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Sample records for middle east water

  1. REPRODUCTIVE PERIODICITIES OF MARINE ANIMALS OF TROPICAL MIDDLE EAST WATERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AQUATIC ANIMALS, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), MARINE BIOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, ECHINODERMATA , MOLLUSCA, CRUSTACEA, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, SEA WATER, TEMPERATURE, INLAND WATERWAYS, RED SEA, MIDDLE EAST.

  2. The Southeast Anatolian Project and Middle East Water: Implications for NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994) and Natasha Beschorner, Adelphi Paper 273 Water and...1992), 73. 17 Daniel Hillel, Rivers of Eden: The Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994), 103...Quest for Peace in the Middle East ( Oxford University Press , 1994), 107. 23 Natasha Beschorner, Adelphi Paper 273 Water and Instability in the

  3. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  4. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  5. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa. Arabic edition

    SciTech Connect

    Berkoff, J.

    1995-03-21

    Proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to managing water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. The people of the Middle East and North Africa have faced scarce water resources since time immemorial. Today, burgeoning populations dwarf the concerns of the past. New strategies for planning and managing water are urgently needed to avoid escalating conflicts and to reverse environmental degradation. This booklet details the implications of a new World Bank policy for the region, calling for a strong effort by governments and Bank staff to manage water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. A practical, step-by-step strategy is proposed that could lead to new Bank-funded operations throughout the water sector. The issues involved are complex but must be addressed if water scarcity is not to hinder development projects. The strategy proposed in this booklet could help build a new partnership for sustainable water management between the World Bank and regional governments.

  6. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  7. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  8. Progressive development of water resources in the Middle East for sustainable water supply in a period of climate change.

    PubMed

    Issar, Arie S; Adar, Eilon

    2010-11-28

    The history of the Middle East has been influenced by past global climatic changes. Warm periods caused droughts, resulting in desertification, migration and war. Cold periods were humid and brought prosperity and agricultural settlement to the desert fringes. The forecast based on this correlation is that the present global warming will cause the drying up of the Middle East. As in the past, this negative impact should be mitigated by using the groundwater resources stored from past wetter times. This will involve deep drilling, pumping and modern irrigation methods within the framework of a new policy of 'progressive development', which will entail the use of currently undeveloped natural water resources beyond that of present water replenishment. While the use of the one-time groundwater reserves is taking place, a master long-term comprehensive progressive development plan for the Middle East will be prepared. This plan will include the step-by-step development of other water resources such as treated effluents, desalinated brackish groundwater and desalination of seawater.

  9. Modeling water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Negewo, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An advanced physical based distributed hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectorial water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 132 km3 yr-1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr-1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection; an increase of 157 km3. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 to 283 km3 in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  10. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Debele, B.

    2012-09-01

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr-1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr-1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr-1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr-1 to 283 km3 yr-1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  11. Improving water use in agriculture. Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tuijl, W.V.

    1993-08-01

    As water becomes more scarce, many countries are under pressure to conserve water, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper examines strategies that save water in river basins, irrigation projects, and on farms throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Countries elsewhere can use these suggestions in their own water conservation strategies. Improved surface irrigation techniques and micro-irrigation systems are evaluated. These systems use sprinkler, drip/trickle, or micro-spray methods. The author reviews the preliminary work that is needed to install modern irrigation technologies. He describes the role that governments must play to improve the infrastructure and institutions that affect water use. He also provides detailed case studies of efficient irrigation practices in Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. These case studies describe the conditions that made better irrigation technology a necessity. They look at ways to plan for development, management, and utilization of water in the face of growing demand. Key topics include how to oversee water rights, adopt essential land reforms, and install a graduated system of water pricing and allocation. The study also recommends projects in water conservation and research.

  12. EPA Efforts in the Middle East

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA’s environmental cooperation in the Middle East focuses on capacity building in environmental governance, water pollution and water security, clean fuels and vehicles, public participation, and pollution prevention.

  13. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  14. The politics of assessment: water and sanitation MDGs in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Zawahri, Neda; Sowers, Jeannie; Weinthal, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is generally considered to be making adequate progress towards meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for halving the proportion of the population with inadequate access to drinking water and sanitation. Progress towards achieving Target 10 is evaluated by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), run by UNICEF and WHO. This article shows that the assessment methodologies employed by the JMP significantly overstate coverage rates in the drinking water and sanitation sectors, by overlooking and ‘not counting’ problems of access, affordability, quality of service and pollution. The authors show that states in MENA often fail to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services, particularly in densely populated informal settlements, and that many centralized water and sanitation infrastructures contribute to water pollution and contamination. Despite the glaring gap between the MDG statistics and the evidence available from national and local reports, exclusionary political regimes in the region have had few incentives to adopt more accurate assessments and improve the quality of service. While international organizations have proposed some reforms, they too lack incentives to employ adequate measures that gauge access, quality and affordability of drinking water and sanitation services.

  15. Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Buzo, Z. J.; Rainey, Marshall B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60. Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health. PMID:20604119

  16. Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in East Africa and the Middle East Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in East Africa and the Middle East regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial East Africa (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial East Africa has shown promising results. We found that MAM

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential.

  18. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  19. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  1. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  2. Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana

    Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also been found in camels and in one bat. While it is believed to come from animals, ... Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated December 2, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  4. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  5. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  6. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  7. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  8. Quality of water in mines in the Western Middle Coal Field, Anthracite Region, east-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.; Growitz, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of mine water in the 75 sq-mi Western Middle anthracite field, Pennsylvania was determined by sampling discharges and boreholes at 60 abandoned and flooded mines during 1975-78. The Vulcan-Buck Mountain mine, east-northeast of Mahanoy City, contains an estimated 6,100 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of 380 to 460 micromhos and a pH of 4.4 to 4.6 units. Twenty-two mines are in a 15-sq mi area between Mahanoy City and Girardville, all of which closed prior to 1958. Seven of these mines in the Mahanoy Basin may contain 30,000 acre-ft of water. Specific conductance ranges from 630 micromhos in the Tunnel mine to 1,800 micromhos in the Gilberton mine. Fifteen of these mines are in the Shenandoah complex; specific conductance ranges from 240 to 310 micromhos in mines in the eastern end of the complex to 2,400 micromhos in the western end. The specific conductance of water in 25 mines in the Mount Carmel-Shamokin area ranges from 460 to 980 micromhos. The North Franklin mine near Trevorton contains about 4,900 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of about 1,100 micromhos. (USGS)

  9. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  10. Middle East Mass Communications: Selected Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowlana, Hamid

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of bibliographical sources for research on the Middle East is followed by a bibliography of information and research from 1950-1971. The Middle East is defined as that group of countries bounded on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iran, on the south by the Persian Gulf, and on the west by Egypt. (JEG)

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Stanley; Vijay, Rahul

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has infected over 1600 individuals with nearly 600 deaths since it was first identified in human populations in 2012. No antiviral therapies or vaccines are available for its treatment or prophylaxis. Approaches to the development of MERS vaccines are discussed herein, including a summary of previous efforts to develop vaccines useful against human and non-human coronaviruses. A striking feature of MERS is the important role that camels have in transmission. Camel vaccination may be a novel approach to preventing human infection.

  12. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts…

  13. Children in the Muslim Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, Ed.

    The Middle East has been undergoing vast social and economic change, but in all reports available today, little attention has been paid to the situation of children. The purpose of this book is to help readers better understand the children of the Middle East to give a sense of their lives today and a sense of attitudes toward children and their…

  14. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  15. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development.

  16. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately −27.2±0.6 mm yr−1 equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of “best current capabilities” in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr−1 equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget. PMID:23658469

  17. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region.

    PubMed

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, Minhui; Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2±0.6 mm yr(-1) equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km(3) during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of "best current capabilities" in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr(-1) equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km(3) in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  18. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; De Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 millimeters per year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kimometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 millimeters per year equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  19. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 mm per yr equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kilometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 mm per yr equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget

  20. Resource Materials on the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catholic Near East Welfare Association, New York, NY.

    This annotated bibliography is intended for all who want to learn more about the Middle East--the land, the people, and the communities of ancient and modern times. The document is specifically designed to enrich religion and social studies programs in elementary and middle schools. The types of resources listed are: resource directories,…

  1. MISR Views the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.

    At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.

    Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.

    'MISR', as it turns

  2. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  3. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead to new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.

  4. The Middle East in global strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the links between international politics and strategy. The contributors provide an analysis of the strategic interests of the major international actors in the Middle East. The policies of the superpowers toward the Middle East are evaluated. The awareness of the strategic value and interests of two key regional actors - Syria and Israel - are discussed. The author further discusses NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), West European allies and the U.S., as well as Soviet dominance in foreign policy decisions made in the WTO. There is emphasis on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Iran-Iraq war.

  5. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  6. Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, E.; Safari, A.; Mostafaie, A.; Schumacher, M.; Delavar, M.; Awange, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and Iran's six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs) over 2003-2013 is assessed in this study. Our investigation is performed based on the TWF that are estimated as temporal derivatives of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) products and those from the reanalysis products of ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land. An inversion approach is applied to consistently estimate the spatio-temporal changes of soil moisture and groundwater storage compartments of the seven basins during the study period from GRACE TWS, altimetry, and land surface model products. The influence of TWF trends on separated water storage compartments is then explored. Our results, estimated as basin averages, indicate negative trends in the maximums of TWF peaks that reach up to -5.2 and -2.6 (mm/month/year) over 2003-2013, respectively, for the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins, which are most likely due to the reported meteorological drought. Maximum amplitudes of the soil moisture compartment exhibit negative trends of -11.1, -6.6, -6.1, -4.8, -4.7, -3.8, and -1.2 (mm/year) for Urmia, Tigris-Euphrates, Khazar, Persian, Markazi, Sarakhs, and Hamun basins, respectively. Strong groundwater storage decrease is found, respectively, within the Khazar -8.6 (mm/year) and Sarakhs -7.0 (mm/year) basins. The magnitude of water storage decline in the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins is found to be bigger than the decrease in the monthly accumulated TWF indicating a contribution of human water use, as well as surface and groundwater flow to the storage decline over the study area.

  7. Education Quality in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  8. Estimation of Severe Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases in the Middle East, 2012–2016

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Rudd, Jessica M.; Pham, Huong T.; Haber, Yonat; Pesik, Nicki; Cetron, Martin S.; Gambhir, Manoj; Gerber, Susan I.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from travelers to 4 countries in the Middle East, we estimated 3,250 (95% CI 1,300–6,600) severe cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome occurred in this region during September 2012–January 2016. This number is 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded in these countries. PMID:27648640

  9. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  10. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely-Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Ozdogan, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.

    2012-12-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  11. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  12. The post-war Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  13. Security and Defense of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    groundwork for the Turco-German alliance had been well and truly laid by the state visit of Kaiser Wilhem II to Abdul Hamid in 1898 and by the...Canal, Sir John Maxwell, Commander of the British forces in Egypt had by December 1914, deployed the 10th and llth Indian Divisions for the defense...Boston: Little, Brown, 1975. 23. Curtis, Michael. The Middle East Reader. New York, New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1986. 24. Glubb, John , Sir. A Short

  14. Israel - Keystone of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    8 April 1966 ISRAEL - KEYSTONE OF THE MIDDLE EAST By *» * SEP 27 1966 SIDNEY GRITZ Colonel, Adjutant General’s Corps!. REPRODUCTION OF THIS...earth under the leadership of the World Zionist •’•United Nations, Everyman’s United Nations, p. 7. ^Nadav Safran , "Israel Today: A Profile...emotional force is considered. ^ Safran , op. cit., p. 4. "William R. Polk and others, Backdrop to Tragedy, p. 133. The tribal ancestors of the Jews

  15. Recent developments of the Middle East catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mehdi; Amini, Hamideh; Yazdi, Pouye; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine Betul; Kalafat, Dogan; Erdik, Mustafa; Giardini, Domenico; Khan, M. Asif; Tsereteli, Nino

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geophysical, geological, tectonic, and seismicity data, this region is subdivided to nine subregions, consisting of Alborz-Azerbaijan, Afghanistan-Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, Central Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Makran, Zagros, and Turkey (Eastern Anatolia; after 30° E). After omitting the duplicate events, aftershocks, and foreshocks by using the Gruenthal method, and uniform all magnitude to Mw scale, 28,244 main events remain for the new catalog of Middle East from 1250 B.C. through 2006. The magnitude of completeness ( Mc) was determined as 4.9 for five out of nine subregions, where the least values of Mc were found to be 4.2. The threshold of Mc is around 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0, for the time after 1950, 1963, 1975, and 2000, respectively. The average of teleseismic depths in all regions is less than 15 km. Totally, majority of depth for Kopeh-Dagh and Central Iran, Zagros, and Alborz-Azerbaijan, approximately, is 15, 13, and 11 km and for Afghanistan-Pakistan, Caucasus, Makran, Turkey (after 30° E), and Saudi Arabia is about 9 km.

  16. Flash Point: Middle East; A Selective Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Jean . PARTY AND POLITICS IN ISRAEL: THREE VISIONS OF A JEWISH STATE. New York, NY: Longman, 1981. 228 p. JQ 1825 .P37 18 Ismael, Tareq Y. IRAQ AND...AFFAIRS 61:67-83, Fall 1982; Discussion 61:457-459, Winter 1982/83 "Begin’s War and the Future of Judaism." M. Pinto -Duschinsky. GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION...Comunity.- Jacques Roumani. MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL 37:151-168, Spring 1983 ’From War to Peace: The Transition Between Egypt and Israel.* SP. Cohen and E.E. Azar

  17. The Middle East, and Her Geographic Approaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAKHLEH, EMILE A. "BAHRAIN AND QATAR: SOCIOPOLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS", AEI, 2:3,4,:65-7, ,* .. L . -’. -> .’ --. ’..’ ~ .- ~. -.p .-, CYPRUS WANS, T.W. " CRISIS ...34 JORUSI, 105൥-47, FEB.1960. STEWART, RICHARD A. "OMAN: THE NEXT CRISIS ? USNIP, 106:97-102,APR.1980. TREMAYNE, PENELOPE. "END OF & TEN YEARS WAR...9, JAN.1974. "KUWAIT: DETERRENCE AND INSTABILITY," AFJI, 118:59-60, NOV.1980. LEE, DAVID "BRITISH DEPARTURE FROM THE MIDDLE EAST: THE KUWAIT CRISIS OF

  18. In search of an oasis: Opportunity in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    VanderMeer, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    Across the Middle East, people contend with heat, dust, lack of rainfall, and a harsh geography. In this century, industrial development, political upheaval, and war have left a legacy of environmental and health problems. Scarce arable land is being lost to desertification. Fresh water is diverted, misused, and polluted with hazardous wastes, sewage, and agricultural and other chemicals. Coastal zones are polluted with oil, threatening pristine coral reefs, wild fowl, and fishing areas. Unprecedented urbanization and migration of traditionally rural peoples and resettlement of political refugees and foreign workers strain city services. Yet there is reason for optimism in the Middle East. Peace in the region is in sight, bringing an opportunity to stop the rapid environmental decline. Technology is available to assess the degradation, and the impact of environmental conditions on human health can be quantified.

  19. East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly section than CO-172-AO-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. North side, middle section, looking east from the left edge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, middle section, looking east from the left edge of the pavilion in CO-172-BR-15. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow.

  2. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  3. Sn Attenuation in the Middle-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Turkish-Iranian Plateau and Zagros Mountains, a dominant tectonic feature in the Middle-East, were formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate and Eurasia plates). In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Middle-East. We also determined the Sn propagation efficiencies visually and tomographically map qualitatively assigned Sn propagation efficiencies across the Middle-East. The Sn Attenuation Tomography show moderately low Q values beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. The Sn Efficiency Tomography shows high attenuation within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and low attenuation in the Arabian Plate and across the Caspian Sea. This is consistent with prior studies that suggest a hot and thin lithosphere beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and it also suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in Sn Q across the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Due to the signal-to-noise criterion to select amplitudes and the efficiency criterion to select two-station and reverse-two-station paths for the inversion, the data are left-censored and the

  4. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information

  5. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  6. Middle East: Slow year on the Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article surveys the petroleum outlook in the Middle East area. Observations include: Saudi Arabia's money crunch continues to keep the lid on exploration, production work; Abu Dhabi has also curtailed operations because of low oil prices, reduced budgets; Followup drilling has been disappointing around recent gas strikes in Sharjah, Dubai; Oman's aggressive EandP program will result in a 30% drilling increase this year; Kuwait isn't slowing down its development of light oil either; the goal is 40 new wells; Iran and Iraq are still boosting export capacities despite attacks on oil facilities; North Yemen's Alief field is a major find. Numerous structures remain to be drilled; Syria, Bahrain have development projects underway. Turkey is attracting U.S. majors.

  7. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly

  8. Sri Lankan housemaids in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Eelens, F C; Schampers, A J

    1990-01-01

    Traditional studies of migration patterns have only examined male migration patterns. This was based on the assumption that any female migration would be associational in nature. However, a large migration movement of Sri Lankan housemaids to the Middle East has created the need to study the impacts of female migration of the families and society. Out of approximately 200,000 Sri Lankan migrant contract workers, 125,000-150,000 were women working in the Middle East. Sri Lanka has the highest portion of female to male migrant workers in Asia. This study is based on a survey of 899 return migrant and 859 family members of current migrants. Almost all the female migrants find employment through brokers, while 24.9% rely on friends or relatives abroad. These brokers charge a large fee which is often borrowed at 15-30% interest. The current minimum wage stipulated for Sri Lankan female overseas labor is $100/month. 71% earn less than that. The average salary is $95/month. The main reasons for returning is that their contract was finished (57.3%), sickness or injury (6.8%), too heavy a workload (5.8%). The situation that migrant labor puts Sri Lankan women in is complex. For the poor, it is the best source of income for their families. Often the women are the chief contributors to their families' income. However, this short term benefit is outweighed by several disadvantages. The amount of money they earn is offset by the broker fee, travel expenses, and other costs. The money they are able to send home is often spent by the time they return. Further, the societal image of migrant female workers is low because of stories of misconduct by some women (0.7% cited pregnancy as their reason for returning). Other disadvantages include a reduction in their will to fight for emancipation and the stress of being away from their families for so long (the typical contract is for 2 years).

  9. Mental health and psychiatry in the Middle East: historical development.

    PubMed

    Mohit, A

    2001-05-01

    A brief account is given of attitudes towards mental health and the development of psychiatry in the Middle East from an historical perspective. The Middle East is considered as a cultural entity and the influence of the beliefs and practices of ancient times on the collective mind of the people of the Region is discussed.

  10. Communication in the Middle East: A Basic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    This 48-item bibliography on communication in the Middle East includes books and journal articles published between 1951 and 1990. The bibliography includes materials dealing with Iran, Israel, Islam, media coverage of the Middle East, rhetorical strategies, and the rest of the Arab world. (RS)

  11. The Middle East Institute Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Abstracts and evaluations of over 50 instructional and resource materials related to the Middle East are presented in the resource guide. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary school social studies classroom teachers as they seek information about availability and potential uses of resources dealing with the Middle East. Four…

  12. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  13. Middle East future line plans muddled following Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that the recent Gulf War has left the middle East in an awkward situation on current and future pipe line projects. Much of Kuwait's production capacity was destroyed and its ability to regain its previous position as an oil producer in the Middle East in the near term is questionable. Iraq's production remains severely curtailed by international agreement. Saudi Arabia and the other Middle Eastern states continue to produce at the higher than normal levels instigated in the early days of the crisis. The continuing efforts to bring the Kuwait oilfields under control, coupled with ongoing excessive production by some Middle eastern countries and the world response to Sadam Hussein's questionable intentions leave the Middle East pipe line construction picture muddled. The war forestalled pipe line projects in Kuwait and Iraq and many of the planned projects now are questionable. In other areas of the Middle East, the war may have firmed tentative plans for pipe line construction.

  14. Climatology of the Middle East dust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, M.; Irannejad, P.; Shao, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Major sources of dust in the Middle East have been identified by analyzing the surface meteorological records from weather stations for the period 1998-2003. The geographical distribution, possible sources, and the wind patterns favoring the occurrence of four different types of dust events, i.e. dust-in-suspension, blowing dust, dust storm and severe dust storm, are examined. Four major regions of dust events are found in the study domain. These regions cover Sudan, parts of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, Pakistan, and parts of Iran and Afghanistan. The highest frequency of dust events occurs in Sudan, where the number of dust-in-suspension and severe dust storm is maximum. These events generally occur when north-easterly and north-westerly winds of less than 8 ms-1 prevail. The maximum numbers of blowing dust and dust storm are observed over Iran and Afghanistan as a result of strong north-westerlies, known as Sistan's 120-day winds. The highest values of mean dust concentration, estimated based on visibility, are found in Pakistan. The region of Saudi Arabia and Iraq are associated with relatively strong wind speeds during dust events that may carry dust particles from the sources. Because the synoptic features responsible for dust emission are different, the peak of the seasonal cycle of dust events occurs in different months of the year in different dust source regions. The major sources of dust are seen in the western parts of the domain during the winter months and shift to the east progressing towards the summer.

  15. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  16. Ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive account of the present status of knowledge regarding the ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Middle East and North Africa. He discusses in detail the types of habitat favoured by this snail, its life-cycle and seasonal variations in its populations, the effect of ecological factors on its distribution and occurrence, and the relationship between its control and its bionomics, stressing the many aspects of these subjects that require further investigation and suggesting lines for future research. In addition, the author outlines briefly the effect of some human activities (for example, extension of irrigation and agriculture), in their relationship to the snail host, on the incidence of bilharziasis haematobia in the Middle East and Africa. He concludes the paper with a summary of the three basic needs in respect of bilharziasis control: ecological research; prevention of pollution of waters with human excrement; and avoidance of human contact with infective water. PMID:13573115

  17. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire “decline.” PMID:22355126

  18. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-03-06

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire "decline."

  19. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  20. Evening Pass Over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 19:46:23 ...

  1. Middle East Environmental Ministries, Partners and other Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA works with many partners to ensure capacity building and efficient, successful programs, including environmental ministries, enforcement networks, non-governmental organizations, and more in the Middle East and North Africa region.

  2. Middle east crisis has varied effect on wastewater utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-10-01

    The jump in oil prices that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in early August of 1990 was felt throughout the US economy. The authors particularly discuss the impact of the Middle East Crisis as it relates to wastewater utilities.

  3. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  4. Forecasters Handbook for the Middle East/Arabian Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Naval Weather Service World-Wide Airfield Summaries, Middle East. Vol. 1I, Part 1 ( Revised ) and Part 2 ( Revised ), National Technical Information...Technical Applications Center, Air Weather Service, 1974: U.S. Naval Weather Service World-Wide Airfield Summaries, Middle East. Vol. II, Part I ( Revised ...and Part 2 ( Revised ), National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, VA, 22151. Environmental Technical Applications Center, Air Weather

  5. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  6. The Middle East: The Image and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jonathan

    Ten authors offer a large array of theoretical and practical ideas for developing a viable Middle Eastern K-12 curriculum. A major purpose of the 10 articles is to help teachers in the United States become aware of problems confronting them in teaching about the Middle East. In the first article, the author discusses some problems--for example,…

  7. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing datasets have been increasingly employed as an ancillary source of essential hydrologic measurements used for the modeling of hydrologic fluxes. Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological forcing parameter in hydrological investigations and land surface modeling, yet it is largely unknown or misused in water budgets and hydrologic models. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite products are widely being used by the scientific community due to the general spatial and temporal paucity of precipitation data in many parts of world and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This research utilized a two-fold approach towards understanding the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall and its application in hydrologic models First, we evaluated the uncertainty, accuracy, and precision of various rainfall satellite products (i.e. TRMM 3B42 V6, TRMM 3B42 V7, TRMM 3B42 V7a and TRMM 3B42 RT) in comparison to in situ gauge data from more than 150 rain gauges in Morocco and across the MENA region. Our analyses extend over many parts of the MENA region in order to assess the effect that different climatic regimes and topographic characteristics have on each TRMM product. Secondly, we analyzed and compared the hydrologic fluxes produced from different modeling inputs for several watersheds within the MENA region. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic models have been developed for the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco), Asyuti (Egypt), and the Sakarya (Turkey) watersheds. SWAT models produced for each watershed include, one model for each of the four satellite TRMM product (STBM-V6, STBM-V7, STBM-V7a, and STBM-RT) and one model for rain gauge based model (RGBM). Findings indicate the best correlation between field-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements is the TRMM V7a (Pearson coefficient: 0.875) product, followed by TRMM V7 (Pearson coefficient: 0.84), then TRMM V6 (Pearson coefficient: 0

  8. Fatality risks for nosocomial outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Middle East and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jianping; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Hu, Yan; Ren, Yajin; Geng, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhiruo; Liu, Shelan

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012. The largest known outbreak outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015. As of 29 June 2016, 1769 laboratory-confirmed cases (630 deaths; 35.6 % case fatality rate [CFR]) had been reported from 26 countries, particularly in the Middle East. However, the CFR for hospital outbreaks was higher than that of family clusters in the Middle East and Korea. Here, we compared the mortality rates for 51 nosocomial outbreaks in the Middle East and one outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea. Our findings showed the CFR in the Middle East was much higher than that in South Korea (25.9 % [56/216] vs. 13.8 % [24/174], p = 0.003). Infected individuals who died were, on average, older than those who survived in both the Middle East (64 years [25-98] vs. 46 years [2-85], p = 0.000) and South Korea (68 years [49-82] vs. 53.5 years [16-87], p = 0.000). Similarly, the co-morbidity rates for the fatal cases were statistically higher than for the nonfatal cases in both the Middle East (64.3 % [36/56] vs. 28.1 % [45/160], p = 0.000) and South Korea (45.8 % [11/24] vs. 12.0 % [18/150], p = 0.000). The median number of days from onset to confirmation of infection in the fatal cases was longer than that for survivors from the Middle East (8 days [1-47] vs. 4 days [0-14], p = 0.009). Thus, older age, pre-existing concurrent diseases, and delayed confirmation increase the odds of a fatal outcome in nosocomial MERS-CoV outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea.

