prediabetes; 32% had mobility limitations (walking several blocks and/or climbing a flight of stairs); 56% had lower-extremity limitations (getting up from a chair and/or stooping, kneeling, or crouching); and 33% had upper-extremity limitations (pushing or pulling heavy objects and/or lifting>10 lb). Respondents with diabetes had the highest prevalence of comorbidities and physical function limitations, followed by those with prediabetes, and then normoglycemia (P<0.05). Compared with respondents with normoglycemia, respondents with prediabetes had a higher odds of having functional limitations that affected mobility (odds ratio [OR] 1.48), the lower extremities (OR 1.35), and the upper extremities (OR 1.37) (all P<0.01). The higher odds of having lower-extremity limitations remained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (OR 1.21, P<0.05). Comorbidities and physical function limitations are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults with prediabetes. Effective lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes must accommodate physical function limitations.

  5. Effect of calendar age on physical performance: A comparison of standard clinical measures with instrumented measures in middle-aged to older adults.

    PubMed

    Stijntjes, M; Meskers, C G M; de Craen, A J M; van Lummel, R C; Rispens, S M; Slagboom, P E; Maier, A B

    2016-03-01

    Decline in physical performance is highly prevalent during aging. Identification of sensitive markers of age-related changes in physical performance is important for early detection, development of therapeutic strategies and insight into underlying mechanisms. We studied the association of calendar age and familial longevity with standard clinical and instrumented measures of physical performance in a cohort of healthy middle-aged to older adults. Cross-sectional analysis within the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners (n=300, mean age (SD) 65.3 (6.7) years). Standard clinical measures were 25-meter walking speed and total duration of the chair stand test (CST). Instrumented measures were determined using a body fixed sensor. Dependence of physical performance on calendar age and familial longevity (offspring versus partner status) was analyzed using linear and logistic regression, respectively, adjusted for gender and height. Higher calendar age was associated with slower walking speed and longer duration of the CST (standardized β (95% CI) -.024 (-.042; -.006) and .035 (.014;.056), respectively). Instrumented measures showed similar effect sizes with strongest associations for gait stability and symmetry in mediolateral direction and for the extension and flexion phase of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transfers, respectively. No differences were observed between offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners. Standard clinical and instrumented measures of physical performance are associated with similar effect size to age-related changes in physical performance observable from middle age. The potential added value of instrumented measures for understanding underlying mechanisms requires further attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

  7. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  8. Self-assessed health of young-to-middle-aged adults in an English-speaking Caribbean nation

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A; South-Bourne, Neva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in self-assessed health in young-to-middle-aged adults are understudied in the English-speaking Caribbean nations. Aims: The aims of the current research are to (1) provide demographic characteristics of young adults, (2) examine the self-assessed health of young adults, (3) identify social determinants that explain good health status for young adults, (4) determine the magnitude of each social determinant, and (5) reveal gender differences in self-assessed health. Materials and methods: This study extracted a subsample of 3,024 respondents from a larger nationally cross-sectional survey of 6,782 Jamaicans. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide demographic information on the sample. Chi-square was used to examine the association between nonmetric variables, and an independent sample t-test was used to test the relationships between metric and dichotomous categorical variables. Logistic regression examined the relationship between the dependent variable and some predisposed independent variables. Results: One percent of the sample claimed injury and 8% illness. Self-reported diagnosed illnesses were influenza (12.7%), diarrhea (2.9%), respiratory disease (14.1%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%), hypertension (7.8%), arthritis (2.9%), and unspecified conditions (41.2%). The mean length of illness was 26 days (SD = 98.9). Nine social determinants and biological conditions explained 19.2% of the variability of self-assessed health. Biological conditions accounted for 78.1% of the explanatory model. Conclusion: Injury accounts for a miniscule percentage of illness and so using it to formulate intervention policies would lack the necessary depth to effectively address the health of this cohort. PMID:22915959

  9. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Relationships between cognitive function and frontal grey matter volumes and thickness in middle aged and early old-aged adults: the PATH Through Life Study.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of lateral frontal cortical volume and thickness with cognitive function in two samples of healthy middle aged (MA, 44-48 years old) and early old-age (OA, 64-68 years old) adults. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 400 MA and 397 OA adults from respective random community samples. Cortical volumes and thickness were measured with a surface-based segmentation procedure (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu). Volumes of lateral frontal grey matter were found to be significantly lower for OA than MA. Structure-function relationships were investigated using path analyses. In OA, smaller lateral frontal volumes were associated with better episodic memory (EM) (p<0.012, B=-0.117), and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDM) (p<0.031, B=-0.118) performance. Smaller frontal cortical thickness was also associated with better EM (p<0.01) and SDM (p<0.01) performance in OA. However, in MA greater cortical thickness was associated with better EM and (p<0.01) and reaction time (RT) (p<0.01). OA cohort showed significant positive correlations between Total Brain Volume and SDM, Digit-Backwards span and RT. Possible explanations and implications of the relationships in the context of cognitive aging in healthy adults, and limitations of cross-sectional research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct Social Support and Long-term Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176

  12. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-01-01

    polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Interplay between Creativity, Executive Function and Working Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shivani; Babu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Studies reveal inconclusive evidence of the relationship between executive function and creativity. Further, there is a dearth of studies investigating creativity in older adults in the Indian context. Three tests--namely, Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Figural), the Stroop Test, and Mental Balance (PGI memory scale)--were administered on a…

  15. Interplay between Creativity, Executive Function and Working Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shivani; Babu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Studies reveal inconclusive evidence of the relationship between executive function and creativity. Further, there is a dearth of studies investigating creativity in older adults in the Indian context. Three tests--namely, Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Figural), the Stroop Test, and Mental Balance (PGI memory scale)--were administered on a…

  16. Movement Control in Older Adults: Does Old Age Mean Middle of the Road?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Rachael K.; Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Mon-Williams, Mark; Wilkie, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Old age is associated with poorer movement skill, as indexed by reduced speed and accuracy. Nevertheless, reductions in speed and accuracy can also reflect compensation as well as deficit. We used a manual tracing and a driving task to identify generalized spatial and temporal compensations and deficits associated with old age. In Experiment 1,…

  17. Movement Control in Older Adults: Does Old Age Mean Middle of the Road?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Rachael K.; Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Mon-Williams, Mark; Wilkie, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Old age is associated with poorer movement skill, as indexed by reduced speed and accuracy. Nevertheless, reductions in speed and accuracy can also reflect compensation as well as deficit. We used a manual tracing and a driving task to identify generalized spatial and temporal compensations and deficits associated with old age. In Experiment 1,…

  18. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Gano, Lindsey B; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P < 0.05; mmΔ: r = 0.25, P < 0.01]. In subjects with above-average dietary niacin intake (≥ 22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression revealed that dietary niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P < 0.05). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, was inversely related to niacin intake (r = -0.23, P < 0.05) and was lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Intravenous infusion of the antioxidant vitamin C improved brachial FMD in subjects with below-average niacin intake (P < 0.001, n = 33), but not above-average (P > 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = -0.30, P < 0.05, n = 55), and expression of the prooxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase (r = -0.44, P < 0.01, n = 37), and these markers were lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P < 0.05]. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher dietary niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  19. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Gano, Lindsey B.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48–77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P < 0.05; mmΔ: r = 0.25, P < 0.01]. In subjects with above-average dietary niacin intake (≥22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression revealed that dietary niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P < 0.05). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, was inversely related to niacin intake (r = −0.23, P < 0.05) and was lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Intravenous infusion of the antioxidant vitamin C improved brachial FMD in subjects with below-average niacin intake (P < 0.001, n = 33), but not above-average (P > 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = −0.30, P < 0.05, n = 55), and expression of the prooxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase (r = −0.44, P < 0.01, n = 37), and these markers were lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P < 0.05]. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher dietary niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24311750

  20. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  1. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  2. Serum bilirubin levels are lower in overweight asymptomatic middle-aged adults: an early indicator of metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Petelin, Ana; Jurdana, Mihaela; Žiberna, Lovro

    2013-07-01

    Low levels of bilirubin have recently been associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Here, we hypothesized that serum bilirubin levels might be already altered in overweight asymptomatic middle-aged individuals before full development of the metabolic syndrome. Healthy nonsmoking adults aged 25-49 (64 women and 32 men) participated in this cross-sectional study. All participants who reported stable weight within the last three months underwent standard anthropomorphological measurements of body composition, blood pressure measurements, aerobic and anaerobic capabilities assessment, dietary intake evaluation, and fasting serological measurements of total and direct bilirubin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Participants were divided into normal-weight and overweight groups. Linear correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of serum bilirubin levels with all metabolic syndrome risk factor changes. Serum bilirubin levels were lower in overweight healthy individuals of both sexes, and were negatively associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels but positively associated with aerobic body capabilities. Our findings suggest that serum bilirubin levels have the potential to be employed as an early biomarker for indicating asymptomatic individuals at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher visceral fat is associated with lower cerebral N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sonya; Birdsill, Alex C; Steward, Kayla; Pasha, Evan; Kruzliak, Peter; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2017-01-31

    Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a central distribution, consists of visceral fat, which is metabolically active and could impinge upon central nervous system functioning. The aim of the current study was to examine levels of visceral adiposity in relation to key cerebral metabolite ratios localized in the occipitoparietal grey matter. Seventy-three adults, aged between 40 and 60 years, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and single voxel (1)H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Visceral fat was assessed using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Individuals with higher visceral fat mass and volume had significantly lower ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate to total creatine (phosphocreatine + creatine, PCr + Cr) (NAA/PCr + Cr) (β = -0.29, p = 0.03, β = -0.28, p = 0.04). They also had significantly higher ratios of myo-inositol to total creatine (mI/PCr + Cr ) (β = 0.36, p = 0.01, β = 0.36, p = 0.01). Visceral fat mass and volume were not significantly related to ratios of glutamate to total creatine (Glu/PCr + Cr). While future studies are necessary, these results indicate central adiposity is associated with metabolic changes that could impinge upon the central nervous system in middle age.

  4. The Impact of a Workshop on Death and Dying on Death Anxiety, Life Satisfaction, and Locus of Control among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Curtis; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines the impact of a workshop on death and dying on death anxiety, life satisfaction, and locus of control for a group of middle-aged and older adults. Results revealed a small but significant decrease in death anxiety in the experimental group. (Author)

  5. Correlations between brain activity and components of motor learning in middle-aged adults: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Katie; Brown, Katlyn; Maletsky, Rebecca; Boyd, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning may be shown by improvements in motor performance, which occur unconsciously with practice and are typically restricted to the task that was practiced. The purpose of this study was to examine behaviorally relevant brain activation associated with change in motor behavior during sequence-specific motor learning of a perceptuomotor continuous tracking (CT) task in middle-aged adults. To gain further insight into the neural structures associated with change in motor behavior, overall improvement in tracking (root mean square error; RMSE) was decomposed into two components—temporal precision and spatial accuracy. We hypothesized that individual differences in CT task performance would be evident in unique networks of brain activation that supported overall tracking behavior as well-temporal and spatial tracking accuracy. A group of middle-aged healthy individuals performed the CT task, which contains repeated and random segments for seven days. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was collected on the first and seventh day while the participants performed the task. Subjects did not gain explicit awareness of the sequence. To assess behaviorally-relevant changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response associated with individual sequence-specific tracking performance, separate statistical images were created for each participant and weighted by the difference score between repeated and random performance for days 1 and 7. Given the similarity of performance for random and repeated sequences during early practice, there were no unique networks evident at day 1. On Day 7 the resultant group statistical fMRI image demonstrated a positive correlation between RMSE difference score and bilateral cerebellar activation (lobule VI). In addition, individuals who showed greater sequence-specific temporal precision demonstrated increased activation in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and putamen of the right hemisphere

  6. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Martins, Silvia S.; Spira, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54–99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1,351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1,201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1–6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1–5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7–7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. PMID:25437264

  7. Sources of emotional distress associated with diarrhea among late middle-age and older HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J; Lekas, Helen-Maria

    2010-09-01

    Although the experience of physical symptoms can adversely influence emotional well-being, the specific emotional reactions experienced in response to specific symptoms are not well understood. To examine the emotional impact of diarrhea among HIV+ late middle-age and older adults (i.e., age 50 years and older). In-depth interviews were conducted with 100 participants, of whom 29 had experienced diarrhea and spoke about the emotional impact it had had on them. Three principal themes emerged: 1) I don't control the diarrhea, the diarrhea controls me; 2) I feel ashamed, dirty, and tainted; and 3) I fear what the diarrhea is doing to me and what it means. Their inability to control when and where their diarrhea would occur was a great source of emotional distress for participants. Almost all feared the possibility of fecal incontinence while out in public and the humiliation it would bring. To avoid this, many greatly restricted their time outside the home or where they would go to ensure access to a restroom. Others felt shame and perpetually "dirty" even when not dealing with a bout of diarrhea. Many also worried about the effect the diarrhea would have on their health and whether it signaled progression to end-stage disease. The data strongly support the need to aggressively manage diarrhea in HIV-infected adults, as the social and emotional consequences can be profound. When it cannot be effectively controlled, physicians and social service agencies should address the isolation by providing home-based opportunities for social support and interaction. 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Pia M; Canham, Sarah L; Martins, Silvia S; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54-99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1-6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1-5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7-7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources of Emotional Distress Associated with Diarrhea Among Late Middle-Age and Older HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J.; Lekas, Helen-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Although the experience of physical symptoms can adversely influence emotional well-being, the specific emotional reactions experienced in response to specific symptoms are not well understood. The current report examines the emotional impact of diarrhea among HIV-positive late middle-age and older adults (i.e., age 50 and over). In-depth interviews were conducted with 100 participants, of whom 29 had experienced diarrhea and spoke about the emotional impact it had had on them. Three principal themes emerged: (1) I don’t control the diarrhea, the diarrhea controls me; (2) I feel ashamed, dirty and tainted; (3) I fear what the diarrhea is doing to me and what it means. Their inability to control when and where their diarrhea would occur was a great source of emotional distress for participants. Almost all feared the possibility of fecal incontinence while out in public and the humiliation it would bring. To avoid this, many greatly restricted their time outside the home or where they would go to ensure access to a restroom. Others felt shame and perpetually “dirty” even when not dealing with a bout of diarrhea. Many also worried about the effect the diarrhea would have on their health and whether it signaled progression to end-stage disease. The data strongly support the need to aggressively manage diarrhea in HIV-infected adults as the social and emotional consequences can be profound. When it cannot be effectively controlled physicians and social service agencies should address the isolation by providing home-based opportunities for social support and interaction. PMID:20579836

  10. Longitudinal Assessment of Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Exploring Disaster Impact on Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Marks, Loren D.; Galea, Sandro; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Su, L. Joseph; Welsh, David A.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. PMID:23526570

  11. The memory screening outreach program: findings from a large community-based sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Keiser, Alison M; Kunze, Culvette M

    2009-09-01

    complaints in an appreciable portion of a large, community-based, sample of middle-aged and older adults, which, in turn, contributed to the identification and treatment of a diversity of conditions at follow-up.

  12. Sleep disturbances in young and middle-aged adults - Empirical patterns and related factors from an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; AjdacicGross, Vladeta; Glozier, Nick; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Müller, Mario

    2017-07-21

    Previous research suggests that sleep disorders are highly associated with other mental health problems. However, sleep problems even below the diagnostic threshold of sleep disorders are very common in the general population, which highly affects wellbeing and functioning. In order to broaden the focus beyond those severe cases we explored empirical patterns across the whole spectrum of sleep problems as well as associated clinical and other factors. A representative community sample of N=1274 residents from the canton of Zurich was interviewed for sleep problems and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders as well as was given a number of mental health-related psychometrical checklists. Based on a broader spectrum of sleep problems we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to derive distinct classes of such disturbances. Classes were compared regarding their associations to mental health-relevant and other risk factors. The LCA revealed four classes - no sleep disturbances (72.6%), difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (15.8%), delayed sleep (5.3%), and severe sleep problems (6.4%). Severe sleep problems were related to female gender and generalized anxiety disorder, while depression was linked to all sleep problem classes. Persons with difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and severe sleep problems reported higher levels of psychopathology, burnout and neuroticism, while all sleep problem types were tied to stress-related variables, but not alcohol use disorder. Sleep problems are highly prevalent among the young and middle-aged adults in our representative sample of young and middle-aged adults and as such represent a serious public mental health problem. Our findings indicate sleep problems to have a multi-dimensional structure with some differential associations. While all subtypes were associated with poorer mental health and particularly more depression, severe sleep problems appeared to be the sleep subtype seen in agoraphobia and GAD

  13. Socio-cultural influences upon knowledge of sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study with heterosexual middle-aged adults in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Jenny; Booth, Joanne; Flowers, Paul; Hinchliff, Sharron; Lorimer, Karen

    2016-11-01

    There has been a recent global increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adults aged over 45. Limited evidence exists regarding middle-aged adults' knowledge of STIs other than HIV. This qualitative study sought to understand middle-aged adults' knowledge of STIs within a socio-cultural context. Individual interviews, based on a life-course approach, were conducted with 31 recently sexually active heterosexual men and women. Participants were aged between 45 and 65 and of mixed relationship status (14 were single, 17 in a relationship). Thematic analysis identified four key findings, including: "engagement with STI-related knowledge"; "general knowledge of STIs"; "learning about STIs from children"; and "limited application of knowledge". The findings allow insight into a neglected area, and indicate that socio-cultural factors influence middle-aged adults' STI-related knowledge acquisition throughout the life course. These are important implications for the prevention of STIs, particularly in addressing the on-going stigmatisation of STIs in older age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  15. Bidirectional Interference between Speech and Nonspeech Tasks in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Dallin J.; Dromey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine divided attention over a large age range by looking at the effects of 3 nonspeech tasks on concurrent speech motor performance. The nonspeech tasks were designed to facilitate measurement of bidirectional interference, allowing examination of their sensitivity to speech activity. A cross-sectional…

  16. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  17. Bidirectional Interference between Speech and Nonspeech Tasks in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Dallin J.; Dromey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine divided attention over a large age range by looking at the effects of 3 nonspeech tasks on concurrent speech motor performance. The nonspeech tasks were designed to facilitate measurement of bidirectional interference, allowing examination of their sensitivity to speech activity. A cross-sectional…

  18. Intima Media Thickness and Cognitive Function in Stroke-Free Middle-Aged Adults: Findings from the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hazzouri, Adina Zeki; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sidney, Stephen; Reis, Jared P.; Jacobs, David R.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The relationship between carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and cognitive function in midlife remains relatively unexplored. We examined the association between IMT and cognitive function in a middle-aged epidemiologic cohort of 2,747 stroke-free participants. Methods At the Year 20 visit (our study baseline), participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study had IMT measured by ultrasound at the common carotid artery. Five years later, participants completed a cognitive battery consisting of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test of verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test of processing speed, and the Stroop test of executive function. We transformed cognitive scores into standardized z-scores, with negative values indicating worse performance. Results Mean age at baseline was 45.3 years (SD=3.6). Greater IMT (per 1SD difference of 0.12mm) was significantly associated with worse performance on all cognitive tests (z-scores) in unadjusted linear regression models (Verbal Memory=−0.16, 95%CI=−0.20 to −0.13; Processing Speed=−0.23, 95%CI=−0.27 to −0.19; and Executive Function=−0.17, 95%CI= −0.20 to −0.13). In models adjusted for socio-demographics and vascular risk factors that lie earlier in the causal pathway, greater IMT remained negatively associated with processing speed (−0.06,95%CI=−0.09 to −0.02; p=0.003) and borderline associated with executive function (−0.03, 95%CI=−0.07 to 0.00; p=0.07) but not with verbal memory. Conclusions We observed an association between greater IMT and worse processing speed – a key component of cognitive functioning- at middle-age above and beyond traditional vascular risk factors. Efforts targeted at preventing early stages of atherosclerosis may modify the course of cognitive aging. PMID:26106116

  19. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P < .01) and lower regional glucose metabolism across large portions of the frontal, lateral parietal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal lobes (P < .05, familywise error corrected). The association was especially robust in the left medial temporal lobe (R2 = 0.178). Lower glucose metabolism in the left medial temporal lobe predicted by HOMA-IR was significantly related

  20. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor κ B signalling.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Kristen L; Donato, Anthony J; Fleenor, Bradley S; Nowlan, Molly J; Walker, Ashley E; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Ballak, Dov B; Seals, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NFκB) may mediate this process. aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n = 10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n = 9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n = 12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P < 0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P < 0.005). Short-term (4 days  x  2500-4500 mg) treatment with the NFκB inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P < 0.05) without changing BP (P = 0.40) or heart rate (P = 0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P = 0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = -0.60, P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NFκB signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  3. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  4. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  5. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    PubMed

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  6. Exercise Fails to Improve Neurocognition in Depressed Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Benson M.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Smith, Patrick J.; Rogers, Sharon D.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Sherwood, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between higher levels of aerobic fitness and improved neurocognitive function, there have been relatively few interventional studies investigating this relationship, and results have been inconsistent. We assessed the effects of aerobic exercise on neurocognitive function in a randomized controlled trial of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Two-hundred and two sedentary men (n = 49) and women (n = 153), aged 40 yr and over and who met diagnostic criteria for MDD, were randomly assigned to the following: a) supervised exercise, b) home-based exercise, c) sertraline, or d) placebo pill. Before and after 4 months of treatment, participants completed measures of: Executive Function (Trail Making Test B-A difference score, Stroop Color/Word, Ruff 2 & 7 Test, Digit Symbol), Verbal Memory (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates), and Verbal Fluency/Working Memory (Animal Naming, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Digit Span). Multivariate analyses of covariance were performed to test the effects of treatment on posttreatment neuropsychological test scores, with baseline neuropsychological test scores, age, education, and change in depression scores entered as covariates. Results The performance of exercise participants was no better than participants receiving placebo across all neuropsychological tests. Exercise participants performed better than participants receiving sertraline on tests of executive function but not on tests of verbal memory or verbal fluency/working memory. Conclusions We found little evidence to support the benefits of an aerobic exercise intervention on neurocognitive performance in patients with MDD. PMID:18580416

  7. Self-assessed hearing abilities in middle- and older-age adults: A stratified sampling approach

    PubMed Central

    Noble, William; Naylor, Graham; Bhullar, Navjot; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective For evaluation of audiological service outcomes, the primary objective was to determine baseline and target profiles on the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale (SSQ); a secondary objective was to test a short form of the SSQ; opportunity was also taken to compare responses of samples providing consistent versus inconsistent self-assessments. Design 2×2×2 factorial design crossed age, reported presence versus absence of hearing difficulty, and low versus high self-rated hearing ability. Study Sample Eight samples (total n=413), representing two age ranges; a response of “yes” or “no” to a question about having hearing difficulty, and either low or high self-rated hearing ability on six items from the SSQ. Results Using present and previous results, baseline SSQ profiles were determined indicating the pattern of response likely to be observed prior to clinical intervention, and both an achieved outcome and “ideal” target outcome from such intervention. The six-item SSQ yielded better test-retest results in consistent versus inconsistent samples. The inconsistent samples showed signs of different interpretations of “hearing difficulty”. Conclusions Baseline and both actual and ideal target outcomes can guide comparative appraisal of clinical achievements; more research is needed to determine a robust short form of the SSQ. PMID:22115161

  8. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cumulative systolic blood pressure exposure in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly adults: A prospective, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling

    2016-11-01

    The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP exposure and cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly adults.The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006-2007) up to the fourth examination (2012-2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function.Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, aged 40-94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative exposure to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults aged ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults aged 40 to 60 years.Greater exposure to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-aged and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults.

  10. The Relationship between Social Support and Diet Quality in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Renee; Rigassio Radler, Diane; Guenther, Patricia M; Brewster, Philip J; Marcus, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Social support has been associated with physical and mental health; however, the relationship between social support and diet quality is not well understood. The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship between social support and overall diet quality among US adults. This study was a secondary analysis of data from adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the cross-sectional 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=3,243). Social support was determined by a modification of the Rees Social Support Index (SSI), which is the sum of five dichotomized variables addressing emotional support, financial support, marital status, close friends, and religious service attendance. Overall diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and calculated from the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls. SAS survey procedures were used to incorporate the appropriate sample design weights. Unweighted frequencies are reported along with weighted means and standard errors (SE). Multivariable linear regression was used to compare the total HEI-2010 scores among the six SSI groups with additional models controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, income level, and education level, and stratifying by sex. In an unadjusted model, the mean total HEI-2010 score for those with an SSI score of 0 (n=37) was 50.0 (SE=2.83) compared to 57.1 (SE=0.89) for those with SSI score of 5 (n=676) (P<0.0001). The results were no longer statistically significant when adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level (P=0.14). However, when stratified by sex and adjusted for other demographics, higher SSI scores were associated with higher HEI-2010 scores compared to lower SSI scores in men (P=0.02), but there was no significant difference among SSI scores and HEI-2010 scores in women (P=0.43). This study suggests a positive relationship between social support and overall diet quality among middle-aged and older men, but not women

  11. Frontal Gray Matter Atrophy in Middle Aged Adults with Type 1 Diabetes is Independent of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Nunley, Karen; Gianaros, Peter J.; Miller, Rachel; Costacou, Tina; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Rosano, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if regional gray matter volume (GMV) differences in middle-aged adults with and without type-1 diabetes (T1D) are localized in areas most vulnerable to aging, e.g. fronto-subcortical networks; and if these differences are explained by cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications. Methods Regional GMV was computed using 3 Tesla MRI of 104 adults with a childhood onset of T1D (mean age: 49+7 and duration: 41±6 years) and 151 adults without diabetes (mean age: 40+6). A Bonferroni threshold (n=45, p≤0.001) was applied to account for multiple between-group comparisons and analyses were repeated in an age- and gender-matched subset of participants with T1D and controls (n=44 in each group, mean age [SD] and range: 44.0, [4.3], 17.4 and 44.6 [4.3], 17.0, respectively). Results Compared to controls, T1D patients had smaller GMV in the frontal lobe (6 to 19% smaller) and adjacent supramarginal and postcentral gyri (8 to 13% smaller). Between-group differences were independent of age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting total cholesterol and smoking status and were similar in sensitivity analyses restricted to age- and gender-matched participants. Associations between GMV and diabetes complications were not significant. Conclusions These findings extend the notion of accelerated brain aging in T1D to middle-aged adults. The pathophysiology of frontal gray matter atrophy and its impact on future development of disability and dementia need further study, especially as middle-aged T1D patients progress to older age. PMID:23994432

  12. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson A.; Lima, Daniela A.; Vieira, Gabriella F.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Pereira, Danielle A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training) effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR) and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age) × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002). There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking. PMID:26647751

  13. Sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk among older adults from six middle-income countries: findings from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Gildner, Theresa E; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Josh Snodgrass, J

    2014-01-01

    Changes in sleep patterns often occur in older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends in lower-income countries. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to examine these relationships. Two hypotheses related to obesity risk and sleep patterns were tested using data from the first wave of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). This longitudinal study draws on samples of older adults (>50 years old) in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa). Self-report data were used to measure sleep duration, sleep quality, lifestyle and sociodemographic information, while anthropometric measurements were collected to assess body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and obesity risk while controlling for lifestyle factors. Shorter sleep durations in both men and women were significantly associated with higher BMI and WC measures (P < 0.05). Low sleep quality did not significantly contribute to increased obesity risk. Surprisingly, high sleep quality was significantly associated with increased male BMI and WC in China and India (P < 0.01). This study documented an association between short sleep duration and increased obesity risk, which is important given the global increase of obesity-related diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Unhealthy eating behaviors and weight gain: A prospective study in young and middle-age adults.

    PubMed

    León-Muñoz, Luz M; García-Esquinas, Esther; Soler-Vila, Hosanna; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for obesity prevention recommend reducing certain unhealthy eating behaviors (UEB). However, the association between UEB and weight gain is uncertain. Prospective cohort with 1,638 individuals aged 18-60 years was recruited in 2008-2010. UEB assessed at baseline were: not planning how much to eat, consuming pre-cooked/canned food, buying snacks, eating in fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-calorie foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV or seating on a sofa. Participants were followed up through 2012 to assess weight change. Compared to reporting 0-2 UEB, the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg were 0.97 (0.74-1.28) for 3-4 UEB and 1.61 (1.09-2.39) for ≥5 UEB, P-trend = 0.07. Results were similar for gaining ≥5 kg. The three UEB with the strongest associations with weight gain were: 1) not planning the amount of food to eat, 2) eating at fast-food restaurants, and 3) eating while watching TV; compared to having none of these three behaviors, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg was 1.54 (0.77-3.08) for 1 UEB, 1.70 (0.85-3.37) for 2 UEB, and 2.75 (1.28-5.90) for 3 UEB, P-trend = 0.007. Similar results were obtained for gaining ≥5 kg. Several UEB are associated with weight gain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Built Environment and Changes in Blood Pressure in Middle Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined interaction effects between person and environment, especially for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to examine built environment characteristics and resident health behaviors as they relate to change in blood pressure, an important component of CVD. Methods Participants (N=1,145, aged 50–75 at baseline) were recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed changes in participants’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008). Independent variables included baseline neighborhood-level measures of GIS-constructed neighborhood walkability and density of fast-food restaurants, and resident-level measures of meeting physical activity recommendations and eating fruits and vegetables. Results There was a small but significant resident-level increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001) over the 1-year observation period. A similar trend was also observed at the neighborhood level (P<0.001). Significant differences in change in blood pressure, by neighborhood walkability, were observed, with decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure for those living in high walkable neighborhoods (P<0.001). Neighborhoods of low walkability but with a high density of fast-food outlets and residents making visits to fast-food restaurants were significantly associated with increases in blood pressure measures over time. The negative effect of fast-food restaurants on blood pressure was diminished among high-walkable neighborhoods, with benefits observed among residents meeting guidelines for physical activity and eating fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Neighborhoods with high walkability may ameliorate the risk of hypertension at the community level and promotion of neighborhood walkability could play a significant role in improving population health and reducing CVD risk. PMID:19297686

  16. Built environment and changes in blood pressure in middle aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have examined interaction effects between person and environment, especially for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to examine built environment characteristics and resident health behaviors as they relate to change in blood pressure, an important component of CVD. Participants (N=1145, aged 50-75 at baseline) were recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed changes in participants' systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 1-year follow-up (2006-2007 to 2007-2008). Independent variables included baseline neighborhood-level measures of GIS-constructed neighborhood walkability and density of fast-food restaurants, and resident-level measures of meeting physical activity recommendations and eating fruits and vegetables. There was a small but significant resident-level increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001) over the 1-year observation period. A similar trend was also observed at the neighborhood level (P<0.001). Significant differences in change in blood pressure, by neighborhood walkability, were observed, with decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure for those living in high walkable neighborhoods (P<0.001). Neighborhoods of low walkability but with a high density of fast-food outlets and residents making visits to fast-food restaurants were significantly associated with increases in blood pressure measures over time. The negative effect of fast-food restaurants on blood pressure was diminished among high-walkable neighborhoods, with benefits observed among residents meeting guidelines for physical activity and eating fruits and vegetables. Neighborhoods with high walkability may ameliorate the risk of hypertension at the community level and promotion of neighborhood walkability could play a significant role in improving population health and reducing CVD risk.

  17. Obesity and exercise-induced ectopic ventricular arrhythmias in apparently healthy middle aged adults.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Avi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Beinart, Roy; Glikson, Michael; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited data on the association between excess weight and the risk of ectopic ventricular activity. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk for ectopic ventricular activity (defined as multiple ventricular premature beats (≥3), ventricular bigeminy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia) during exercise stress testing among 22,516 apparently healthy men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between the years 2000 and 2014. All subjects had completed maximal exercise stress testing annually according to the Bruce protocol. Subjects were divided at baseline into three groups: normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and<25; N = 9,994), overweight (BMI ≥ 25 and < 30; N = 9,613) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; N = 2,906). The mean age of study subjects was 47 ± 10 years and 72% were men. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the cumulative probability for the development of exercise-induced ectopic ventricular activity arrhythmias was highest among obese subjects, intermediate among overweight subjects and lowest among subjects with normal weight (3.4%, 2.7% and 2.2% respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression with repeated measures of 92,619 ESTs, showed that obese subjects were 33% more likely to have ectopic ventricular arrhythmias during exercise compared with subjects with normal weight (p = 0.005), and that each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a significant 4% (p = 0.002) increased adjusted risk for exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Obesity is independently associated with increased likelihood of ectopic ventricular arrhythmia during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  18. Intima-Media Thickness and Cognitive Function in Stroke-Free Middle-Aged Adults: Findings From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sidney, Stephen; Reis, Jared P; Jacobs, David R; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and cognitive function in midlife remains relatively unexplored. We examined the association between IMT and cognitive function in a middle-aged epidemiological cohort of 2618 stroke-free participants. At the year 20 visit (our study baseline), participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study had IMT measured by ultrasound at the common carotid artery. Five years later, participants completed a cognitive battery consisting of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test of verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test of processing speed, and the Stroop test of executive function. We transformed cognitive scores into standardized z scores, with negative values indicating worse performance. Mean age at baseline was 45.3 years (SD, 3.6). Greater IMT (per 1 SD difference of 0.12 mm) was significantly associated with worse performance on all cognitive tests (z scores) in unadjusted linear regression models (verbal memory, -0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.20 to -0.13; processing speed, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.19; and executive function, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.13). In models adjusted for sociodemographics and vascular risk factors that lie earlier in the causal pathway, greater IMT remained negatively associated with processing speed (-0.06; 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.02; P, 0.003) and borderline associated with executive function (-0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.00; P, 0.07) but not with verbal memory. We observed an association between greater IMT and worse processing speed-a key component of cognitive functioning-at middle age above and beyond traditional vascular risk factors. Efforts targeted at preventing early stages of atherosclerosis may modify the course of cognitive aging. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. A Prospective Study of Stressful Events, Coping Motives for Drinking, and Alcohol Use Among Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study investigated moderator variable models of the interrelationships among stressful events, coping motives for drinking, and current alcohol use on subsequent alcohol use across a 5-year window with middle-aged adults. Method: Data from women (n = 716; Mage = 55.29 years at baseline) and men (n = 505; Mage = 57.57 years at baseline) were used to examine theory-guided hypotheses that current levels of alcohol use would interact with stressful events and coping motives for drinking to predict higher levels of alcohol use across time. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Results: After we controlled for several potentially important covariates (i.e., age, educational level, family income, and marital status), prospective regression analyses supported moderator effects for current alcohol use and stressful events as predictors of changes in alcohol use, and a somewhat weaker consistency of moderator effects for current alcohol use and coping motives for drinking as predictors of changes in alcohol use. For example, higher levels of baseline alcohol involvement in conjunction with higher levels of stress predicted higher levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems 5 years later. Similarly, higher levels of coping motives and higher levels of heavy episodic drinking predicted higher levels of heavy episodic drinking among women 5 years later. Conclusions: The findings were discussed from an alcohol–stress vulnerability model of affect regulation and a positive regulatory feedback loop perspective wherein conditional relationships among baseline alcohol use indicators, stressful events, and coping drinking motives predicted greater alcohol involvement, especially problematic use, across time. PMID:25978834

  20. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This information can be useful from a public

  1. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (p<0.005). Low sodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP

  2. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  3. The mediating effects of lifestyle factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-rated health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships between SES and self-rated health. This study further tested whether the effects of SES and lifestyle factors differ as people age. The findings indicate that higher levels of income and education as well as not being in poverty predicted better self-rated health. Meanwhile, engaging in regular exercise and being underweight significantly mediated the relationship between education and self-rated health as well as between poverty and self-rated health. Finally, poverty and regular exercise had a greater impact on self-rated health in old age than in middle age. Implications for enhancing antipoverty policies and exercise programs are discussed.

  4. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture...