  9. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Evaluating Land Information System (LIS) capabilities in simulating the water budget and surface water dynamics over data-scarce areas in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getirana, A.; Jung, H. C.; McNally, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cretaux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in land surface modeling and remote sensing, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. Uncertainties are particularly high in areas where data for model calibration and evaluation are scarce or unavailable. This study presents recent developments in the hydrological modeling over the Tigris-Euphrates River basin. An intercomparison effort is performed in order to determine how models and meteorological forcings represent physical processes. In this sense, multiple experiments are performed using state-of-the-art capabilities implemented in the NASA Land Information System (LIS). The NASA Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Applications (MERRA) and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological datasets are used as main forcings. Additional experiments are performed replacing their precipitation with the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset. Both Catchment and Noah land surface models coupled with the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme are considered to simulate the water budget and surface water dynamics. Due to the scarce ground-based data availability, satellite-based estimates of the terrestrial water storage, evapotranspiration, water level and floodplain extent are used as complimentary information to evaluate the hydrological behavior in the basin. In particular, the water shortage observed in 2015 in that region is analyzed based on model outputs. Finally, we discuss prospects and challenges in considering anthropogenic impacts (irrigation and dams) on the hydrological modeling of the basin.

  11. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  12. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  13. The Middle East Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent/region, tables and graphics depicting the size, population, resources and water, commodities , trade, cities, languages, religions, industry, energy, food and agriculture, demographic statistics, aspects of the national economies, and aspects of the national governments of the Middle East.…

  14. Glossary of Terms Relating to Languages of the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This glossary gives brief, non-technical explanations of the following kinds of terms: (1) names of all important languages now spoken in the Middle East, or known to have been spoken in the area; (2) names of language families represented in the area; (3) descriptive terms used with reference to the writing systems of the area; (4) names of…

  15. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  16. Literature from the Modern Middle East: Making a Living Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    While the United States is deeply involved in the Middle East, most Americans, including students, lack knowledge about the region. Yet from Afghanistan to Palestine, from Morocco to Iraq, there is a vibrant and exciting literature by living authors that can bring the diverse experiences and perspectives of this vital part of the world to classes.…

  17. Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

  18. Deconstructing the Other: Teaching Politics of the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses strategies aimed at moving undergraduates beyond the traditional stereotypical and demonized portrait of the Middle East. Suggests focusing on boundaries (shifting between national, cultural, religious, and economic), on bases of information (different students bring different knowledge levels), and using a wide variety of biographies…

  19. Archaeologists' Group Proposes Safekeeping of Middle East Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Israeli, Palestinian, and American archaeologists unveiled a draft agreement on archaeological and cultural heritage that they hope to see included in a future Middle East peace agreement. Presenting their proposal to an audience of archaeologists at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, they said it was the first time that Israelis and Palestinians…

  20. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  1. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  2. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  3. Relighting the Torch: East Middle School's OA Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes the implementation of outcomes accreditation at East Middle School, in Aurora, Colorado. Reports significant gains in student success, including a 68% decline in student tardiness and a 60% decrease in suspensions. Indicates that the school was selected as a state Governor's Challenger School. (MAB)

  4. The Middle East in Conflict. Strategies and Worksheets: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide presents strategies for teaching a unit on the Middle East conflict including a rationale, performance objectives, background information, and questions. Worksheets contain simulations, poetry, and news stories which are used to teach the origins of and issues concerning the conflict. A simulation of the 1897 Zionist Congress…

  5. Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1991-04-01

    In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

  6. [Impacts of urbanization on the water quality and macrobenthos community structure of the tributaries in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Hu, Zun-Ying; Yu, Jian; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2012-05-01

    The 59 1st-3rd order tributaries in the middle reach of Qiantang River are negatively affected by different intensities of urbanization. In April 2010, an investigation was conducted on the water bodies' physical and chemical properties and macrobenthos communities of the tributaries, with the relationships between the tributaries' water quality and biological communities and the percentage of ground surface impervious area (PIA), an indicator of urbanization intensity. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the water bodies' NH(4+)-N, PO4(3-)-P, TP, COD(Mn), conductivity, width, depth, and fine sand/silt ratio were positively correlated with PIA, and negatively correlated with forest land area. The fitted nonlinear regression equations revealed that all the test macro-benthic invertebrate's parameters had significant relationships with PIA, of which, the total number of taxa, Shannon diversity index, richness index, EPT (%), predators (%), shredders (%), filterers (%) and scrapers (%) were negatively correlated to PIA but positively correlated to forest land area, and the BI, collectors (%), tolerance taxa (%) and oligochaeta (%) were positively correlated to the PIA. Our study indicated that under the impact of urbanization, these tributaries presented the common features of degradation, i. e., high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, degradation of physical habitat, disappearance of pollution-sensitive macro-benthic invertebrate species, and dramatic increase of pollution-tolerant species individuals.

  7. Freshwater Losses In The Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    › Related story› Download video in HD formatsThe visualization shows variations in total water storage from normal,in millimeters, in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, as measuredby N...

  8. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  9. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the Middle East: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Almarzouqi, Sumayya J.; Morgan, Michael L.; Lee, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial pressure without any identifiable etiology. It is defined by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) with normal neuroimaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contents. IIH typically affects young obese women and produces symptoms and signs related to high ICP. Headache and blurred vision are the most common symptoms, and papilledema is the major clinical sign. In this review we examine the epidemiology and demographic features of IIH in Middle Eastern countries and compare and contrast them with the published IIH literature from Western countries. The incidence of IIH in several Middle East countries has been estimated at 2.02–2.2/100,000 in the general population, which is higher than the Western rate. Obesity is a major risk factor globally and it is associated with an increased risk of severe vision loss due to IIH. There has been an increase in obesity prevalence in the Middle East countries mainly affecting the Gulf Council Countries (GCC), which parallels increased industrial development. This rise may be contributing to the increasing incidence of IIH in these countries. Other risk factors may also be contributing to IIH in Middle East countries and the differences and similarities to Western IIH merit further study. PMID:25859136

  10. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  11. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  12. Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East 6. AUTHOR( S ) Neil N. Snyder 5...FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY

  13. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  14. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  15. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period.

  16. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities.

  17. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  18. Retinoblastoma major review with updates on Middle East management protocols

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ihab Saad

    2012-01-01

    Many advances in the field of management of retinoblastoma emerged in the past few years. Patterns of presentation of retinoblastoma in the Middle East region differ from Western community. The use of enucleation as a radical method of eradicating advanced disease is not easily accepted by patient’s family. We still do see stage E, failed or resistant retinoblastoma and advanced extraocular disease ensues as a result of delayed enucleation decision. In this review, we discuss updates in management of retinoblastoma with its implication on patients in our part of the world. Identifying clinical and high risk characteristics is important prognostically and are discussed for further management of retinoblastoma cases. PMID:23960988

  19. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  1. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Middle East and North Africa consensus on osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, G; Gannagé-Yared, M H; Ezzedine, J; Larijani, B; Badawi, S; Rached, A; Zakroui, L; Masri, B; Azar, E; Saba, E; Nammari, R; Adib, G; Abou Samra, H; Alrawi, Z; Salman, S; El Muntasser, K; Tarseen, R; El Kharousi, W; Al-Lamki, M; Alothman, A N; Almarzook, N; El Dessouki, M; Sulaimani, R; Saleh, J; Suhaili, A R; Khan, A; Delmas, P; Seeman, E

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, osteoporosis is becoming a major worldwide health problem. The magnitude of the disease may become larger in developing countries, more particularly in the Middle East region where the prevalence of low bone mass is higher than in western countries. Although several local organizations and countries have developed guidelines for osteoporosis, no previous regional guidelines have been developed encompassing all Middle-Eastern and North African countries. The present document reviews all the regional published data on bone mineral density, risk factors, fracture prevalence and vitamin D status. It also gives simple recommendations applicable to all these countries. This document was endorsed by leading members of all the different regional countries including, Iran, Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

  3. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  4. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-08-21

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  6. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  7. SESAME, a Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East Region

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Sarraf, R.H.; Attal, M.; Tavakoli, K.; Hashemi, H.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Elsisi, A.; Amro, A.; Foudeh, D.; Kalantari, B.; Aladwan, A.; Varnasery, S.; Al-Dmour, E.; Tarawneh, H.

    2003-08-26

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East / Mediterranean region. Most of the applications require hard x-rays up to 20 keV photons. SESAME will be a 2GeV 3rd Generation Ligth Source with an emittance of 17 nmrad and 13 places for the installation of insertion devices with a length around 3 meter. The circumference of the machine will be 120m. As injector the 800 MeVBooster Synchrotron will be used with small changes. Furthermore also the BESSY I quadrupoles and sextupoles can be used. In a later stage these new ones will be replaced in order to increase the length of the straight sections and to introduce mini beta sections for the reduction of the beam cross section. At SESAME around 35 % of the circumference can be used for the installation of insertion devices.

  8. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmueller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. By relating the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface wind, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle, we identify regions where these attributes are significantly correlated to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The Fertile Crescent turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD trend over these countries. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trend and interannual variability can be attributed to the above mentioned dust cycle parameters, confirming that the AOD increase is predominantly driven by dust. In particular, the positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. This suggests that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change. Based on simulations using the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry-climate model (EMAC), we interpret the correlations identified in the observational data in terms of causal relationships.

  9. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower East Tampa Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, seagrass, mangroves, Florida Crown conch, blue crabs and fish collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total ...

  10. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  11. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  12. CRUSTAL TECTONICS AND SEISMICITY OF THE MIDDLE EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalib, H. A.; Gritto, R.; Sibol, M. S.; Herrmann, R. B.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Caron, P. F.; Wagner, R. A.; Ali, B. S.; Ali, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arabian plate describes a geological entity and a dynamic system that has been in continuous interaction with the African plate to the west and south and the Eurasian plate to the north and east. The western and southern boundaries are distinguished by see floor spreading along the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea and transform faulting along the Dead Sea, whereas the northern and eastern boundaries are portrayed by compressional suture zones under thrusting the Turkish and Iranian plateaus. Despite this favorable juxtaposition of continental land masses and the plethora of national seismic networks in every country of the Middle East, the majority of published research on the Arabian plate and surrounding tectonic blocks still depends primarily on global seismographic stations and occasional local networks. Since 2005, we deployed a number of seismic stations, and more recently a five elements array, in close proximity to the northeastern boundary of the Arabian plate. The primary objective of the effort is to better understand the regional seismicity and seismotectonics of the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. To date over a terabyte of high quality 100 sps continuous three-component broadband data have been collected and being analyzed to derive models representative of the greater Middle East tectonic setting. This goal is, in part, achieved by estimating local and regional seismic velocity models using receiver function and surface wave dispersion analyses, and by using these models to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. The resulting events distribution reveals a distinct picture of the interaction between the seismicity and tectonics of the region. The highest seismicity rate seems to be confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases again in the Bandar Abbas region. Spatial distribution of the events and stations provide thorough

  13. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  14. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Rahul; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-02-01

    The recent emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, a close relative of the Severe Acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, both of which caused a lethal respiratory infection in humans, reinforces the need for further understanding of coronavirus pathogenesis and the host immune response. These viruses have evolved diverse strategies to evade and block host immune responses, facilitating infection and transmission. Pathogenesis following infection with these viruses is characterized by a marked delay in the induction of Type I interferon (IFN I) and, subsequently, by a poor adaptive immune response. Therapies that expedite IFN I induction as well as interventions that antagonize immunoevasive virus proteins are thus promising candidates for immune modulation.

  16. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Jureidini, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues regarding the extent to which trafficking may be applied to migrant domestic workers who enter under the kafala system of sponsorship in the Middle East. Migrant domestic workers are the most numerous of those mentioned in reports on trafficking for labour exploitation in the region. The discussion seeks to determine whether "trafficking" can be ex post facto, rather than ex ante? In other words, can the label of trafficking be attributed only after the worker has arrived in the receiving country and is victimized according to the principles of trafficking protocols? In addition, must there be a proven intent to traffic by agents, or can employers who harm and/or exploit them be considered as traffickers alone? Should the harm done to workers on arrival at their place of work be classified (and assisted) as victims of trafficking, or as exploited workers?

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome: obstacles and prospects for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) highlights the need to engineer new methods for expediting vaccine development against emerging diseases. However, several obstacles prevent pursuit of a licensable MERS vaccine. First, the lack of a suitable animal model for MERS complicates in vivo testing of candidate vaccines. Second, due to the low number of MERS cases, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to pursue MERS vaccine production as the costs of clinical trials are high. In addition, the timeline from bench research to approved vaccine use is 10 years or longer. Using novel methods and cost-saving strategies, genetically engineered vaccines can be produced quickly and cost-effectively. Along with progress in MERS animal model development, these obstacles can be circumvented or at least mitigated. PMID:25864502

  18. High altitude wind resource in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya B.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a first identification of areas favorable to Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) Systems deployment in the Middle East and illustrates their diurnal and seasonal characteristics. Optimal heights of AWE system deployment are computed. The AWE literature has conventionally used a top-down approach where AWE potentials are estimated as a fraction of wind power density. This study takes the bottom-up approach where the regional AWE potentials are estimated using realistic machine specification with assumptions upon deployment conditions. The annual energy production per capita illustrates the potential of AWE systems in fulfilling electricity needs at the current level for several countries in the region. Our estimate also compares favorably to the near-surface wind power potential using identical data source from a previous study. In addition, the non-monotonicity in the vertical profile is examined for areas with potential LLJ influences, where behaviors in wind speed and direction similar to that of inertial oscillations are identified.

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Malik, M; Elkholy, A A; Khan, W; Hassounah, S; Abubakar, A; Minh, N Tran; Mala, P

    2016-10-02

    A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV. Improved surveillance, epidemiological research and development of new therapies and vaccines are important, and the momentum of recent gains in terms of better understanding of disease patterns should be maintained to enable the global community to answer the remaining questions about this disease.

  20. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  1. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  2. A review of treatment modalities for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yin; Fisher, Dale

    2016-12-01

    The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a focus of international attention since its identification in 2012. Epidemiologically it is characterized by sporadic community cases, which are amplified by hospital-based outbreaks. Healthcare facilities in 27 countries from most continents have experienced imported cases, with the most significant outbreak involving 186 cases in Korea. The mortality internationally is 36% and guidance for clinical management has yet to be developed. Most facilities and healthcare providers outside of the Middle East receiving patients have no or little experience in the clinical management of MERS. When a case does occur there is likely little time for a critical appraisal of the literature and putative pharmacological options. We identified published literature on the management of both MERS-CoV and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) through searches of PubMed and WHO and the US CDC websites up to 30 April 2016. A total of 101 publications were retrieved for critical appraisal. Most published literature on therapeutics for MERS are in vitro experiments, animal studies and case reports. Current treatment options for MERS can be categorized as: immunotherapy with virus-specific antibodies in convalescent plasma; polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies produced in vitro or in genetically modified animals; and antiviral agents. The use of any therapeutics in MERS-CoV remains investigational. The therapeutic agents with potential benefits and warranting further investigation include convalescent plasma, interferon-β/ribavirin combination therapy and lopinavir. Corticosteroids, ribavirin monotherapy and mycophenolic acid likely have toxicities that exceed potential benefits.

  3. Event location in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.; Ruppert, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that high-grade ground truth (such as known explosions) has been difficult to obtain in these regions, we have placed a significant effort towards the development of a teleseismically constrained seismic database that provides event locations good to within 20m km. This data set is used to make an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of calibration on the proposed seismic IMS network in the MWNA. Utilizing a surrogate IMS regional network in the Middle East we find that when a seismic event lies within the footprint of the recording network the uncalibrated event locations are good to within about 25 km of the teleseismically constrained (TC) location. Using region-specific static station corrections further reduces this difference to about 20 km. To obtain further improvement in location accuracy we have used the modified kriging technique developed by SNL to interpolate new travel-time corrections. We compare this technique withe other robust linear interpolation techniques with the goal of enhancing the estimation of travel-time corrections. This is important to TC events which we find can have large uncorrelated uncertainties. Finally, we are making a large effort to incorporate LLNL analyst picks on primary and secondary phases and develop azimuth and slownsess estimates horn current IMS arrays to improve/supplement the NEIC picks.

  4. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Justin J.; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J.; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:27358972

  5. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; O'Hagan, Justin J; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region.

  6. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ..., 2011, speech on recent developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the President called for a Trade and Investment Partnership Initiative to explore ways to further strengthen economic... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa...

  7. Recurring middle Pleistocene outburst floods in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froese, D.G.; Smith, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Ager, T.A.; Preece, S.J.; Sandhu, A.; Enkin, R.J.; Weber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Recurring glacial outburst floods from the Yukon-Tanana Upland are inferred from sediments exposed along the Yukon River near the mouth of Charley River in east-central Alaska. Deposits range from imbricate gravel and granules indicating flow locally extending up the Yukon valley, to more distal sediments consisting of at least 10 couplets of planar sands, granules, and climbing ripples with up-valley paleocurrent indicators overlain by massive silt. An interglacial organic silt, occurring within the sequence, indicates at least two flood events are associated with an earlier glaciation, and at least three flood events are associated with a later glaciation which postdates the organic silt. A minimum age for the floods is provided by a glass fission track age of 560,000 ?? 80,000 yr on the GI tephra, which occurs 8 m above the flood beds. A maximum age of 780,000 yr for the floods is based on normal magnetic polarity of the sediments. These age constraints allow us to correlate the flood events to the early-middle Pleistocene. And further, the outburst floods indicate extensive glaciation of the Yukon-Tanana Upland during the early-middle Pleistocene, likely representing the most extensive Pleistocene glaciation of the area. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  9. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  10. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  11. Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; van den Brand, Judith M.A.; Widagdo, W.; Muñoz, Marta; Raj, Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Solanes, David; Cordón, Ivan; Bensaid, Albert; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species. Conversely, in sheep and horses, virus-specific antibodies did not develop and no evidence of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract was found. These results prove the susceptibility of llamas and pigs to MERS-CoV infection. Thus, the possibility of MERS-CoV circulation in animals other than dromedaries, such as llamas and pigs, is not negligible. PMID:27901465

  12. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that is distributed worldwide and represents an increasing problem, both in hospitals and in the community. Global transmission of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been the subject of many studies. Determining the incidence of colonization with community-acquired MRSA in hospitalized patients and outpatients has been the aim of several studies conducted in the Middle East (western Asia). The local epidemiology within countries in this region is changing, owing to the introduction of new strains with the intercontinental exchange of several clones. Sequence type 80-MRSA-IV is one common clone detected in different countries within the region showing country-based differences, and hence more likely to form clonal lineages. MRSA is endemic in this region, and the burden and the difficulty in detecting imported strains are increasing. This is also increasing the risk of domestic and global transmission. To counter the threat associated with the high incidence of MRSA carriage and infections, systematic surveillance of both hospital and community isolates is required, along with appropriate measures designed to limit their spread. Additionally, antibiotic stewardship is needed to contain the further development of the observed resistance and to help in preserving antibiotics as precious therapeutic resources. It is critical for countries in this region to establish both national and international initiatives to develop better measurements designed to limit and control the spread of infections. Finally, more sequence-based studies are needed to better understand the pathogenicity and epidemiology of these important pathogens.

  13. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Alhogbani, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.

  14. Climate, not conflict, explains extreme Middle East dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolari, Anthony J.; Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Katul, Gabriel G.; Assouline, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    The recent dust storm in the Middle East (Sepember 2015) was publicized in the media as a sign of an impending ‘Dust Bowl.’ Its severity, demonstrated by extreme aerosol optical depth in the atmosphere in the 99th percentile compared to historical data, was attributed to the ongoing regional conflict. However, surface meteorological and remote sensing data, as well as regional climate model simulations, support an alternative hypothesis: the historically unprecedented aridity played a more prominent role, as evidenced by unusual climatic and meteorological conditions prior to and during the storm. Remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index demonstrates that vegetation cover was high in 2015 relative to the prior drought and conflict periods, suggesting that agricultural activity was not diminished during that year, thus negating the media narrative. Instead, meteorological simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model show that the storm was associated with a cyclone and ‘Shamal’ winds, typical for dust storm generation in this region, that were immediately followed by an unusual wind reversal at low levels that spread dust west to the Mediterranean Coast. These unusual meteorological conditions were aided by a significant reduction in the critical shear stress due to extreme dry and hot conditions, thereby enhancing dust availability for erosion during this storm. Concluding, unusual aridity, combined with unique synoptic weather patterns, enhanced dust emission and westward long-range transport across the region, thus generating the extreme storm.

  15. SESAME -- A light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-02-01

    Developed under UNESCO and modelled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. The Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey), provides the annual budget. Concrete shielding is complete, and a staff of 21 is installing the refurbished 0.8 GeV BESS Y I injector system, a gift from Germany. The facility can serve 25 simultaneous experiments. Beamline equipment has been provided by Daresbury (UK), the Helmholtz Assoc. (Germany), the Swiss Light Source, LURE (France), the Univ. of Liverpool, Elettra (Italy) and US labs. Jordan has contributed 3.3M, in addition to a building and land. The EU has contributed 4.8M. Commitments confirmed by Members look set to provide most of 35M needed to complete construction of the ring and 3 beamlines. A training program has been underway since 2000. See www.sesame.org.jo

  16. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  17. The Middle East. Domestic sufficiently of fossil fuel resources

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, John A.; Kessinger, Samuel E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we’ve compared energy production and consumption across the broader Middle East, paying special attention to three different countries; Saudi Arabia, one of the world’s largest oil producers (second in the CIA World Factbook ranking of crude oil producing countries), with a growing population in the mid-range (47th in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook, and fifth among the nations in this region), a large GDP and GDP per capita (15th in the world, second in this region in GDP, and 21st in GDP per capita in the world, just behind the US at 19th); Qatar, the world’s fourth largest producer of natural gas, with a small native population (and a relatively large foreign labor contingent) that is very wealthy (with the world’s highest GDP per capita, more than twice that of the US); and Egypt, the most populous nation in the region (with the world’s 16th largest population), but relatively poor (with a GDP per capita of about a fifth that of the US and a twelfth that of Qatar); Egypt is a significant energy producer – 29th in the world in crude oil production and 17th in natural gas production – but production has stalled or declined in recent years, and domestic consumption has overtaken production.

  18. Water resources of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-12

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information is presented on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  19. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  20. Reinvestigating Three Paleo Lake Records in the Middle East using new Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J. M.; Stott, L. D.; Buenning, N. H.; Yoshimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present a reinterpretation of three oxygen isotope records from three Middle Eastern Lakes (Zeribar, Van and Eski Acigo). These lake isotope records were interpreted previously to document changes in the precipitation-to-evaporation ratio (Eski and Van) and varying seasonality of precipitation over the lake (Zeribar). These differing interpretations are a consequence of inadequate constraints on atmospheric dynamics that influence isotopic variability in the water cycle of the Middle East. We present new isotope-enabled atmospheric model results that provide a more comprehensive view of each of the potential influences that affected these lake records. Currently the Middle East exhibits a highly seasonal precipitation cycle with the bulk of the rainfall occurring during the winter months. The yearly isotopic composition of rainfall exhibits a seasonal cycle as well with decreased values during the winter and higher isotopic values in both fall and spring. We conducted two model simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM): 1) with present-day conditions and 2) with mid-Holocene conditions. For the mid-Holocene simulations changes were made to the surface forcing, orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations. These results show that the annual averaged oxygen isotopes in precipitation 6000 years ago were depleted on the order of 1 to 3‰ compared to present day. The model results are consistent with the published lake core records. However, the shift in isotopic composition of precipitation results from the combined influences of orbital changes, the changes in green house gases and surface forcings. We have evaluated the relative contribution of each of the forcings and present a re-interpretation of the Middle Eastern lake records.

  1. Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water recharge is estimated from six monthly water budgets calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, estimated pan-evaporation and fog-drip data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by broad climatic and geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model. The long-term average water budget for east Maui was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The average rainfall, fog-drip, runoff, evapotranspiration, and ground-water recharge volumes for the east Maui study area are 2,246 Mgal/d, 323 Mgal/d, 771 Mgal/d, 735 Mgal/d, and 1,064 Mgal/d, respectively.

  2. The state of mobile health in the developing world and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Ababtain, Arwa F; Almulhim, Deana A; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    The rapid expansion and development of mobile technology have advanced an area called mobile health (mHealth), which is expected to improve healthcare delivery and increase the efficacy of healthcare services. This paper provides an overview of mHealthuse in the developing world with a specific focus on the Middle East. Different search engines and databases were used to search for Mobile Health (mHealth) literature on the developing world and the Middle East, in September 2012. The results show that there is a growing demand within the developing world and the Middle East for the use of mobile technologies that focus on information gathering and sharing, accessibility and reach, and public health. The future of mHealth in the developing world and the Middle East is also discussed.

  3. A short narrative - Challenges and opportunities in expanding research in the Middle East, North Afr

    Cancer.gov

    CGH CRTA, Hedieh Mehrtash interviews CGH's Dr. Marie Ricciardone who works with a network of partners in the Middle East and North Africa region, on experiences, challenges, and opportunities in the region.

  4. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE RIGHT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-4 157.4631. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, TOWER, MIDDLE LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ET-3 157.4630. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  9. 75 FR 18783 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  10. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  11. Genomics and zoonotic infections: Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the discovery of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 suggests that another SARS-like epidemic is occurring. Unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which rapidly disappeared in less than one year, MERS has persisted for over three years. More than 1,600 cases of MERS have been reported worldwide, and the disease carries a worryingly high fatality rate of >30%. A total of 182 MERS-CoV genomes have been sequenced, including 94 from humans and 88 from dromedary camels. The 182 genomes all share >99% identity, indicating minimal variation among MERS-CoV genomes. MERS-CoV is a lineage C Betacoronavirus (ßCoV). MERS-CoV genomes can be roughly divided into two clades: clade A, which contains only a few strains, and clade B, to which most strains belong. In contrast to ORF1ab and structural proteins, the putative proteins encoded by ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, ORF5 and ORF8b in the MERS-CoV genome do not share homology with any known host or virus protein, other than those of its closely related lineage C ßCoVs. Human and dromedary viral genomes have intermingled, indicating that multiple camel-to-human transmission events have occurred. The multiple origins of MERS-CoV suggest that the virus has been resident in dromedaries for many years. This is consistent with the detection of anti-MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels as early as the 1980s.

  12. Healthcare reform in the Middle East and the USA.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2017-01-01

    Mustafa Z Younis speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Mustafa Z Younis is an internationally recognized scholar and was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Society for Research of Healthcare Financial Management. Dr Younis has authored and published over 200 articles, abstracts and presentations in refereed journals and meetings, and has presented at national and international conferences. Dr Younis has administrative experience as Senior Adviser for the President at Zirve University, Turkey and as Chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at Florida International University (FL, USA) where he led the accreditation efforts for the Healthcare Management Program. Dr Younis has a history of playing visible roles on the editorial boards of journals as Chief Editor, Guest Editor and Editorial board member of leading journals such as Journal of International Medical Research, Journal of Health Care Finance, Inquiry, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management. Dr Younis is a frequent speaker for both academic and professional audiences. His talks often feature his latest research and work in progress as well as cross-industry trends and strategy implications. He has provided workshops and presentation for wide organizations. His research and findings applied to for-profit, non-profit settings, and government. Dr Younis has consulted with several organizations on healthcare finance, and economics. Dr Younis is often invited to speak about the challenges in the healthcare industry and other related topics to health economics, finance, and research. He has presented topics such as, healthcare reform, ownership structure, profitability, unit cost, payment system and efficiency in management, at a variety of forums and conferences in Europe, Asia and Middle East.

  13. Roles and Effects of Media in the Middle East and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with a description of its salient characteristics. Because this monograph concerns media, one major characteristic relates to literacy rates . 6...The Middle East Media Context Table 1, below, indicates that the Middle East literacy rate is generally very low. Literacy rates range from a low of...40 percent in Mauritania and Iraq to 80 percent in most of the Gulf States, and into the 90s in Jordan. Meanwhile, the literacy rate is 97 percent in

  14. Impacts of The Future Changes in Extreme Events on Migration in The Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nazan; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are defined as extreme events that threat people, their homes and their neighborhoods. They damage housing, food production system and other infrastructures. The frequency of natural hazards namely drought, floods can influence the residential decision-making and can cause substantial residential mobility by affecting relatively greater numbers of people in the region. Developing countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards. Therefore, environmental migration can be associated with natural hazards especially in the developing countries. Limited water resources and demographic dynamics of the Middle East make the region one of the most affected domains from the impacts of natural hazards. In this study, we consider the relationship between migration as a demographic process and the frequency of natural hazards in the Middle East for the period of 2020 - 2045 with respect to 1980 - 2005 by performing the projection according to the scenario of IPCC, namely RCP8.5 through the RegCM4.4 and combining them with an econometric analysis. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  16. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-20

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis RAND issue papers explore...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  17. Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle East Elham Ghashghai and Rosalind Lewis Afghanistan and its...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Issues Affecting Internet Use in Afghanistan and Developing Countries in the Middle

  18. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  19. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  20. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  1. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  2. The Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System: First Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, J. D.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ozdogan, M.; Toll, D. L.; Engman, E. T.; Habib, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Arab region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydroclimatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of MENA meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. This presentation will cover early results from the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. The MENA LDAS is envisaged to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA to be used for flood and drought assessment.

  3. The origin of Europeans is not rooted in the Middle East but in southern east Asia.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D

    1998-01-01

    The study of tooth crown variables has proven useful in the assessment of human origin and dispersal. I show that multivariate analysis of quantified total tooth structure from dental X-rays is a powerful phylogenetic methodology. From an analysis of the complex global dental phenotype ("GDP," composed of approximately 30 root, pulp, crown, and enamel variables per tooth), a representative Western European population was found to associate with Southeast Asians, while Mongolians formed a tight cluster with all Native Americans. The results suggest that either an emigrant wave, or waves, of modern humans emerged from Africa and with time segregated into at least three groups: Australian aborigines, Europeans, and Southeast Asians, or less likely due to genetic and archaeologic observations, a southern Asia origin of all modern humans from an emigrant African hominid. Both hypotheses portend an early evolution of the European genotype and support the argument that Europeans are principally derived from Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and thus Middle East Neolithic people did not have a major genetic impact on Europeans.

  4. Recharge rates and aquifer hydraulic characteristics for selected drainage basins in middle and east Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning aquifer hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics is needed to manage the development of ground-water resources. These characteristics are poorly defined for the bedrock aquifers in Middle and East Tennessee where demand for water is increasing. This report presents estimates of recharge rate, storage coefficient, diffusivity, and transmissivity for representative drainage basins in Middle and East Tennessee, as determined from analyses of stream-aquifer interactions. The drainage basins have been grouped according to the underlying major aquifer, then statistical descriptions applied to each group, in order to define area1 distribution of these characteristics. Aquifer recharge rates are estimated for representative low, average, and high flow years for 63 drainage basins using hydrograph analysis techniques. Net annual recharge during average flow years for all basins ranges from 4.1 to 16.8 in/yr (inches per year), with a mean value of 7.3 in. In general, recharge rates are highest for basins underlain by the Blue Ridge aquifer (mean value11.7 in/yr) and lowest for basins underlain by the Central Basin aquifer (mean value 5.6 in/yr). Mean recharge values for the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Valley and Ridge aquifers are 6.5, 7.4, and 6.6 in/yr, respectively. Gravity drainage characterizes ground-water flow in most surficial bedrock aquifer in Tennessee. Accordingly, a gravity yield analysis, which compares concurrent water-level and streamflow hydrographs, was used to estimate aquifer storage coefficient for nine study basins. The basin estimates range from 0.002 to 0.140; however, most estimates are within a narrow range of values, from 0.01 to 0.025. Accordingly, storage coefficient is estimated to be 0.01 for all aquifers in Middle and East Tennessee, with the exception of the aquifer in the inner part of the Central Basin, for which storage coefficient is estimated to be 0.002. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic

  5. Human Resource Education in the Middle East Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirani, Khalil M.; Hamie, Christine Silva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of human resource development (HRD) education in Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the authors discuss the current state of HRD education, country readiness and challenges that hinder HRD progress in Middle Eastern countries. They argue that HRD programs need to prepare young…

  6. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  7. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  8. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  9. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  10. Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F

    2003-07-14

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million

  11. Demographics-Based Analytical Framework for the Assessment of Security and Regime Stability: The Case of the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    result of increased participation of women in the Middle East labour markets.37 Already, women are playing a significant role in the economies of some...growing labour pool. The size of both the security apparatus and the public sector in the Middle East is already disproportionately large to the... dissatisfaction and grievance among the youth cohort in the Middle East, it is also perhaps the most attractive to this group. Paradoxically, the Islamist message

  12. Observation of summertime enhanced ozone over the middle troposphere in the vicinity of the Middle East by spaceborne TES instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane; Jones, Dylan; Worden, John; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jayanta

    We used a global chemical transport model, namely GEOS-Chem, to interpret recent observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) onboard of on the NASA EOS Aura satellite. TES observations reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere ( 500-400 hPa, 5-7 km) over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Central Asia in summer 2005 and 2006. This enhancement has some similarities to and differences from the "Middle East ozone maximum" that was previously suggested in a model study, revealing complexity of the feature. We found, based on the TES data, that although there is general enhancement of ozone at 400-500 hPa over the Middle East and surrounding areas, no one single maximum is centralized in the Middle East as described in the previous modelling work. Instead, localized maxima are seen within the ozone-enhanced area. The location and intensity of these maxima vary from year to year. We found that the region of elevated ozone is closely associated with the location of the subtropical westerly jet and anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf. The ozone distribution in the region is greatly influenced by the seasonal evolution of these systems. We examined the influence of photochemical production and transport on the ozone budget in the region. A tagged ozone simulation was conducted to track ozone in the region from its origins in Asia, Africa, North America, and European. The outcome shows that long-range transport and in situ chemical production both contribute to the formation of the ozone enhancement. Our results suggests that accurately simulating the magnitude and spatial distribution of the ozone enhancement requires properly reproducing ozone production rate in the upper troposphere and the atmospheric response to Asian monsoon heating that is reflected in the strengths of the anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf.

  13. Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, Olawale; Owolabi, Oluwafisayo; Falayi, Elijah; Jimoh, Emmanuel; Kotoye, Afolabi; Odeyemi, Olumide; Rabiu, Babatunde; Doherty, Patricia; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Adeniyi, Jacob; Kaka, Rafiat; Onanuga, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the veracity of an ion continuity equation in controlling equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) morphology using total electron content (TEC) of 22 GPS receivers and three ground-based magnetometers (Magnetic Data Acquisition System, MAGDAS) over Africa and the Middle East (Africa-Middle East) during the quietest periods. Apart from further confirmation of the roles of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) in determining hemispheric extent of EIA crest over higher latitudes, we found some additional roles played by thermospheric meridional neutral wind. Interestingly, the simultaneous observations of EIA crests in both hemispheres of Africa-Middle East showed different morphology compared to that reported over Asia. We also observed interesting latitudinal twin EIA crests domiciled at the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Our results further showed that weak EEJ strength associated with counter electrojet (CEJ) during sunrise hours could also trigger twin EIA crests over higher latitudes.

  14. Impacts of Climate Change on the Climate Extremes of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Collu, Kamil; Deler, F. Busra; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The Middle East is one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. Because of the importance of the region and its vulnerability to global climate change, the studies including the investigation of projected changes in the climate of the Middle East play a crucial role in order to struggle with the negative effects of climate change. This research points out the relationship between the climate change and climate extremes indices in the Middle East and it investigates the changes in the number of extreme events as described by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). As part of the study, the regional climate model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) is run to obtain future projection data. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  15. Community Palliative Care in Turkey: A Collaborative Promoter to a New Concept in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hacıkamiloglu, Ezgi; Utku, Ezgi Simsek; Cukurova, Zafer; Keskinkilic, Bekir; Topcu, Ibrahim; Gultekin, Murat; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East has been struggling with basic issues of cancer care, and in specific, palliative care, at the primary health care level in the communities. The Middle East Cancer Consortium designated this issue as the highest priority of its activities in the region. Following basic and advanced courses and national and international workshops, local governments recognized the essentiality of developing palliative care services in their respective countries. As the result of these training activities, in 2010, the Ministry of Health in Turkey initiated a novel program whereby population-based and home-based palliative care teams were developed throughout the country, including peripheral regions in the countries where appropriate care was not available. This initiative led to a dramatic increase in the number of cancer patients receiving palliative care at their homes. The Turkish initiative can serve as a model to other countries in the Middle East and beyond it.

  16. Making future taxonomy of Niphargus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Niphargidae) in the Middle East easier: DELTA database of Middle East species with description of four new species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Rineh, Somayeh; Sari, Alireza; Fišer, Cene

    2015-09-23

    Four new species from the amphipod genus Niphargus are described, namely N. borisi sp. nov., N. bisitunicus sp. nov., N. darvishi sp. nov. and N. sharifi sp. nov. All four species of this predominantly subterranean genus were collected from springs in the Western region of Iran (Zagros region), which is the eastern borderline of the genus range. The species are morphologically diagnosed, described and illustrated. With these newly described species, the total number of Niphargus species in the Middle East reaches twenty-three. In order to facilitate the identification of Niphargus species in the region and to make future taxonomy of the genus easier, we have compiled a database in DEscription Language for TAxonomy (DELTA) using 23 diagnostic traits for these 23 species and subspecies identified in the Middle East. The database is available on the web as supplementary material whereas the dichotomous identification key automatically generated from the database for routine use is provided as a part of the paper.

  17. 1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH FACADES, WITH WASHERY WATER PIPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  18. Seismic Attenuation Studies in the Middle East and Southern Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in which tectonic activity has occurred since the Mesozoic era. These include the East African rift zone (the most prominent feature on the Q map...affected by process occurring during the spreading of the Red Sea. Low Q’s in the Siberian craton lie in a region that was deformed during the Mesozoic

  19. Breaking the poverty/malnutrition cycle in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Mirmiran, Parvin; Oyewole, Oyediran E; Belahsen, Rekia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-05-01

    The cost to developing countries, for current and future generations, of not eradicating hunger and poverty - in terms of recurrent conflicts and emergencies, widening inequalities, depleted resources, ill health, and premature death - is enormous. Although strategies are underway to address certain problems in Africa and the Middle East, much remains to be done. Breaking the poverty cycle in these regions demands both local and international attention. Nutrition transition is a key factor, since many countries in the region also suffer the consequences of the excessive and unbalanced diets that are typical of developed countries. This paper reviews the experiences with facing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan and North Africa and the Middle East.

  20. Critical care medicine for emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome: Which point to be considered?

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-09-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new emerging respiratory tract infection. This coronavirus infection is firstly reported from the Middle East, and it becomes threat for the global public health at present due to its existence in a remote area such as USA and Korea. The concern on the management of the patients is very important. Since most of the patients can develop severe respiratory illness and critical care management is needed, the issue on critical care for MERS is the topic to be discussed in critical medicine.

  1. Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Hadjinicolaou, P; Kostopoulou, E; Chenoweth, J; El Maayar, M; Giannakopoulos, C; Hannides, C; Lange, M A; Tanarhte, M; Tyrlis, E; Xoplaki, E

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) are likely to be greatly affected by climate change, associated with increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts and hot weather conditions. Since the region is diverse and extreme climate conditions already common, the impacts will be disproportional. We have analyzed long-term meteorological datasets along with regional climate model projections for the 21st century, based on the intermediate IPCC SRES scenario A1B. This suggests a continual, gradual and relatively strong warming of about 3.5-7°C between the 1961-1990 reference period and the period 2070-2099. Daytime maximum temperatures appear to increase most rapidly in the northern part of the region, i.e. the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. Hot summer conditions that rarely occurred in the reference period may become the norm by the middle and the end of the 21st century. Projected precipitation changes are quite variable. Annual precipitation is expected to decrease in the southern Europe - Turkey region and the Levant, whereas in the Arabian Gulf area it may increase. In the former region rainfall is actually expected to increase in winter, while decreasing in spring and summer, with a substantial increase of the number of days without rainfall. Anticipated regional impacts of climate change include heat stress, associated with poor air quality in the urban environment, and increasing scarcity of fresh water in the Levant.

  2. Access to orphan drugs in the Middle East: Challenge and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Ziyad S.; Alahmari, Abdullah K.; Guo, Jeff J.; Kelton, Christina M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary An orphan drug is a drug developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition. With a combined population of less than 400 million, about 2.8 million patients are estimated to be suffering from a rare disease in the Middle East. Some disorders such as hemoglobinopathy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, autosomal recessive syndromes, and several metabolic disorders have a presence throughout the Middle East. In order to promote the treatment of these diseases, Middle Eastern governments need to facilitate education and training of healthcare personnel; develop and execute a method for obtaining and paying for orphan drugs; and, finally, provide tax, marketing, and other incentives to domestic and international firms to develop drugs specifically for the diseases of most importance to Middle Eastern patients. PMID:25343087

  3. Middle East Studies Teacher Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    This guide presents a teacher training program in Middle Eastern studies and procedures for program implementation. Details concerning program announcement, participant selection, and travel accommodations are included. Participants attended an orientation and registration workshop and an intensive academic workshop before flying to Egypt for the…

  4. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries.

  5. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  6. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  7. Refinement of late-Early and Middle Miocene diatom biostratigraphy for the east coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Browning, James; Sugarman, Peter; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 continuously cored Lower to Middle Miocene sequences at three continental shelf sites off New Jersey, USA. The most seaward of these, Site M29, contains a well-preserved Early and Middle Miocene succession of planktonic diatoms that have been independently correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale derived in studies from the equatorial and North Pacific. Shallow water diatoms (species of Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, and Sceptroneis) dominate in onshore sequences in Maryland and Virginia, forming the basis for the East Coast Diatom Zones (ECDZ). Integrated study of both planktonic and shallow water diatoms in Hole M29A as well as in onshore sequences in Maryland (the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company well) and Delaware (the Ocean Drilling Program Bethany Beach corehole) allows the refinement of ECDZ zones into a high-resolution biochronology that can be successfully applied in both onshore and offshore regions of the East Coast of the United States. Strontium isotope stratigraphy supports the diatom biochronology, although for much of the Middle Miocene it suggests ages that are on average 0.4 m.y. older. The ECDZ zonal definitions are updated to include evolutionary events of Delphineis species, and regional occurrences of important planktonic diatom marker taxa are included. Updated taxonomy, reference to published figures, and photographic images are provided that will aid in the application of this diatom biostratigraphy.

  8. Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the educational development in the Middle East and North Africa, drawing on data from different international and national institutions. The paper begins with a review of similarities between countries within the region, and continues by investigating the situation of basic education, literacy rates and quality of…

  9. Enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance of travelers from the Middle East to England.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K; Boddington, Nicola L; Carvalho, Carlos F A; Osman, Husam K; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison; Pebody, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative.

  10. News from the Middle East in Five U.S. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the Middle East news items covered by four newspapers and one television network revealed that the coverage was concentrated mostly on Israel, Egypt, and Iran; that most items were presented in a neutral fashion; and that more items were treated positively than negatively. (GT)

  11. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  12. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  13. Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi bialvaei, Abed; Samadi kafil, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Hamed; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria, that hydolyze most β-lactams, including carbapenems, are a major concern of public health system worldwide, particularly in the Middle East area. Since the plasmids harboring resistance genes could be spread across other bacterial populations, detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms has become more problematic. These organisms produce different types of enzymes including the most prevalent types including KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Carbapenemase producers are mostly identified among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study reviewed almost all papers, which conducted in the Middle East. In order to decrease the spread of resistance, the regional cooperation has been emphasized by the Middle East countries. The highest resistance, which is mediated by KPC has been observed in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan followed by NDM in Pakistan and OXA in Turkey and Pakistan. It is important to mention that the spread of these types have been reported sporadically in the other countries of this area. This review described the widespread carbapenemases in the Middle East area, which have been identified in an alarming rate. PMID:26719779

  14. A Song for Humanistic Education: Pedagogy and Politics in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: If we take as a given the desirability of an education that promotes principles of respect, pluralism, rational critical inquiry, compassion, innovation, and excellence, then humanistic pedagogies should be paramount to that educational vision. Yet humanistic education in the Middle East has been on the demise in past decades…

  15. Escaping from Sunday School: Teaching "The Middle East" in the Setting of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The article argues that, in the teaching of religion at undergraduate level, many students approach understanding the historical or contemporary Middle East in ways that are coloured by what they think is biblical knowledge or basic Christian beliefs. This is less noticeable for students in disciplines such as history or politics. Many history or…

  16. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  17. Seeing Other Sides: Nongame Simulations and Alternative Perspectives of Middle East Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylouny, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Simple role-play simulations can not only demonstrate the dynamics of a conflict but also create awareness of multiple perspectives even among populations relatively set in their opinions. To teach my student population of military officers, I utilize simple, nongame simulations of multisided Middle East conflicts that not only facilitate learning…

  18. The American Role in Education in the Middle East: Ideology and Experiment, 1920-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In a significant 1925 essay, "Western Education in Moslem Lands", Paul Monroe addressed the emerging cultural and political forces faced by American educators in the Middle East. Monroe was widely recognised at the time as editor of the Cyclopedia of Education and director of the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia…

  19. Middle East Security Issues: In the Shadow of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    states to acquire nuclear weapons. In 1987, for example, Qadhafi s ta ted that “we should be l ike the Chi- nese—poor and r id ing donkeys ...UK). Dr. Ibrahim A. Karawan is the associate director of the Middle East Center a t the Univers i ty of Utah and a member of the faculty

  20. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  1. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Volume V. Middle East and Southwest Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1981. 13. Hanna Batata , "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s Ruling... Batata , Hanna. "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s -Ruling Military Group and the Causes for its Dominance," Middle East Journal

  2. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  3. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  4. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  5. TeachMideast: An Educational Initiative of the Middle East Policy Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzen, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity wherein she uses the first Arab Human Development Report to examine not only the levels and measures of development in the Arab countries of the Middle East, but also to examine the act of measuring itself. The goal of the Arab Human Development Report is to measure "development in all its…

  6. At the Crossroads of the World: Women of the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Pervez, Nadia; Katz, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    The authors offer a brief introduction to the history of women of the Middle East, with a focus on three major religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Schools are paying increased attention to teaching world history, but they are giving too little attention to incorporating women as part of world history. One of the major dividing lines…

  7. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives,…

  8. Launching of an American Medical College in the Middle East: "Educational Challenges in a Multicultural Environment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajjar, David P.; Gotto, Antonio M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University's branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education. The establishment of WCMC-Q is…

  9. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  10. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  11. Diabetes research in Middle East countries; a scientometrics study from 1990 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peykari, Niloofar; Djalalinia, Shirin; Kasaeian, Amir; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Hasannia, Tahereh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes burden is a serious warning for urgent action plan across the world. Knowledge production in this context could provide evidences for more efficient interventions. Aimed to that, we quantify the trend of diabetes research outputs of Middle East countries focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, and international collaboration. Materials and Methods: This scientometrics study was performed based on the systematic analysis through three international databases; ISI, PubMed, and Scopus from 1990 to 2012. International collaboration of Middle East countries and citations was analyzed based on Scopus. Diabetes’ publications in Iran specifically were assessed, and frequent used terms were mapped by VOSviewer software. Results: Over 23-year period, the number of diabetes publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. The number of articles on diabetes in ISI, PubMed, and Scopus were respectively; 13,994, 11,336, and 20,707. Turkey, Israel, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt have devoted the five top competition positions. In addition, Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Iran in all databases stands on third position and produced 12.7% of diabetes publications within region. Regarding diabetes researches, the frequent used terms in Iranian articles were “effect,” “woman,” and “metabolic syndrome.” Conclusion: Ascending trend of diabetes research outputs in Middle East countries is appreciated but encouraging to strategic planning for maintaining this trend, and more collaboration between researchers is needed to regional health promotion. PMID:26109972

  12. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Worden, John R.; Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Henze, Daven K.

    2016-05-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern midlatitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions, chemical and transport processes to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East, using updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime middle free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, lightning NOx from Europe and North America and anthropogenic NOx from Middle Eastern local emissions are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern midlatitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  13. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  14. Potentials and limits of urban rainwater harvesting in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Husary, S.; Gunkel, A.; Bastian, D.; Grodek, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the Middle East, water is scarce and population growth causes a rapid rise of urban centers. Since many towns of the Palestinian Authority (PA) suffer from water shortage, the use of rainwater harvesting (RWH) as an alternative to conventional water supply has gained increasing interest among water resources planners. This study quantifies actual volumes of urban RWH to be expected from highly variable Mediterranean rainfall. A one-parameter model uses measured potential evaporation and high resolution rainfall data as input to calculate RWH volumes from rooftops inside Ramallah, a traditional Arab town. While during average seasons a 87% runoff harvest can be expected, this value decreases to about 75% during drought seasons. A survey comprising more than 500 questionnaires suggests that approximately 40% of the houses are equipped with RWH systems from which one third are out of use. Although water quality is perceived to be favourable, only 3% of the active RWH systems are actually used for drinking and only 18% for domestic purposes. All active RWH systems investigated may harvest approximately 16 x 103 m3 of rooftop runoff during an average season and 6 x 103 m3 during a typical drought. When these numbers are extrapolated to all houses in Ramallah, theoretical maximum potentials increase to approximately 298 x 103 m3 during an average season and 118 x 103 m3 during a typical drought. A part of this potential can easily be exhausted by rehabilitation of installed RWH systems. Also, the use of collected water for drinking should be advocated. This should go along with regular checks of water quality and regulations concerning adequate water storage and treatment/disinfection procedures where necessary. Finally, we extrapolate our findings to the entire Lower Jordan River Basin. Our analysis suggests that urban RWH is a relatively small contribution to overcome water scarcity in the region and decreases significantly during droughts. Yet it is a sustainable

  15. Large-scale transport of a CO-enhanced air mass from Europe to the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Miles, T.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    On November 14, 1981, the shuttle-borne Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment observed a carbon monoxide (CO) enhanced air mass in the middle troposphere over the Middle East. The primary source of this polluted air was estimated by constructing adiabatic isentropic trajectories backwards from the MAPS measurement location over a 36 h period. The isentropic diagnostics indicate that CO-enhanced air was transported southeastward over the Mediterranean from an organized synoptic-scale weather regime, albeit of moderate intensity, influencing central Europe on November 12. Examination of the evolving synoptic scale vertical velocity and precipitation patterns during this period, in conjuction with Meteosat visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery, suggests that the presence of this disturbed weather system over Europe may have created upward transport of CO-enhanced air between the boundary-layer and midtropospheric levels, and subsequent entrainment in the large-scale northwesterly jet stream flow over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  16. Dominant Middle East oil reserves critically important to world supply

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr. . Congressional Research Service)

    1991-09-23

    This paper reports that the location production, and transportation of the 60 million bbl of oil consumed in the world each day is of vital importance to relations between nations, as well as to their economic wellbeing. Oil has frequently been a decisive factor in the determination of foreign policy. The war in the Persian Gulf, while a dramatic example of the critical importance of oil, is just the latest of a long line of oil-influenced diplomatic/military incidents, which may be expected to continue. Assuming that the world's remaining oil was evenly distributed and demand did not grow, if exploration and development proceeded as efficiently as they have in the U.S., world oil production could be sustained at around current levels to about the middle of the next century. It then would begin a long decline in response to a depleting resource base. However, the world's remaining oil is very unevenly distributed. It is located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, mostly in the Persian Gulf, and much is controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Scientific resource assessments indicate that about half of the world's remaining conventionally recoverable crude oil resource occurs in the Persian Gulf area. In terms of proved reserves (known recoverable oil), the Persian Gulf portion increase to almost two-thirds.

  17. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  18. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  1. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  2. Climatology of summer Shamal wind in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Notaro, Michael; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Garay, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Eastern Shamal is a strong north-northwesterly wind, capable of lifting dust from the Tigris-Euphrates basin and transporting it to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula. The present study explores the poorly understood spatial and temporal variability of summer Shamal on the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual time scales, along with its influence on dust storm activity and sensitivity to global patterns of sea surface temperature using a comprehensive set of observational data. Statistics of the summer Shamal season are quantified for the first time, including its onset, termination, duration, and the occurrence of distinct break periods. Based on a multistation criteria, the mean onset and termination of the Shamal season occur on 30 May ± 16 days (1 standard deviation) and 16 August ± 22 days, respectively. Anomalously early (late) onset and termination of the Shamal season are typically associated with La Niña (El Niño) conditions, which favor (inhibit) the development of the Iranian heat low in spring and inhibit (favor) its persistence into late summer. Dust source regions in the Tigris-Euphrates basin and Kuwait, as well as southeastward dust transport during the summer Shamal, which cannot be detected by satellite aerosol products alone, are identified, for the first time, from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer plume motion vector products and confirmed by surface observations and lidar data. A close interrelationship has been revealed among summertime dust activity across the eastern Arabian Peninsula, frequency of Shamal days, and duration of the Shamal season on the interannual time scales.

  3. Comment on "Recent developments of the Middle East catalog" by Zare et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa Mousavi, S.

    2017-01-01

    In a study by Zare et al. (2014), a new earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been developed consisting of historical, early, and modern instrumental events recorded between 1250 B.C. and 2006. This valuable effort was undertaken under the framework of the global earthquake model (GEM) and the earthquake model of the Middle East (EMME) projects. The final goal was to establish a unified catalog of seismicity by incorporating regional and international data to be used for homogeneous estimate of seismic hazards in the region (Erdik et al. 2012). However, observations show that magnitude of completeness (Mc) is not temporally and spatially homogeneous throughout the catalog. My goal in this commentary is to provide more insights on this important characteristic of the catalog and some suggestions on selection of homogeneous parts of the catalog. This can further aid users in using the catalog for different purposes.