  6. History of knee injury and MRI-assessed knee structures in middle- and older-aged adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussain Ijaz; Aitken, Dawn; Blizzard, Leigh; Ding, Changhai; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Johanne Martel; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the associations between history of knee injury and knee structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included two population-based samples: the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) study (n = 430; mean age, 63.0 years; range, 51-79 years; 51 % female) and the Offspring study (n = 372; mean age, 45.0 years; range, 26-61 years; 57.5 % female). In both studies, 1.5 T MRI scans of the right knee were performed to measure bone marrow lesions (BMLs), cartilage volume, tibial bone area, cartilage defects and meniscal pathology. History of knee injury was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The association between knee injury and knee structure was determined using multiple linear and log binomial regression models. Nineteen percent of the middle-aged and 12 % of the older adults reported a history of knee injury. In middle-aged adults, BML presence (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.6 (95 % CI, 1.2; 2.1)), tibial bone area (difference of means (DM) = +86 (+23, +149)) and meniscal extrusion presence (PR = 2.7 (1.1, 6.8)) were significantly higher in those with knee injury. In older adults, cartilage defect presence (PR = 1.3 (1.0, 1.7)), lateral (DM = -265 (-439, -92)) and total tibial (DM = -325 (-600, -51)) cartilage volume, BML presence (PR = 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)) and tibial bone area (DM = +140 (+19, +260)) were significantly associated with knee injury. Meniscal tears showed no significant associations in either cohorts. The association between knee injury and MRI-assessed structural pathology in the knee joint is moderate and appears to be stronger in older adults compared to middle-aged adults.

  7. Chemokines influence the migration and fate of neural precursor cells from the young adult and middle-aged rat subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R J; Mehrabi, N F; Maucksch, C; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a role for the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α in directing subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cell migration towards the site of cell death in the adult rodent brain. However the influence of chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on the differentiation of adult neural precursor cells has not previously been investigated. Further, as the majority of neurological disorders and injuries occur during ageing, it is important to investigate the effect of chemokines on adult neural precursor cell cultures obtained from the ageing brain. This study therefore examined the effect of MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on SVZ-derived neural precursor cell differentiation in vitro, and assessed whether precursor cells from the middle-aged rat brain (13 months old) follow the same migratory and differential profile as neural precursor cells obtained from the young adult rat brain (2 months old). We observed that each of the chemokines examined generated differing effects in regards to neuronal or glial differentiation. Further, both MIP-1α and GRO-α increased total cell number, suggesting an effect on precursor cell proliferation and/or survival. In agreement with cultures obtained from young adult brains, SVZ-derived neural precursor cells cultured from the middle-aged brain exhibited chemotactic migration in response to a concentration gradient. These results indicate that the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α can influence both the migration and fate choice of SVZ-derived neural precursor cells, as well as promoting cell viability. While a response to each of these chemokines is maintained in the middle-aged brain, a distinct age-related alteration in differential fate can be identified.

  8. Combined strength and endurance training improves health-related quality of life in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, E; Häkkinen, K; Holviala, J; Häkkinen, A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 21 weeks of strength and/or endurance training on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in 39-77 year-old healthy subjects. 108 men and 96 women were randomized into endurance, strength, or combined training groups and controls. Strength-group performed high-intensity strength training while endurance-group performed cycle training. Combined-group completed both training protocols. Leg extension strength and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. HRQoL was assessed with a Finnish version of SF-36 questionnaire. A significant training-induced difference was observed between groups (p=0.038) in the vitality dimension of HRQoL, which was characterized by a 6.6 ± 1.5 unit increase in the combined group and no change in the other groups. Both endurance and combined training showed small improvements in certain dimensions of HRQoL. Dimensions of general (4.6 ± 1.9) and mental health (3.9 ± 1.4) improved in combined-group while general health (4.4 ± 2.0), bodily pain (5.5 ± 2.5) and role physical (6.0 ± 2.4) improved in endurance-group. Strength-group experienced increased pain ( -5.4 ± 1.8) during the experimental period. However, increased perception of pain was not observed during combined training. According to the present results both endurance and especially combined training may have potential to promote or maintain certain dimensions of HRQoL even in middle-aged and older adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Self-reported taste preference can be a proxy for daily sodium intake in middle-aged Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishii, Yuri; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Reducing dietary salt intake remains a challenging issue in the management of chronic disease. Taste preference is suspected to be an important proxy index of daily sodium consumption. This study examined the difference in daily sodium intake according to self-reported taste preference for miso soup as representative of homemade cooking in middle-aged urban Japanese adults. Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 143 men and women participated in this cross-sectional study. During the period from May 2007 through April 2008, participants provided a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on taste preference and dietary behaviors, a weighed food record over 4 consecutive days, a simultaneous 24-hour urine collection, and a sample of miso soup as it is usually prepared in the home. Mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and daily sodium intake were compared according to the self-reported taste preference for miso soup. Taste preference was significantly associated with both 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (trend P<0.01) and daily sodium intake (trend P=0.01), with a corresponding regression coefficient per 1 rank preference increment of 403 mg and 315 mg/day, respectively. The observed association between preference and urinary excretion was attenuated by further adjustment for discretionary salt-related behaviors. These findings suggest that self-reported taste preference for homemade cooking is a defining feature of daily sodium intake through discretionary salt-related dietary behaviors. A reduction in daily sodium consumption per 1 rank light preference was estimated to equate to approximately 1 g salt/day. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  11. Effects of Resistance Training on Lower-Extremity Muscle Power in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Straight, Chad R; Lindheimer, Jacob B; Brady, Anne O; Dishman, Rodney K; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-03-01

    Resistance training (RT) has been investigated as a potential intervention strategy for improving muscle function, but the effects on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a quantitative estimate of the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults and to examine independent moderators of this relationship. Randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of RT on either leg press (LP) or knee extension (KE) muscle power in adults aged ≥50 years were included. Data were aggregated with meta-analytic techniques, and multi-level modeling was used to adjust for nesting effects. A total of 52 effects from 12 randomized controlled trials were analyzed with a random-effects model to estimate the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power. A multiple-regression analysis was conducted to examine independent moderators of the mean effect. The adjusted aggregated results from all studies indicate that RT has a small-to-moderate effect on lower-extremity muscle power (Hedges' d = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.43), which translated to 54.90 watts (95 % CI 40.37-69.43). Meta-regression analyses indicated that high-velocity RT was superior to traditional RT (Δ = 0.62 vs. 0.20, respectively) for increasing lower-extremity muscle power. In addition, training volume significantly moderated the effect of RT on muscle power. The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that RT is an efficacious intervention strategy for improving LP and KE muscle power in adults aged ≥50 years. Training mode and volume independently moderate the effect of RT on lower-extremity muscle power, and should be considered when prescribing RT exercise for middle-aged and older adults.

  12. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  13. A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif

    2015-09-28

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMI<25 kg/m² at the baseline. In conclusion, these findings suggest that preventive actions to counteract malnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M

    2017-02-08

    Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black

  15. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Angela K; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50-79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional.

  16. Relations of Arterial Stiffness With Postural Change in Mean Arterial Pressure in Middle-Aged Adults: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Torjesen, Alyssa; Cooper, Leroy L; Rong, Jian; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F

    2017-04-01

    Impaired regulation of blood pressure on standing can lead to adverse outcomes, including falls, syncope, and disorientation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) typically increases on standing; however, an insufficient increase or a decline in MAP on standing may result in decreased cerebral perfusion. Orthostatic hypotension has been reported in older people with increased arterial stiffness, whereas the association between orthostatic change in MAP and arterial stiffness in young- to middle-aged individuals has not been examined. We analyzed orthostatic blood pressure response and comprehensive hemodynamic data in 3205 participants (1693 [53%] women) in the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort. Participants were predominantly middle aged (mean age: 46±9 years). Arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, forward pressure wave amplitude, and characteristic impedance of the aorta. Adjusting for standard cardiovascular disease risk factors, orthostatic change in MAP (6.9±7.7 mm Hg) was inversely associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (partial correlation, rp=-0.084; P<0.0001), forward wave amplitude (rp=-0.129; P<0.0001), and characteristic impedance (rp=-0.094; P<0.0001). The negative relation between forward wave amplitude and change in MAP on standing was accentuated in women (P=0.002 for sex interaction). Thus, higher aortic stiffness was associated with a blunted orthostatic increase in MAP, even in middle age. The clinical implications of these findings warrant further study. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The Middle Ages: Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a four-volume reference set for elementary and middle school students called "The Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia for Students" edited by William Chester Jordan. Provides a sample lesson which includes library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for…

  18. Medication adherence and persistence over time with self-administered TNF-alpha inhibitors among young adult, middle-aged, and older patients with rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Calip, Gregory S; Adimadhyam, Sruthi; Xing, Shan; Rincon, Julian C; Lee, Wan-Ju; Anguiano, Rebekah H

    2017-03-21

    Self-injectable TNF inhibitors are increasingly used early in the chronic treatment of moderate to severe rheumatologic conditions. We estimated medication adherence/persistence over time following initiation in young adult and older adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18+ years newly initiating etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, or golimumab using the Truven Health MarketScan Database between 2009 and 2013. Pharmacy dispensing data were used to calculate 12-month medication possession ratios (MPR) and determine adherence (MPR ≥ 0.80) for up to 3 years after starting therapy. Persistence over each 12-month interval was defined as not having a ≥92-day treatment gap. Multivariable generalized estimating equation models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and robust 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between patient characteristics and repeated adherence/persistence measures over time. Among 53,477 new users, 14% were young adults (18-34 years), 49% middle-aged (35-54 years), and 37% older adults (55+ years). Overall, 37% of patients were adherent and 83% were persistent in the first year of therapy. The lowest adherence (17%) and persistence (70%) were observed among young adult patients by Year +3. Compared to older adults, middle-aged (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.71-0.76) and young adults (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.47-0.53) were less likely to be adherent. Higher Charlson comorbidity scores, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits were associated with non-adherence/non-persistence. We observed low adherence to self-administered TNF inhibitors but most patients remained persistent over time. Further efforts to improve adherence in young adults and patients with greater comorbidity are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of zinc supplementation on vitamin status of middle-aged and older European adults: the ZENITH study.

    PubMed

    Intorre, F; Polito, A; Andriollo-Sanchez, M; Azzini, E; Raguzzini, A; Toti, E; Zaccaria, M; Catasta, G; Meunier, N; Ducros, V; O'Connor, J M; Coudray, C; Roussel, A M; Maiani, G

    2008-10-01

    To assess the effects of zinc supplementation on vitamin status in middle-aged and older volunteers. Three hundred and eighty-seven healthy middle-aged (55-70 years) and older (70-85 years) men and women, randomly allocated to three groups to receive 15 or 30 mg Zn/day or placebo for 6 months. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a validated 4-day recall record. Fasting blood samples were simultaneously analysed for levels of plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol by high-performance liquid chromatography. Erythrocyte folates were measured by a competitive immunoassay with direct chemiluminescence detection on an automatized immunoanalyser. Biochemical measurements were performed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of zinc supplementation. Plasma vitamin A levels were significantly increased proportionally with zinc dose and period of treatment, particularly at 6 months (for 15 mg Zn/day, P<0.05; for 30 mg Zn/day, P<0.0001); no significant changes were observed in the placebo group. There was no effect of zinc supplementation on vitamin E/cholesterol ratio and erythrocyte folates. Our results show that a long-term zinc supplementation increases plasma vitamin A levels in middle-aged and older people of similar characteristics to those involved in this study. Moreover, supplementation influences serum zinc levels but does not affect erythrocyte zinc concentration and both plasma vitamin E and erythrocyte folate status.

  20. Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J.; English, Kirk L.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with increasing age. We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged adults, an understudied age demographic with few overt signs of muscle aging that is representative of astronauts who perform long-duration spaceflight. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of healthy middle-aged adults [n = 7 (4 male, 3 female); age: 51 ± 1 yr] before (Pre-BR) and after (Post-BR) 14 days of bed rest. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell and myonuclear content, and capillary density. Peak oxygen consumption, knee extensor strength, and body composition were also measured Pre-BR and Post-BR. Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (−24 ± 5%; P < 0.05). Satellite cell content was also reduced Post-BR (−39 ± 9%; P < 0.05), and the change in satellite cell content was significantly correlated with the change in mean fiber CSA (r2 = 0.60; P < 0.05). A decline in capillary density was observed Post-BR (−23 ± 6%; P < 0.05), and Post-BR capillary content was significantly associated with Post-BR peak aerobic capacity (r2 = 0.59; P < 0.05). A subtle decline in myonuclear content occurred during bed rest (−5 ± 1%; P < 0.05). The rapid maladaptation of skeletal muscle to 14 days of mechanical unloading in middle-aged adults emphasizes the need for robust countermeasures to preserve muscle function in astronauts. PMID:26796754

  1. Self-care difficulties and reliance on support among vulnerable middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Bergeron, Caroline D; Riggle, Seth D; Meng, Lu; Towne, Samuel D; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-10-01

    Chronic conditions are pervasive among middle-aged and older adults. This study identified: (1) factors associated with participants reporting difficulties self-managing their chronic condition(s); and (2) factors associated with participants' reliance on external sources for ongoing help and support to improve their health and manage their health conditions. Cross-sectional data were collected using the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of adults aged 45 years and older with at least one chronic condition. Self-care difficulties among middle-aged and older adults with one or more chronic conditions and factors associated with reliance on ongoing help and support were examined. Among 731 middle-aged and older adults with one or more chronic conditions, 31% of participants reported their health condition(s) made it difficult for them to care for themselves. Participants who were Hispanic (OR=3.08, P=0.009), had three or more chronic conditions (OR=3.05, P <0.001), took more medications daily (OR=1.07, P=0.046), and experienced certain healthcare-related frustrations (P≤0.023) were more likely to report difficulties self-managing their chronic condition(s). Participants relied on healthcare providers (40%), friends/relatives (20%), internet (9%), people with similar problems (6%), and community groups (3%) for help and support. Reliance on sources of support varied with participants' sociodemographic factors as well as healthcare and medication use. Simultaneously considering patients' disease profiles, patient characteristics, difficulties managing their chronic conditions at home, and interactions with the healthcare system can inform tailored approaches and strategies to enhance patient education and resource identification, and can support service linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does age matter? A mixed methods study examining determinants of good recovery and resilience in young and middle-aged adults following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Caroline; Gosselin, Nadia; Levert, Marie-Josée; Gauvin-Lepage, Jérôme; Michallet, Bernard; Lefebvre, Hélène

    2017-07-05

    To examine whether age contributes to functional recovery and resilience after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. The ability to recover may change across the lifespan, but the influence of age on brain injury outcome is understudied. Mixed methods study. All adults of working age (18-64 years) discharged from a level I trauma centre between 2010-2013 after sustaining a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury were considered. Functional recovery was assessed during a telephone interview with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 12-36 months postinjury. A subgroup completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and a face-to-face interview about resilience. Ninety-seven young (mean age: 27 years; 75% male) and 47 middle-aged brain trauma survivors (mean age: 53 years; 75% male) completed the telephone interview. Eight young and five middle-aged adults were also assessed for resilience. Overall, young participants experienced more severe head injuries. Yet, they achieved slightly higher levels of functional recovery compared with middle-aged ones as per the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Controlling for CT scan findings and posttraumatic amnesia duration, age was not found to be associated to functional recovery in adults of working age. Although both groups showed similar levels of resilience, young participants discussed the challenges related to "having more time on their hands" and "being a changed person", two elements perceived positively by middle-aged ones. While age does not appear to interfere with functional recovery in adults of working age, younger brain trauma survivors could benefit from nursing interventions to strengthen their resilience process related to re-employment orientation and identity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  4. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  5. Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles are presented that focus on the family, sexuality, and developmental issues of young and middle aged adults. The "Articles" section includes: (1) "A Role/Career Development Model of Adult Development" (David Payne); (2) "Counseling the Middle-Aged: Misinformation, Myths and Implications for Counseling" (John D. Keshock); (3)…

  6. Emergence of mild cognitive impairment in late middle-aged adults in the wisconsin registry for Alzheimer's prevention.

    PubMed

    Koscik, Rebecca L; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin M; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Johnson, Sterling C; Bendlin, Barbara B; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to reliably detect the earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. Our aim was to compare 3 psychometric methods of identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a middle-aged longitudinal cohort enriched for AD risk. Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participants with 3 waves of cognitive assessment over approximately 6 years were coded as meeting each of 3 psychometric aMCI definitions: (a) 'aMCI standard-baseline' used published norms to establish cutoffs for baseline performance; (b) 'aMCI robust-baseline' applied WRAP-specific robust norms to baseline, and (c) 'aMCI robust-multiwave' applied these robust norms across 3 waves of assessment. Each group was compared to a cognitively healthy subset. Half the aMCI standard-baseline and one third of the aMCI robust-baseline group reverted to normal ranges at follow-up. Only the aMCI robust-multiwave method had an aMCI × age interaction showing significantly worse age-related memory declines in the aMCI group compared to the cognitively healthy group over 6 years of follow-up. Both cross-sectional methods showed instability over time, with many reverting to normal performance after baseline. The multiwave approach identified a group who showed progressive memory declines over 3 visits. Being able to detect progressive decline in late middle age is a critical step in improving prevention efforts.

  7. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Monma, Takafumi; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period. This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50-59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities ('hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports') and four social activities ('community events', 'support for children', 'support for elderly individuals' and 'other social activities') at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities ('by oneself', 'with others', or 'both' (both 'by oneself' and 'with others')) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up. Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both 'hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports' were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted 'with others'. In women, the effects of 'hobbies or cultural activities' on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of 'exercise or sports' was same as that in men. Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if others are present. These findings should be useful for preventing the deterioration of mental health

  9. The psychological distance of memories: Examining causal relations with mood and self-esteem in young, middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    Three studies examined the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory (measured with subjective temporal distance of memories). Participants recalled a memory of an attained and a failed goal and rated the subjective distance between each memory and the present. Study 1 showed that young adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to memories of attained goals and farther from failure memories than those with lower self-esteem. In Study 2, young, middle-aged and older adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to success memories, whereas self-esteem was unrelated to the temporal distance of failure memories. In both studies, feeling closer to success memories (and far from failure) led to enhanced mood. In Study 3, state self-esteem was experimentally manipulated. The manipulation had no effect on young and older adults, but middle-aged adults whose self-esteem was decreased, felt closer to success memories than failure memories. Results are discussed in relation to the temporal self-appraisal theory.