  4. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention in children and adolescents in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Shibl, Atef; Tufenkeji, Haysam; Khalil, Mohamed; Memish, Ziad

    2012-03-01

    Facing the availability of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo®, Menactra® and others pending for license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries of the Middle East region met at a "Meningococcal Leadership Forum" (MLF), which took place in May 2010 in Dubai. The participants of the conference discussed the importance of introducing the concept of conjugate vaccines - especially for children and adolescents - and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision makers with their expertise. In experts' opinion, conjugate vaccines are the best choice for the prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y. As quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are registered and available in the Middle East region, they should replace plain polysaccharide vaccines and be integrated in pediatric and adolescent vaccination schedules, including infant vaccination concomitantly with basic EPI vaccines when licensed.

  5. Propagation of Regional Phases and Their Codas in Southern Asia and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    be as high as a thousand or more. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Attenuation, Rayleigh waves, Q, Middle East i 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION | OF REPORT...stable continental regions where shear-wave Q may be as high as a thousand or more. These low values may indicate that fluids reside in faults...years, high -quality data and increasing numbers of favorably located, modern, digital stations have enabled seismologists to apply tomographic

  6. Lithospheric Models of the Middle East to Improve Seismic Source Parameter Determination/Event Location Accuracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    structure of Saudi Arabia through data collection from broadband stations. Figure 2. (Left) Map of Arabian Plate showing major tectonic ...State Award Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344/24.2.3.2 and DOS_SIAA-11-AVC/NMA-1 ABSTRACT The Middle East is a tectonically complex and seismically...active region. The ability to accurately locate earthquakes and other seismic events in this region is complicated by tectonics , the uneven

  7. The Emergence of China in the Middle East (Strategic Forum, Number 271, December 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Chinese outbound tourism , but it is also indicative of Chinese travelers’ interests in the Middle East. Lo- cal tourism industries in countries such as...that used to take up to 4 months. For non–oil-producing countries whose economies rely heavily on the tourism industry , Chinese visitors repre- sent a...Moreover, the Iranian government even allowed Chinese fighter jets to travel through its airspace to join the drills. The Chinese arms industry has

  8. Workshop on arms control and security in the Middle East II summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle East peace process is now moving more rapidly than ever before. Many actors in the region have displayed a newfound willingness to adopt innovative approaches to resolving persistent conflicts. The end of the Cold War, the accord signed between Israel and the PLO in September 1993, and other recent hopeful developments in the bilateral and multilateral talks have opened the door to real progress in regional security and arms control. The door may quickly shut, however, if promising signs are not translated into concrete, practical, and verifiable agreements. To complement the ongoing negotiations and help sustain the momentum of the Middle East peace process, the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) and the Institute of International Relations, co-sponsored a Workshop on Arms Control and Security in the Middle East in Delphi, Greece, in January 1994. Participants in the Delphi workshop were current and former government officials, veteran arms control negotiators, military officers, and leading nongovernmental specialists on arms control and regional security issues from Arab states, Israel, the United States, Europe, and Russia. To facilitate frank discussions and the free exchange of ideas, the conference was held in a private, informal setting, and all discussions at the meeting were off the record. The workshop gave Arab and Israeli participants an opportunity to draw upon the expertise that American, European, and Russian experts have gained through research and development efforts and negotiations between and within governments on arms control issues. At the same time, Arab and Israeli experts voiced their ideas, perspectives, and concerns to each other and to the participants from outside the Middle East. This report summarizes the main points of agreement and the major areas of controversy that came to the fore at the Delphi conference.

  9. Swanea (Southwest Asia--Northeast Africa): A Climatological Study. Volume 2. The Middle East Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    encouragement. Thanks to the members of the DESERT STORM Forecast Unit; Capt John Murphy, Capt Jeff Johnson, Capt Tom Coe, Lt Dave Wood, MSgt Neal...for the excellent terminal forecast reference notebooks. Thanks to Lt Col Gerald Riley and Lt Col Kenneth A. Nash for helping to obtain data necessary...study came from three sources: provide summarized meteorological observational data for many airports on the Middle East * Terminal forecast reference

  10. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  11. AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF CRUDE OIL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE EAST,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crude oil transportation, its technology, worldwide pattern, and future. It gives special emphasis to the movement of crude oil between the Middle East and Western Europe because of the critical supply-and-demand relationships existing between the two regions; further, it underscores the growth of both the crude oil tanker and crude oil pipelines, and the effect that this growth will have on the future patterns of crude oil flow. And it notes that the interest of the Soviet Union in

  12. Obesity and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Middle East and UAE

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub, Bassam H.; Al Hariri, Hassan; Al Zaabi, Ashraf; Vats, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the very high prevalence of obesity, undiagnosed sleep apnea, and other obesity related disorders with discussion of the contributing factors specific to the region including the fair insight into the current status of sleep medicine services in Middle East and UAE despite huge number of patients having undiagnosed sleep disorders. We will also suggest to control this epidemic of obesity and OSA so that the corrective measure could be taken at health ministry level to help people of this region to fight against obesity and related disorders, primarily OSA. PMID:28070158

  13. Curriculum guide for research ethics workshops for countries in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry; Ahmed, Babiker; Ajeilet, Samar; Al-Fadil, Sumaia; Al-Amad, Suhail; El-Dessouky, Hadir; El-Gendy, Ibrahim; El-Guindi, Mohamed; El-Nimeiri, Mustafa; Muzaffar, Rana; Saleh, Azza

    2010-08-01

    To help ensure the ethical conduct of research, many have recommended educational efforts in research ethics to investigators and members of research ethics committees (RECs). One type of education activity involves multi-day workshops in research ethics. To be effective, such workshops should contain the appropriate content and teaching techniques geared towards the learning styles of the targeted audiences. To ensure consistency in content and quality, we describe the development of a curriculum guide, core competencies and associated learning objectives and activities to help educators organize research ethics workshops in their respective institutions. The curriculum guide is divided into modular units to enable planners to develop workshops of different lengths and choose content materials that match the needs, abilities, and prior experiences of the target audiences. The content material in the curriculum guide is relevant for audiences in the Middle East, because individuals from the Middle East who participated in a Certificate Program in research ethics selected and developed the training materials (e.g., articles, PowerPoint slides, case studies, protocols). Also, many of the activities incorporate active-learning methods, consisting of group work activities analyzing case studies and reviewing protocols. The development of such a workshop training curriculum guide represents a sustainable educational resource to enhance research ethics capacity in the Middle East.

  14. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hwalla, Nahla; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha Salem; Radwan, Hadia; Alfawaz, Hanan Abdullah; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammed; Zaghloul, Sahar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government-sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. PMID:28273802

  15. Dynamical downscaling with WRF for the Middle-East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezfuli, A. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Bergaoui, K.; Zaaboul, R.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) experience the highest risk of water stress in the world. This underlines the importance of climate analysis for water resources management and climate change adaptation for this region, particularly in transboundary basins such as the Tigris-Euphrates system. Such analysis, however, is difficult due to a paucity of high quality precipitation data. The network of gauge stations is quite sparse and the data are often available only at monthly time-scale. Satellite-based products, such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), offer better temporal resolution; however, these data are available only for periods that are short for hydroclimatic analysis, and they often misrepresent precipitation over regions with complex topography or strong convection. To fill this gap, we have implemented the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, initialized with the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis II, to generate high-resolution precipitation estimates for MENA. Several sensitivity analyses have been performed in order to find a set of physics parameters that appropriately captures the annual cycle and year-to-year variability of rainfall over select areas in MENA. The results show that WRF, particularly over highlands, estimates the precipitation more accurately than the satellite products. In addition to these reanalysis-driven simulations, we have performed several simulations using the historical and twenty first century outputs of a select number of GCMs available at the CMIP5 archive. These runs enable us to detect changes in rainfall behavior under different greenhouse gas scenarios and reveal synoptic to mesoscale mechanisms responsible for such changes.

  16. Summertime coastal current reversal opposing offshore forcing and local wind near the middle east coast of Korea: Observation and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun

    2016-07-01

    A 6 year long current measurement at a buoy station off the middle east coast of Korea reveals an equatorward reversal of coastal current in summer opposing poleward local wind stress and offshore boundary current. The current reversal extends about 40 km offshore from the coast and is concurrent with warming and freshening of water column. Estimates of the depth-averaged alongshore momentum balance suggest a major balance between the alongshore pressure gradient and the lateral friction. Sources of the pressure gradient for the summertime current reversal are identified as the alongshore buoyancy gradient driven by the wind curl gradient and the prevalence of warmer and lower salinity water in the north. Alongshore pressure gradient and velocity induced by the wind curl gradient are quantified, which yields the observed seasonal current reversal.

  17. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  19. 16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET. PART OF ENERGY DISSIPATING BAFFLE PIER SYSTEM IS VISIBLE AT LEFT. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  20. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN CAN BE DIVERTED AT THE WASTE WEIR TO BE DISCHARGED INTO THE CULVERT IN FOREGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Northern Waste Weir, Snowden Avenue & Van Wick Street, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  1. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  2. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  3. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. Interprofessional education in the Arabic-speaking Middle East: Perspectives of pharmacy academics.

    PubMed

    El-Awaisi, Alla; Saffouh El Hajj, Maguy; Joseph, Sundari; Diack, Lesley

    2016-11-01

    The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice. The findings from this article are part of a larger study investigating pharmacy's perspectives of IPE and collaborative practice in Qatar and the Middle East. An online survey which included three validated scales was used to gather information from pharmacy academics at 89 pharmacy schools in 14 countries. The response rate was 107 out of 334 (32%) and the majority of the respondents were from Jordan, Qatar, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was completed descriptively as well as inferentially using a series of independent t-tests. Overall pharmacy academics had positive attitudes towards IPE. The majority of the respondents, 90.8% (n = 99), perceived IPE to be important. Age, likelihood to engage in IPE, and years of IPE experience were the factors that were related to faculty members' attitudes towards IPE. Highly perceived barriers for implementing IPE included cultural challenges for each profession, scheduling common courses, and activities in addition to limited resources. The study findings indicated that pharmacy academics in the Middle East are ready to pursue IPE. These results can serve as impetus for implementing IPE in Middle Eastern countries.

  5. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  6. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  7. Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity in the Middle East: Experience and Challenges of a Fogarty-Sponsored Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    we describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low- and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions’ research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384515

  8. Enhancing research ethics capacity in the Middle East: experience and challenges of a Fogarty-sponsored training program.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2013-12-01

    We describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions' research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  9. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  10. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Delivering Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Kupke, Alexandra; Song, Fei; Jany, Sylvia; Fux, Robert; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Becker, Christin; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8(+) T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine.

  11. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  12. Some new trends in Mediterranean labour migration: the Middle East connection.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, I J; Lawless, R J

    1985-03-01

    Changes in international labor migration in the Mediterranean region since the European economic recession of the early 1970s are examined. The authors note that labor migration to the oil-producing countries of the Middle East has increased and that this migration has differed from the previous movements to Europe, in that the migrants involved have been employed by contractors from their countries of origin or by other foreign companies. The probable future decline of this migration as infrastructure projects are completed is discussed, and the consequences are examined.

  13. Virtual communities? The Middle East revolutions at the Guardian forum: Comment Is Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawski, B.; Abell, P.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of virtual community formation in an online social network under a rapid increase of activity of members and newcomers. The evolution is studied of the activity of online users at the Guardian - Comment Is Free forum - covering topics related to the Middle East turmoil during the period of 1st of January 2010 to the 28th of March 2011. Despite a threefold upsurge of forum users and the formation of a giant component, the main network characteristics, i.e. degree and weight distribution and clustering coefficient, remained almost unchanged.

  14. International palliative care: Middle East experience as a model for global palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ramzi R; Charalambous, Haris A; Baider, Lea; Silbermann, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Care for elderly people with life-limiting illness cannot be delivered primarily by geriatricians or palliative care practitioners. The role of these clinicians is to help carers become adept in palliative care medicine. In a culture in which family ties run deep, the offer of palliative care from an outsider may be met with suspicion. The family bond in the Middle East is strong, but the emotional response to terminal illness may push families to request futile treatments, and physicians to comply. When palliative care is well developed and well understood, it provides a viable alternative to such extreme terminal measures.

  15. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  16. Incarceration or mandatory treatment: Drug use and the law in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Shazly, Fattouh; Tinasti, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drug policies are embedded in the prohibition paradigm. Laws and legislation criminalize all types of activities related to illicit drugs. This article gives a detailed assessment of the provisions of Arab national laws to control the use of illicit drugs across the areas of punishment of drug users, penalties for drug dependence, legislation on use and dependence treatment, and the right of the convicted people who use drugs to confidentiality. It reviews the national legislations on drug control of 16 Arab countries as amended in January 2011.

  17. Two Mutations Were Critical for Bat-to-Human Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Shi, Zhengli; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of MERS-CoV and a related bat coronavirus, HKU4. Although HKU4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. These mutations are present in MERS-CoV spike, explaining why MERS-CoV infects human cells. These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, either directly or through intermediate hosts. PMID:26063432

  18. High Prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus in Young Dromedary Camels in Jordan.

    PubMed

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Hijazeen, Zaidoun S K; Holloway, Peter; Al Omari, Bilal; McDowell, Chester; Adney, Danielle; Talafha, Hani A; Guitian, Javier; Steel, John; Amarin, Nadim; Tibbo, Markos; Abu-Basha, Ehab; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Munster, Vincent J; Richt, Juergen A

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was determined in 45 dromedary camels from two geographically separated herds in Jordan. Virus shedding was only detected in swabs obtained from the respiratory tract and primarily observed in camels younger than 3 years. MERS-CoV seroprevalence increased with age of camels. Bovine and sheep sera were seronegative. Phylogenetic analysis of partial S2 clustered the Jordanian MERS-CoV strains with contemporary MERS-CoV strains associated with nosocomial outbreaks.

  19. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  20. Sexuality and sexual health: constructs and expressions in the extended Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    El-Kak, Faysal

    2013-12-30

    The extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region is the world region with the second youngest population, where globalization, migration, information technology, and political changes are contributing to the shaping of sexuality and sexual behaviors. Understanding the various sociocultural, demographic and public health dimensions of sexual and reproductive health of young people is fundamental to understanding the pattern of sexual behavior and the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human papillomavirus-related diseases. New norms and forms of marriage have emerged to accommodate the changing trends in sexual behavior of premarital and extra-marital sex, as well as reports of increased prevalence of premarital penetrative and non-penetrative sexual behavior. Despite these trends, the burden of sexual illnesses remains low and is estimated at 7% of the general population being infected with curable STIs. Other STIs, such as herpes simplex virus 2, are also prevalent. The existing policies and health systems remain short of promoting youth reproductive and sexual health. Efforts should address establishing national preventive programmes, such as screening for STIs, primary prevention, comprehensive sexuality education, as well as youth-friendly services. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission, virology and therapeutic targeting to aid in outbreak control

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals. MERS-CoV is thought to be transmitted to humans through dromedary camels. The occurrence of the virus was first reported in the Middle East and it subsequently spread to several parts of the world. Since 2012, about 1368 infections, including ~487 deaths, have been reported worldwide. Notably, the recent human-to-human ‘superspreading' of MERS-CoV in hospitals in South Korea has raised a major global health concern. The fatality rate in MERS-CoV infection is four times higher compared with that of the closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Currently, no drug has been clinically approved to control MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we highlight the potential drug targets that can be used to develop anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics. PMID:26315600

  2. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  3. [Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): bats or dromedary, which of them is responsible?].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    2014-05-01

    In 2012 a new viral emergent human disease appeared in the Middle East. This entity was named MERS for' Middle East respiratory syndrome'. By January 9, 2014, the disease had already struck 178 persons of whom 75 died from respiratory failure and diarrhoea. As the new disease was very similar to the deadly SARS (2002-2003) and since it was provoked by a Betacoronavirus, chiroptera were first suspected to be at the origin of this infection. Morever, recent studies performed in Saudi Arabia showed that one individual of the bat Taphozous perforatus harbored a short nucleotide segment identical to the homologous segment present in the viral strain isolated from the index-case of the epidemic. In addition, many strains of Betacoronavirus more or less related to those responsible for the MERS disease in man have been isolated from bats in Africa, Asia and Europe. However, another hypothesis was simultaneously proposed incriminating dromedary (Camelus dromedarius L.) as a likely actor in the transmission to human beings of the disease.We then reviewed data relative to other viral zoonosis in which dromedary was possibly implicated. This led to the provisional conclusion that this large mammal might play a role in the dissemination of the MERS-COV, the etiologic agent of the disease. This is based on epidemiological data and results of several serological surveys in animals.

  4. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  5. Super-giant oil fields and future prospects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, L.; Johnston, D.

    1995-06-01

    Upper Jurassic carbonates, Lower Cretaceous sands, Lower Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary carbonates of the Middle East contain more than 50% of the worlds oil. Our area of interest covers SE Turkey and Syria in the north to the borders of Yemen and Oman in the south, and from the Red Sea across Saudi Arabia, the Emirates and the Arabian/Persian Gulf to Iran in the East. There are over 80 fields in this region with over 1 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. Yet only around 30,000 wells have been drilled in this territory. Regional structure and stratigraphy are discussed within the context of three major plays in the region as well as a new play in the Permo-Carboniferous. Numerous opportunities are available and countries such as Iraq and Iran may one day open their doors more to the industry than is presently the case. The dramatic petroleum geology of the region will stamp its influence on the nature of business and opportunities for years to come. While fiscal systems here already offer some of the toughest terms in the world, future deals in the more prolific areas will be even tougher. But, the economies of Middle Eastern scale will provide some of the great mega-opportunities of future international exploration.

  6. The pursuit of longevity - the bringer of peace to the middle East.

    PubMed

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common apprehensions regarding the aging population, this work aims to argue, on both deontological and utilitarian moral grounds, that any increase in general life-expectancy will be beneficial for the Middle East, countering the common fears associated with this increase. A set of ethical arguments concerning increasing longevity is presented, from both the deontological and utilitarian perspective. A wide selection of economic, psychological, demographic and epidemiological literature and databases is analyzed to determine common correlates of extended longevity. On the deontological grounds, the value of extended longevity is derived from the value of life preservation, regardless of its term. On the utilitarian grounds, the value of extended longevity is demonstrated by its correlation with further human values, such as education level and intellectual activity, economic prosperity, equality, solidarity and peacefulness. With the common apprehensions of stagnation and scarcity due to life extension found wanting, the pursuit of longevity by the population can be seen as a cross-cultural and cross-generational good. Though the current study mainly refers to sources and data relevant to the Middle East, a similar pro-longevity argument can be also made for other cultural contexts. In view of its numerous benefits, normatively, the goal of longevity should be set clearly and openly by the society, and actively pursued, or at least discussed, in academia, the political system and broader public.

  7. Diabetes-related tuberculosis in the Middle East: an urgent need for regional research

    PubMed Central

    Alkabab, Yosra M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, complicates TB treatment, and increases the risk of a poor TB outcome. As DM prevalence is increasing across the Middle East, this review was performed to identify regional gaps in knowledge and research priorities for DM/TB. Methods Online databases were searched for studies published from Middle East countries on DM and TB and the studies summarized based on topic and major findings. Studies included had a principle hypothesis related to both diseases, or described TB patients with individual data on DM. Results Fifty-nine studies from 10 countries met search criteria. No published studies were found from Lebanon, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Cyprus, or the United Arab Emirates. DM prevalence among TB patients was high, but varied considerably across studies. The vast majority of studies were not specifically designed to compare DM/TB and non-DM/TB patients, but many suggested worse treatment outcomes for DM/TB, in accordance with reports from other regions. Conclusions Opportunity exists for the regional study of bidirectional screening, management strategies for both DM and TB diseases, and whether such efforts could take place through the integration of services. PMID:26409203

  8. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  10. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  12. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  14. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa.

  15. Peace in the Middle East: How It Will Impact the New World Order and the American Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    interests between the East and the West. Security and stability of the world has emerged as a very important element of the new world order. Since...anything happening in any part of the world affects and gets affected by what happens in the other parts of the world , achieving peace and stability in the...Middle East is important for the peace and stability of the world . Since the US is considered the leader of the new world system, the protection of

  16. Water resources of East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  17. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  18. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  19. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  20. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  1. Guidelines for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Sinyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Yong, Dongeun; Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Jong-Rak; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Korea was unexpected that laboratory response had to be built up urgently during the outbreak. The outbreak was almost all healthcare-associated, which was aggravated by lack of availability in laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV on site. On behalf of the MERS joint public and private sector response committee (MERS Joint committee), the Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine (KSLM) launched a MERS response task force (MERS KSLM TF) to facilitate clinical laboratories set up MERS molecular diagnosis. MERS TF established guidelines for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV and provided it to all participating laboratories as the official guidance of MERS Joint committee. This guideline was used for procedure manual of molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV and laboratory safety manual. PMID:27104019

  2. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in a patient with Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) is a novel positive sense singlestranded ribonucleic acid virus of the genus Beta corona virus. This virus was first isolated from a patient who died from severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe an unusual case of a 42 year old healthcare worker who was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, with MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome and developed a sudden-onset diabetes insipidus and spontaneous massive intracranial hemorrhage with intra-ventricular extension and tonsillar herniation. Computed angiogram of the brain did not reveal any aneurysm or structural defects. She never had uncontrolled hypertension, or coagulopathy, nor she received antiplatelets. We are reporting a rare case of structural neurological damage associated with MERS-CoV infection. PMID:28133694

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control and Prevention Guideline for Healthcare Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Yong; Song, Joon Young; Yoon, Young Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Sung-Ran; Son, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Tae Hyong; Choi, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Bin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jacob; Eom, Joong Sik; Lee, Sang-Oh; Oh, Won Sup; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning. PMID:26788414

  4. Risk Factors for Primary Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Illness in Humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Alraddadi, Basem M.; Watson, John T.; Almarashi, Abdulatif; Abedi, Glen R.; Turkistani, Amal; Sadran, Musallam; Housa, Abeer; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alraihan, Naif; Banjar, Ayman; Albalawi, Eman; Alhindi, Hanan; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Meiman, Jonathan G.; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Curns, Aaron; Mounts, Anthony; Feikin, Daniel R.; Marano, Nina; Swerdlow, David L.; Gerber, Susan I.; Hajjeh, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) illness in humans are incompletely understood. We identified all primary MERS-CoV cases reported in Saudi Arabia during March–November 2014 by excluding those with history of exposure to other cases of MERS-CoV or acute respiratory illness of unknown cause or exposure to healthcare settings within 14 days before illness onset. Using a case–control design, we assessed differences in underlying medical conditions and environmental exposures among primary case-patients and 2–4 controls matched by age, sex, and neighborhood. Using multivariable analysis, we found that direct exposure to dromedary camels during the 2 weeks before illness onset, as well as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and smoking, were each independently associated with MERS-CoV illness. Further investigation is needed to better understand animal-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV. PMID:26692185

  5. Tomographic Imaging of Pn and Sn Velocities in the Middle East and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, S.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    We have obtained Vp and Vs velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Middle East and Central Asia by performing tomographic inversion of both Pn and Sn travel times. In total 654,999 Pn and 121,838 Sn arrivals were selected from the ISC/EHB database and the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 8.04 km/s and 4.60 km/s, respectively with maximum velocity perturbations more than 6%. Pn velocities correlate well with topography. In general, low velocities are found beneath mountains and high velocities are found beneath oceans, basins and plains with low elevation. Tectonic boundaries are clearly outlined in between the high and low Pn velocities. These boundaries include Hellenic arc, Cyprean arc, Zagros suture, Charman fault, Hari Rod fault. The Sn velocities show similar patterns to the Pn velocities.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; Gardner, Shea; Adney, Danielle; Munster, Vincent; Bowen, Richard; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater than 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding. PMID:26790002

  7. Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, I.; Handl, J.; Binder, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Between February and October 2009, 324 grain, feed and feed commodity samples were sourced directly at animal farms or feed production sites in Middle East and Africa and tested for the presence of A- and B-trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, or for selected groups of mycotoxins only. Samples were analyzed after clean-up by immunoaffinity or solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with derivatization where appropriate and fluorescence, UV or mass spectrometric detection. The percentage of positive samples of B-trichothecenes ranged from 0 to 87% of tested samples. The prevalence of fumonisins in the different countries was >50% in most cases. Zearalenone was present in tested commodities from all countries except three. The presence of aflatoxin in analyzed samples varied from 0 to 94%. Ochratoxin A was present in 67% of samples in Sudan and in 100% of Nigerian samples. No A-trichothecenes were found in this survey. PMID:24786003

  8. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  9. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  10. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control and Prevention Guideline for Healthcare Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yong; Song, Joon Young; Yoon, Young Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Sung-Ran; Son, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Tae Hyong; Choi, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Bin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jacob; Eom, Joong Sik; Lee, Sang-Oh; Oh, Won Sup; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2015-12-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

  12. Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Healthcare Settings, Abu Dhabi

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duc; Aden, Bashir; Al Bandar, Zyad; Al Dhaheri, Wafa; Abu Elkheir, Kheir; Khudair, Ahmed; Al Mulla, Mariam; El Saleh, Feda; Imambaccus, Hala; Al Kaabi, Nawal; Sheikh, Farrukh Amin; Sasse, Jurgen; Turner, Andrew; Abdel Wareth, Laila; Weber, Stefan; Al Ameri, Asma; Abu Amer, Wesal; Alami, Negar N.; Bunga, Sudhir; Haynes, Lia M.; Hall, Aron J.; Kallen, Alexander J.; Kuhar, David; Pham, Huong; Pringle, Kimberly; Tong, Suxiang; Whitaker, Brett L.; Gerber, Susan I.; Al Hosani, Farida Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections sharply increased in the Arabian Peninsula during spring 2014. In Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, these infections occurred primarily among healthcare workers and patients. To identify and describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of persons with healthcare-associated infection, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi during January 1, 2013–May 9, 2014. Of 65 case-patients identified with MERS-CoV infection, 27 (42%) had healthcare-associated cases. Epidemiologic and genetic sequencing findings suggest that 3 healthcare clusters of MERS-CoV infection occurred, including 1 that resulted in 20 infected persons in 1 hospital. MERS-CoV in healthcare settings spread predominantly before MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed, underscoring the importance of increasing awareness and infection control measures at first points of entry to healthcare facilities. PMID:26981708

  13. Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Healthcare Settings, Abu Dhabi.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer C; Nguyen, Duc; Aden, Bashir; Al Bandar, Zyad; Al Dhaheri, Wafa; Abu Elkheir, Kheir; Khudair, Ahmed; Al Mulla, Mariam; El Saleh, Feda; Imambaccus, Hala; Al Kaabi, Nawal; Sheikh, Farrukh Amin; Sasse, Jurgen; Turner, Andrew; Abdel Wareth, Laila; Weber, Stefan; Al Ameri, Asma; Abu Amer, Wesal; Alami, Negar N; Bunga, Sudhir; Haynes, Lia M; Hall, Aron J; Kallen, Alexander J; Kuhar, David; Pham, Huong; Pringle, Kimberly; Tong, Suxiang; Whitaker, Brett L; Gerber, Susan I; Al Hosani, Farida Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections sharply increased in the Arabian Peninsula during spring 2014. In Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, these infections occurred primarily among healthcare workers and patients. To identify and describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of persons with healthcare-associated infection, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi during January 1, 2013-May 9, 2014. Of 65 case-patients identified with MERS-CoV infection, 27 (42%) had healthcare-associated cases. Epidemiologic and genetic sequencing findings suggest that 3 healthcare clusters of MERS-CoV infection occurred, including 1 that resulted in 20 infected persons in 1 hospital. MERS-CoV in healthcare settings spread predominantly before MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed, underscoring the importance of increasing awareness and infection control measures at first points of entry to healthcare facilities.

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; Gardner, Shea; Adney, Danielle; Munster, Vincent; Bowen, Richard; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-20

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater than 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Lastly, many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding.

  15. Conservation of nucleotide sequences for molecular diagnosis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2015.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Okamoto, Michiko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Infection due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is widespread. The present study was performed to assess the protocols used for the molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of viruses detected between 2012 and 2015, including sequences from the large outbreak in eastern Asia in 2015. Although the diagnostic protocols were established only 2 years ago, mismatches between the sequences of primers/probes and viruses were found for several of the assays. Such mismatches could lead to a lower sensitivity of the assay, thereby leading to false-negative diagnosis. A slight modification in the primer design is suggested. Protocols for the molecular diagnosis of viral infections should be reviewed regularly after they are established, particularly for viruses that pose a great threat to public health such as MERS-CoV.

  16. Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection among Healthcare Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Alraddadi, Basem M.; Al-Salmi, Hanadi S.; Jacobs-Slifka, Kara; Slayton, Rachel B.; Estivariz, Concepcion F.; Geller, Andrew I.; Al-Turkistani, Hanan H.; Al-Rehily, Sanaa S.; Alserehi, Haleema A.; Wali, Ghassan Y.; Alshukairi, Abeer N.; Azhar, Esam I.; Haynes, Lia; Swerdlow, David L.; Jernigan, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare settings can amplify transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but knowledge gaps about the epidemiology of transmission remain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among healthcare personnel in hospital units that treated MERS-CoV patients. Participants were interviewed about exposures to MERS-CoV patients, use of personal protective equipment, and signs and symptoms of illness after exposure. Infection status was determined by the presence of antibodies against MERS-CoV. To assess risk factors, we compared infected and uninfected participants. Healthcare personnel caring for MERS-CoV patients were at high risk for infection, but infection most often resulted in a relatively mild illness that might be unrecognized. In the healthcare personnel cohort reported here, infections occurred exclusively among those who had close contact with MERS-CoV patients. PMID:27767011

  17. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  18. Verification of ECMWF, GFS and WRF forecast in coastal desert region of Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaj, Pavol; Bartoková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Forecast skill of different models over Middle East region is presented. ECMWF has 12.5 km resolution, while WRF with 16 km and nested 5 km grid is initialized by GFS. The comparison encompasses first half of year 2012 and 48-72 hours forecasts, which are evaluated by standard scores Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In Dubai Emirate, the temperature RMSE of ECMWF is higher by 1.5 deg. C on average. As far as the desert terrain is flat and the station is 100km form the coast, the reason is not straightforward result of better resolution. More precise capturing of the diurnal variation especially the sea breeze phenomenon seems of higher importance. 9 other stations were examined.

  19. Resource impact of managing suspected Middle East respiratory syndrome patients in a UK teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Veater, J; Wong, N; Stephenson, I; Kirk-Granger, H; Baxter, L F; Cannon, R; Wilson, S; Atabani, S; Sahota, A; Bell, D; Wiselka, M; Tang, J W

    2017-03-01

    Clinical challenges exist in the management of hospitalized patients returning to the UK with potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, particularly with its clinical overlap with influenza, as demonstrated in this case-series and cost-analysis review of returning Hajj pilgrims. These patients were hospitalized with acute febrile respiratory illness, initially managed as potential MERS-CoV infections, but were eventually diagnosed with influenza. Additional costs were small, yet enhanced infection prevention measures created significant burdens on isolation rooms and staff time. Planning for predictable events such as Hajj is important for resource management. Here, in-house MERS-CoV diagnostic testing would have facilitated earlier diagnosis and discharge.

  20. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  1. A novel dromedary camel enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae from dromedaries in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Tong; Jose, Shanty; Yip, Cyril C Y; Huang, Yi; Wong, Emily Y M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-07-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from the Middle East and the discovery of the virus from dromedary camels have boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. Whilst picornaviruses are known to infect various animals, their existence in dromedaries was unknown. We describe the discovery of a novel picornavirus, dromedary camel enterovirus (DcEV), from dromedaries in Dubai. Among 215 dromedaries, DcEV was detected in faecal samples of four (1.9 %) dromedaries [one (0.5 %) adult dromedary and three (25 %) dromedary calves] by reverse transcription PCR. Analysis of two DcEV genomes showed that DcEV was clustered with other species of the genus Enterovirus and was most closely related to and possessed highest amino acid identities to the species Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F found in cattle. The G+C content of DcEV was 45 mol%, which differed from that of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F (49-50 mol%) by 4-5 %. Similar to other members of the genus Enterovirus, the 5' UTR of DcEV possessed a putative type I internal ribosome entry site. The low ratios of the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ka/Ks) of various coding regions suggested that dromedaries are the natural reservoir in which DcEV has been stably evolving. These results suggest that DcEV is a novel species of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Western blot analysis using recombinant DcEV VP1 polypeptide showed a high seroprevalence of 52 % among serum samples from 172 dromedaries for IgG, concurring with its much higher infection rates in dromedary calves than in adults. Further studies are important to understand the pathogenicity, epidemiology and genetic evolution of DcEV in this unique group of animals.

  2. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: Another Zoonotic Betacoronavirus Causing SARS-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The source of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic was traced to wildlife market civets and ultimately to bats. Subsequent hunting for novel coronaviruses (CoVs) led to the discovery of two additional human and over 40 animal CoVs, including the prototype lineage C betacoronaviruses, Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5; these are phylogenetically closely related to the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV, which has affected more than 1,000 patients with over 35% fatality since its emergence in 2012. All primary cases of MERS are epidemiologically linked to the Middle East. Some of these patients had contacted camels which shed virus and/or had positive serology. Most secondary cases are related to health care-associated clusters. The disease is especially severe in elderly men with comorbidities. Clinical severity may be related to MERS-CoV's ability to infect a broad range of cells with DPP4 expression, evade the host innate immune response, and induce cytokine dysregulation. Reverse transcription-PCR on respiratory and/or extrapulmonary specimens rapidly establishes diagnosis. Supportive treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and dialysis is often required in patients with organ failure. Antivirals with potent in vitro activities include neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, antiviral peptides, interferons, mycophenolic acid, and lopinavir. They should be evaluated in suitable animal models before clinical trials. Developing an effective camel MERS-CoV vaccine and implementing appropriate infection control measures may control the continuing epidemic. PMID:25810418

  3. Evaluation and inter-comparison of modern day reanalysis datasets over Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Hobbins, M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalysis datasets are potentially very valuable for otherwise data-sparse regions such as Africa and the Middle East. They are potentially useful for long-term climate and hydrologic analyses and, given their availability in real-time, they are particularity attractive for real-time hydrologic monitoring purposes (e.g. to monitor flood and drought events). Generally in data-sparse regions, reanalysis variables such as precipitation, temperature, radiation and humidity are used in conjunction with in-situ and/or satellite-based datasets to generate long-term gridded atmospheric forcing datasets. These atmospheric forcing datasets are used to drive offline land surface models and simulate soil moisture and runoff, which are natural indicators of hydrologic conditions. Therefore, any uncertainty or bias in the reanalysis datasets contributes to uncertainties in hydrologic monitoring estimates. In this presentation, we report on a comprehensive analysis that evaluates several modern-day reanalysis products (such as NASA's MERRA-1 and -2, ECMWF's ERA-Interim and NCEP's CFS Reanalysis) over Africa and the Middle East region. We compare the precipitation and temperature from the reanalysis products with other independent gridded datasets such as GPCC, CRU, and USGS/UCSB's CHIRPS precipitation datasets, and CRU's temperature datasets. The evaluations are conducted at a monthly time scale, since some of these independent datasets are only available at this temporal resolution. The evaluations range from the comparison of the monthly mean climatology to inter-annual variability and long-term changes. Finally, we also present the results of inter-comparisons of radiation and humidity variables from the different reanalysis datasets.

  4. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  5. The Potential Uses of Commercial Satellite Imagery in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Vannoni, M.G.

    1999-06-08

    It became clear during the workshop that the applicability of commercial satellite imagery to the verification of future regional arms control agreements is limited at this time. Non-traditional security topics such as environmental protection, natural resource management, and the development of infrastructure offer the more promising applications for commercial satellite imagery in the short-term. Many problems and opportunities in these topics are regional, or at least multilateral, in nature. A further advantage is that, unlike arms control and nonproliferation applications, cooperative use of imagery in these topics can be done independently of the formal Middle East Peace Process. The value of commercial satellite imagery to regional arms control and nonproliferation, however, will increase during the next three years as new, more capable satellite systems are launched. Aerial imagery, such as that used in the Open Skies Treaty, can also make significant contributions to both traditional and non-traditional security applications but has the disadvantage of requiring access to national airspace and potentially higher cost. There was general consensus that commercial satellite imagery is under-utilized in the Middle East and resources for remote sensing, both human and institutional, are limited. This relative scarcity, however, provides a natural motivation for collaboration in non-traditional security topics. Collaborations between scientists, businesses, universities, and non-governmental organizations can work at the grass-roots level and yield contributions to confidence building as well as scientific and economic results. Joint analysis projects would benefit the region as well as establish precedents for cooperation.

  6. Accuracy of teleseismic event locations in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-04

    Seismic characterization at the regional level requires accurate determination of phases and travel times for many combinations of stations and events. An important consideration in the process is the accuracy of event locations. The LLNL Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research Program is currently working on data from the Middle East and North Africa, where seismic station coverage is relatively sparse and ``ground truth`` seismic source information is practically nonexistent. In this report the investigator use after shock studies as a source of local ground truth. He evaluates teleseismic location accuracy by comparing hypocenters determined by local networks with those determined teleseismically [e.g. the International Seismological Center (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)]. Epicentral locations, origin times, and depth determinations of events from three aftershocks studies (Algeria, Armenia, and Iran) and one local network study (Iran) are compared with ISC and NEIC locations for the same events. The key parameter for the ISC locations is the number of observations used in the location determination. For more than 40-50 observations, the agreement rapidly diminishes and ISC locations can differ from local determinations by as much as 80 km or more. Events in Iran show a distinct bias of ISC location errors toward the northeast; events in Armenia and Algeria show no directional bias. This study shows that only events with ISC M{sub b} {gt} 4.4-4.5 or NEIS M{sub b} {gt} 4.7-4. should be used for compiling travel time information from teleseismic bulletins in the Middle East/North Africa region when locations from the NEIC and ISC bulletins are used.

  7. Geological and geometrical characteristics of reservoir fracturing throughout the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R. ) Akbar, M. ); Standen, E. )

    1993-09-01

    The geometry and basic characteristics (length, density/intensity, aperture, and porosity) of fractures (joints) have been defined recently for a number of Middle East reservoirs. The factors that determine the occurrence of natural, open, permeable fractures within Middle East reservoirs are nature and degree of folding and/or faulting, in-situ stresses, and changes in rock properties such as porosity, lithology, and especially shaliness. Fracture distribution and orientation within Mesozoic Arabian/Persian Gulf halo-kinetic structures is important to reservoir development and modeling, although the fractures generally only assist productivity. In the deeper Paleozoic reservoirs, fractures become increasingly important. Fractures are best developed in relatively anhydrite free, low porosity, dolomite facies, and with few exceptions their orientation is related to regional trends, only slightly modified by local tectonic features. Exploration for deep-fracture reservoirs needs to consider that the probability of uncemented fractures will be present only where the timing of hydrocarbon migration was close in timing to fracturing. Examination of fractured reservoirs in the Zagros-Bitlis orogenic belt from Turkey through Syria, Iraq, Iran and the northern Emirates demonstrates that the fracturing is dominantly related to folding, with only minor karst fracturing or fault-related fracturing, whereas the fractures in the Gulf of Suez are closely related to the faulting history with some of the most intense fracturing of the low-porosity Eocene limestones forming a fracture reservoir near fault zones. Studies of basement fracturing reveals that decreases in fracture apertures generally accompanies increases in fracture density. The distribution of fractures within the northern Sinai closely fit a wrench-tectonic model, where the greatest density and largest apertures occur in the dolomitic facies and have an orientation parallel to synthetic faulting of the wrench system.

  8. The spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from the Middle East to the world.

    PubMed

    Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P; Harkins, Gordon; Lemey, Philippe; Gray, Alistair J A; Meredith, Sandra; Lakay, Francisco; Monjane, Adérito; Lett, Jean-Michel; Varsani, Arvind; Heydarnejad, Jahangir

    2010-10-28

    The ongoing global spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Genus Begomovirus, Family Geminiviridae) represents a serious looming threat to tomato production in all temperate parts of the world. Whereas determining where and when TYLCV movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and prevent future movements of related viruses, determining the consequences of past TYLCV movements could reveal the ecological and economic risks associated with similar viral invasions. Towards this end we applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available TYLCV sequences (including those of 15 new Iranian full TYLCV genomes) and reconstructed a plausible history of TYLCV's diversification and movements throughout the world. In agreement with historical accounts, our results suggest that the first TYLCVs most probably arose somewhere in the Middle East between the 1930s and 1950s (with 95% highest probability density intervals 1905-1972) and that the global spread of TYLCV only began in the 1980s after the evolution of the TYLCV-Mld and -IL strains. Despite the global distribution of TYLCV we found no convincing evidence anywhere other than the Middle East and the Western Mediterranean of epidemiologically relevant TYLCV variants arising through recombination. Although the region around Iran is both the center of present day TYLCV diversity and the site of the most intensive ongoing TYLCV evolution, the evidence indicates that the region is epidemiologically isolated, which suggests that novel TYLCV variants found there are probably not direct global threats. We instead identify the Mediterranean basin as the main launch-pad of global TYLCV movements.

  9. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  10. 1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from crest of lower dam in foreground). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  11. View of water wheel, generator #3 and exciter (at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of water wheel, generator #3 and exciter (at east end of Childs Powerhouse) on a single shaft. In foreground the governor and shut-off valve are visible. Looking southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. Languages of the Middle East and North Africa. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of the Middle East and North Africa. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult…

  13. Two Future American Leaders React to the Middle East Crises of 1939 and 1948: A Documentary Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurse, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    In 1939 and 1948, John Kennedy and Robert Kennedy visited the Middle East, both while seniors in college. This article consists of two letters written to their parents from Palestine assessing the problems of their day between Arab and Jew. Questions to stimulate classroom discussion are included. (Author/RM)

  14. An Exploratory Study of Factors That Affect the Research Progress of International PhD Students from the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khozaei, Fatemeh; Naidu, Sivabala; Khozaei, Zahra; Salleh, Nor Aini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the critical issues involving Middle East countries such as war and a drop in currency exchange rates, a large number of students leave their country to pursue a higher education abroad, every year. The purpose of this paper is to understand the difficulties that these students face while conducting their research in a foreign…

  15. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors.

  16. A Multilevel Analysis of the Role of School Quality and Family Background on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kareshki, Hossein; Hajinezhad, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is investigating the correlation between school quality and family socioeconomic background and students' mathematics achievement in the Middle East. The countries in comparison are UAE, Syria, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Lebanon, Jordan, and Bahrain. The study utilized data from IEA's Trends in International…

  17. A New Middle East? A Report of FPRI's History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 10, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the current conflicts and political changes in the Middle East us important for American educators if American students are to understand the dynamics of the region. To discuss these issues, FPRI held its 12th History Institute for Teachers on October 16-17, 2004. Forty teachers from 15 states attended the weekend program at the…

  18. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  19. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the culture…

  20. Girls' Drop-Out from Primary Schooling in the Middle East and North Africa: Challenges and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrah, Golnar

    The present situation in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) regarding primary school drop-out and repetition, with special reference to the situation of the girl child, is examined in this study. The in-school as well as out-of-school causes of primary school drop-out are examined, and solutions that help reduce or eliminate the…

  1. Strategies for Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa. Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rihani, May; Prather, Cynthia J.

    This paper is designed to assist education planners and policymakers in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to identify a range of strategic options to increase the access and retention of girls in the education system. It provides a review of materials relating to the status of female education in the MENA region, statistical data on…

  2. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in…

  3. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  4. Conducting Environmental Health Research in the Arabian Middle East: Lessons Learned and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic and government collaborators as well as U.S. academic collaborators. Discussion: We present several issues, including study and data collection design, exposure assessment, scheduling and time coordination, quality assurance and quality control, and institutional review board protocols. These topics are considered in a cultural context. Benefits of this research included building linkages among multinational, interdisciplinary team members, generating data for local environmental decision making, and developing local epidemiologic research capacity. The Middle Eastern culture of hospitality greatly benefited the project team. Conclusion: Cultural differences impact multiple aspects of epidemiologic research and should be respectfully addressed. Conducting international population-based environmental research poses many challenges; these challenges can be met successfully with careful planning, cultural knowledge, and flexibility. Lessons learned are applicable to interdisciplinary research all over the world. The research conducted will benefit the environmental and public health agencies of the UAE and provide the nation’s leadership with country-specific environmental health data that can be used to protect the public’s health in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:22356946

  5. Strategic planning by the palliative care steering committee of the Middle East Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon Y; Pirrello, Rosene D; Christianson, Sonya K; Ferris, Frank D

    2011-04-01

    High quality comprehensive palliative care is a critical need for millions of patients and families, but remains only a dream in many parts of the world. The failure to do a strategic planning process is one obstacle to advancing education and pain prevention and relief. The Middle Eastern Cancer Consortium Steering Committee attendees completed an initial strategic planning process and identified "developmental steps" to advance palliative care. Underscoring the multi-disciplinary nature of comprehensive palliative care, discipline-specific planning was done (adult and pediatric cancer and medicine, pharmacy, nursing) in a separate process from country-specific planning. Delineating the layers of intersection and differences between disciplines and countries was very powerful. Finding the common strengths and weaknesses in the status quo creates the potential for a more powerful regional response to the palliative care needs. Implementing and refining these preliminary strategic plans will augment and align the efforts to advance palliative care education and pain management in the Middle East. The dream to prevent and relieve suffering for millions of patients with advanced disease will become reality with a powerful strategic planning process well implemented.

  6. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion across Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-15

    THis report presents preliminary results from a large scale study of surface wave group velocity dispersion throughout Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by improving the resolution of global surface wave tomographic studies. We hope to accomplish this goal by incorporating regional data at relatively short periods (less than 40 sec), into the regionalization of lateral velocity variation. Due to the sparse distributions of stations and earthquakes throughout the region (Figure 1) we have relied on data recorded at both teleseismic and regions; distances. Also, to date we have concentrated on Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements since valuable measurements can be made without knowledge of the source. In order to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity throughout the region, vertical component teleseismic and regional seismograms were gathered from broadband, 3-component, digital MEDNET, GEOSCOPE and IRIS stations plus the portable PASSCAL deployment in Saudi Arabia. Figure 1 shows the distribution of earthquakes (black circles) and broadband digital seismic stations (white triangles) throughout southern Europe, the middle east and northern Africa used in this study. The most seismicly active regions of northern Africa are the Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria as well as the Red Sea region to the east. Significant seismicity also occurs in the Mediterranean, southern Europe and throughout the high mountains and plateaus of the middle-east. To date, over 1300 seismograms have been analyzed to determine the individual group velocities of 10-150 second Rayleigh waves. Travel times, for each period, are then inverted in a back projection tomographic method in order to determine the lateral group velocity variation throughout the region. These results are preliminary, however, Rayleigh wave group velocity maps for a range of

  7. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B25), FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25), FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE SEDIMENT DAM. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Pump, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  8. Analog models of convergence and divergence: perspectives of the tectonics of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, Yossi

    2010-05-01

    Three series of analog models of convergence and divergence of tectonic plates illuminate the possible tectonic processes that shaped the lithology of the Middle East since the early Miocene. The Mid-East geographic province extends from the Ionian Sea to the Arabian Sea, and comprises the Hellenic subduction zone, the Aegean back-arc basin, the motion of Anatolia southwestwards, the oblique collision of Arabia and Iran along the Zagros suture, and the continental break-up of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. The tectonic evolution of all these diverse domains started in the Miocene nearly contemporaneously, and modeling suggests that the convergence and divergence, though derived from unrelated processes, their tectonics is intertwined. Centrifuge models of the initiation of subduction show the correlation between early subduction and the opening of its back-arc basin (Mart et al., 2005). The models emphasize the significance of extensive seawards roll-back of the deformation front when friction between the thrust slabs is reduced, and consequently, the pull within the overthrust slab that leads to its structural extension. That extension produced the Aegean domain with its volcanism and the exposure of its core complex, as well as the westwards displacement of Anatolia along the North and East Anatolian Faults. Sand-box models of oblique subduction, namely the gradual shift from subduction to collision along the convergence front, showed orthogonal patterns of extension in distal parts of the underthrust slab (Bellahsen et al., 2002). It is suggested that the extensional domains deflected the propagation of Carlsberg Ridge to swing 1200 and penetrate the Gulf of Aden in the early Miocene. The structural differences between the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea can be accounted for by the results of sand-box experiments in oblique rifting (Mart and Dauteuil, 2000). The models suggest that oblique rifting, where the deviation from the normal extension was ca. 50, would

  9. Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2010 Middle East and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Turner, Bethan; Turner, Rebecca; Hayes, Gavin P.; Davies, Sian; Dart, Richard L.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley M.

    2013-01-01

    No fewer than four major tectonic plates (Arabia, Eurasia, India, and Africa) and one smaller tectonic block (Anatolia) are responsible for seismicity and tectonics in the Middle East and surrounding region. Geologic development of the region is a consequence of a number of first-order plate tectonic processes that include subduction, large-scale transform faulting, compressional mountain building, and crustal extension. In the east, tectonics are dominated by the collision of the India plate with Eurasia, driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir and Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Beneath the Pamir‒Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur to depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. Along the western margin of the India plate, relative motions between India and Eurasia are accommodated by strike-slip, reverse, and oblique-slip faulting, resulting in the complex Sulaiman Range fold and thrust belt, and the major translational Chaman Fault in Afghanistan. Off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran, the Makran trench is the surface expression of active subduction of the Arabia plate beneath Eurasia. Northwest of this subduction zone, collision between the two plates forms the approximately 1,500-km-long fold and thrust belts of the Zagros Mountains, which cross the whole of western Iran and extend into northeastern Iraq. Tectonics in the eastern Mediterranean region are dominated by complex interactions between the Africa, Arabia, and Eurasia plates, and the Anatolia block. Dominant structures in this region include: the Red Sea Rift, the spreading center between the Africa and Arabia plates; the Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault, also accommodating Africa-Arabia relative motions; the North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey accommodating much of the translational motion of the Anatolia block westwards with respect to Eurasia and Africa; and the Cyprian

  10. Medical Geology in the Middle East: Potential Health Risks from Mineralized Dust Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, M. B.; Fredrickson, H. L.; Bednar, A. J.; Fannin, H. B.; Griffin, D. W.; Sobecki, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Middle East, dust and sand storms are a persistent problem delivering significant amounts of mineralized particulates via inhalation into the mouth, nasal pharynx, and lungs. The health risks of this dust inhalation are presently being studied but accurate characterization as to the potential health effects is still lacking. Experiments were designed to study the chemical composition, mineral content, and microbial flora of Kuwaiti and Iraqi dust particles for the potential to cause adverse human health effects both acute and chronic. Multiple site samples were collected and chemical and physical characterization including particle size distribution and inorganic analysis was conducted, followed by analysis and identification of biologic flora to include bacteria, fungi and viruses. Additionally, PM10 exposure data was collected hourly over a 12 day period (>10,000 ug/m3). Data indicates that the mineralized dust is composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium sulfate coating over a precipitated matrix of metallic silicate nanocrystals of various forms containing a variety of trace and heavy metals constituting ~3 % of the particles by weight. This includes ~ 1% by weight bioaccessible aluminum and reactive iron with the remaining 1% a mixture of bioaccessible trace and heavy metals. Microbial analysis reveals a significant biodiversity of bacteria of which ~25 % are known pathogens. Of the microbes identified, several have hemolytic properties and most have significant antibiotic resistance. Viral analysis indicates a tremendous amount of virons with a large percent of RNA viruses. The level of total suspended particle mass at PM10 constitutes an excessive exposure micro-particulates including PM 2.5 (~1,0000 ug/m3). Reported data on cell culture and animal studies have indicated a high level of toxicity to these dust particles. Taken together, these data suggest that at the level of dust exposure commonly found in the Middle East (i.e., Iraq, Kuwait, and

  11. Middle East Desert Dust Exposure: Health Risks from Metals and Microbial Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    In the Middle East, dust and sand storms are a persistent problem and can deliver significant amounts of micro-particulates via inhalation into the mouth, nasal pharynx, & lungs due to the fine size and abundance of these micro-particulates. The chronic and acute health risks of this dust inhalation have not been well studied nor has the dust been effectively characterized as to its chemical composition, mineral content, or microbial flora. Scientific experiments were designed to study the Kuwaiti and Iraqi dust as to its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and for its potential to cause adverse health effects. First, dust samples from different locations were collected and processed and exposure data collected. Initial chemical and physical characterization of each sample including particle size distribution and inorganic analysis was conducted, followed by characterization of biologic flora of the dust, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Data indicates that the mineralized dust is composed of calcium carbonate over a matrix of metallic silicate nanocrystals containing a variety of trace and heavy metals constituting ~3 % of the PM10 particles by weight, of which ~1% is bioaccessible aluminum and reactive iron, each. The particles also consist of ~1% bioavailable aluminum and reactive iron each. Microbial analysis reveals a significant biodiversity of bacterial, fungi, and viruses of which ~30% are known pathogens. Of the microbes identified, several have hemolytic properties and most have significant antibiotic resistance. Viral analysis indicates a tremendous amount of virons with a large percent of RNA viruses. The level of total suspended particle mass at PM 10 along with environmental & physiological conditions present constitute an excessive exposure to micro-particulates including PM 2.5 and the potential for adverse health effects. Reported data on cell culture and animal studies have indicated a high level of toxicity to these dust

  12. Systematic review of brucellosis in the Middle East: disease frequency in ruminants and humans and risk factors for human infection.