  10. Carotid β-stiffness index is associated with slower processing speed but not working memory or white matter integrity in healthy middle-aged/older adults.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Lyndsey E; Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Kent, James D; Dubishar, Kaitlyn M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi; Sigurdsson, Gardar; Schmid, Phillip; Barlow, Patrick B; Pierce, Gary L

    2017-04-01

    Aging is associated with increased carotid artery stiffness, a predictor of incident stroke, and reduced cognitive performance and brain white matter integrity (WMI) in humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that higher carotid stiffness/lower compliance would be independently associated with slower processing speed, higher working memory cost, and lower WMI in healthy middle-aged/older (MA/O) adults. Carotid β-stiffness (P < 0.001) was greater and compliance (P < 0.001) was lower in MA/O (n = 32; 64.4 ± 4.3 yr) vs. young (n = 19; 23.8 ± 2.9 yr) adults. MA/O adults demonstrated slower processing speed (27.4 ± 4.6 vs. 35.4 ± 5.0 U/60 s, P < 0.001) and higher working memory cost (-15.4 ± 0.14 vs. -2.2 ± 0.05%, P < 0.001) vs. young adults. Global WMI was lower in MA/O adults (P < 0.001) and regionally in the frontal lobe (P = 0.020) and genu (P = 0.009). In the entire cohort, multiple regression analysis that included education, sex, and body mass index, carotid β-stiffness index (B = -0.53 ± 0.15 U, P = 0.001) and age group (B = -4.61 ± 1.7, P = 0.012, adjusted R(2) = 0.4) predicted processing speed but not working memory cost or WMI. Among MA/O adults, higher β-stiffness (B = -0.60 ± 0.18, P = 0.002) and lower compliance (B = 0.93 ± 0.26, P = 0.002) were associated with slower processing speed but not working memory cost or WMI. These data suggest that greater carotid artery stiffness is independently and selectively associated with slower processing speed but not working memory among MA/O adults. Carotid artery stiffening may modulate reductions in processing speed earlier than working memory with healthy aging in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previously, studies investigating the relation between large elastic artery stiffness, cognition, and brain structure have focused mainly on aortic stiffness in aged individuals with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other comorbidities. This study adds to the field by demonstrating that the age-related increases in

  11. Negative wealth shock and short-term changes in depressive symptoms and medication adherence among late middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Pool, Lindsay R; Needham, Belinda L; Burgard, Sarah A; Elliott, Michael R; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes

    2017-08-01

    Experiencing a negative wealth shock in late middle age may cause high levels of stress and induce reductions in health-related consumption. We used data on late middle age individuals (51-64 years) from the longitudinal US-based Health and Retirement Study (N=19 281) to examine the relationship between negative wealth shock and short-term outcomes that serve as markers of the pathways from wealth shock to health: elevated depressive symptoms, as a marker of the stress pathway and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), as a marker of the consumption pathway. Negative wealth shock was considered to be a loss of total net worth of 75% or more. Using a nested cross-over approach-a within-person design among exposed individuals only that adjusts by design for all time-invariant individual characteristics-we found that negative wealth shock was significantly associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms (OR=1.50, CI 1.10 to 2.05), but was not significantly associated with higher odds of CRN (OR=1.18, CI 0.76 to 1.82), even after further adjustment for time-varying sociodemographic and health covariates. Negative wealth shock during late middle age confers an increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms, but does not change levels of CRN. Personal and policy factors that may buffer the mental health risks of negative wealth shock, such as social support and social welfare policy, should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

  13. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  14. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  15. Diphenyl diselenide differently modulates cardiovascular redox responses in young adult and middle-aged low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Gianni; de Oliveira, Jade; Hort, Mariana Appel; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Rocha, João Batista Texeira; de Bem, Andreza Fabro

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the effect of (PhSe)2 on cardiovascular age-related oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic mice. To this end, LDL receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-) ) mice, 3 months (young adult) and 12 months (middle-aged) old, were orally treated with (PhSe)2 . Hypercholesterolemia, regardless of age, impaired the mitochondrial antioxidant defence in the cardiac tissue, which was characterized by a decline in mitochondrial aortic glutathione (GSH) levels and increased reactive oxygen species production in the heart. (PhSe)2 treatment improved GSH levels, thioredoxin reductase (TRxR) and GSH reductase (GR) activity, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in the heart of young adult LDLr(-/-) mice. Moreover, (PhSe)2 increased GPx activity in both age groups, and GR activity in the aorta of middle-aged LDLr(-/-) mice. Therefore, (PhSe)2 enhances the antioxidant defences in the cardiovascular system of LDLr(-/-) mice, which could explain its success as an anti-atherogenic compound. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Associations between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    VanWagner, Lisa B.; Ning, Hongyan; Lewis, Cora E.; Shay, Christina M.; Wilkins, John; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Jacobs, David R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related condition associated with cardiovascular mortality. Yet, whether or not NAFLD is independently related to atherosclerosis is unclear. In a population-based cross-sectional sample of middle-aged adults free from liver or heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that NAFLD is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC)) independent of obesity. Methods Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study with CT quantification of liver fat, CAC and AAC were included (n=2,424). NAFLD was defined as liver attenuation ≤ 40 Hounsfield Units after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. CAC and AAC presence was defined as Agatston score > 0. Results Mean participant age was 50.1±3.6 years, (42.7% men, 50.0% black) and BMI was 30.6±7.2 kg/m2. The prevalence of NAFLD, CAC, and AAC was 9.6%, 27.1%, and 51.4%. NAFLD participants had increased prevalence of CAC (37.9% vs. 26.0%, p<0.001) and AAC (65.1% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001). NAFLD remained associated with CAC (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.001–1.82) and AAC (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.29–2.35) after adjustment for demographics and health behaviors. However, these associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for visceral adipose tissue (CAC OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.74–1.48, AAC OR=1.20; 95% CI, 0.86–1.67). There was no interaction by race or sex. Conclusion In contrast to prior research, these findings suggest that obesity attenuates the relationship between NAFLD and subclinical atherosclerosis. Further studies evaluating the role of NAFLD duration on atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular events are needed. PMID:24956534

  17. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  18. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trend<0.01). The incidence of T2DM for adults with weight change <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and >12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend <0.01), Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight and obesity at age 25 years and subsequent weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend <0.01). Overweight and obesity in early adulthood and weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  19. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers. PMID:26943588

  20. Vascular function, cerebral cortical thickness, and cognitive performance in middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Evan P; Kaur, Sonya S; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Machin, Daniel R; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2015-04-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk for acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health with measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, sex, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized by β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (P=.04) with concurrently lower language (P=.02), memory (P=.03), and attention-executive functioning (P=.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed (1) to assess the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with 6 common mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior; (2) to test whether gender moderates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3) to assess the association of childhood sexual abuse with health care service use among middle-aged and older adults. The author conducted secondary analyses of data from a population-based, nationally representative sample of 3,493 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and above who were interviewed in England in 2006 and 2007 as part of the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The survey assessed childhood sexual abuse (sexual touching and sexual intercourse), sexual abuse revictimization (experiencing both childhood and adult sexual abuse), demographics, health care service use, 6 common mental disorders according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria (depressive episode, mixed anxiety and depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence, and suicidal behavior. After weighting, the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was 8.0%, and the prevalence of revictimization was 1.9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with mixed anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.63), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11), eating disorders (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.12-3.75), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.20-4.99), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.27-4.27). Revictimization was significantly related to mixed anxiety and depression (AOR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63-6.32), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07-6.35), phobia (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.46), posttraumatic

  2. Looking for the Silver Lining: Benefit Finding after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stanko, Katie E.; Cherry, Katie E.; Ryker, Kyle S.; Mughal, Farra; Marks, Loren D.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Gendusa, Patricia F.; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Bruner, John; Welsh, David A.; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Looking for potentially positive outcomes is one way that people cope with stressful events. In two studies, we examined perceived “silver linings” after the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita among indirectly affected adults. In Study 1, middle-aged (ages 47–64 years), older (ages 65–89 years), and oldest-old (ages 90–95 years) adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) responded to an open-ended question on perceived silver linings in a longitudinal assessment carried out during the immediate impact (1 to 4 months after landfall) and post-disaster recovery phase (6 to 14 months post-storm). Qualitative grounded theory methods were employed to analyze these narrative data. Team-based coding yielded three core themes: (1) learning experience and better preparedness for future disasters, (2) having improved cities (Baton Rouge and New Orleans), and (3) an increase in “Good Samaritan” acts such as strangers helping one another. Responses were similar across age groups, although older adults were the least likely to report positive outcomes. Study 2 was a conceptual replication using a different sample of adults (ages 31 to 82 years) tested at least five years after the storms. A learning experience and preparedness core theme replicated Study 1’s findings while improved social cohesion amongst family and friends emerged as a new core theme in Study 2. These data indicate that identifying lessons learned and potentially positive outcomes are psychological reactions that may facilitate post-disaster coping and foster resilience for indirectly affected adults in the years after disaster. PMID:27440961

  3. Assessing the use of immersive virtual reality, mouse and touchscreen in pointing and dragging-and-dropping tasks among young, middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayin; Or, Calvin

    2017-04-07

    This study assessed the use of an immersive virtual reality (VR), a mouse and a touchscreen for one-directional pointing, multi-directional pointing, and dragging-and-dropping tasks involving targets of smaller and larger widths by young (n = 18; 18-30 years), middle-aged (n = 18; 40-55 years) and older adults (n = 18; 65-75 years). A three-way, mixed-factorial design was used for data collection. The dependent variables were the movement time required and the error rate. Our main findings were that the participants took more time and made more errors in using the VR input interface than in using the mouse or the touchscreen. This pattern applied in all three age groups in all tasks, except for multi-directional pointing with a larger target width among the older group. Overall, older adults took longer to complete the tasks and made more errors than young or middle-aged adults. Larger target widths yielded shorter movement times and lower error rates in pointing tasks, but larger targets yielded higher rates of error in dragging-and-dropping tasks. Our study indicated that any other virtual environments that are similar to those we tested may be more suitable for displaying scenes than for manipulating objects that are small and require fine control. Although interacting with VR is relatively difficult, especially for older adults, there is still potential for older adults to adapt to that interface. Furthermore, adjusting the width of objects according to the type of manipulation required might be an effective way to promote performance.

  4. Sexual Function, Satisfaction, and Use of Aids for Sexual Activity in Middle-Aged Adults with Long-Term Physical Disability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda E.; McMullen, Kara; Jensen, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of quality of life in individuals with disabilities, yet little is known about what factors contribute to sexual satisfaction as these individuals age. Method: Middle-aged adults with physical disabilities completed a cross-sectional survey that included measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction. Results: Consistent with studies of able-bodied adults, sexual function was the strongest predictor of satisfaction. However, depression also predicted sexual satisfaction for women. Use of aids for sexual activity varied by disability type and was generally associated with better function. Lowest levels of sexual satisfaction were reported by men with SCI. Conclusion: Depression may negatively impact sexual satisfaction in women, beyond contributions of sexual dysfunction, and effective use of sexual aids may improve function in this population. PMID:26363589

  5. Relationship of Sleep Quantity and Quality with 24-Hour Urinary Catecholamines and Salivary Awakening Cortisol in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jihui; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Kong, Alice P.S.; So, Wing Yee; Li, Albert M.; Lam, Sui Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Yu, Mandy W.M.; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H.M.; Zhang, Bin; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: a. Explore the stability in sleep/wake patterns of middle-aged adults over a 3-year follow-up period. b. Explore the relationship between objectively measured sleep indices, urinary catecholamines, and salivary cortisol. Design: Naturalistic follow-up for sleep/wake patterns (n = 114) by 2-week sleep log and cross-sectional design for objective sleep assessments and hormonal measures (n = 96) at follow-up period nearly 3 years after baseline measurements. Setting: Community Participants: Healthy middle-aged adults Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: There were high correlations between baseline and follow-up period (2.6 ± 0.5 years) on sleep/wake patterns (r = 0.6–0.79) as measured by 2-week sleep log. For wave 2 cross-sectional study, objective poor sleepers (3-day actigraphy sleep efficiency < 85%) had a higher 24-h urinary norepinephrine (NE) level (205.7 ± 105 nmol/d vs 162.1 ± 55.6 nmol/d, P = 0.03) and a nearly significantly higher 24-h urinary epinephrine (E) level (P = 0.12) than good sleepers. There were no differences in 3-day mean salivary awakening cortisol and 24-h urinary catecholamines (NE and E) between short and normal/long sleepers. Linear regression results, however, showed that shorter time in bed and actual sleep time, longer sleep onset latency, and lower sleep efficiency were correlated with higher 24-h urinary E and NE (all P < 0.05) but not salivary cortisol. The effect of poor sleep quality on 24-h urinary catecholamines was stronger in males than females. Conclusions: Increased sympathetic activity as measured by 24-h urinary catecholamines might play a critical role in the pathogenesis mediating the relationship of insufficient sleep (quantity and quality) with subsequent cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Salivary awakening cortisol was not associated with sleep quantity and quality in healthy middle-aged adults. Citation: Zhang J; Ma RCW; Kong APS; So WY; Li AM; Lam SP; Li SX; Yu MWM; Ho CS; Chan MHM

  6. Sleep duration associated with mortality in elderly, but not middle-aged, adults in a large US sample.

    PubMed

    Gangwisch, James E; Heymsfield, Steven B; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Buijs, Ruud M; Kreier, Felix; Opler, Mark G; Pickering, Thomas G; Rundle, Andrew G; Zammit, Gary K; Malaspina, Dolores

    2008-08-01

    To explore age differences in the relationship between sleep duration and mortality by conducting analyses stratified by age. Both short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with mortality. Short sleep duration is associated with negative health outcomes, but there is little evidence that long sleep duration has adverse health effects. No epidemiologic studies have published multivariate analyses stratified by age, even though life expectancy is 75 years and the majority of deaths occur in the elderly. Multivariate longitudinal analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using Cox proportional hazards models. Probability sample (n = 9789) of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States between 1982 and 1992. Subjects aged 32 to 86 years. In multivariate analyses controlling for many covariates, no relationship was found in middle-aged subjects between short sleep of 5 hours or less and mortality (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.05) or long sleep of 9 hours or more and mortality (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.66-1.65). A U-shaped relationship was found only in elderly subjects, with both short sleep duration (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.53) and long sleep duration (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.60) having significantly higher HRs. The relationship between sleep duration and mortality is largely influenced by deaths in elderly subjects and by the measurement of sleep durations closely before death. Long sleep duration is unlikely to contribute toward mortality but, rather, is a consequence of medical conditions and age-related sleep changes.

  7. Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Recondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alfredo Martínez, José; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Bulló, Mònica

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate how glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its features in middle-aged and elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. Prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort. PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Men and women (N = 6,606) divided into three age groups (<65, 65-74, ≥75). Energy and nutrient intake was evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS and its features were defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. A positive association was observed between GI and MetS prevalence in the youngest and middle age groups for participants without diabetes mellitus, but no relationship was found for those with diabetes mellitus. During the median follow-up of 4.8 years, higher GI and GL were related to greater risk of MetS in the middle age group, independent of the presence of diabetes mellitus. Changes in dietary GI were associated with risk of developing the high fasting glucose component of the MetS in the oldest age category, and changes in dietary GL were associated with risk of developing abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure in the youngest age category. Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. No major sex differences in muscle protein synthesis rates in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Jaffery, Hadia; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Men have more muscle than women, but most studies evaluating sex differences in muscle protein metabolism have been unable to discern sexual dimorphism in basal muscle protein turnover rates in young and middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to nutritional stimuli (i.e., amino acids and insulin) would be greater in young/middle-aged men than women. We therefore measured the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 16 healthy individuals [8 men and 8 women, matched for age (mean ± SE: 37.7 ± 1.5 yr) and body mass index (25.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2)] after an overnight fast (plasma insulin ∼5 μU/ml and plasma phenylalanine ∼60 μM) and during a hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp (plasma insulin ∼28 μU/ml; plasma phenylalanine ∼110 μM; plasma glucose ∼5.4 mM). The rates of MPS were not different between men and women (ANOVA main effect for sex; P = 0.49). During the clamp, the rate of MPS increased by ∼50% (P = 0.003) with no difference in the increases from basal values between men and women (+0.019 ± 0.004 vs. +0.018 ± 0.010%/h, respectively; P = 0.93). There were also no differences between men and women in the basal concentrations of muscle phosphorylated AktSer473, AktThr308, mTORSer2448, and p70s6kThr389 or in the hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia-induced increases in phosphorylation of those signaling elements (P ≥ 0.25). We conclude that there are no major differences in the rate of MPS and its intracellular control during basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidema between young and middle-aged adult men and women. PMID:19644030

  9. No major sex differences in muscle protein synthesis rates in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Jaffery, Hadia; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2009-10-01

    Men have more muscle than women, but most studies evaluating sex differences in muscle protein metabolism have been unable to discern sexual dimorphism in basal muscle protein turnover rates in young and middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to nutritional stimuli (i.e., amino acids and insulin) would be greater in young/middle-aged men than women. We therefore measured the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 16 healthy individuals [8 men and 8 women, matched for age (mean +/- SE: 37.7 +/- 1.5 yr) and body mass index (25.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2)] after an overnight fast (plasma insulin approximately 5 microU/ml and plasma phenylalanine approximately 60 microM) and during a hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp (plasma insulin approximately 28 microU/ml; plasma phenylalanine approximately 110 microM; plasma glucose approximately 5.4 mM). The rates of MPS were not different between men and women (ANOVA main effect for sex; P = 0.49). During the clamp, the rate of MPS increased by approximately 50% (P = 0.003) with no difference in the increases from basal values between men and women (+0.019 +/- 0.004 vs. +0.018 +/- 0.010%/h, respectively; P = 0.93). There were also no differences between men and women in the basal concentrations of muscle phosphorylated Akt(Ser473), Akt(Thr308), mTOR(Ser2448), and p70s6k(Thr389) or in the hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia-induced increases in phosphorylation of those signaling elements (P > or = 0.25). We conclude that there are no major differences in the rate of MPS and its intracellular control during basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidema between young and middle-aged adult men and women.