    PubMed

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M N; Hegazy, Y M; Holt, H R; Guitian, F J

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of studies providing frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans and ruminants and risk factors for Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in the Middle East was conducted to collate current knowledge of brucellosis in this region. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed original Arabic, English, French and Persian journal articles; the search was conducted on June 2014. Two reviewers evaluated articles for inclusion based on pre-defined criteria. Of 451 research articles, only 87 articles passed the screening process and provided bacteriological and serological evidence for brucellosis in all Middle Eastern countries. Brucella melitensis and B. abortus have been identified in most countries in the Middle East, supporting the notion of widespread presence of Brucella spp. especially B. melitensis across the region. Of the 87 articles, 49 were used to provide evidence of the presence of Brucella spp. but only 11 provided new knowledge on the frequency of brucellosis in humans and ruminants or on human risk factors for seropositivity and were deemed of sufficient quality. Small ruminant populations in the region show seroprevalence values that are among the highest worldwide. Human cases are likely to arise from subpopulations occupationally exposed to ruminants or from the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The Middle East is in need of well-designed observational studies that could generate reliable frequency estimates needed to assess the burden of disease and to inform disease control policies.

  13. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  14. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P < 0.001), demonstrating that the changes in the functional diversity of the aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  15. Orbital forced sea level fluctuations during the Middle Eocene (ODP site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnaar, J.; Stickley, C.; Jovane, L.; Roehl, U.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

    2004-12-01

    .E. Stickley, M. Fuller, S.A. Schellenberg, G. Wefer, G. Williams, Cyclostratigraphy of Middle and Late Eocene sediments from the East Tasman Plateau (site 1172), in press.

  16. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  17. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals.

  18. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  19. Ethical Perspectives on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Epidemic in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Ethical considerations are essential in planning for and responding to outbreaks of infectious diseases. During the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Republic of Korea in 2015, serious challenges emerged regarding important ethical issues, such as transparency and the protection of privacy. The development of bioethics in Korea has been influenced by individualistic perspectives applied in clinical contexts, leading to a paucity of ethical perspectives relevant to population-level phenomena such as outbreaks. Alternative theories of public health ethics include the perspectives of relational autonomy and the patient as victim and vector. Public health actions need to incorporate clear and systematic procedures founded upon ethical principles. The MERS-CoV epidemic in Korea created significant public support for more aggressive early interventions in future outbreaks. This trend makes it all the more imperative for ethical principles and procedures to be implemented in future planning and responses to outbreaks in order to promote perceptions of legitimacy and civic participation.

  20. Ethical Perspectives on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ethical considerations are essential in planning for and responding to outbreaks of infectious diseases. During the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Republic of Korea in 2015, serious challenges emerged regarding important ethical issues, such as transparency and the protection of privacy. The development of bioethics in Korea has been influenced by individualistic perspectives applied in clinical contexts, leading to a paucity of ethical perspectives relevant to population-level phenomena such as outbreaks. Alternative theories of public health ethics include the perspectives of relational autonomy and the patient as victim and vector. Public health actions need to incorporate clear and systematic procedures founded upon ethical principles. The MERS-CoV epidemic in Korea created significant public support for more aggressive early interventions in future outbreaks. This trend makes it all the more imperative for ethical principles and procedures to be implemented in future planning and responses to outbreaks in order to promote perceptions of legitimacy and civic participation. PMID:26841881

  1. Response to a Large Polio Outbreak in a Setting of Conflict - Middle East, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Ryan, Michael J; Smith, Philip; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Farag, Noha; Haithami, Salah; Sharaf, Magdi; Jorba, Jaume C; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2017-03-03

    As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4). The national governments of eight countries designated the outbreak a public health emergency and collaborated with partners in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to develop a multiphase outbreak response plan focused on improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance* and administering polio vaccines to >27 million children during multiple rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs).(†) Successful implementation of the response plan led to containment and interruption of the outbreak within 6 months of its identification. The concerted approach adopted in response to this outbreak could serve as a model for responding to polio outbreaks in settings of conflict and political instability.

  2. Medical educators working abroad: a pilot study of educators' experiences in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle; McKimm, Judy; Major, Stella

    2014-09-01

    Medical education is now a global enterprise, with many medical educators working internationally, either for short or longer periods or even permanently. In parallel, many medical schools are now involved in collaborations and partnerships with schools in other countries. With this in mind, we set out to explore what motivates, supports and inhibits medical educators who wish to or might work outside their "home country". This article reports on the pilot stage (in specific organizational contexts in Middle East) of a longitudinal project aimed at canvassing medical educators on a broader global scale, using reflective accounts and a questionnaire survey. The findings from this pilot study raise interesting issues about the lived experience of medical educators who have chosen to work in a different culture from their own. Respondents identify many advantages around skills, personal and professional development. Three main issues emerged in terms of educators' experiences: the academic environment, medical practice in a different cultural context and personal matters. Adapting to the local culture, gender segregation and the impact on learning and teaching was an overarching factor. We introduce an explanatory framework to explain the development of international educator identity, a cyclical process in which, through experiences and reflection, individual world views and perspectives are continually modified and developed. This pilot study tested the methodologies and developed a new conceptual model that will be used in a wider study across different cultures.

  3. Multifacility Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Taif, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Abdullah; Saeed, Abdulaziz A. Bin; Abdalla, Mutwakil A.; al-Masry, Malak; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D.; Tatti, Kathleen; Binder, Alison M.; Rudd, Jessica; Tokars, Jerome; Miao, Congrong; Alarbash, Hussain; Nooh, Randa; Pallansch, Mark; Gerber, Susan I.; Watson, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel respiratory pathogen first reported in 2012. During September 2014–January 2015, an outbreak of 38 cases of MERS was reported from 4 healthcare facilities in Taif, Saudi Arabia; 21 of the 38 case-patients died. Clinical and public health records showed that 13 patients were healthcare personnel (HCP). Fifteen patients, including 4 HCP, were associated with 1 dialysis unit. Three additional HCP in this dialysis unit had serologic evidence of MERS-CoV infection. Viral RNA was amplified from acute-phase serum specimens of 15 patients, and full spike gene-coding sequencing was obtained from 10 patients who formed a discrete cluster; sequences from specimens of 9 patients were closely related. Similar gene sequences among patients unlinked by time or location suggest unrecognized viral transmission. Circulation persisted in multiple healthcare settings over an extended period, underscoring the importance of strengthening MERS-CoV surveillance and infection-control practices. PMID:26692003

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Hospital Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Skakni, Leila; Chu, Daniel K.W.; Garbati, Musa A.; Joseph, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during March 29–May 21, 2014. This outbreak involved 45 patients: 8 infected outside KFMC, 13 long-term patients at KFMC, 23 health care workers, and 1 who had an indeterminate source of infection. Sequences of full-length MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from 10 patients and a partial sequence of MERS-CoV from another patient, when compared with other MERS-CoV sequences, demonstrated that this outbreak was part of a larger outbreak that affected multiple health care facilities in Riyadh and possibly arose from a single zoonotic transmission event that occurred in December 2013 (95% highest posterior density interval November 8, 2013–February 10, 2014). This finding suggested continued health care–associated transmission for 5 months. Molecular epidemiology documented multiple external introductions in a seemingly contiguous outbreak and helped support or refute transmission pathways suspected through epidemiologic investigation. PMID:26484549

  5. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak: a single medical school experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM) were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology. PMID:27240893

  6. Microbiology and risk factors associated with war-related wound infections in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Z T; Bizri, A R; Abu-Sittah, G S

    2016-10-01

    The Middle East region is plagued with repeated armed conflicts that affect both civilians and soldiers. Injuries sustained during war are common and frequently associated with multiple life-threatening complications. Wound infections are major consequences of these war injuries. The microbiology of war-related wound infections is variable with predominance of Gram-negative bacteria in later stages. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates affecting war-related wound injuries is a serious problem with major regional and global implications. Factors responsible for the increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens include timing and type of surgical management, wide use of antimicrobial drugs, and the presence of metallic or organic fragments in the wound. Nosocomial transmission is the most important factor in the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Wound management of war-related injuries merits a multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to describe the microbiology of war-related wound infections and factors affecting their incidence from conflict areas in Iraq, Syria, Israel, and Lebanon.

  7. High correlation of Middle East respiratory syndrome spread with Google search and Twitter trends in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Seo, Dong-Woo; An, Jisun; Kwak, Haewoon; Kim, Sung-Han; Gwack, Jin; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was exported to Korea in 2015, resulting in a threat to neighboring nations. We evaluated the possibility of using a digital surveillance system based on web searches and social media data to monitor this MERS outbreak. We collected the number of daily laboratory-confirmed MERS cases and quarantined cases from May 11, 2015 to June 26, 2015 using the Korean government MERS portal. The daily trends observed via Google search and Twitter during the same time period were also ascertained using Google Trends and Topsy. Correlations among the data were then examined using Spearman correlation analysis. We found high correlations (>0.7) between Google search and Twitter results and the number of confirmed MERS cases for the previous three days using only four simple keywords: “MERS”, “” (“MERS (in Korean)”), “” (“MERS symptoms (in Korean)”), and “” (“MERS hospital (in Korean)”). Additionally, we found high correlations between the Google search and Twitter results and the number of quarantined cases using the above keywords. This study demonstrates the possibility of using a digital surveillance system to monitor the outbreak of MERS. PMID:27595921

  8. Prenatal metal exposure in the Middle East: imprint of war in deciduous teeth of children.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Ali, S Sadik; Bacho, R; Savabi, O; Alsabbak, M

    2016-09-01

    In war zones, the explosion of bombs, bullets, and other ammunition releases multiple neurotoxicants into the environment. The Middle East is currently the site of heavy environmental disruption by massive bombardments. A very large number of US military bases, which release highly toxic environmental contaminants, have also been erected since 2003. Current knowledge supports the hypothesis that war-created pollution is a major cause of rising birth defects and cancers in Iraq. We created elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in deciduous teeth of children with birth defects from Iraq. Healthy and naturally shed teeth from Lebanon and Iran were also analyzed for trace elements. Lead (Pb) was highest in teeth from children with birth defects who donated their teeth from Basra, Iraq (mean 0.73-16.74 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm, n = 3). Pb in healthy Lebanese and Iranian teeth were 0.038-0.382 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 4) and 0.041-0.31 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 2), respectively. Our hypothesis that increased war activity coincides with increased metal levels in deciduous teeth is confirmed by this research. Lead levels were similar in Lebanese and Iranian deciduous teeth. Deciduous teeth from Iraqi children with birth defects had remarkably higher levels of Pb. Two Iraqi teeth had four times more Pb, and one tooth had as much as 50 times more Pb than samples from Lebanon and Iran.

  9. Medication risk communication with cancer patients in a Middle East cancer care setting

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al-Okka, Maha; Jumaat, Ebaa; Eissa, Nesma; Elbashir, Merwa; Al-Yafei, Sumaya M Al Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer treatments are frequently associated with adverse effects, but there may be a cultural reluctance by care providers to be forthcoming with patients regarding these risks for fear of promoting nonadherence. Conversely, research in a number of countries indicates high levels of patient desire for this information. We sought to explore cancer patient experiences, satisfaction, and preferences for medication risk communication in a Middle East care setting. Methods We developed and administered a ten-item questionnaire (Arabic and English) to a convenience sample of consenting adult patients receiving treatment at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research in Qatar. Results One hundred and forty-three patients were interviewed. Most (88%) stated that the level of side effect information they received was sufficient, with physicians (86%) followed by pharmacists (39%) as the preferred sources. The majority (97%) agreed that knowing about possible side effects would help them recognize and manage the reaction, and 92% agreed that it would help them understand how to minimize or prevent the risks. Eighteen percent indicated that this information would make them not want to take treatment. Two-thirds (65%) had previously experienced intolerance to their cancer treatment regimen. Conclusion Most patients surveyed expressed preference for the details of possible side effects they may encounter in their treatment. However, one in five considered such information a factor for nonadherence, indicating the need for patient-specific approaches when communicating medication risks. PMID:27175061

  10. Outflow of foreign direct investments from the Middle East: cases of Egypt, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Kawther, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study extensively investigated the outflow of FDI from the Middle East (ME), its reasons, its characteristics, its form of ownership, and how it relates and compares with other MNCs in general and TWCs in particular. The comparison primarily focused on: (1) motives for investing abroad, and (2) the criteria used for selecting host countries. The research revealed that ME MNCs, generally, shared many views regarding their motivations and criteria. However, some differences were found to exist between Egyptian firms, on one hand, and Kuwaiti and Saudi firms, on the other hand. These differences were primarily attributed to the differences in the nature of the ownership advantages possessed by each group. The primary advantage of the Kuwaiti and Saudi firms was their capital-surplus positions. The primary advantage of the Egyptian firms was their managerial and marketing skills. ME MNCs were also found to have some similarities, regarding their FDI motivations and criteria, with other TW MNCs. Yet, there were some sharp differences. Again, the nature of the ownership advantages, and the business types, were found to explain these differences.

  11. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  12. SESAME -- A third generation synchrotron light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. Members of the Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority,Turkey) provide the operations budget. Voluntary contributions by several Council Members that could amount to over 20 million over 5 years are now being finalized. This, plus funds from other sources, will enable acquisition of the technical components of the new ring and the upgrading of beamline equipment donated by several European and US labs. All concrete shielding is complete. The 0.8 GeV BESSY I injector system, a gift from Germany, is now being installed. A training program has been underway since 2000. SESAME is on track to start operation with four day-one beam lines in 2015.

  13. The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    PubMed Central

    Milne-Price, Shauna; Miazgowicz, Kerri L.; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    On September 20, 2012, a Saudi Arabian physician reported the isolation of a novel coronavirus from a patient with pneumonia on ProMED-mail. Within a few days the same virus was detected in a Qatari patient receiving intensive care in a London hospital, a situation reminiscent of the role air travel played in the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. SARS-CoV originated in China’s Guangdong Province and affected more than 8000 patients in 26 countries before it was contained six months later. Over a year after the emergence of this novel coronavirus—Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—it has caused 178 laboratory confirmed cases and 76 deaths The emergence of a second highly pathogenic coronavirus within a decade highlights the importance of a coordinated global response incorporating reservoir surveillance, high-containment capacity with fundamental and applied research programs, and dependable communication pathways to ensure outbreak containment. Here we review the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, clinical features and intervention strategies of the novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV. PMID:24585737

  14. Proteolytic processing of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spikes expands virus tropism.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Eun; Li, Kun; Barlan, Arlene; Fehr, Anthony R; Perlman, Stanley; McCray, Paul B; Gallagher, Tom

    2016-10-25

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans from zoonotic sources and causes severe pulmonary disease. Virions require spike (S) glycoproteins for binding to cell receptors and for catalyzing virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion occurs only after S proteins are cleaved sequentially, first during their secretion through the exocytic organelles of virus-producing cells, and second after virus binding to target-cell receptors. To more precisely determine how sequential proteolysis contributes to CoV infection, we introduced S mutations obstructing the first cleavages. These mutations severely compromised MERS-CoV infection into human lung-derived cells, but had little effect on infection into several other cell types. These cell type-specific requirements for proteolysis correlated with S conformations during cell entry. Without the first cleavages, S proteins resisted cell receptor-induced conformational changes, which restricted the second, fusion-activating cleavages. Consistent with these findings, precleaved MERS viruses used receptor-proximal, cell-surface proteases to effect the second fusion-activating cleavages during cell entry, whereas the more rigid uncleaved MERS viruses trafficked past these cell-surface proteases and into endosomes. Uncleaved viruses were less infectious to human airway epithelial and Calu3 cell cultures because they lacked sufficient endosomal fusion-activating proteases. Thus, by sensitizing viruses to receptor-induced conformational changes, the first S cleavages expand virus tropism to cell types that are relevant to lung infection, and therefore may be significant determinants of MERS-CoV virulence.

  15. Dyslipidaemia in the Middle East: Current status and a call for action.

    PubMed

    Al Rasadi, Khalid; Almahmeed, Wael; AlHabib, Khalid F; Abifadel, Marianne; Farhan, Hasan Ali; AlSifri, Saud; Jambart, Selim; Zubaid, Mohammad; Awan, Zuhier; Al-Waili, Khalid; Barter, Philip

    2016-09-01

    The increase in the cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated mortality rate in the Middle East (ME) is among the highest in the world. The aim of this article is to review the current prevalence of dyslipidaemia and known gaps in its management in the ME region, and to propose initiatives to address the burden of dyslipidaemia. Published literature on the epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in the ME region was presented and discussed at an expert meeting that provided the basis of this review article. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and consanguineous marriages, in the ME region, results in a pattern of dyslipidaemia (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglycerides) that is different from many other regions of the world. Early prevention and control of dyslipidaemia is of paramount importance to reduce the risk of developing CVD. Education of the public and healthcare professionals and developing preventive programs, FH registries and regional guidelines on dyslipidaemia are the keys to dyslipidaemia management in the ME region.

  16. Geologic Map of the Middle East Rift Geothermal Subzone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    K'lauea is an active shield volcano in the southeastern part of the Island of Hawai'i. The middle east rift zone (MERZ) map includes about 27 square kilometers of the MERZ and shows the distribution of the products of 37 separate eruptions during late Holocene time. Lava flows erupted during 1983-96 have reached the mapped area. The subaerial part of the MERZ is 3-4 km wide and about 18 km long. It is a constructional ridge, 50-150 m above the adjoining terrain, marked by low spatter ramparts and cones as high as 60 m. Lava typically flowed either northeast or southeast, depending on vent location relative to the topographic crest of the rift zone. The MERZ receives more than 100 in. of rainfall annually and is covered by tropical rain forest. Vegetation begins to grow on lava a few months after its eruption. Relative heights of trees can be a guide to relative ages of underlying lava flows, but proximity to faults, presence of easily weathered cinders, and human activity also affect the rate of growth. The rocks have been grouped into five basic age groups. The framework for the ages assigned is provided by eight radiocarbon ages from previous mapping by the authors and a single date from the current mapping effort. The numerical ages are supplemented by observations of stratigraphic relations, degree of weathering, soil development, and vegetative cover.

  17. Invasive mutualisms between a plant pathogen and insect vectors in the Middle East and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Renan Batista; Donkersley, Philip; Silva, Fábio Nascimento; Al-Mahmmoli, Issa Hashil; Al-Sadi, Abdullah Mohammed; Carvalho, Claudine Márcia; Elliot, Simon L

    2016-12-01

    Complex multi-trophic interactions in vectorborne diseases limit our understanding and ability to predict outbreaks. Arthropod-vectored pathogens are especially problematic, with the potential for novel interspecific interactions during invasions. Variations and novelties in plant-arthropod-pathogen triumvirates present significant threats to global food security. We examined aspects of a phytoplasma pathogen of citrus across two continents. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causes Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) and has devastated citrus production in the Middle East. A variant of this phytoplasma currently displays asymptomatic or 'silent' infections in Brazil. We first studied vector capacity and fitness impacts of the pathogen on its vectors. The potential for co-occurring weed species to act as pathogen reservoirs was analysed and key transmission periods in the year were also studied. We demonstrate that two invasive hemipteran insects-Diaphorina citri and Hishimonus phycitis-can vector the phytoplasma. Feeding on phytoplasma-infected hosts greatly increased reproduction of its invasive vector D. citri both in Oman and Brazil; suggesting that increased fitness of invasive insect vectors thereby further increases the pathogen's capacity to spread. Based on our findings, this is a robust system for studying the effects of invasions on vectorborne diseases and highlights concerns about its spread to warmer, drier regions of Brazil.

  18. Invasive mutualisms between a plant pathogen and insect vectors in the Middle East and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Renan Batista; Silva, Fábio Nascimento; Al-Mahmmoli, Issa Hashil; Al-Sadi, Abdullah Mohammed; Carvalho, Claudine Márcia; Elliot, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex multi-trophic interactions in vectorborne diseases limit our understanding and ability to predict outbreaks. Arthropod-vectored pathogens are especially problematic, with the potential for novel interspecific interactions during invasions. Variations and novelties in plant–arthropod–pathogen triumvirates present significant threats to global food security. We examined aspects of a phytoplasma pathogen of citrus across two continents. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ causes Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) and has devastated citrus production in the Middle East. A variant of this phytoplasma currently displays asymptomatic or ‘silent’ infections in Brazil. We first studied vector capacity and fitness impacts of the pathogen on its vectors. The potential for co-occurring weed species to act as pathogen reservoirs was analysed and key transmission periods in the year were also studied. We demonstrate that two invasive hemipteran insects—Diaphorina citri and Hishimonus phycitis—can vector the phytoplasma. Feeding on phytoplasma-infected hosts greatly increased reproduction of its invasive vector D. citri both in Oman and Brazil; suggesting that increased fitness of invasive insect vectors thereby further increases the pathogen's capacity to spread. Based on our findings, this is a robust system for studying the effects of invasions on vectorborne diseases and highlights concerns about its spread to warmer, drier regions of Brazil. PMID:28083099

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    DOE PAGES

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; ...

    2016-01-20

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater thanmore » 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Lastly, many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding.« less

  20. Escape route to dependency? Female migration from Sri Lanka to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Brochmann, G

    1987-05-01

    This article looks at labor migration with the sex component turned upside down, where the woman leaves hearth and home in search of work in distant lands. The sending country is Sri Lanka, and the women migrate as maids to Arab households in the Gulf area. Labor migration must be understood in the context of the economic and social development that has made migration possible, or rather pushed it forward. Today, the export of labor is the 2nd biggest source of foreign earnings for Sri Lanka, and females constitute the largest single group of labor migrants. There is 1 clear aspect of female migration: it is almost without exception the poorest strata of society that send their women to the Gulf as housemaids. 3 factors tend to reduce the value of wages earned in the Middle East: 1) for a majority of the migrants there are high social costs involved, 2) there are high transaction costs just to obtain a Gulf job, and 3) performing paid housework tends to be regarded as a low-status occupation and is less attractive to households that have alternative means of income. Not only are the migrant women themselves exposed to a very different society, with different values and ways of living, but also the whole community at home gets a concept of "abroad." The Sri Lankan government expects the contingent of female migrants to grow, though against this is the fact that Sri Lanka now faces stronger competition in female labor exports from other Asian countries.

  1. Upper Campanian suspected silicified seismite related to the Syrian Arc tectonic system in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, Zeev

    2010-06-01

    The formation of the rare 'homogenous linear structures' in chert beds in the Phosphate Member of the Mishash Formation in central and southern Israel is reevaluated based on new samples from Har Omer, Arava Valley. These are of 4-6 cm thick chert beds in which the upper and lower surfaces form dense subparallel low ridges in contrast to the planar surfaces of other chert layers alternating with other lithologies. The ridges were suggested to have formed by advancing silicification fronts replacing the original sediment by microquartz without specifying the control on the ridged pattern and its regional orientation. One sample exhibits different color internal folds attesting to a multiple wavy mobilization of the silica-bearing liquid, probably composed of individual tiny crystallites of silicified calcareous micrite dispersed in seawater. This interpreted 'soup' of microquartz crystallites is corroborated by examples of a plastic deformation and mobilization in a muddy state of the siliceous Mishash Formation unconsolidated sediment. E-W dominant orientation of the ridges in central and southern Israel cannot be related to a simple diffusive diagenetic process and probably was initiated by N-S trending seismic surface waves during the Syrian Arc tectonic activity in the Middle East. Accordingly, this seismically induced sedimentary structure (seismite) formed through the vertical mobilization of silica-rich liquid replacing seawater in-between the sedimentary particles, advancing in a wavy upper and lower front triggered by a seismic event.

  2. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus alexandri and P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to create distribution models of two sand fly species, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) and P. alexandri (Sinton), across the Middle East. Phlebotomus alexandri is a vector of visceral leishmaniasis, while P. papatasi is a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand fly fever. Collection records were obtained from literature reports from 1950 through 2007 and unpublished field collection records. Environmental layers considered in the model were elevation, precipitation, land cover, and WorldClim bioclimatic variables. Models were evaluated using the threshold-independent area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic analysis and the threshold-dependent minimum training presence. Results For both species, land cover was the most influential environmental layer in model development. The bioclimatic and elevation variables all contributed to model development; however, none influenced the model as strongly as land cover. Conclusion While not perfect representations of the absolute distribution of P. papatasi and P. alexandri, these models indicate areas with a higher probability of presence of these species. This information could be used to help guide future research efforts into the ecology of these species and epidemiology of the pathogens that they transmit. PMID:20089198

  3. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  4. Mobilizing the Global Scientific Enterprise to Foster Cooperation with the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turekian, Vaughan

    2007-03-01

    International science cooperation - e.g. science for diplomacy - has long been an important tool in the US foreign policy approach. Cold War science exchanges and development of institutions such as IIASA in Vienna, Austria played a critical role in increasing contacts and building trust between the adversaries. American - Chinese science exchanges starting in the 1970's laid the groundwork for increased interactions between the two countries. While such a deep history of exchange with the Muslim world U.S. policy, scientific diplomacy should now be a central point of any broader diplomatic engagement with these countries. Although perceptions of the U.S. are at historical lows throughout the region, recent polling continues to show that U.S. science and scientists remain highly respected. In part as a response to this unpopularity of the U.S. throughout the broader Middle East, President Bush appointed Karen Hughes, one of his most trusted advisers, to serve as the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy - a position that is charges with improving the U.S. image abroad. This presentation will demonstrate that Under Secretary Hughes has valuable resources within the scientific community that are willing, able and proactively engaging with the Muslim world. The paper will highlight some of the key areas of cooperation, and highlight areas and programs that AAAS is using to further engage elements of the Muslim scientific community.