  10. Caregivers' reported functional limitations in activities of daily living among middle-aged adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe the functioning of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and to examine socio-economic effects on ADL functioning among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) aged 45 years and older (N=480) in Taiwan. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to determine a baseline level of ADL functioning in the study participants. There are five categories of functional impairment using the following cut-off values in Taiwan: total dependence (BI score 0-20), severe (BI score 21-60), moderate (BI score 61-90), mild (BI score 91-99), and total independence (BI score 100) (Taiwan Department of Health, 2012). The results revealed that 2.3% of adults with ID were in total dependence, 11.9% were in severe dependence, 27.9% were in moderate dependence, 8.1% had a mild dependence, and 49.8% were totally independent. In the multiple linear regression model of the ADL score, we determined that educational level, comorbid Down's syndrome, and disability level are the variables able to significantly predict ADL score (R(2)=0.190) after controlling for the factors of age, marital status, and other comorbidity conditions. Those ID adults with a lower education level (primary vs. literate, β=4.780, p=0.031; intermediate vs. literate, β=6.642, p=0.030), with comorbid Down's syndrome (β=-7.135, p=0.063), and with a more severe disability condition (severe vs. mild, β=-7.650, p=0.007; profound vs. mild, β=-19.169, p<0.001) had significantly lower ADL scores. The present study highlights the need to support mobility in older adults with ID as much as possible to optimize independence in this group.

  11. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  12. After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: gender differences in health and religiosity in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer Silva; Cherry, Katie E; Marks, Loren D; Jackson, Erin M; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2010-11-01

    We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Health Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HK/R) that made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded changes in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Gender differences were observed in religious beliefs and religious coping, favoring women. Religious beliefs and religious coping were negatively correlated with physical function, implying that stronger reliance on religiosity as a coping mechanism may be more likely among those who are less physically capable.

  13. After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Gender Differences in Health and Religiosity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer Silva; Cherry, Katie E.; Marks, Loren D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita that made landfall on the United States Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded declines in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Gender differences were observed in religious beliefs and religious coping, favoring women. Religious beliefs and religious coping were negatively correlated with physical function, implying that stronger reliance on religiosity as a coping mechanism may be more likely among those who are less physically capable. PMID:20924874

  14. Alcohol-Related Diagnoses in Hospital Admissions for All Causes Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Trends and Cohort Differences From 1993 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Unick, George Jay; Kuerbis, Alexis; Koru, A. Güneş; Moore, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This aim of this study was to characterize trends in alcohol-related hospital admissions among middle-aged and older adults from 1993 to 2010 in relation to age, gender, race, and cohort membership. Method This study utilized repeated cross-sectional data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Using alcohol-related classified admissions, yearly rates and longitudinal trends of alcohol-related inpatient hospitalizations based on age, period, birth cohort, gender, and race were estimated. Results Among those aged 45 and older, admissions rose from an estimated 610,634 to more than 1,134,876, and rates of any alcohol-related diagnosis also increased from 1993 to 2010. Rates for men were consistently higher than women, and rates for Blacks were higher than Whites. Age was associated with decreasing rates, but post–World War II cohorts displayed higher rates over time. Discussion Rates of alcohol-related admissions are increasing among adults above age 45, which may be a function of cohort effects. Training the health care workforce is crucial to respond to this trend. PMID:25903980

  15. Factors associated with influenza vaccination in middle and older aged Australian adults according to eligibility for the national vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Dyda, Amalie; MacIntyre, C Raina; McIntyre, Peter; Newall, Anthony T; Banks, Emily; Kaldor, John; Liu, Bette

    2015-06-26

    In Australia, influenza vaccination is recommended and provided free of charge for all adults aged ≥65 years and those aged <65 years with specific risk factors. Other than age, there is limited information on characteristics associated with vaccine uptake. We used the 45 and Up Study, a large cohort of adults aged ≥45 years, who completed a questionnaire in 2012 asking about influenza vaccination. We compared characteristics of those reporting influenza vaccination in those aged <65 and ≥65 years using a log binomial model to estimate relative rates (RRs), adjusted for age and other factors. Among 27,036 participants, the proportion reporting influenza vaccination in the last year increased steadily with age from 24.6% in those <54 years to 67.2% in those 75-79 years; of those eligible for universal free vaccine, (≥65 years) 57.3% had an influenza vaccination in the previous year. Many characteristics associated with higher vaccination rates in adults aged <65 years (mean 60.7) and those ≥65 years (mean 73.7) were similar. These included sex (women versus men: <65 years, aRR=1.14[95% CI 1.08-1.20]; ≥65 years, aRR=1.04[1.02-1.07]), higher BMI (≥30 kg/m(2) versus >18.5 to <25 kg/m(2): <65 years, aRR=1.16[1.09-1.24]; ≥65 years, aRR=1.06[1.03-1.09]), requiring assistance with daily tasks versus not (<65 years, aRR=1.27[1.15-1.40]; ≥65 years, aRR=1.05[1.02-1.09]) and reporting versus not reporting specific chronic illnesses (<65 years, aRR=1.55 [1.48-1.63]; ≥65 years, aRR=1.08[1.06-1.10]). Current smokers had lower vaccination rates (<65 years, aRR=0.78[0.69-0.90]; ≥65 years, aRR=0.91[0.84-0.99]). Among those aged <65 years only, being a carer, higher income, and education were associated with influenza vaccination (aRR=1.32[1.19-1.47], 1.17[1.10-1.24] and 1.12[1.10-1.22] respectively). Non-English speaking country of birth was associated with lower vaccination rates in ≥65 years (aRR 0.86[0.81-0.92]). Factors most strongly associated with

  16. Intergenerational Exchanges of Middle-Aged Adults With Their Parents and Parents-In-Law in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Fingerman, Karen L; Han, Gyounghae

    2015-06-01

    The authors investigated patterns of support exchanges between Korean adult children and their parents and parents-in-law, gender differences in these patterns, and implications of children's marital quality for exchange patterns. Data were from a nationally representative sample of married adults (N = 920, age 30-59 years) with at least 1 living parent and 1 living parent-in-law. Latent class analysis was applied to 12 indicators of exchanges (financial, instrumental, emotional support given to and received from parents and parents-in-law). Five classes of exchanges were identified, 3 showing balanced patterns of exchanges with parents and parents-in-law across three types of support and 2 classes with unbalanced patterns (e.g., giving instrumental and financial, but not emotional support). The findings revealed variability in intergenerational exchange patterns, with a mix of patrilineal traditional and balanced patterns. Significant associations of exchange patterns with adult children's marital quality suggest the importance of balanced exchanges with parents for marriage.

  17. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  18. Ethnic Differences in Hypertension Incidence among Middle-Aged and Older U. S. Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Howard, George; Burke, Gregory L.; Shea, Steven; Levitan, Emily B.; Muntner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is higher among African-Americans than whites. However, inconsistent findings have been reported on the incidence of hypertension among middle-aged and older African-Americans and whites and limited data are available on the incidence of hypertension among Hispanics and Asians in the US. Therefore, this study investigated the age-specific incidence of hypertension by ethnicity for 3,146 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, age 45–84 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 4.8 years for incident hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the initiation of antihypertensive medications. The crude incidence rate of hypertension, per 1,000 person-years, was 56.8 for whites, 84.9 for African-Americans, 65.7 for Hispanics, and 52.2 for Chinese. After adjustment for age, gender, and study site, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for hypertension was increased for African-Americans age 45–54 (IRR=2.05, 95% CI=1.47, 2.85), 55–64 (IRR=1.63, 95% CI=1.20, 2.23), and 65–74 years (IRR=1.67, 95% CI=1.21, 2.30) compared with whites, but not for those 75–84 years of age (IRR=0.97, 95% CI=0.56, 1.66). Additional adjustment for health characteristics attenuated these associations. Hispanic participants also had a higher incidence of hypertension compared with whites; however, hypertension incidence did not differ for Chinese and white participants. In summary, hypertension incidence was higher for African-Americans compared with whites between 45 and 74 years of age but not after age 75 years. Public health prevention programs tailored to middle-age and older adults are needed to eliminate ethnic disparities in incident hypertension. PMID:21502561

  19. Isolated systolic hypertension in young and middle-aged adults and 31-year risk for cardiovascular mortality: the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B; Daviglus, Martha L; Franklin, Stanley S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-02-03

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH had higher relative risk for CVD and CHD mortality

  20. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-06-23

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients' cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior.

  1. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk containing lactononadecapeptide (NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFLQPE) improves cognitive function in healthy middle-aged adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Fumiya; Uchida, Naoto; Mizuno, Seiichi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk drink containing lactononadecapeptide (NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFLQPE) on the cognitive function of healthy middle-aged adults. A randomised, double-blind controlled study was conducted in healthy participants who were randomly assigned to receive a L. helveticus-fermented milk drink (190 g/day) or the equivalent amount of a placebo drink once a day for eight weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) test. There was a statistically significant improvement in the total score, attention score, and delayed memory score of participants who received the L. helveticus-fermented milk drink. There was also a significant difference in the attention score between the placebo and test groups after eight weeks (p = .028). Therefore, supplementation of healthy middle-aged adults with a L. helveticus-fermented milk drink for eight weeks improved both attention and delayed memory.

  2. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464

  3. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with plasma NOx level (r = 0.493, P < 0.001) and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). Serum adropin levels were elevated after the 8-wk aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P < 0.05) and plasma NOx level (r = 0.623, P < 0.001). Thus the increase in adropin may participate in the exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Association of Longitudinal Cognitive Decline With Amyloid Burden in Middle-aged and Older Adults: Evidence for a Dose-Response Relationship.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michelle E; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M; Wig, Gagan; Bischof, Gérard N; Rieck, Jennifer R; Chen, Xi; Festini, Sara B; Devous, Michael D; Park, Denise C

    2017-07-01

    Presently, the clinical standard for reporting the results of an amyloid positron emission tomography scan is to assign a dichotomous rating of positive or negative for the presence of amyloid. In a 4-year longitudinal study, we investigated whether using a continuous measure of the magnitude of baseline amyloid burden would provide valuable information about the rate of future cognitive decline over the subsequent 4 years compared with a dichotomous measure in middle-aged and older adults. To examine whether a continuous, dose-response relationship between amyloid burden and cognitive decline was present among middle-aged and older adults. This cohort study included 174 participants from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study who were 40 to 89 years old at the beginning of the study, were cognitively normal at baseline (a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 26 or higher) with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, and had completed amyloid imaging ([18F]-florbetapir) at baseline and cognitive assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up. Continuous amyloid burden was measured as the mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) at baseline. Linear mixed models assessed the effect of increasing baseline amyloid over time (SUVR × time interaction) on episodic memory, reasoning, processing speed, vocabulary, and Mini-Mental State Examination performance. Age, sex, education, apolipoprotein ε4, and the random effect of intercepts were included as covariates. The mean (SD) age for all participants (n = 174) was 66.44 (11.74) years, and 65 participants (37%) were men. The primary analyses yielded significant SUVR × time interactions in episodic memory, processing speed, vocabulary, and Mini-Mental State Examination performance, but not in reasoning performance. Higher baseline SUVR projected greater cognitive decline over 4 years. When controlling for variance related to a dichotomized positive/negative classification, most effects on

  5. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Monma, Takafumi; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period. Methods This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50–59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities (‘hobbies or cultural activities’ and ‘exercise or sports’) and four social activities (‘community events’, ‘support for children’, ‘support for elderly individuals’ and ‘other social activities’) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities (‘by oneself’, ‘with others’, or ‘both’ (both ‘by oneself’ and ‘with others’)) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up. Results Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both ‘hobbies or cultural activities’ and ‘exercise or sports’ were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted ‘with others’. In women, the effects of ‘hobbies or cultural activities’ on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of ‘exercise or sports’ was same as that in men. Conclusions Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if

  6. Documenting the need for nutrition and health intervention for middle-aged and older adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta region.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glenda S; McGee, Bernestine B; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Thornton, Alma; Simpson, Pippa M; Johnson, Crystal; Richardson, Valerie; Bogle, Margaret; James-Holly, Dawanna; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Multiple demographic, health, and environmental factors may influence the overall quality of diets among rural middle-aged and older adults. This project compared the diet quality of participants in Foods of Our Delta Survey (FOODS 2000) who were aged 55 years and older with national data. The data were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall methodology and a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI) that excluded the sodium component. The mean total Modified Healthy Eating Index (MHEI) study score was significantly lower than their counterparts from the national survey (61.0 +/- 0.68 vs. 65.6 +/- 3.65, P < 0.0001). Race and educational attainment were associated with higher MHEI scores. This study emphasized a critical need for implementing nutrition and health interventions in rural communities with special attention to subpopulations at risk.

  7. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alter, David A; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Franklin, Barry; Austin, Peter C; Chong, Alice; Oh, Paul I; Tu, Jack V; Stukel, Therese A

    2012-08-04

    The extent to which uncomplicated obesity among an otherwise healthy middle-aged population is associated with higher longitudinal health-care expenditures remains unclear. To examine the incremental long-term health service expenditures and outcomes associated with uncomplicated obesity, 9398 participants of the 1994-1996 National Population Health Survey were linked to administrative data and followed longitudinally forward for 11.5 years to track health service utilization costs and death. Patients with pre-existing heart disease, those who were 65 years of age and older, and those with self-reported body mass indexes of <18.5 kg/m² at inception were excluded. Propensity-matching was used to compare obesity (+/- other baseline risk-factors and lifestyle behaviours) with normal-weight healthy controls. Cost-analyses were conducted from the perspective of Ontario's publicly-funded health care system. Obesity as an isolated risk-factor was not associated with significantly higher health-care costs as compared with normal weight matched controls (Canadian $8,294.67 vs. Canadian $7,323.59, P = 0.27). However, obesity in combination with other lifestyle factors was associated with significantly higher cumulative expenditures as compared with normal-weight healthy matched controls (CAD$14,186.81 for those with obesity + 3 additional risk-factors vs. CAD$7,029.87 for those with normal BMI and no other risk-factors, P < 0.001). The likelihood that obese individuals developed future diabetes and hypertension also rose markedly when other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity and/or psychosocial distress were present at baseline. The incremental health-care costs associated with obesity was modest in isolation, but increased significantly when combined with other lifestyle risk-factors. Such findings have relevance to the selection, prioritization, and cost-effective targeting of therapeutic lifestyle interventions.

  8. The Influence of an Educational Intervention Module on Death and Dying on Death Anxiety, Life Satisfaction and Locus of Control Among Middle Aged and Older Adults in North Carolina. Summary and Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Curtis; And Others

    The research findings of many thanatologists have brought an awareness to the general public that the study of death and dying is an appropriate and instructional need for many people. The attitudes of middle aged and older adults regarding death anxiety, life satisfaction, and locus of control were examined to determine whether adults would…

  9. Population-based study of out-of-hospital sudden cardiovascular death: incidence and causes of death in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Morentin, Benito; Audicana, Covadonga

    2011-01-01

    The data of mortality of out-of-hospital sudden cardiovascular death in middle-aged adults have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study is to analyze their epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics. Population observational study of all cardiovascular deaths in people 35-49 years old in Vizcaya between 2003 and 2008. The data of Mortality Register and Forensic Pathology Service were analyzed. The out-of-hospital sudden deaths subjected to forensic autopsy were identified. 216 of the 465 cardiovascular deaths were sudden deaths. The main cause was ischemic heart disease (N=140/216). Other conditions were: cardiomyopathies (N=32), cerebrovascular diseases (N=19) and sudden arrhythmic death in structurally normal hearts (N=10). The causes varied significantly in relation to gender and age. Ten percent had been diagnosed in life of a cardiovascular disease; 66% had cardiovascular risk factors and 27% had recently consumed ethanol and/or abuse drugs. The incidence of sudden death was 13.2/100,000 inhabitants/year, representing 46% of cardiovascular deaths. The incidence was 3.77 times higher in males than in females and increased with the age. The incidence of sudden death in Vizcaya was lower than in other industrialized countries. In middle-aged adults out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death is the first manifestation of disease in half of all cardiovascular deaths. One challenge in prevention is the development of strategies to identify the highest risk people within the general population at low risk. Studies based on forensic autopsies improve our understanding of cardiovascular mortality. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral Microbleeds and Lacunar Infarcts Are Associated with Walking Speed Independent of Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stijntjes, Marjon; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Meskers, Carel G M; Slagboom, P Eline; Maier, Andrea B

    2016-01-01

    The positive relationship between cognitive and physical performance has been widely established. The influence of brain structure on both domains has been shown as well. We studied whether the relationship between brain structure and physical performance is independent of cognitive performance. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 297 middle-aged to older adults (mean age ± SD 65.4 ± 6.8 years). Memory function, executive function and physical performance measured by the Tandem Stance Test, Chair Stand Test, 4-meter walk and 25-meter walk were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging was available in 237 participants and used to determine the (sub)cortical gray matter, white matter, hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes and the presence of cerebral small-vessel disease, i.e. white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and lacunar infarcts (LIs). Regression analysis was used adjusting for age, gender, education and whole-brain volume. A Bonferroni correction was applied considering p values <0.017 as statistically significant. Poor memory function was associated with a slower 4-meter walking speed (p < 0.01). No association was found between brain structure and cognitive performance. The presence of CMBs and LIs was associated with a slower 25-meter walking speed (p < 0.001). This result did not change after additional adjustment for cognitive performance. In middle-aged to older adults, CMBs and LIs are associated with walking speed independent of cognitive performance. This emphasizes the clinical relevance of identifying each of the possible underlying mechanisms of physical performance, which is required for the development of timely and targeted therapies. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The impact of the frequency of moderate exercise on memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in young adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, M S; Ardais, A P; Fioreze, G T; Mioranzza, S; Botton, P H S; Souza, D O; Rocha, J B T; Porciúncula, L O

    2012-10-11

    The participation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functions has been widely investigated. Different from voluntary exercise, the effects of treadmill running on memory and BDNF are still controversial. Importantly, the impact of the frequency of physical exercise on memory remains still unknown. In this study, young adult and middle-aged rats were submitted to 8 weeks of treadmill running at moderate intensity and divided into 4 groups of frequency: 0, 1, 3 and 7 days/week. Aversive and recognition memory were assessed as well as the immunocontent of proBDNF, BDNF and tyrosine kinase receptor type B (TrkB) in the hippocampus. Frequencies did not modify memory in young adult animals. The frequency of 1 day/week increased proBDNF and BDNF. All frequencies decreased TrkB immunocontent. Middle-aged animals presented memory impairment along with increased BDNF and downregulation of TrkB receptor. The frequency of 1day/week reversed age-related recognition memory impairment, but worsened the performance in the inhibitory avoidance task. The other frequencies rescued aversive memory, but not recognition memory. None of frequencies altered the age-related increase in the BDNF. Seven days/week decreased proBDNF and there was a trend toward increase in the TrkB by the frequency of 1 day/week. These results support that the frequency and intensity of exercise have a profound impact on cognitive functions mainly in elderly. Thus, the effects of physical exercise on behavior and brain functions should take into account the frequency and intensity.