  5. Diversity of Cronobacter spp. isolates from the vegetables in the middle-east coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanyi; Yang, Jielin; You, Chunping; Liu, Zhenmin

    2016-06-01

    Cronobacter spp. has caused life-threatening neonatal infections mainly resulted from consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. A total of 102 vegetable samples from retail markets were evaluated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. Thirty-five presumptive Cronobacter isolates were isolated and identified using API 20E and 16S rDNA sequencing analyses. All isolates and type strains were characterized using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), and genetic profiles of cluster analysis from this molecular typing test clearly showed that there were differences among isolates from different vegetables. A polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on the amplification of the gyrB gene (1258 bp) was developed to differentiate among Cronobacter species. A new PCR-RFLP assay based on the amplification of the gyrB gene using Alu I and Hinf I endonuclease combination is established and it has been confirmed an accurate and rapid subtyping method to differentiate Cronobacter species. Sequence analysis of the gyrB gene was proven to be suitable for the phylogenetic analysis of the Cronobacter strains, which has much better resolution based on SNPs in the identification of Cronobacter species specificity than PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR. Our study further confirmed that vegetables are one of the most common habitats or sources of Cronobacter spp. contamination in the middle-east coastline of China.

  6. Molecular typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from the middle-east coastline of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanyi; Xie, Yanping; Xu, Jingye; Wang, Qingzhong; Gu, Ming; Yang, Jielin; Zhou, Min; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Chunlei; Shi, Xianming

    2012-02-15

    The occurrence of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in China highlights the need for strain characterization and subtyping of this pathogenic species. A total of 56 epidemiologically-unrelated strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical samples, seafood and various environmental sites in the middle-east coastline of China from 2006 to 2008. The isolates were characterized using four molecular typing methods, including ribotyping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and sequence analysis of the gyrB gene. Genetic profiles of cluster analysis from these molecular typing tests clearly showed that there were differences in potential pathogenicity among isolates from seafood and its environments. Genetic characterization of two isolates (F13 and QS2) that originated from seafood demonstrated that they were potentially pathogenic. Discriminatory indices of four typing methods for the 56 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were differentiated by Simpson's Index of Diversity. The discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR typing was maximal (D=0.942), while that of sequence analysis of the gyrB gene was minimal (D=0.702). The discriminatory ability was greatly enhanced (D=0.966) when ERIC-PCR was coupled with sequence analysis of the gyrB gene. These results suggest that ERIC-PCR combined with sequence analysis of gyrB gene may be a reliable, rapid typing strategy for V. parahaemolyticus strains.

  7. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings.

  8. Characterization of a novel betacoronavirus related to middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in European hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Corman, Victor Max; Kallies, René; Philipps, Heike; Göpner, Gertraude; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Eckerle, Isabella; Brünink, Sebastian; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2014-01-01

    Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important human coronaviruses (HCoVs), such as HCoV-229E, severe-acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). As RNA viruses may coevolve with their hosts, we sought to investigate the closest sister taxon to bats, the Eulipotyphla, and screened European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Germany for CoV by nested reverse transcriptase PCR. A novel betacoronavirus species in a phylogenetic sister relationship to MERS-CoV and clade c bat CoVs was detected and characterized on the whole-genome level. A total of 58.9% of hedgehog fecal specimens were positive for the novel CoV (EriCoV) at 7.9 log10 mean RNA copies per ml. EriCoV RNA concentrations were higher in the intestine than in other solid organs, blood, or urine. Detailed analyses of the full hedgehog intestine showed the highest EriCoV concentrations in lower gastrointestinal tract specimens, compatible with viral replication in the lower intestine and fecal-oral transmission. Thirteen of 27 (48.2%) hedgehog sera contained non-neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. The animal origins of this betacoronavirus clade that includes MERS-CoV may thus include both bat and nonbat hosts.

  9. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  10. Repurposing of Clinically Developed Drugs for Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dyall, Julie; Coleman, Christopher M.; Hart, Brit J.; Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Holbrook, Michael R.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Johnson, Reed F.; Olinger, Gene G.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Laidlaw, Monique; Johansen, Lisa M.; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of emerging infections present health professionals with the unique challenge of trying to select appropriate pharmacologic treatments in the clinic with little time available for drug testing and development. Typically, clinicians are left with general supportive care and often untested convalescent-phase plasma as available treatment options. Repurposing of approved pharmaceutical drugs for new indications presents an attractive alternative to clinicians, researchers, public health agencies, drug developers, and funding agencies. Given the development times and manufacturing requirements for new products, repurposing of existing drugs is likely the only solution for outbreaks due to emerging viruses. In the studies described here, a library of 290 compounds was screened for antiviral activity against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Selection of compounds for inclusion in the library was dependent on current or previous FDA approval or advanced clinical development. Some drugs that had a well-defined cellular pathway as target were included. In total, 27 compounds with activity against both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV were identified. The compounds belong to 13 different classes of pharmaceuticals, including inhibitors of estrogen receptors used for cancer treatment and inhibitors of dopamine receptor used as antipsychotics. The drugs identified in these screens provide new targets for in vivo studies as well as incorporation into ongoing clinical studies. PMID:24841273

  11. Prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Jambart, S; Ammache, Z; Haddad, F; Younes, A; Hassoun, A; Abdalla, K; Selwan, C Abou; Sunna, N; Wajsbrot, D; Youseif, E

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was evaluated in type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 4097) attending outpatient clinics across the Middle East. Overall, 53.7% of 3989 patients with DN4 data met the criteria for painful DPN (Douleur Neuropathique-4 [DN4] scores ≥ 4). Significant predictors of painful DPN included long history (≥ 10 years) of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.43), age ≥ 65 years (OR 2.13), age 50 - 64 years (OR 1.75), presence of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes (OR 1.59), body mass index > 30 kg/m(2) (OR 1.35) and female gender (OR 1.27). Living in one of the Gulf States was associated with the lowest odds of having painful DPN (OR 0.44). The odds of painful DPN were highest among patients with peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.98), diabetic retinopathy (OR 3.90) and diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.23). Because of the high prevalence and associated suffering, disability and economic burden of painful DPN, it is important that diabetic patients are periodically screened, using a simple instrument such as the DN4, and receive appropriate treatment if symptoms develop.

  12. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E.; Macko, S. Engel, M.

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  13. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E. ); Macko, S. ) Engel, M. )

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  14. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society's investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention.

  15. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  16. Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed A; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; El-Taweel, Ahmed N; Atea, Mohamed; Hassan, Nagla; Bagato, Ola; Moatasim, Yassmin; Mahmoud, Sara H; Kutkat, Omnia; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Osman, Ahmed; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat. PMID:28050021

  17. Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-12-12

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV.

  18. High correlation of Middle East respiratory syndrome spread with Google search and Twitter trends in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Seo, Dong-Woo; An, Jisun; Kwak, Haewoon; Kim, Sung-Han; Gwack, Jin; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-09-06

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was exported to Korea in 2015, resulting in a threat to neighboring nations. We evaluated the possibility of using a digital surveillance system based on web searches and social media data to monitor this MERS outbreak. We collected the number of daily laboratory-confirmed MERS cases and quarantined cases from May 11, 2015 to June 26, 2015 using the Korean government MERS portal. The daily trends observed via Google search and Twitter during the same time period were also ascertained using Google Trends and Topsy. Correlations among the data were then examined using Spearman correlation analysis. We found high correlations (>0.7) between Google search and Twitter results and the number of confirmed MERS cases for the previous three days using only four simple keywords: "MERS", " ("MERS (in Korean)"), " ("MERS symptoms (in Korean)"), and " ("MERS hospital (in Korean)"). Additionally, we found high correlations between the Google search and Twitter results and the number of quarantined cases using the above keywords. This study demonstrates the possibility of using a digital surveillance system to monitor the outbreak of MERS.

  19. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  20. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Regional Climate Impact over Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique region due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the region. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA region and their impact on the regional circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative impact of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of regional climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound impact on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.

  1. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  2. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    2016-04-01

    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  3. Diagenetic evolution and petrophysical characteristics of oomoldic facies in United States and Middle East reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R.; Neuberger, D.

    1987-08-01

    The diagenetic evolution of oomoldic pore rocks from US and Middle East reservoirs were studied to determine their variation. The oomolds in all of the reservoir samples appear to have formed prior to any compaction, and were also subject to early cementation, which preserved the delicate structure of these rocks. The most common oomold-filling mineral is calcite, regardless of whether the remainder of the rock is dolostone or limestone. Anhydrite is commonly the mineral filling oomolds in formations depositionally associated with evaporites. Partial cementation of individual oomolds is rare. However, partial filling of oomoldic wackestones by lime mud was observed. The petrophysical characteristics of oomoldic rocks in different stages of diagenetic evolution were analyzed using thin sections, pore casts, porosity and permeability measurements, and saturation. The rocks used in the study included core samples from the Lansing-Kansas City Group, San Andres, Smackover, Arab, and Khuff formations. Selected samples from the Lansing-Kansas City Groups were also measured for formation factor, density, and for dielectric and acoustic properties. The study quantified the relationship of pore type and volume with both formation factor and permeability of oomoldic rocks. The framework mineralogy (calcite or dolomite) and microstructure, and the presence and nature of interparticle pore-filling cements are critical factors in assessing the reservoir potential of an oomoldic reservoir facies. Furthermore, the geologic analysis of the pore system can greatly improve the determination of the Archie m exponent, which provides more reasonable evaluations of the saturation and permeability of these complex rocks.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Hospital Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Skakni, Leila; Chu, Daniel K W; Garbati, Musa A; Joseph, Mercy; Peiris, Malik; Hakawi, Ahmed M

    2015-11-01

    We investigated an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during March 29-May 21, 2014. This outbreak involved 45 patients: 8 infected outside KFMC, 13 long-term patients at KFMC, 23 health care workers, and 1 who had an indeterminate source of infection. Sequences of full-length MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from 10 patients and a partial sequence of MERS-CoV from another patient, when compared with other MERS-CoV sequences, demonstrated that this outbreak was part of a larger outbreak that affected multiple health care facilities in Riyadh and possibly arose from a single zoonotic transmission event that occurred in December 2013 (95% highest posterior density interval November 8, 2013-February 10, 2014). This finding suggested continued health care-associated transmission for 5 months. Molecular epidemiology documented multiple external introductions in a seemingly contiguous outbreak and helped support or refute transmission pathways suspected through epidemiologic investigation.

  5. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  6. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    PubMed

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  7. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions, Multi-Mode Dispersion, and Travel-Time Tomography for Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Middle East and North Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    served and predicted radial receiver functions and fundamental mode group velocity values for station SODA located near the western edge of the Arabian...AFIF, HALM, RANI, SODA , Exceedingly Complex Receiver Function Observations. We list stations with exceedingly complex receiver functions in Table 3.2...1995-97 Middle-East XI SODA 18.29 42.37 2876 289 41 1995-97 Middle-East XI TAIF 21.28 40.34 2050 43 6 1996 Middle-East continued on next page APPENDIX A

  8. Fish community diversity in the middle continental shelf of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Zhou, Zhipeng; Dai, Fangqun

    2011-11-01

    The status of fishery stocks in the coastal waters of China is far from ideal, mainly due to climate change and the impacts of human activities (e.g., pollution and overfishing). Thus, the restoration and protection of fishery resources have become critical and complex. The stability and balanced structure of the fish community is a basic foundation for the protection of fishery resources. Based on data collected from bottom trawls by the R/V Beidou in continental shelf of the East China Sea in November 2006 and February 2007, changes in the composition and diversity of fish species and functional groups were analyzed. The research area was divided into offshore waters and inshore waters by the two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA). The results showed that the dominant species were different between offshore waters and inshore waters and also varied with the survey time. The most abundant family was Sciaenidae and Teraponidae in November 2006, Sciaenidae, Engraulidae and Triglidae were most abundant in February 2007. The species belonged mainly to mobile piscivores (G6), benthivores/piscivores (G4), benthivores (G3) and planktivores (G1), and the dominant species in November 2006 were commercial species (e.g. Larimichthys polyactis and Trichiurus japonicus), but small-sized species were dominant in February 2007 (e.g., Harpadon nehereus, Benthosema pterotum, Champsodon capensis, and Acropoma japonicum). The species diversity showed a similar trend as the functional group diversity. Stations with higher diversity were mainly distributed in inshore waters in February 2007, whereas higher diversity was found in offshore waters in November 2006. The highest biomass and species number were found in G6 group, followed by the G4, G5 and G1 groups. The distribution of the number of individuals of each functional group showed the opposite trend as that of the biomass distribution. In addition, the size spectra were mainly concentrated around 3-29 cm, and the individual

  9. Distribution and variability of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Noureddine, Adjlane; Al-Shagour, Banan; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; El-Niweiri, Mogbel A A; Anaswah, Eman; Hammour, Wafaa Abu; El-Obeid, Dany; Imad, Albaba; Shebl, Mohamed A; Almaleky, Abdulhusien Sehen; Nasher, Abdullah; Walid, Nagara; Bergigui, Mohamed Fouad; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Three hundred and eleven honeybee samples from 12 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, Palestine, and Sudan) were analyzed for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV). The prevalence of DWV throughout the MENA region was pervasive, but variable. The highest prevalence was found in Lebanon and Syria, with prevalence dropping in Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt before increasing slightly moving westwards to Algeria and Morocco Phylogenetic analysis of a 194 nucleotide section of the DWV Lp gene did not identify any significant phylogenetic resolution among the samples, although the sequences did show consistent regional clustering, including an interesting geographic gradient from Morocco through North Africa to Jordan and Syria. The sequences revealed several clear variability hotspots in the deduced amino acid sequence, which furthermore showed some patterns of regional identity. Furthermore, the sequence variants from the Middle East and North Africa appear more numerous and diverse than those from Europe.

  10. [Remarks concerning risk of infections and health service infrastructure in countries of the Middle East with Syria, for example].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of epidemiological situation in the Middle East, in the Mediterranean Sea basin, based on the status of the Syrian health service and diseases occurring among society of this country within the space of the last tens of years is presented in this article. Knowledge of morbidity and morbidness of Syrians, representatives of Arab-Muslim community is relatively low. First of all, it is related to isolation of Syria in the international arena, poor status of education and health service, lack of current epidemiological data on health condition of the country population. Knowledge of issues mentioned above has essential importance for people working or serving in Syria (military and civilian UN personnel), as well as for tourists travelling in the Middle East.

  11. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710

  12. Highlighting Effects of Current Globalization Tenets, Namely Democracy, Capitalism, and Cultural Transformation, on the Arab Islamic Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    remaining at the bottom of the pyramid. Many counties in the Middle East fall into this later category .9 That is not to say people and cultures should...negotiation with or bullying a religious fundamentalist group would most likely be in vain. Hence, dealing with a political element alone, has a higher...Islamic Right Wing The Violent Islamic Right is more impatient than the Gradual Right, in that, groups within this category often use the art of violence

  13. Woods to sand: Operational considerations for the employment of a European base division in a contingency in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, J.

    1991-05-29

    This monograph examines the employment of a European based U.S. heavy division in a contingency in the Middle East. Applicable theory is described and developed against the historical lens of armored campaigns in desert regions and then is used to develop the research paper's product: employment considerations. The strategic setting of the Middle East demands sustained attention from the United States. We can expect continued trouble and violence resulting from the diverse religious, cultural, economic, and military pressures within the area. We will most likely see United States interests in protecting sovereign nations and encouraging peace in the region. Since the diminished Soviet threat in Europe no longer fixes divisions in position, a heavy division could be available for employment in the adjacent theater, the Middle East. The criteria introduced to develop the analysis are the dynamics of combat power: maneuver, firepower, protection and leadership. These are examined from theoretical and historical frames of reference that include the German World War II North African campaign, Arab-Israeli wars, and the recent Iran-Iraq War.

  14. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  15. Ground-water contamination in East Bay Township, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenter, F.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Grannemann, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Glacial deposits, as much as 360 feet thick, underlie the study area. The upper 29 to 118 feet, a sand and gravel unit, is the aquifer tapped for water by all wells in the area. This unit is underlain by impermeable clay that is at least 100 feet thick. Ground-water flow is northeastward at an estimated rate of 3 to 6 feet per day. Hydraulic conductivities in the aquifer range from 85 to 150 feet per day; 120 feet per day provided the best match of field data in a ground-water flow model. The depth to water ranged from 1 to 20 feet. Chemical anlayses indicate that ground water is contaminated with organic chemicals from near the Hangar/Administration building at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station to East Bay, about 4,300 feet northeast. The plume, which follows ground-water flow lines, ranges from 180 to 400 feet wide. In the upper reach of the plume, hydrocarbons less dense than water occur at the surface of the water table; they move downward in the aquifer as they move toward East Bay. Maximum concentrations of the major organic compounds include: benzene, 3,390 micrograms per liter; toluene, 55,500 micrograms per liter; xylene, 3,900 micrograms per liter; tetrachloroethylene, 3,410 micrograms per liter; and bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, 2,100 micrograms per liter. Soils are generally free of these hydrocarbons; however, in the vicinity of past drum storage, aircraft maintenance operations, and fuel storage and dispensing, as much as 1,100 micrograms per kilogram of tetrachloroethylene and 1,500 micrograms per kilogram of bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate were detected. At a few locations higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, characteristic of petroleum distillates, were found.

  16. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  17. Water movement in till of east-central South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.J.; Ruedisili, L.C.; Barari, A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that control the flow of water through till are poorly understood. Hydrographic analyses, field hydraulic conductivity measurements, and major-ion sampling were conducted on weathered and unweathered tills at 22 sites in east-central South Dakota. Water from a buried outwash aquifer was also chemically analyzed and carbon age dated. The upper part of most till has been weathered and exhibits extensive secondary permeability. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/sec; typically 10 to 200 times higher than the hydraulic conductivity of unweathered till. Hydraulic gradients within weathered tills average seven times lower than within unweathered till. Water infiltrating below plant roots is believed to principally recharge and discharge the weathered till. Total dissolved solids were significantly higher in the weathered till than in the unweathered till. Water extracted from unweathered till is, in turn, up to three time higher in major-ion concentrations than water from the underlying outwash aquifer. Carbon-14 age dates from outwash aquifer water exceed 9000 years before present. Results indicate that Tittle to no water passes from the weathered till through the unweathered till into the buried outwash aquifer. Discharge from the weathered till is hypothesized to be primarily local lateral flow to sloughs, streams and ponds, combined with evapotranspiration losses during periods of high water table.

  18. Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, John M.; Cleton, Natalie B.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methodology / Principal Findings Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across MENA describing dengue occurrence in humans (prevalence studies, incidence studies, and outbreak reports), occurrence of suitable vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), and DENV vector infection rates. We identified 105 human prevalence measures in 13 of 24 MENA countries; 81 outbreaks reported from 9 countries from 1941–2015; and reports of Ae. aegypti and/or Ae. albopictus occurrence in 15 countries. The majority of seroprevalence studies were reported from the Red Sea region and Pakistan, with multiple studies indicating >20% DENV seroprevalence in general populations (median 25%, range 0–62%) in these subregions. Fifty percent of these studies were conducted prior to 1990. Multiple studies utilized assays susceptible to serologic cross-reactions and 5% of seroprevalence studies utilized viral neutralization testing. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design and outbreak reporting, as well as variability in subregional study coverage, study populations, and laboratory methods used for diagnosis. Conclusions / Significance DENV seroprevalence in the MENA is high among some populations in the Red Sea region and Pakistan, while recent outbreaks in these subregions suggest increasing incidence of DENV which may be driven by a variety of ecologic and social factors. However, there is insufficient study coverage to draw conclusions about Aedes or DENV presence in multiple MENA countries. These findings illustrate the epidemiology of DENV in the MENA while revealing priorities for DENV surveillance and Aedes control. PMID:27926925

  19. Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity uncovers the microevolution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghyun; Son, Dae-Soon; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Im, Eu-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Nam Yong; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kang, Cheol In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Ahn, Jin-Hyun; Peck, Kyong Ran; Choi, Sun Shim; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Woong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non–consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. A total of 35 specimens from 24 patients (including a super-spreader) were sequenced to detect and analyze variants displaying intrapatient heterogeneity. Based on the analysis of non–consensus sequences, we demonstrated the intrapatient heterogeneity of MERS-CoVs, with the highest level in the super-spreader specimen. The heterogeneity could be transmitted in a close association with variation in the consensus sequences, suggesting the occurrence of multiple MERS-CoV infections. Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity revealed a relationship between D510G and I529T mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike glycoprotein. These two mutations have been reported to reduce the affinity of the RBD for human CD26. Notably, although the frequency of both D510G and I529T varied greatly among specimens, the combined frequency of the single mutants was consistently high (87.7% ± 1.9% on average). Concurrently, the frequency of occurrence of the wild type at the two positions was only 6.5% ± 1.7% on average, supporting the hypothesis that selection pressure exerted by the host immune response played a critical role in shaping genetic variants and their interaction in human MERS-CoVs during the outbreak. PMID:27900364

  20. Unanswered questions about the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) represents a current threat to the Arabian Peninsula, and potential pandemic disease. As of June 3, 2014, MERS CoV has reportedly infected 688 people and killed 282. We briefly summarize the state of the outbreak, and highlight unanswered questions and various explanations for the observed epidemiology. Findings The continuing but infrequent cases of MERS-CoV reported over the past two years have been puzzling and difficult to explain. The epidemiology of MERS-CoV, with many sporadic cases and a few hospital outbreaks, yet no sustained epidemic, suggests a low reproductive number. Furthermore, a clear source of infection to humans remains unknown. Also puzzling is the fact that MERS-CoV has been present in Saudi Arabia over several mass gatherings, including the 2012 and 2013 Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages, which predispose to epidemics, without an epidemic arising. Conclusions The observed epidemiology of MERS-CoV is quite distinct and does not clearly fit either a sporadic or epidemic pattern. Possible explanations of the unusual features of the epidemiology of MERS-CoV include sporadic ongoing infections from a non-human source; human to human transmission with a large proportion of undetected cases; or a combination of both. The virus has been identified in camels; however the mode of transmission of the virus to humans remains unknown, and many cases have no history of animal contact. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of MERS CoV, further investigation is warranted. PMID:24920393

  1. Comparative pathology of rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pin; Xu, Yanfeng; Deng, Wei; Bao, Linlin; Huang, Lan; Xu, Yuhuan; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (CoV), has recently emerged. It causes severe viral pneumonia and is associated with a high fatality rate. However, the pathogenesis, comparative pathology and inflammatory cell response of rhesus macaques and common marmosets experimentally infected with MERS-CoV are unknown. We describe the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models of MERS-CoV infection. The main histopathological findings in the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets were varying degrees of pulmonary lesions, including pneumonia, pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of the pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, and inflammatory cell infiltration. The characteristic inflammatory cells in the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets were eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively. Based on these observations, the lungs of rhesus macaques and common marmosets appeared to develop chronic and acute pneumonia, respectively. MERS-CoV antigens and viral RNA were identified in type I and II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, and ultrastructural observations showed that viral protein was found in type II pneumocytes and inflammatory cells in both species. Correspondingly, the entry receptor DDP4 was found in type I and II pneumocytes, bronchial epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. The rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models of MERS-CoV can be used as a tool to mimic the oncome of MERS-CoV infections in humans. These models can help to provide a better understanding of the pathogenic process of this virus and to develop effective medications and prophylactic treatments. PMID:28234937

  2. Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity uncovers the microevolution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghyun; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Son, Dae-Soon; Jeon, Hyo-Jeong; Im, Eu-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Nam Yong; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kang, Cheol In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Ahn, Jin-Hyun; Peck, Kyong Ran; Choi, Sun Shim; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Woong-Yang

    2016-11-01

    Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. A total of 35 specimens from 24 patients (including a super-spreader) were sequenced to detect and analyze variants displaying intrapatient heterogeneity. Based on the analysis of non-consensus sequences, we demonstrated the intrapatient heterogeneity of MERS-CoVs, with the highest level in the super-spreader specimen. The heterogeneity could be transmitted in a close association with variation in the consensus sequences, suggesting the occurrence of multiple MERS-CoV infections. Analysis of intrapatient heterogeneity revealed a relationship between D510G and I529T mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike glycoprotein. These two mutations have been reported to reduce the affinity of the RBD for human CD26. Notably, although the frequency of both D510G and I529T varied greatly among specimens, the combined frequency of the single mutants was consistently high (87.7% ± 1.9% on average). Concurrently, the frequency of occurrence of the wild type at the two positions was only 6.5% ± 1.7% on average, supporting the hypothesis that selection pressure exerted by the host immune response played a critical role in shaping genetic variants and their interaction in human MERS-CoVs during the outbreak.