  12. Death Attitudes Among Middle-Aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Michin; Hong, Seunghye; Adamek, Margaret E; Kim, Mee Hye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting death attitudes among middle-aged Koreans. In addition, the study explored the interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death of family or friends on death attitudes. The sample was obtained from a national survey with middle-aged adults in South Korea ( n = 2,026). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant main effects and an interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death on death attitudes. Greater knowledge of end-of-life care planning was associated with more positive attitudes toward death; however, the effect was stronger for those who had not experienced the death of family or friends. Being older and having greater life satisfaction were also associated with more positive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that end-of-life education can help middle-aged adults embrace the final stage of life and prepare for their own death.

  13. Incident Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Young Adulthood and Middle Age by Religious Involvement: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Matthew; Liu, Kiang; Ning, Hongyan; Fitchett, George; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Religious involvement has been associated with improved health outcomes but greater obesity in older adults. No longitudinal study of young adults has examined the prospective association of religious involvement with incident cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and subclinical disease (subCVD). Methods We included 2433 participants of the CARDIA study, aged 20 to 32 in 1987 when religiosity was assessed, who were followed for 18 years. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were fitted to assess prospective associations of frequency of religious participation at baseline with incidence of RFs and prevalence of subCVD after 18 years’ follow up. Results High frequency of religious participation was associated with a significantly greater incidence of obesity in unadjusted models (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.73) and demographic-adjusted models (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.65) but not after additional adjustment for baseline RFs (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97 – 1.41). When religious participation was treated dichotomously, any religious participation, compared with none, was associated with significantly lower subCVD. Conclusions Frequent religious participants are more likely to become obese between young adulthood and middle age; this association is confounded by demographic and other factors. Nonetheless, young adults with frequent participation may represent an opportunity for obesity prevention. PMID:22155479

  14. Alternate Mediterranean diet score is positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui-Yuan; Qiu, Rui; Jing, Li-Peng; Chen, Zhan-Yong; Chen, Geng-Dong; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Researches have suggested Mediterranean diet might lower the risk of chronic diseases, but data on skeletal muscle mass (SMM) are limited. This community-based cross-sectional study examined the association between the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMDS) and SMM in 2230 females and 1059 males aged 40-75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information and habitual dietary information were assessed in face-to-face interviews conducted during 2008-2010 and 3 years later. The aMDS was calculated by summing the dichotomous points for the items of higher intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish and ratio of MUFA:SFA, lower red meat and moderate ethanol consumption. The SMM of the whole body, limbs, arms and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during 2011-2013. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher aMDS was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, SMM/height2, kg/m2) at all of the studied sites in males (all P trend<0·05). The multiple covariate-adjusted SMI means were 2·70 % (whole body), 2·65 % (limbs), 2·50 % (arms) and 2·70 % (legs) higher in the high (v. low) category aMDS in males (all P<0·05). In females, the corresponding values were 1·35 % (P trend=0·03), 1·05, 0·52 and 1·20 %, (P trend>0·05). Age-stratified analyses showed that the favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in the younger subjects aged less than the medians of 59·2 and 62·2 years in females and males (P interaction>0·10). In conclusion, the aMDS shows protective associations with SMM in Chinese adults, particularly in male and younger subjects.

  15. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young to middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I; Shikany, James M; Lewis, Cora E; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-07-11

    A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts--neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods--by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of US young adults (aged 18-30 years at baseline) (n = 5115), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from 4 examination periods (n = 15,854 person-examination observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and adherence to fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within less than 1.00 km, 1.00 to 2.99 km, 3.00 to 4.99 km, and 5.00 to 8.05 km of respondents' homes. Models were sex stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographic characteristics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability among low-income respondents, particularly within 1.00 to 2.99 km of home among men (coefficient, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.51). Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake, and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3 km of low-income residents but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change.

  16. The Impact of Leisure and Social Activities on Activities of Daily Living of Middle-Aged Adults: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Monma, Takafumi; Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL), and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50–59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities (“hobbies or cultural activities” and “exercise or sports”) and four social activities (“community events,” “support for children,” “support for elderly individuals,” and “other social activities”). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between participation in these categories at baseline and difficulties in ADL at the 5-year follow-up. The association between the extent of social interaction during these activities (“by oneself,” “with others,” or “both”) and difficulties in ADL was also investigated. The analysis yielded significant negative correlations between “exercise or sports” and difficulties in ADL for both men and women, and between “hobbies or cultural activities” and difficulties in ADL for women. However, these significant relationships occurred only when activities were conducted “with others.” The present findings might help prevent deterioration in middle-aged adults’ performance of ADL in Japan. PMID:27788163

  17. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  18. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O.; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions. PMID:28771634

  19. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which uncomplicated obesity among an otherwise healthy middle-aged population is associated with higher longitudinal health-care expenditures remains unclear. Methods To examine the incremental long-term health service expenditures and outcomes associated with uncomplicated obesity, 9398 participants of the 1994–1996 National Population Health Survey were linked to administrative data and followed longitudinally forward for 11.5 years to track health service utilization costs and death. Patients with pre-existing heart disease, those who were 65 years of age and older, and those with self-reported body mass indexes of <18.5 kg/m2 at inception were excluded. Propensity-matching was used to compare obesity (+/− other baseline risk-factors and lifestyle behaviours) with normal-weight healthy controls. Cost-analyses were conducted from the perspective of Ontario’s publicly-funded health care system. Results Obesity as an isolated risk-factor was not associated with significantly higher health-care costs as compared with normal weight matched controls (Canadian $8,294.67 vs. Canadian $7,323.59, P = 0.27). However, obesity in combination with other lifestyle factors was associated with significantly higher cumulative expenditures as compared with normal-weight healthy matched controls (CAD$14,186.81 for those with obesity + 3 additional risk-factors vs. CAD$7,029.87 for those with normal BMI and no other risk-factors, P < 0.001). The likelihood that obese individuals developed future diabetes and hypertension also rose markedly when other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity and/or psychosocial distress were present at baseline. Conclusions The incremental health-care costs associated with obesity was modest in isolation, but increased significantly when combined with other lifestyle risk-factors. Such findings have relevance to the selection, prioritization, and cost-effective targeting of therapeutic

  20. Higher erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs are associated with decreased blood pressure in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Sun, Li-li; Liu, Yan-hua; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies suggested that blood fatty acids (FAs) might affect blood pressure (BP), but the findings have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of erythrocyte FAs with BP in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Between 2008 and 2010, 1834 participants (1364 women and 470 men) aged 57 ± 5 y had baseline measurements taken of their erythrocyte FAs and BP. A total of 1477 participants (1103 women and 374 men) had their BP measured again after 3.09 ± 0.32 y (range: 2.91-3.26 y). In the cross-sectional analyses (n = 1834), the erythrocyte saturated FA (SFA) content was positively associated with BP, whereas total cis polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their subtypes cis n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs and cis n-6 (ω-6) PUFAs, and the PUFA-to-SFA ratio were inversely associated with BP (all P-trends < 0.05). The longitudinal results (n = 1477) showed marginally inverse associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and BP. For individual cis n-3 PUFAs, higher contents of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were significantly associated with reduced increases in SBP over time (the mean change range between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.917 to -0.749 mm Hg for SBP; all P-trends < 0.01), and 20:5n-3 was inversely associated with DBP change (the mean change between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.631; P-trend < 0.001). Path analyses suggested that the associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and BP might be mediated by decreasing serum triglycerides (TGs) and body mass index (BMI). Our findings revealed that a higher content of cis n-3 PUFAs (mainly very long-chain cis n-3 PUFAs) may benefit BP progress, probably mediated by decreasing serum TGs and BMI.

  1. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p < 0.05). After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male exercise groups (p < 0.05); however, the male exercise groups increased TB-FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of middle-aged and older adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Facal, David; Campos-Magdaleno, María; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the ability to retain new information is of special interest in the second half of life because of age-related changes, especially in those individuals at risk of cognitive impairment. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is one of the most common auditory-verbal learning tests used to test episodic memory. The objective of this paper is to study the stability of the factorial structure of the Spanish version of CVLT in a sample of adults aged 50-87 years with subjective memory complaints (SMCs). Performance at baseline and follow-up assessment (about 18 months later) was analyzed in 301 participants. Models including one, two, three, and four factors were tested, by comparing the results of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models of relations between the factors at baseline and follow-up. The two-factor models (accurate and inaccurate memory) yielded the best fit. The model establishing a relationship between these two factors at baseline and follow-up provided a good fit. CVLT performance in a sample of middle-aged and old adults with SMCs was separated into two factors differentiating accurate recollection and errors. A structural equation modeling (SEM) model relating data from both assessments replicated these findings.

  3. The effects of acute and chronic administration of phosphatidylserine on cell proliferation and survival in the dentate gyrus of adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Heloisa; Rodella, Patricia; Silva Freitas, Josiane da; Fernando Takase, Luiz

    2015-06-03

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an acidic phospholipid that is widely used as an alternative and/or complementary treatment of cognitive impairments. We hypothesize that these changes may be attributable, at least in part, to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic PS administration on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adult (5 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) male Wistar rats. PS was injected daily (50mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 days (acute experiment) or 21 days (chronic experiment). To label newly generated cells, rats received a single BrdU injection (200mg/kg, i.p.) one day before PS treatment. The object recognition test was performed, and the rats were perfused. The brains were removed and processed with immunohistochemistry techniques for Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BrdU (cell survival). The acute and chronic regimens were unable to promote cognitive improvement in either age group in the object recognition test. The analysis of cell proliferation showed a significant increase in the number of Ki-67-positive cells after acute and chronic PS administration in both age groups. The analysis of cell survival showed that acute and chronic PS administration increased the number of BrdU-positive cells only in adult animals.

  4. Components of Air Pollution and Cognitive Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Henderson, Victor W.; Hodis, Howard N.; St John, Jan A.; Lurmann, Fred; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Mack, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    While experiments in animals demonstrate neurotoxic effects of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3), epidemiologic evidence is sparse regarding the relationship between different constituencies of air pollution mixtures and cognitive function in adults. We examined cross-sectional associations between various ambient air pollutants [O3, PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and six measures of cognitive function and global cognition among healthy, cognitively intact individuals (n=1,496, mean age 60.5 years) residing in the Los Angeles Basin. Air pollution exposures were assigned to each residential address in 2000–06 using a geographic information system that included monitoring data. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive function; a principal components analysis defined six domain-specific functions and a measure of global cognitive function was created. Regression models estimated effects of air pollutants on cognitive function, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, study and mood. Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower verbal learning (β = −0.32 per 10 ug/m3 PM2.5, 95% CI = −0.63, 0.00; p = 0.05). Ambient exposure to NO2 >20 ppb tended to be associated with lower logical memory. Compared to the lowest level of exposure to ambient O3, exposure above 49 ppb was associated with lower executive function. Including carotid artery intima-media thickness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in models as a possible mediator did not attenuate effect estimates. This study provides support for cross-sectional associations between increasing levels of ambient O3, PM2.5 and NO2 and measures of domain-specific cognitive abilities. PMID:24148924

  5. Components of air pollution and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicole M; Henderson, Victor W; Hodis, Howard N; St John, Jan A; Lurmann, Fred; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Mack, Wendy J

    2014-01-01

    While experiments in animals demonstrate neurotoxic effects of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3), epidemiologic evidence is sparse regarding the relationship between different constituencies of air pollution mixtures and cognitive function in adults. We examined cross-sectional associations between various ambient air pollutants [O3, PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and six measures of cognitive function and global cognition among healthy, cognitively intact individuals (n=1496, mean age 60.5 years) residing in the Los Angeles Basin. Air pollution exposures were assigned to each residential address in 2000-06 using a geographic information system that included monitoring data. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive function; a principal components analysis defined six domain-specific functions and a measure of global cognitive function was created. Regression models estimated effects of air pollutants on cognitive function, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, study and mood. Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower verbal learning (β=-0.32 per 10 μg/m(3) PM2.5, 95% CI=-0.63, 0.00; p=0.05). Ambient exposure to NO2 >20 ppb tended to be associated with lower logical memory. Compared to the lowest level of exposure to ambient O3, exposure above 49 ppb was associated with lower executive function. Including carotid artery intima-media thickness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in models as a possible mediator did not attenuate effect estimates. This study provides support for cross-sectional associations between increasing levels of ambient O3, PM2.5 and NO2 and measures of domain-specific cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variants influencing biomarkers of nutrition are not associated with cognitive capability in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Tamuno; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Deary, Ian J; Elliott, Jane; Harris, Sarah E; Hyppönen, Elina; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Maddock, Jane; Power, Chris; Starr, John M; Kuh, Diana; Day, Ian N M

    2013-05-01

    Several investigations have observed positive associations between good nutritional status, as indicated by micronutrients, and cognitive measures; however, these associations may not be causal. Genetic polymorphisms that affect nutritional biomarkers may be useful for providing evidence for associations between micronutrients and cognitive measures. As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) program, men and women aged between 44 and 90 y from 6 UK cohorts were genotyped for polymorphisms associated with circulating concentrations of iron [rs4820268 transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6) and rs1800562 hemochromatosis (HFE)], vitamin B-12 [(rs492602 fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2)], vitamin D ([rs2282679 group-specific component (GC)] and β-carotene ([rs6564851 beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1)]. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study effects of the associations between these polymorphisms and the following measures of cognitive capability: word recall, phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, and search speed. Among the several statistical tests conducted, we found little evidence for associations. We found the minor allele of rs1800562 was associated with poorer word recall scores [pooled β on Z-score for carriers vs. noncarriers: -0.05 (95% CI: -0.09, -0.004); P = 0.03, n = 14,105] and poorer word recall scores for the vitamin D-raising allele of rs2282679 [pooled β per T allele: -0.03 (95% CI: -0.05, -0.003); P = 0.03, n = 16,527]. However, there was no evidence for other associations. Our findings provide little evidence to support associations between these genotypes and cognitive capability in older adults. Further investigations are required to elucidate whether the previous positive associations from observational studies between circulating measures of these micronutrients and cognitive performance are due to confounding and reverse causality.

  7. Declines in coronary heart disease incidence and mortality among middle-aged adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carson, April P; Tanner, Rikki M; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P; Woolley, J Michael; Thacker, Evan L; Levitan, Emily B; Farkouh, Michael E; Rosenson, Robert S; Brown, Todd M; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate secular changes in coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and to determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. We analyzed data on participants aged 45 to 64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987-1996 (early period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003-2009 (late period). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of diabetes and period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for sociodemographics cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval = 1.59-2.49) and late (HR = 2.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.69-3.35) periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  9. Built Environment and 1-Year Change in Weight and Waist Circumference in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.; Acock, Alan; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined neighborhood built environment characteristics (fast-food restaurant density, walkability) and individual eating-out and physical activity behaviors in relation to 1-year change in body weight among adults 50–75 years of age at baseline. The authors surveyed 1,145 residents recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon. During the 1-year follow-up (2006–2007 to 2007–2008), mean weight increased by 1.72 kg (standard deviation, 4.3) and mean waist circumference increased by 1.76 cm (standard deviation, 5.6). Multilevel analyses revealed that neighborhoods with a high density of fast-food outlets were associated with increases of 1.40 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 2.04 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who visited fast-food restaurants frequently. In contrast, high-walkability neighborhoods were associated with decreases of 1.2 kg in weight (P < 0.05) and 1.57 cm in waist circumference (P < 0.05) among residents who increased their levels of vigorous physical activity during the 1-year assessment period. Findings point to the negative influences of the availability of neighborhood fast-food outlets and individual unhealthy eating behaviors that jointly affect weight gain; however, better neighborhood walkability and increased levels of physical activity are likely to be associated with maintaining a healthy weight over time. PMID:19153214

  10. Changes in self-perceived economic satisfaction and mortality at old ages: evidence from a survey of middle-aged and elderly adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miaw-Chwen; Huang, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Experiencing a low socioeconomic status (SES) throughout the life course has been reported to be correlated with poor health outcomes. Several studies have suggested that income, wealth, and perceptions of economic status are associated with increased risk of death among elderly people. Few studies have investigated the association between lifetime SES and mortality among elderly adults. The analysis in this study was based on 2310 elderly adults for whom SES data from the four phases of the longitudinal survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (1989, 1993, 1996, and 1999) were available, and who were alive in 1999. The SES measures included in the analysis were annual income, the household wealth, and the self-perceived economic satisfaction. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was employed to create SES trajectories. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association between SES trajectories and 8-year all-cause mortality (1999-2007). Irrespective of whether income, wealth, or self-perceived economic satisfaction was used, the elderly adults with consistently low SES trajectory throughout early old age were independently and significantly associated with higher hazards of mortality than were those in a consistently high SES trajectory. Downward or upward mobility of income and wealth were associated with increased hazard of mortality. However, decreased self-perceived economic satisfaction was not significantly associated with increased hazard of mortality. According to the results, the strong distinction between trajectory patterns of income, wealth, and self-perceived economic satisfaction among elderly adults indicate that neither should be overlooked when investigating the role of SES mobility in mortality. Retirement policies or strategies for maintaining and promoting favorable SES in early old age may benefit the health of elderly adults later in life.

  11. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Strahler, Talia R.; Bassett, Candace J.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function. PMID:28070018

  12. Community group exercise versus physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program: barriers, enablers and preferences in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Chesworth, Wendy; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Barriers and enablers of physical activity have been investigated, but it remains unclear what middle-aged adults' physical activity preferences are. Two physical activity interventions were compared to determine barriers, enablers and preferences for physical activity format in sedentary, community-dwelling 50- to 65-year-olds. Using mixed methods, 37 Physical Activity at Home (PAAH) participants took part in focus groups at the end of the intervention period and completed the Active Australia Survey (AAS). Participants were divided into three sub-groups: (1) group exercise attendees (GA, n = 14); (2) group exercise non-attendees (GNA, n = 9); and (3) physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program attendees (HB, n = 14). Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed, coded and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Thirty-seven exit telephone calls with GNA were included in the analysis. Cost, self-efficacy, work and carer commitments were major themes identified for GA and GNA. HB participants reported fewer barriers and a number of enablers, including flexibility of the program and physiotherapist instruction. HB and GNA were younger than GA (p< 0.05), more likely to be in paid employment and GNA participants were insufficiently active (p ≤ 0.01). All participants preferred some home-based physical activity, although a variety of formats was indicated. The barriers, enablers and preferences indicate that the physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program with initial face-to-face contact and telephone support may increase the adoption and maintenance of physical activity in middle-aged adults, particularly for those not interested in, or unable to attend, group exercise.

  13. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  14. The Prevalence and Determinants of Using Traditional Chinese Medicine Among Middle-aged and Older Chinese Adults: Results From the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Li, Xiang; Zou, Zhi-Yong; Li, Changwei

    2015-11-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is known as an integrative part of China's health care system, little is known on the prevalence and determinants of using TCM among the middle-aged and older Chinese population, especially among those with chronic conditions. The nationwide survey data of 17,708 Chinese adults aged 45 and older from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were used to estimate the prevalence of TCM. SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure was applied to identify factors associated with using TCM. Analysis took into account the complex survey design and nonresponse rate. The prevalence of using TCM was 19.3% (95% CI 18.4%-20.1%) among the overall participants and 24.5% (95% CI 23.4%-25.5%) among those with self-reported chronic conditions. Participants with stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney diseases were the most frequent users of TCM to treat their conditions. Age, individual income, and family income were associated with TCM use; however, when further controlling for chronic diseases, these variables became nonsignificant. Besides TCM, 4.4% (3.8%-5.0%) and 4.6% (4.0%-5.2%) of the overall participants and those with chronic conditions, respectively, used other forms of complementary and alternative medicine. The prevalence of using TCM was high among the middle-aged and older Chinese population. The use of TCM was mainly driven by chronic conditions. The main conditions that patients used TCM to treat were stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Needs of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison in Delaware, USA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Prohaska, Thomas R.; MacLeod, Kara E.; Ory, Marcia G.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ragland, David R.; Irmiter, Cheryl; Towne, Samuel D.; Satariano, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults in rural areas have unique transportation barriers to accessing medical care, which include a lack of mass transit options and considerable distances to health-related services. This study contrasts non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service utilization patterns and associated costs for Medicaid middle-aged and older adults in rural versus urban areas. Methods: Data were analyzed from 39,194 NEMT users of LogistiCare-brokered services in Delaware residing in rural (68.3%) and urban (30.9%) areas. Multivariable logistic analyses compared trip characteristics by rurality designation. Results: Rural (37.2%) and urban (41.2%) participants used services more frequently for dialysis than for any other medical concern. Older age and personal accompaniment were more common and wheel chair use was less common for rural trips. The mean cost per trip was greater for rural users (difference of $2910 per trip), which was attributed to the greater distance per trip in rural areas. Conclusions: Among a sample who were eligible for subsidized NEMT and who utilized this service, rural trips tended to be longer and, therefore, higher in cost. Over 50% of trips were made for dialysis highlighting the need to address prevention and, potentially, health service improvements for rural dialysis patients. PMID:28208610

  16. Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Needs of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison in Delaware, USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Prohaska, Thomas R; MacLeod, Kara E; Ory, Marcia G; Eisenstein, Amy R; Ragland, David R; Irmiter, Cheryl; Towne, Samuel D; Satariano, William A

    2017-02-10

    Background: Older adults in rural areas have unique transportation barriers to accessing medical care, which include a lack of mass transit options and considerable distances to health-related services. This study contrasts non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service utilization patterns and associated costs for Medicaid middle-aged and older adults in rural versus urban areas. Methods: Data were analyzed from 39,194 NEMT users of LogistiCare-brokered services in Delaware residing in rural (68.3%) and urban (30.9%) areas. Multivariable logistic analyses compared trip characteristics by rurality designation. Results: Rural (37.2%) and urban (41.2%) participants used services more frequently for dialysis than for any other medical concern. Older age and personal accompaniment were more common and wheel chair use was less common for rural trips. The mean cost per trip was greater for rural users (difference of $2910 per trip), which was attributed to the greater distance per trip in rural areas. Conclusions: Among a sample who were eligible for subsidized NEMT and who utilized this service, rural trips tended to be longer and, therefore, higher in cost. Over 50% of trips were made for dialysis highlighting the need to address prevention and, potentially, health service improvements for rural dialysis patients.

  17. A Cross-Sectional Examination of Vitamin D, Obesity, and Measures of Pain and Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Toni L.; Goodin, Burel R.; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Bartley, Emily J.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Horgas, Ann L.; Redden, David T.; Riley, Joseph L.; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is increasing with the aging population and is exacerbated by the growing numbers of obese older adults. Low levels of vitamin D, measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), in older adults and obese individuals are correlated with several negative health conditions, including chronic pain. This cross-sectional study sought to examine the interactive influence of 25(OH)D levels and obesity on knee osteoarthritis pain and functional performance measures. Methods The sample consisted of 256 (63% female) racially-diverse (55% Black/African Americans) middle-aged and older adults (mean age 56.8 years). Blood was collected for analysis of 25(OH)D by high performance liquid chromatography. Participants provided self-report regarding knee osteoarthritis pain and underwent a lower extremity functional performance test. Results Results demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower levels of 25(OH)D. Participants with adequate 25(OH)D levels reported significantly less knee osteoarthritis pain compared to participants with deficient or insufficient levels, regardless of obesity status. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between obesity and 25(OH)D levels for lower extremity functional performance, such that obese individuals with adequate 25(OH)D levels demonstrated better performance than those obese participants with deficient or insufficient 25(OH)D levels. Discussion The mechanisms by which adequate 25(OH)D levels are associated with pain severity and improved function have not been completely elucidated. It may be that the pleiotropic role of biologically active 25(OH)D influences pain and pain processing via peripheral and central mechanisms. Alternatively, higher levels of pain may lead to reduced outdoor activity, which may contribute to both obesity and decreased vitamin D. Thus, investigating vitamin D status in obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis warrants further study

  18. A Cross-sectional Examination of Vitamin D, Obesity, and Measures of Pain and Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Glover, Toni L; Goodin, Burel R; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Sotolongo, Adriana S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Bartley, Emily J; Bulls, Hailey W; Horgas, Ann L; Redden, David T; Riley, Joseph L; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing with the aging population and is exacerbated by the growing numbers of obese older adults. Low levels of vitamin D, measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), in older adults and obese individuals are correlated with several negative health conditions, including chronic pain. This cross-sectional study sought to examine the interactive influence of 25(OH)D levels and obesity on knee OA pain and functional performance measures. The sample consisted of 256 (63% female) racially diverse (55% black/African Americans) middle-aged and older adults (mean age 56.8 y). Blood was collected for analysis of 25(OH)D by high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants provided self-report regarding knee OA pain and underwent a lower extremity functional performance test. Results demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower levels of 25(OH)D. Participants with adequate 25(OH)D levels reported significantly less knee OA pain compared with participants with deficient or insufficient levels, regardless of obesity status. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between obesity and 25(OH)D levels for lower extremity functional performance, such that obese individuals with adequate 25(OH)D levels demonstrated better performance than those obese participants with deficient or insufficient 25(OH)D levels. The mechanisms by which adequate 25(OH)D levels are associated with pain severity and improved function have not been completely elucidated. It may be that the pleiotropic role of biologically active 25(OH)D influences pain and pain processing through peripheral and central mechanisms. Alternatively, higher levels of pain may lead to reduced outdoor activity, which may contribute to both obesity and decreased vitamin D. Thus, investigating vitamin D status in obese and nonobese individuals with knee OA warrants further study.

  19. The role of non-rapid eye movement slow-wave activity in prefrontal metabolism across young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Aizenstein, Howard J; Nofzinger, Eric A; James, Jeffrey A; Hasler, Brant P; Rosario-Rivera, Bedda L; Franzen, Peter L; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H; Kupfer, David J; Price, Julie C; Siegle, Greg J; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5-4 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is a marker for cortical reorganization, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. Greater slow wave activity during sleep may promote greater waking prefrontal metabolic rate and, in turn, executive function. However, this process may be affected by age. Here we examined whether greater NREM slow wave activity was associated with higher prefrontal metabolism during wakefulness and whether this relationship interacted with age. Fifty-two participants aged 25-61 years were enrolled into studies that included polysomnography and a (18) [F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography scan during wakefulness. Absolute and relative measures of NREM slow wave activity were assessed. Semiquantitative and relative measures of cerebral metabolism were collected to assess whole brain and regional metabolism, focusing on two regions of interest: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Greater relative slow wave activity was associated with greater dorsolateral prefrontal metabolism. Age and slow wave activity interacted significantly in predicting semiquantitative whole brain metabolism and outside regions of interest in the posterior cingulate, middle temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus, such that greater slow-wave activity was associated with lower metabolism in the younger participants and greater metabolism in the older participants. These results suggest that slow-wave activity is associated with cerebral metabolism during wakefulness across the adult lifespan within regions important for executive function. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Is cancer a good way to die? A population-based survey among middle-aged and older adults in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite improved outcomes, cancer remains widely feared, often because of its association with a long and protracted death as opposed to the quick death that people associate with that other common cause of adult mortality: heart disease. Former editor-in-chief of the BMJ Richard Smith's view that ‘cancer is the best way to die’ therefore attracted much criticism. We examined middle-aged and older adults' agreement with this view and compared their attitudes towards dying from cancer versus heart disease in terms of which was a good death. Methods This study was part of an online survey (February 2015) in a United Kingdom (UK) population sample of 50- to 70-year olds (n = 391), with sampling quotas for gender and education. Five characteristics of ‘a good death’ were selected from the end-of-life literature. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each characteristic for their own death to ensure their relevance to a population sample and the likelihood of each for death from cancer and heart disease. We also asked whether they agreed with Smith's view. Results At least 95% of respondents considered the selected five characteristics important for their own death. Death from cancer was rated as more likely to provide control over what happens (p < 0.001), control over pain and other symptoms (p < 0.01), time to settle affairs (p < 0.001), and time to say goodbye to loved ones (p < 0.001) compared with death from heart disease, but there were no differences in expectation of living independently until death (p > 0.05). Almost half (40%) agreed that cancer is ‘the best way to die’, with no differences by age (p = 0.40), gender (p = 0.85), or education (p = 0.27). Conclusion Despite the media commotion, a surprisingly high proportion of middle-aged and older adults viewed cancer as ‘the best way to die’ and rated cancer death as better than heart disease. Given that one in two of us are likely to be diagnosed with

  1. Is cancer a good way to die? A population-based survey among middle-aged and older adults in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane

    2016-03-01

    Despite improved outcomes, cancer remains widely feared, often because of its association with a long and protracted death as opposed to the quick death that people associate with that other common cause of adult mortality: heart disease. Former editor-in-chief of the BMJ Richard Smith's view that 'cancer is the best way to die' therefore attracted much criticism. We examined middle-aged and older adults' agreement with this view and compared their attitudes towards dying from cancer versus heart disease in terms of which was a good death. This study was part of an online survey (February 2015) in a United Kingdom (UK) population sample of 50- to 70-year olds (n = 391), with sampling quotas for gender and education. Five characteristics of 'a good death' were selected from the end-of-life literature. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each characteristic for their own death to ensure their relevance to a population sample and the likelihood of each for death from cancer and heart disease. We also asked whether they agreed with Smith's view. At least 95% of respondents considered the selected five characteristics important for their own death. Death from cancer was rated as more likely to provide control over what happens (p < 0.001), control over pain and other symptoms (p < 0.01), time to settle affairs (p < 0.001), and time to say goodbye to loved ones (p < 0.001) compared with death from heart disease, but there were no differences in expectation of living independently until death (p > 0.05). Almost half (40%) agreed that cancer is 'the best way to die', with no differences by age (p = 0.40), gender (p = 0.85), or education (p = 0.27). Despite the media commotion, a surprisingly high proportion of middle-aged and older adults viewed cancer as 'the best way to die' and rated cancer death as better than heart disease. Given that one in two of us are likely to be diagnosed with cancer, conversations about a good death from cancer

  2. Prevalence of frailty indicators and association with socioeconomic status in middle-aged and older adults in a swiss region with universal health insurance coverage: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Luthi, Jean-Christophe; Bowling, Christopher Barrett; Theler, Jean-Marc; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; McClellan, William

    2014-01-01

    Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006-2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930). Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity) were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50-65 years), 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  3. Longitudinal Assessment of Self- and Informant-Subjective Cognitive Complaints in a Sample of Healthy Late-Middle Aged Adults Enriched with a Family History of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Christopher R; Dowling, N Maritza; Racine, Annie M; Clark, Lindsay R; Berman, Sara E; Koscik, Rebecca L; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of self- and informant-subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), and to determine if SCC predict longitudinal changes in objective measures (OM) of cognitive function. The study included healthy and cognitively normal late middle-aged adults enriched with a family history of AD who were evaluated at up to three visits over a 4-year period. At each visit (Visit 1-3), self- and informant-SCC and OM were evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to determine if the longitudinal rate of change of self- and informant-SCC were associated with demographic variables, depressive symptoms, family history (FH), and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE4) status. The same modeling approach was used to examine the effect of Visit 1 SCC on longitudinal cognitive change after controlling for the same variables. At Visit 1, more self-SCC were associated with fewer years of education and more depressive symptoms. SCC were also associated with poorer performance on cognitive measures, such that more self-SCC at Visit 1 were associated with poorer performance on memory and executive functioning measures at Visit 1, while more informant-SCC were associated with faster rate of longitudinal decline on a measure of episodic learning and memory. FH and APOE4 status were not associated with SCC. Self- and informant-SCC showed an association with OM, albeit over different time frames in our late middle-aged sample. Additional longitudinal follow-up will likely assist in further clarifying these relationships as our sample ages and more pronounced cognitive changes eventually emerge. (JINS, 2017, 23, 617-626).

  4. Low dietary sodium intake is associated with enhanced vascular endothelial function in middle-aged and older adults with elevated systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Kristen L; Gates, Phillip E; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2009-10-01

    Age and increasing systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function is related to dietary sodium intake among middle-aged and older adults (MA and O) with elevated systolic BP. Data were analyzed on 25 otherwise healthy adults aged 48-73 years with high normal systolic BP or stage I systolic hypertension (130-159 mmHg). Self-reported sodium intake was <100 mmol/d in 12 (7 M) subjects (low sodium, 73+/-6 mmol/d) and between 100 and 200 mmol/d in 13 (9 M) subjects (normal sodium, 144+/-6 mmol/d). Groups did not differ in other dietary factors, age, body weight and composition, BP, metabolic risk factors, physical activity and maximal aerobic capacity. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, endothelin-1, oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL), antioxidant status and inflammatory markers did not differ between groups. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was 42% (mm Delta) to 52% (% Delta) higher in the low versus normal sodium group (p < 0.05). In all subjects, brachial artery FMD was inversely related to dietary sodium intake (FMD mm Delta r =-0.40, p < 0.05; %Delta r =-0.53, p < 0.01). Brachial artery FMD was not related to any other variable. In contrast, endothelium-independent dilation did not differ between groups (p >or= 0.24) and was not related to sodium intake in the overall group (p >or= 0.29). Low sodium intake is associated with enhanced brachial artery FMD in MA and O with elevated systolic BP. These results suggest that dietary sodium restriction may be an effective intervention for improving vascular endothelial function in this high-risk group.

  5. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2016-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Low dietary sodium intake is associated with enhanced vascular endothelial function in middle-aged and older adults with elevated systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Gates, Phillip E.; Pierce, Gary L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Age and increasing systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function is related to dietary sodium intake among middle-aged and older adults (MA and O) with elevated systolic BP. Methods Data were analyzed on 25 otherwise healthy adults aged 48–73 years with high normal systolic BP or stage I systolic hypertension (130–159 mmHg). Self-reported sodium intake was <100 mmol/d in 12 (7 M) subjects (low sodium, 73 ± 6 mmol/d) and between 100 and 200 mmol/d in 13 (9 M) subjects (normal sodium, 144 ± 6 mmol/d). Results Groups did not differ in other dietary factors, age, body weight and composition, BP, metabolic risk factors, physical activity and maximal aerobic capacity. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, endothelin-1, oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL), antioxidant status and inflammatory markers did not differ between groups. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was 42% (mm Δ) to 52% (% Δ) higher in the low versus normal sodium group (p <0.05). In all subjects, brachial artery FMD was inversely related to dietary sodium intake (FMD mm Δr =−0.40, p <0.05; %Δr =−0.53, p <0.01). Brachial artery FMD was not related to any other variable. In contrast, endothelium-independent dilation did not differ between groups (p ≥ 0.24) and was not related to sodium intake in the overall group (p ≥ 0.29). Conclusions Low sodium intake is associated with enhanced brachial artery FMD in MA and O with elevated systolic BP. These results suggest that dietary sodium restriction may be an effective intervention for improving vascular endothelial function in this high-risk group. PMID:19723834

  7. Yield of Screening for Coronary Artery Calcium in Early Middle-Age Adults Based on the 10-Year Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Greenland, Philip; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of coronary artery calcium (CAC) across Framingham Risk Score (FRS) strata and therefore determine FRS levels at which asymptomatic, young to early middle-age individuals could potentially benefit from CAC screening. BACKGROUND High CAC burden is associated with increased risk of coronary events beyond the FRS. Expert panel recommendations for CAC screening are based on data obtained in middle-age and older individuals. METHODS We included 2,831 CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study participants with an age range of 33 to 45 years. The number needed to screen ([NNS] number of people in each FRS stratum who need to be screened to detect 1 person with a CAC score above the specified cut point) was used to assess the yield of screening for CAC. CAC prevalence was compared across FRS strata using a chi-square test. RESULTS CAC scores >0 and ≥100 were present in 9.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. CAC prevalence and amount increased across higher FRS strata. A CAC score >0 was observed in 7.3%, 20.2%, 19.1%, and 44.8% of individuals with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, 5.1% to 10%, and >10%, respectively (NNS = 14, 5, 5, and 2, respectively). A CAC score of ≥100 was observed in 1.3%, 2.4%, and 3.5% of those with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, and 5.1% to 10%, respectively (NNS = 79, 41, and 29, respectively), but in 17.2% of those with an FRS >10% (NNS = 6). Similar trends were observed when findings were stratified by sex and race. CONCLUSIONS In this young to early middle-age cohort, we observed concordance between CAC prevalence/amount and FRS strata. Within this group, the yield of screening and possibility of identifying those with a high CAC burden (CAC score of ≥100) is low in those with an FRS of ≤10%, but considerable in those with an FRS >10%. PMID:22974805

  8. Associations between Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Test Performance among Older Adults from Six Middle Income Countries: Results from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Gildner, Theresa E.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in sleep architecture are common among older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends using population-based samples from non-Western societies. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to test several hypotheses related to sleep patterns and cognitive function. Methods: Data were drawn from the first wave of the World Health Organization's study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE), a longitudinal study using samples of older adults (≥ 50 years old) in 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Mexico). Self-report data provided information on sleep quality and sleep duration over the previous 2 nights, and 5 cognitive tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, and verbal fluency) were used to create a composite z-score of cognitive performance. Results: Individuals with intermediate sleep durations (> 6-9 h/night) exhibited significantly higher cognitive scores than individuals with short sleep (0-6 h/night; p < 0.001) or long sleep duration (> 9 h/night; p < 0.001). Self-reported sleep quality was positively correlated with cognitive z-score (p < 0.05). Significant sex differences were observed; men generally had higher sleep quality and cognitive scores, while women reported longer sleep durations. Discussion: This study documented positive correlations between cognitive scores and sleep quality, and between cognitive z-scores and intermediate sleep duration. These findings are clinically important given the growing rates of dementia and aging populations globally. Citation: Gildner TE, Liebert MA, Kowal P, Chatterji S, Snodgrass JJ. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive test performance among older adults from six middle income

  9. Developmental aspects of automatic word processing: language lateralization of early ERP components in children, young adults and middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Reading words elicits a very early evoked potential termed "recognition potential" with a latency of about 150 ms and clearly located in left posterior regions. A review of the current literature indicates that N150 marks the automatic lexical classification of a word, is relatively independent of the task, and is followed by a later negative and more anterior component which is sensitive to the task. However, from the literature it is not clear whether the left lateralization of the neural networks involved in word recognition changes with age and experience, and how this lateralization is related with behavioral performance. To this aim, based on a previously validated paradigm [Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2006. Language lateralization in Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks: a slow evoked potential study. Behavioral Brain Research 175, 296-304; Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2007. Influence of Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks on the early linguistic components N150 and N350. International Journal of Psychophysiology 64, 190-198], we ran an experiment on three samples of subjects, 28 children (mean: 10 years), 22 young adults (23 years) and 20 middle-aged subjects (59 years). Subjects had to read the same sample of words in three blocked tasks, Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic, while EEG was recorded from 38 scalp locations. Analysis performed on N150 and four regions of interest/quadrants revealed typical significant left posterior negativity in young and aged subjects, but reversed lateralization and greater right negativity in children compared with the two adult groups. Analysis of the later N350 revealed a significant three-way group x laterality x task interaction, showing greater left negativity on the Phonological task only in the two adult groups, and a bilateral component in children. Results indicate that the functional lateralization of linguistic neural networks involved in automatic word recognition and in phonological

  10. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight.

  11. Unexpected Regeneration in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lily I.; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5–11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight. PMID:19226206

  12. Effects of water-based exercise on bone health of middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simas, Vini; Hing, Wayne; Pope, Rodney; Climstein, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is a major health concern. Only exercises associated with high-impact and mechanical loading have been linked to a positive effect on bone turnover; however, these types of exercises may not always be appropriate for middle-aged and older adults due to physical decline or chronic disorders such as osteoarthritis. Water-based exercise (WBE) has been shown to affect different components of physical fitness, has lower risks of traumatic fracture, and applies less stress to joints. However, the effects of WBE on bone health are unclear. Objective This study aimed to explore whether WBE is effective in preventing age-related bone deterioration in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A search of relevant databases and the references of identified studies was performed. Critical narrative synthesis and meta-analyses were conducted. Results Eleven studies, involving 629 participants, met all inclusion criteria. All participants were postmenopausal women. Eight studies compared WBE to a sedentary control group, and four studies had land-based exercise (LBE) participants as a comparison group. Meta-analyses revealed significant differences between WBE and control group in favor of WBE for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (mean difference [MD] 0.03 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01 to 0.05) and femoral neck (MD 0.04 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.07). Significant differences were also revealed between WBE and LBE in favor of LBE for changes in lumbar spine BMD (MD −0.04 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.06 to −0.02). However, there was no significant difference between WBE and LBE for changes in femoral neck BMD (MD −0.03 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.08 to 0.01). Conclusion WBE may have benefits with respect to maintaining or improving bone health in postmenopausal women but less benefit when compared to LBE. Further research is required on this topic. PMID:28392717

  13. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation during eccentric resistance training in middle-aged and older adults: A double-blind randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chao, Hsiao-Han; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11). After pre-training testing, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of unilateral eccentric-only exercise training on knee extensor. Maximal leg strength and muscle quality increased in both groups (P<0.05). Relative increases in muscle mass were significantly greater in the placebo group than in the herb supplement group. Eccentric exercise training did not elicit any significant changes in muscle damage, oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. There were no significant changes in blood pressure or endothelium-dependent vasodilation. None of the measures of arterial stiffness changed significantly with eccentric resistance training in both groups. These results suggest that Chinese herb supplementation does not appear to modulate vascular, and inflammatory adaptations to eccentric exercise training in middle-aged and older adults. However, Chinese herb supplementation abolished the increase in muscle mass induced by eccentric resistance training. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02007304. Registered Dec. 5, 2013). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identity Processing Styles and the Need for Self-Esteem in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Surveys older adults (N=242) to determine the relationship between self esteem and identity processing styles of identity assimilation, accommodation, and a balance between consistency seeking and identity change. Identity assimilation and balance predicted increases in self esteem; identity accommodation predicted decreases. No interaction…

  16. TOLUENE EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF YOUNG-ADULT, MIDDLE-AGE AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  17. TOLUENE EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF YOUNG-ADULT, MIDDLE-AGE AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  18. Race and Gender Differences in Perceived Caregiver Availability for Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Howard, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Informal family caregivers are increasingly recognized as critical for meeting the needs of individuals with chronic diseases associated with aging. This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study. Design and Methods:…

  19. Whey protein supplementation does not affect exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer, Eileen M; Conley, Travis B; Kobza, Vanessa M; Sands, Laura P; Lim, Eunjung; Janle, Elsa M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of different quantities of whey protein on exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Therefore, we examined the effects of consuming 0.8-MJ supplements with 0 (n = 126), 10 (n = 112), 20 (n = 44), or 30 (n = 45) g whey protein twice daily in conjunction with resistance (2 d/wk) and aerobic (1 d/wk) exercise training in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based 9-mo study in men (n = 117) and women (n = 210); (age: 48 ± 7.9 y; BMI: 30.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Whey protein supplementation did not influence any of the following outcomes, some of which were affected by training. Among all participants, strength increased by 15 ± 12% (P < 0.001) and maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO(2)max) increased by 9 ± 15% (P < 0.001). Body weight was unchanged (0.1 ± 3.7 kg, P = 0.80), lean body mass increased by 1.9 ± 2.8% (0.95 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.001), and fat mass decreased by 2.6 ± 9.4% (-0.86 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001). Oral-glucose-tolerance testing showed that plasma glucose AUC was unchanged (-18.0 ± 170 mmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.16), insulin AUC decreased by 2.6 ± 32% (-7.5 ± 29 nmol/L·  3 h, P = 0.01), and HOMA-IR (0.2 ± 2.0, P = 0.81) and the insulin sensitivity index (0.3 ± 3.0, P = 0.63) were unchanged. Plasma concentrations of TG; total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; C-reactive protein; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; blood pressure; and waist circumference were unchanged. Whey protein supplementation did not affect exercise training-induced responses in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adults who maintained body weight.

  20. SELF-REPORTED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND BRAIN PET OF AMYLOID AND TAU IN NON-DEMENTED MIDDLE-AGED AND OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Siddarth, Prabha; Saito, Nathan Y.; Ercoli, Linda M.; Burggren, Alison C.; Kepe, Vladimir; Lavretsky, Helen; Miller, Karen J.; Kim, Jeanne; Huang, S. C.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether perceived changes in memory parallel changes in brain pathology is uncertain. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans using 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP) can measure levels of amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles in vivo. Here we investigate whether degree of self-reported memory impairment is associated with FDDNP-PET binding levels in persons without dementia. Methods 57 middle-aged and older adults without dementia (mean age [±SD] = 66.3±10.6 years), including 25 with normal aging and 32 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were assessed. The outcome measures were the four factor scores of the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ) (frequency of forgetting, seriousness of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use) and FDDNP-PET binding levels in medial temporal, lateral temporal, posterior cingulate, parietal, frontal, and global (overall average) regions of interest. Results After controlling for age, higher reported frequency of forgetting was associated with greater medial temporal (r = −0.29, p = 0.05), parietal (r = −0.30, p =.03), frontal (r = −0.35, p = 0.01) and global FDDNP-PET binding levels (r = −0.33, p = .02). The remaining MFQ factor scores were not significantly associated with FDDNP-PET binding levels, and no significant differences were found between normal aging and MCI subjects. Item analysis of the frequency of forgetting factor revealed 5 questions that yielded similar results as the full 32 question scale (r = −0.52, p = .0002). Conclusions These findings suggest that some forms of memory self-awareness, in particular the reported frequency of forgetting, may reflect extent of cerebral amyloid and tau brain pathology. PMID:22335970

  1. Hemodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Proximal Aorta in Young and Middle-Aged Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension: The Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Neeland, Ian J; Ayers, Colby; Peshock, Ronald; Berry, Jarett D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip; Mitchell, Gary F; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess characteristic impedance (Zc) of the proximal aorta in young and middle-aged individuals with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Zc is an index of aortic stiffness relative to aortic size. In the Dallas Heart Study, 2001 untreated participants 18 to 64 years of age (mean age: 42.3 years; 44% black race) were divided into the following groups based on office blood pressure (BP) measurements: (1) optimal BP (systolic BP [SBP] <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm Hg; n=837); (2) prehypertension (SBP 120-139 mm Hg and DBP 80-89 mm Hg; n=821); (3) ISH (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg; n=121); (4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=44); and (5) systolic-diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=178). Zc, aortic arch pulse wave velocity, and minimum ascending aortic size were quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, Zc was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (103.2±4.0 versus 68.3±2.1, 75.4±6.0, and 88.9±4.8 dyne*seconds/cm(5), respectively; all P<0.05). The Zc-ISH association did not differ by race. Aortic pulse wave velocity was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (6.3±0.3 versus 4.3±0.1, 4.4±0.4 and 5.5±0.3 m/s, respectively; all P<0.05), whereas aortic size was similar across groups (all P>0.2). Results were similar in a subgroup of 1551 participants 18 to 49 years of age. In a multiracial population-based sample, we found evidence of a mismatch between proximal aortic stiffness and diameter in young and middle-aged adults with ISH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  3. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  4. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on DNA damage, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress in middle-age adults.

    PubMed

    Goon, J A; Aini, A H Noor; Musalmah, M; Anum, M Y Yasmin; Nazaimoon, W M Wan; Ngah, W Z Wan

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms involving oxidative stress to explain the relationship between exercise and healthy aging are still unclear. Tai Chi participants and matched sedentary volunteers age 45 and above were enrolled. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities; levels of DNA damage using the comet assay; and malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were determined at 0, 6, and 12 months. Tai Chi subjects had decreased normal and increased mildly damaged DNA with elevated GPx activity after 6 months (n=25). Plasma MDA and AGE concentrations decreased significantly after 12 months (n=15) accompanied by increased SOD activity. This may be attributed to the hormesis effect, whereby mild induction of oxidative stress at the first 6 months of exercise resulted in stimulation of antioxidant defenses. These parameters were unchanged in the sedentary subjects in the first 6 months (n=27) except for elevated SOD activity. After 12 months, the sedentary subjects (n=17) had decreased normal DNA and increased severely damaged DNA with unaltered MDA and AGE levels while SOD and GPx activities were significantly elevated. Regular Tai Chi exercise stimulated endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced oxidative damage markers.

  5. Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Gildner, Theresa E; Thiele, Elizabeth; Biritwum, Richard B; Yawson, Alfred E; Mensah, George; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Kalula, Sebastiana Zimba; Salinas Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Liebert, Melissa A; Eick, Geeta; Sterner, Kirstin N; Barrett, Tyler M; Duedu, Kwabena; Gonzales, Ernest; Ng, Nawi; Negin, Joel; Jiang, Yong; Byles, Julie; Madurai, Savathree Lorna; Minicuci, Nadia; Snodgrass, J Josh; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, we examine patterns of self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and prevalences of algorithm/measured test-based, undiagnosed, and untreated NCDs in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Nationally representative samples of older adults aged ≥50 years were analyzed from wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010; n = 34,149). Analyses focused on 6 conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, and hypertension. Outcomes for these NCDs were: 1) self-reported disease, 2) algorithm/measured test-based disease, 3) undiagnosed disease, and 4) untreated disease. Algorithm/measured test-based prevalence of NCDs was much higher than self-reported prevalence in all 6 countries, indicating underestimation of NCD prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Undiagnosed prevalence of NCDs was highest for hypertension, ranging from 19.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1, 21.3) in India to 49.6% (95% CI: 46.2, 53.0) in South Africa. The proportion untreated among all diseases was highest for depression, ranging from 69.5% (95% CI: 57.1, 81.9) in South Africa to 93.2% (95% CI: 90.1, 95.7) in India. Higher levels of education and wealth significantly reduced the odds of an undiagnosed condition and untreated morbidity. A high prevalence of undiagnosed NCDs and an even higher proportion of untreated NCDs highlights the inadequacies in diagnosis and management of NCDs in local health-care systems.

  6. Whole-body vibration training improves balance control and sit-to-stand performance among middle-aged and older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Lee, Sangwoo; Wang, Chien-Chun; Lee, Po-Fu; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance, which increases falling risk. The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility and effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensor muscle power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand performance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in the United States. A randomized pilot study with participant blinding was conducted. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and compliance rate. Twenty-nine community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to perform body-weight exercises with either an individualized vibration frequency and amplitude, a fixed vibration frequency and amplitude, or no vibration. Isokinetic knee extensor power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand tests were conducted before beginning the exercises (baseline) and after 8 weeks of training. With a favorable recruitment rate (58%) and compliance rates (attrition 9%; adherence 85%), the intervention was deemed feasible. The limits of stability endpoint excursion score for the individualized frequency-amplitude group was increased by 8.8 (12.9%; P = 0.025) after training, and that group's maximum excursion score was increased by 9.2 (11.5%; P = 0.006) after training. The average weight transfer time score was significantly decreased by 0.2 s in the fixed group. The participants in the individualized group demonstrated a significant increase (3.2%) in weight rising index score after 8 weeks of WBV training. WBV training is feasible for use with elderly people, and this study achieved good recruitment and compliance. The present paper suggests that 8 weeks of WBV training improves limits of stability and sit-to-stand performance. Future studies must determine whether WBV training improves other factors that affect posture control. This study was registered at the Texas Woman's University Institutional Review Board [TWU IRB 17632] on the 3rd of November 2014.

  7. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June-November 2014. Adults aged 35-64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  8. Effects of music videos on sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chang, En-Ting; Li, Yin-Ming; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Lee, Li-Hua; Wang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Listening to soothing music has been used as a complementary therapy to improve sleep quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for the effects of music videos (MVs) on sleep quality in adults with insomnia as assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In this randomized crossover controlled trial, we compared the effects of a peaceful Buddhist MV intervention to a usual-care control condition before bedtime on subjective and objective sleep quality in middle-aged and older adults with chronic insomnia. The study was conducted in a hospital's sleep laboratory. We randomly assigned 38 subjects, aged 50-75 years, to an MV/usual-care sequence or a usual-care/MV sequence. After pretest data collection, testing was held on two consecutive nights, with subjects participating in one condition each night according to their assigned sequence. Each intervention lasted 30 min. Sleep was assessed using PSG and self-report questionnaires. After controlling for baseline data, sleep-onset latency was significantly shorter by approximately 2 min in the MV condition than in the usual-care condition (p = .002). The MV intervention had no significant effects relative to the usual care on any other sleep parameters assessed by PSG or self-reported sleep quality. These results suggest that an MV intervention may be effective in promoting sleep. However, the effectiveness of a Buddhist MV on sleep needs further study to develop a culturally specific insomnia intervention. Our findings also suggest that an MV intervention can serve as another option for health care providers to improve sleep onset in people with insomnia.

  9. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, V.Z.; Guerra, R.L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females) performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2) was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and the WV at VT (WV-VT) was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h); the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84); the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96), and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87). The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h) and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36). HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23369974

  10. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  11. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Royland, Joyce E.; Richards, Judy E.; Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C.

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  12. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Royland, Joyce E; Richards, Judy E; Besas, Jonathan; Macphail, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at -80°C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.