  3. Stem cell course in the Middle East: science diplomacy and international collaborations during the Arab spring.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Balazs; Schatten, Gerald

    2012-03-01

    In April 2011, an international advanced course and workshop entitled "Frontiers in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells" and an International Congress on Fertility and Genetics ( http://www.fertigen.com.jo/ConferenceDetails.aspx ) was held in Amman Jordan hosted by the Jordanian Society of Fertility and Genetics under the auspices of the International Cell Research Organization (ICRO), a UNESCO associated NGO. The Congress President Dr. Zaid Kilani, with Dr. Abdel Latif Abu Khadra, President of the Jordanian society for Fertility and Genetics, Dr. Rana Dajani of the Hashemite University of Jordan, and their Organizing Committee proved to be an excellent organizers and dedicated physician-scientists and, focusing on fertility, genetics and stem cells in a wide range of advanced therapeutic applications. Brilliant course participants included trainees, scientists and clinicians from the Greater Middle East. The lectures and practical sessions, presented by internationally acknowledged scientists, included overviews of recent achievements in pluripotent stem cell research, emphasizing the role of both the embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. A major emphasis was placed on the clinical achievements in germ cell and umbilical cord stem cell transplantation issues, and on the potential of fast and successful prenatal and pre-implantation molecular genetics diagnostics. The organization of the stem cell course in the Holy Land especially emphasized that issues of "eternal life" and "rejuvenation" are already at hand--at least in the pluripotent stem cell research field. In the lively atmosphere of the course about 60 participants had heated discussions on the possibility and ethics of advanced prenatal diagnostics, and on regulatory issues reflecting the need of separation of clinically effective versus unapproved, unwarranted stem cell treatments. An open discussion of many ethical issues, reflecting profound differences in religion and medical tradition in

  4. Worry experienced during the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) pandemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Jun-Soo; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kang, Sung-Chan; Jung, Hye-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Korea failed in its risk communication during the early stage of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak; consequently, it faced difficulties in managing MERS, while disease-related worry increased. Disease-related worry can help disease prevention and management, but can also have a detrimental effect. This study measured the overall level of disease-related worry during the MERS outbreak period in Korea and the influencing factors and levels of disease-related worry during key outbreak periods. Methods The cross-sectional survey included 1,000 adults who resided in Korea. An ordinal logistic regression was performed for the overall level of MERS-related worry, and influencing factors of worry were analyzed. A reliability test was performed on the levels of MERS-related worry during key outbreak periods. Results The overall level of MERS-related worry was 2.44. Multivariate analysis revealed that women and respondents w very poor subjective health status had higher levels of worry. Respondents with very high stress in daily life had higher levels of worry than those who reported having little stress. The reliability test results on MERS-related worry scores during key outbreak periods showed consistent scores during each period. Conclusion Level of worry increased in cases having higher perceived susceptibility and greater trust in informal information, while initial stage of outbreak was closely associated with that at later stages. These findings suggest the importance of managing the level of worry by providing timely and accurate disease-related information during the initial stage of disease outbreak. PMID:28273131

  5. Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Isolation due to the management of infectious diseases is thought to affect mental health, but the effects are still unknown. We examined the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and anger in persons isolated during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic both at isolation period and at four to six months after release from isolation. We also determined risk factors associated with these symptoms at four to six months. METHODS Of 14,992 individuals isolated for 2-week due to having contact with MERS patients in 2015, when MERS was introduced to Korea, 1,692 individuals were included in this study. Anxiety symptoms were evaluated with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and anger was assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory at four to six months after release from isolation for MERS. RESULTS Of 1,692 who came in contact with MERS patients, 1,656 were not diagnosed with MERS. Among 1,656, anxiety symptoms showed 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3 to 8.9%) and feelings of anger were present in 16.6% (95% CI, 14.8 to 18.4%) during the isolation period. At four to six months after release from isolation, anxiety symptoms were observed in 3.0% (95%CI, 2.2 to 3.9%). Feelings of anger were present in 6.4% (95% CI, 5.2 to 7.6%). Risk factors for experiencing anxiety symptoms and anger at four to six months after release included symptoms related to MERS during isolation, inadequate supplies (food, clothes, accommodation), social networking activities (email, text, Internet), history of psychiatric illnesses, and financial loss. CONCLUSIONS Mental health problems at four to six month after release from isolation might be prevented by providing mental health support to individuals with vulnerable mental health, and providing accurate information as well as appropriate supplies, including food, clothes, and accommodation. PMID:28196409

  6. Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Adel; Javaid, Arshad; Iraqi, Ghali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Ben Kheder, Ali; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Shahrour, Naem; Taright, Samya; Idrees, Magdy; Polatli, Mehmet; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Few recent comparative data exist on smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate smoking patterns in a large general population sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was generated and called. This identified 65,154 eligible subjects, of whom 62,086 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire was administered to each participant, which included six questions relating to cigarette consumption and waterpipe use. The age- and gender-adjusted proportion of respondents reporting current or past smoking of cigarettes or waterpipes was 31.2% [95% CI: 30.9-31.6%]. This proportion was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in men (48.0%) than in women (13.8%), but no relevant differences were observed between age groups. Smoking rates were in general lowest in the Maghreb countries and Pakistan and highest in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, ranging from 15.3% in Morocco to 53.9% in Lebanon. Consumption rates were 28.8% [28.4-29.2%] for cigarette smoking and 3.5% [3.4-3.6%] for waterpipe use. Use of waterpipes was most frequent in Saudi Arabia (8.5% of respondents) but remained low in the Maghreb countries (< 1.5%). Cumulative cigarette exposure was high, with a mean number of pack · years smoked of 18.5 ± 20.5 for women and 29.1 ± 26.2 for men. In conclusion, smoking is a major health issue in the MENA region.

  7. A Bibliometric Analysis of PubMed Literature on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, “conronavirus”, “case”, “transmission” and “detection” were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened. PMID:27304963

  8. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-05-12

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm(3). Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it's at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients' CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region.

  9. Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Panel for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Whitaker, Brett; Sakthivel, Senthil Kumar K.; Kamili, Shifaq; Rose, Laura E.; Lowe, Luis; Mohareb, Emad; Elassal, Emad M.; Al-sanouri, Tarek; Haddadin, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    A new human coronavirus (CoV), subsequently named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. In response, we developed two real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the MERS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) gene and evaluated these assays as a panel with a previously published assay targeting the region upstream of the MERS-CoV envelope gene (upE) for the detection and confirmation of MERS-CoV infection. All assays detected ≤10 copies/reaction of quantified RNA transcripts, with a linear dynamic range of 8 log units and 1.3 × 10−3 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml of cultured MERS-CoV per reaction. All assays performed comparably with respiratory, serum, and stool specimens spiked with cultured virus. No false-positive amplifications were obtained with other human coronaviruses or common respiratory viral pathogens or with 336 diverse clinical specimens from non-MERS-CoV cases; specimens from two confirmed MERS-CoV cases were positive with all assay signatures. In June 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized emergency use of the rRT-PCR assay panel as an in vitro diagnostic test for MERS-CoV. A kit consisting of the three assay signatures and a positive control was assembled and distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally to support MERS-CoV surveillance and public health responses. PMID:24153118

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Ali S.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  11. Further Evidence for Bats as the Evolutionary Source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, K.; Menachery, V. D.; Goldstein, T.; Ssebide, B.; Mbabazi, R.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Liang, E.; Wells, H.; Hicks, A.; Petrosov, A.; Byarugaba, D. K.; Debbink, K.; Dinnon, K. H.; Scobey, T.; Randell, S. H.; Yount, B. L.; Cranfield, M.; Johnson, C. K.; Baric, R. S.; Lipkin, W. I.; Mazet, J. A. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae. Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties. Indeed, several amino acid substitutions were identified in key binding residues that were predicted to block PREDICT/PDF-2180 from attaching to the MERS-CoV DPP4 receptor. To experimentally test this hypothesis, an infectious MERS-CoV clone expressing the PREDICT/PDF-2180 spike protein was generated. Recombinant viruses derived from the clone were replication competent but unable to spread and establish new infections in Vero cells or primary human airway epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is unlikely to pose a zoonotic threat. Recombination in the S1 subunit of the spike gene was identified as the primary mechanism driving variation in the spike phenotype and was likely one of the critical steps in the evolution and emergence of MERS-CoV in humans. PMID:28377531

  12. Testing for possible cyclicity in carbonate sediments of Middle Ordovician of east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazizadeh, M.; Walker, K.R.

    1986-05-01

    Middle Ordovician carbonate sediments (Chickamauga Group) near Decatur, Tennessee, consist of 450 m of complex tidal-flat and subtidal sediments. Fourteen facies are recognized: (1) cherty dolostone (supratidal environment); (2) green and red silty mudstone (supratidal mud flat); (3) greenish-gray micrite-biomicrite (supratidal mud flat); (4) red silty, intrapelbiosparite-biosparite (intertidal channel); (5) green and red, loosely packed, ostracod-rich pelbiomicrite (intertidal pond); (6) stromatolitic mudstone (intertidal levee); (7) bryozoan-ostracod-brachiopod-rich pelbiomicrite (subtidal lagoon type I); (8) silty, packed pelbiomicrite-pelbiosparite (subtidal lagoon type II); (9) ostracod-gastropod-rich, bioturbated pelbiomicrite (subtidal lagoon type III); (10) bioturbated brachiopod-molluscan-rich biomicrite (subtidal lagoon type IV); (11) bioturbated green and red silty mudstone to silty sparse biomicrite (lagoon); (12) gray-tan mudstone to sparse biomicrite (quiet water, deeper subtidal lagoon); (13) intrapelbiosparite-pelbiosparite (subtidal channel); and (14) Tetradium-rich packstone (subtidal wave baffle).

  13. Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

  14. Primary domestication and early uses of the emblematic olive tree: palaeobotanical, historical and molecular evidence from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Boiy, Tom; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Khadari, Bouchaïb; Besnard, Guillaume

    2012-11-01

    Our knowledge of the origins of olive tree domestication in the Middle East and on the processes governing its extension and persistence in different vegetation types from prehistory through antiquity to modern times derives from diverse sources, spanning the biological sciences to the humanities. Nonetheless, it lacks a robust overview that may lead to floating interpretations. This is especially true in the Middle East, considered as the cradle of agriculture, and where the evolutionary history of this emblematic tree is intertwined with that of civilizations. Olive fruit, oil and wood have been, since Prehistoric times, characteristic products of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. In the domestic economy of these countries, the olive tree gradually became a traditional tree crop since the first oil extraction, through the emergence of regional commerce that accompanied the rise and fall of early Near-Middle Eastern urbanism, until the development of modern trade, with an oil production estimated at circa 3000000 tons per year. The rising importance of the olive tree in human life has turned the tree into an endless source of fascination in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean, a symbol and a sacred tree, widely cited in the Bibles, the Koran, and in ancient literature. Here we argue that advances in radiocarbon chronology, palaeobotany, genetics, and archaeology-history have profoundly refined the history of olive trees in the Middle East. This review shows that the heartland of primary olive domestication must be enlarged to the Levant and not only focus on the Jordan Valley. The domestication of the olive tree is a long and ongoing process, linked to the early production of oil and the development of the olive trade. We also suggest that the olive tree became a particular icon, a sacred tree, during the Biblical period in the Levant.

  15. Tectonic significance of basalts of the Middle Run Formation (Upper Proterozoic) of the East Continent Rift Basin, Indiana and Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. . Kentucky Geological Survey); Misra, K.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five samples of mafic rock recovered from three basement wells in Lawrence Co., Ind., Campbell Co., Ky., and Jessamine Co., Ky, were analyzed for major, minor, and trace-element composition by XRF and single-acid extraction ICP in a commercial laboratory. Petrographic examination indicates that these mafic rocks are, in part, amygdaloidal basalts, and therefore represent some portion of a Late Proterozoic mafic volcanic center that existed in the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These samples possess systematic trends in the distribution of many trace elements, indicating the original compositions have been preserved. This suggests that these basalts possess their original concentrations of the majority of the large ion lithophile (LIL) elements. The concentrations of the LIL elements in the Middle Run basalts indicate that the Middle run basalts can best be characterized as being continental flood basalts. Comparison with published data from the Keweenanwan basalts of the North Shore Volcanic Group, exposed along the Lake Superior portion of the Midcontinent Rift, indicates that the Middle Run basalts are similar to the more evolved basalts of that suite. However, primitive MORB-like compositions that are present in the North Shore Group are apparently absent in the basalts of the ECRB. This may suggest that the Lake Superior segment of the Midcontinent Rift underwent a greater degree of crustal extension than the Middle Run basin. Alternatively, the basalts associated with the Middle Run Formation may represent magmatic activity early in the rift evolution.

  16. Circulation of bovine ephemeral fever in the Middle East--strong evidence for transmission by winds and animal transport.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Boaron, Orly; Klausner, Ziv; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Shenkar, Jenny; Gafni, Ohad; Gelman, Boris; David, Dan; Klement, Eyal

    2012-08-17

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an economically important arbovirus of cattle. The main routes of its transmission between countries and continents are not completely elucidated. This study aimed to explore BEFV transmission in the Middle-East. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the gene encoding the G protein of BEFV isolates from Israel from 2000 and 2008 with isolates from Turkey (2008), Egypt (2005), Australia (1968-1998) and East Asia (1966-2004). Calf sera collected during the years 2006-2007 were tested by serum neutralization in order to explore for recent exposure to BEFV before 2008. These were followed by a meteorological analysis, aimed to reveal movement of air parcels into Israel in the two weeks preceding the first case of BEF in Israel in 2008. The 2008 Israeli and Turkish isolates showed 99% identity and formed a new cluster with the 2000 Israeli isolate. The serological survey showed no new exposure to BEFV during 2006 and 2007. These results coincided with the meteorological analysis, which revealed that air parcels originating in Southern Turkey had reached the location of outbreak onset in Israel nine days before the discovery of the index case. The Egyptian isolate clustered phylogenetically with the Taiwanese isolates, coinciding with data on importation of cattle from China to the Middle East in the year preceding the isolation of the Egyptian isolates. These results suggest that both winds and animal transport may have an important role in trans-boundary transmission of BEFV.

  17. Investigating the potential for "water piracy" in North East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Nanna B.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2013-04-01

    The incorporation of subglacial processes in ice flow models remains a challenge while at the same time observational evidence increasingly underscores the important role liquid water plays in ice flow dynamics. One of the many problems ice flow models face (that also includes scarcity of data at the bed and the deformational properties of water-saturated sediments) is the different time-scales on which the processes operate. For example, observations indicate that subglacial water may be re-routed to a neighbouring ice stream in response to changes in surface elevation. This implies that ice flow models have to allow for changes in ice flow mode where, depending on the basal properties, the flow may be dominated by deformation or basal sliding. The re-routing of water between neighbouring ice streams is often termed "water piracy" and in this study we demonstrate that the potential for water piracy exists even in regions with very small surface elevation changes. We use a simple, vertically integrated, 2D-plane ice flow model based on the shallow ice flow approximation to model the large-scale changes in surface elevation of North East Greenland in response to gravity and mass balance. Considering time-scales of 100-500 years the model predicts changes in elevation of less than a metre per year which is in agreement with data from remote sensing. We then calculate the corresponding changes in hydrological pressure potential and use evidence from radio-echo sounding data to identify areas with basal melting and thus potential liquid water production. The corresponding change in hydrological pressure potential in response to the surface elevation changes is sufficient to divert the subglacial water to different pathways. This change in subglacial water pathways could be sufficient to change the ice flow mode from deformation to sliding and might initiate speed-up and/or slow-down of the ice streams at the margins of the basin.

  18. Attitudes, beliefs and perceptions regarding truth disclosure of cancer-related information in the Middle East: a review.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, Rami

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current status concerning attitudes, beliefs and/or practices of patients, family members, health professionals and/or caregivers regarding truth disclosure about a cancer diagnosis in the Greater Middle East countries. A search was done via MedLine for all publications related to this review objective. 55 publications were included emanating from Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. In the Greater Middle East region, a diagnosis of cancer is still mixed with social stigma and misperceptions related to incurability. Physicians conserve a truth disclosure policy in which from one side they respect some of the historical and cultural misperceptions about cancer and accordingly, tell the truth about cancer to one of the family members and from another side acknowledge the patients' right to know the truth and tend to disclose it for him(or her) when possible. Family members and caregivers' attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about telling the truth to the patient seem to be in favor of concealment. Discrepant results concerning physicians' and patients' evaluation of the quality of truth disclosure exist in the literature. Education programs in breaking bad news are lacking in many countries. Finally, the most important and common problem affecting truth disclosure to a patient suffering from cancer is the lack of codes and legislations concerning the patients' rights in an informed consent. Studies, legislations and training programs are needed in this domain in Middle Eastern societies.

  19. Bi-cycles petrographic association in middle part of East Pana PGE layers deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Veksler, Ilya; Gorbunov, Artem

    2016-04-01

    The PGE mineralization in the East Pana layered gabbroic intrusion forms three discrete layers at different stratigraphic levels, which are traditionally labeled as zones A, B and C. In order to investigate possible relationships of mineralization with magmatic layering we sampled a 120 m long drill core section across zone B in the middle part of the intrusion and carried out detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the samples. The ore zone is located in medial part of the of East's Pana deposite. The samples represent mainly from a layered sequence of gabbro and gabbro-norite. This zone is composed of interlayers of gabbroic sequences and gabbro-norite of various color, with different structures and different relationship of rock-forming minerals of Ol-Opx-Cpx-Pl. We studied one of key's drill-hole section of ore zone, in which is located two ore horizons. Fundamental feature layered intrusions are presence in cross-section cycles includes of stable petrographic association. In section of ore zone it is possible to select two most contrast petrographic types. Whole-rock analyses and petrographic observations reveal two units of modal layering comprising, from bottom to top, melanocratic gabbro grading upwards into mesocratic gabbro and gabbro-norite overlain by pegmatoidal, gabbroic rock with has sharp footwall and hanging wall contacts.There is also an olivine-bearing gabbro at the bottom of the lower unit. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type rock. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type part. The second upper ore zone located in more differential species types. There is the common trend of system evolution of well distinguished on triangle of Ol-Pl-Di, Ol-Pl-Q and other. However composition of the rocks in the two parts of our section show us similar, but independent trends. For example on diagram differentiation of rocks composition, with normative content of anorthite on the X axis, trends of

  20. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Huib H.; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways. It is unknown whether cellular infection by MERS-CoV activates the stress response pathway or whether the virus has evolved strategies to suppress this infection-limiting pathway. Here, we show that cellular infection with MERS-CoV does not lead to the formation of SGs. By transiently expressing the MERS-CoV accessory proteins individually, we identified a role of protein 4a (p4a) in preventing activation of the stress response pathway. Expression of MERS-CoV p4a impeded dsRNA-mediated PKR activation, thereby rescuing translation inhibition and preventing SG formation. In contrast, p4a failed to suppress stress response pathway activation that is independent of PKR and dsRNA. MERS-CoV p4a is a dsRNA binding protein. Mutation of the dsRNA binding motif in p4a disrupted its PKR antagonistic activity. By inserting p4a in a picornavirus lacking its natural PKR antagonist, we showed that p4a exerts PKR antagonistic activity also under infection conditions. However, a recombinant MERS-CoV deficient in p4a expression still suppressed SG formation, indicating the expression of at least one other stress response antagonist. This virus also suppressed the dsRNA-independent stress response pathway. Thus, MERS-CoV interferes with antiviral stress responses using at least two different mechanisms, with p4a

  1. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981-2013.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Afreen; Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics-using population and publications data that are available for most countries-allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981-2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find repeated

  2. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Lumpy Skin Disease in the Middle East, 2012–2015

    PubMed Central

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A.; VanderWaal, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an infectious disease of cattle that can have severe economic implications. New LSD outbreaks are currently circulating in the Middle East (ME). Since 2012, severe outbreaks were reported in cattle across the region. Characterizing the spatial and temporal dynamics of LSDV in cattle populations is prerequisite for guiding successful surveillance and control efforts at a regional level in the ME. Here, we aim to model the ecological niche of LSDV and identify epidemic progression patterns over the course of the epidemic. We analyzed publically available outbreak data from the ME for the period 2012–2015 using presence-only maximum entropy ecological niche modeling and the time-dependent method for the estimation of the effective reproductive number (R-TD). High-risk areas (probability >0.60) for LSDV identified by ecological niche modeling included parts of many northeastern ME countries, though Israel and Turkey were estimated to be the most suitable locations for occurrence of LSDV outbreaks. The most important environmental predictors that contributed to the ecological niche of LSDV included annual precipitation, land cover, mean diurnal range, type of livestock production system, and global livestock densities. Average monthly effective R-TD was equal to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.5), whereas the largest R-TD was estimated in Israel (R-TD = 22.2, 95 CI: 15.2, 31.5) in September 2013, which indicated that the demographic and environmental conditions during this period were suitable to LSDV super-spreading events. The sharp drop of Isreal’s inferred R-TD in the following month reflected the success of their 2013 vaccination campaign in controlling the disease. Our results identified areas in which underreporting of LSDV outbreaks may have occurred. More epidemiological information related to cattle populations are needed to further improve the inferred spatial and temporal characteristics of currently circulating LSDV. However

  3. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  4. Levels and trends in the fertility and mortality of Palestinians in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hill, A G

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of fertility and mortality levels among Palestinians in the Middle East is not easy because of the variety of demographic indices, direct and indirect, used in the different data sets. Standardization of the measures is difficult because some of the populations (i.e., in refugee camps) are partial populations, due to migration, naturalization, and definitional problems. Mortality figures show that the only reliable series for crude death rate is for the Muslims of Palestine and Israel; falling from the high 20s before 1930 to less than 6/1000 after 1970. Childhood mortality estimates are the measure of mortality used for comparison. The decline in child mortality among Palestinian Muslims is clearcut. Since 1948 the speed of the decline has slackened and in the late 1970s was still approximately 20 points above the rate for Jews. Elsewhere the decline started later, but the speed of the decline seems extraordinarily rapid after 1960. Steep declines in the infant mortality in camp populations seem unreasonably rapid. Despite the generally low socioeconomic status of camp dwellers, it seems that the health services and care offered to refugees by the UN Relief and Works Agency for the Refugees of Palestine (UNRWA) are effective in controlling infant and childhood mortality. Best data for crude birthrates and total fertility rates are also for Muslims of Palestine and Israel. These show a slow upward trend in total fertility from 1925-48, with a much steeper rise until the mid-1960s. Thereafter fertility seems to have fallen. After some minor fluctuations in fertility in the West Bank and Gaza during 1967-73, the trend appears to be downward thereafter. The Palestinian community in Kuwait had high fertility in terms of the crude birthrate in 1970, but when expressed as a total fertility rate the values are close to the total fertility rates for Gaza and the West Bank at the same time. Palestinian fertility is showing signs of a recent fall among younger

  5. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics—using population and publications data that are available for most countries–allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)—a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981–2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find

  6. Preliminary regional magnitude in the Middle East Region using narrowband Lg coda envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-01

    Because many regional seismic discriminants are functions of magnitude, it is important to obtain a stable measurement especially for smaller events that will likely have very limited station coverage. We have collected and analyzed regional broad band waveforms from stations in the middle east region for the purpose of calibrating a stable regional magnitude scale that can be applied to events that are too small to detect teleseismically. Our approach is to obtain frequency-dependent empirical Greens function coda envelopes for narrow frequency bands that can be used to correct for gross path effects. We make the assumption that the moment-rate spectra are generally flat below{approximately}2 Hz for these events smaller than Mw{approximately}3.5. In a least squares sense, we obtain frequency-dependent corrections to the Lg coda measurements to fit the scalar moment estimates. These frequency-dependent corrections remove the effects of the S-to-Lg coda transfer function, thus correcting back to the S-wave source spectra. Due to the averaging nature of Lg coda waves we are then able to obtain a stable single-station estimate of the source spectra.To avoid regional biases we tie our coda envelope amplitude measurements to seismic moments obtained from long period 1-D waveform modeling for moderate sized earthquakes (A4w-3.5.- 4.5). Most importantly, we can now apply the same corrections to significantly smaller events that cannot be observed teleseismically. Our empirical approach takes into account scattering,absorption, and waveguide losses as well as frequency-dependent site effects.Moreover, the use of the coda envelope mitigates the undesirable effects of source anisotropy, random site interference, path variability, and directivity that plague direct wave measurements. This approach was successfully applied to other regions where it was observed that the coda-derived Mw estimates showed significantly smaller dependence on lateral path variation and source

  7. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  8. Cross-national burden of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Deborah L; Sadosky, Alesia; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The burden of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. This study expanded on the human burden of painful DPN by quantifying functional and health status impairments among international patients from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of painful DPN. Evaluated outcomes measures included: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (mBPI-sf), EuroQOL 5D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Outcomes were stratified by pain severity using cut-points: 0 to 10 numeric rating scale (NRS) for average pain (0 to 3: none/mild, 4 to 6: moderate, 7 to 10: severe). Study sample is: 401 patients (163 in Asia, 110 in Latin America and 128 in the Middle East), mostly female (61%) (+/- standard deviation, SD), age of 57 +/- 10 years. Participants reported at least moderate levels of pain severity (mean [+/- SD] scores on a 0 to 10 NRS for average pain of 5.9 +/- 1.8 for Asia, 6.7 +/- 1.6 for Latin America, and 6.6 +/- 1.7 for the Middle East). Mean (+/- SD) values on the mBPI-sf Pain Interference Index were 4.7 +/- 2.3 for Asia, 5.6 +/- 2.1 for Latin America, and 5.5 +/- 2.3 for the Middle East. Patients in all 3 regions reported difficulties with functioning, sleep, and overall health status, which increased with higher pain severity levels. Patients in Asia had substantial impairments; however, they reported less serious problems than the other regions. These data are consistent with painful DPN being a burdensome condition worldwide: people with poorly managed neuropathic pain report a substantial burden of disease.

  9. Toward Armageddon: The proliferation of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East. Occasional Paper No. 36

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    The author concludes that it is probable that unconventional weapons and their associated delivery systems will form a permanent part of future political and strategic calculations in the Middle East. Some possible consequences of this situation can be divided into three classes: intra-regional, inter-regional and extra-regional. There is no doubt that Israel, driven by the need for security,precipitated the proliferation of unconventional weapons and of surface-to-surface missiles in the Middle East. It will now be driven to secure itself from the new threat to its security posed by its regional opponents. The most significant extra-regional consequence of developments in the Middle East may be further complication of great power arms control negotiations. To the re-discovery by the United States and the Soviet Union of their obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty to reduce the level of their nuclear weapons must now be added the desire to reduce, if not entirely eliminate, their chemical weapons stockpiles in advance of a global ban. It is possible that lesser powers will learn from the evidence of the great powers behavior, although that contradicts much of what we know of the psychology of decision making in international politics. What is necessary, though not necessarily sufficient, is that the U.S. and the USSR as the two external powers with potentially the greatest leverage, work together toward the resolution of the underlying causes of conflict in a region marked by more than a generation of competition between them.

  10. Analysis of dust samples from the Middle East using high-density resequencing micro-array RPM-TEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leski, T. A.; Gregory, M. J.; Malanoski, A. P.; Smith, J. P.; Glaven, R. H.; Wang, Z.; Stenger, D. A.; Lin, B.

    2010-04-01

    A previously developed resequencing microarray, "Tropical and Emerging Infections (RPM-TEI v.1.0 chip)", designed to identify and discriminate between tropical diseases and other potential biothreat agents, their near-neighbor species, and/or potential confounders, was used to characterize the microbes present in the silt/clay fraction of surface soils and airborne dust collected from the Middle East. Local populations and U.S. military personnel deployed to the Middle East are regularly subjected to high levels of airborne desert dust containing a significant fraction of inhalable particles and some portion require clinical aid. Not all of the clinical symptoms can be directly attributed to the physical action of material in the human respiratory tract. To better understand the potential health effects of the airborne dust, the composition of the microbial communities associated with surface soil and/or airborne dust (air filter) samples from 19 different sites in Iraq and Kuwait was identified using RPM-TEI v.1.0. Results indicated that several microorganisms including a class of rapidly growing Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Brucella, Clostridium and Coxiella burnetti, were present in the samples. The presence of these organisms in the surface soils and the inhalable fraction of airborne dust analyzed may pose a human health risk and warrants further investigation. Better understanding of the factors influencing the composition of these microbial communities is important to address questions related to human health and is critical to achieving Force Health Protection for the Warfighter operating in the Middle East, Afghanistan, North Africa and other arid regions.

  11. Tracing dust transport from Middle-East over Delhi in March 2012 using metal and lead isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Malherbe, J.; Barre, J. P. G.; Berail, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2016-05-01

    A severe dust-storm which was originated in Middle-East crossed over Delhi during March 20-22, 2012. We have collected these dust-storm (DS) aerosol samples, and analyzed them for selected metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn) together with after dust-storm (ADS) and winter (WS) samples. High aerosol mass loadings were observed in DS samples (1097-1965 μg/m3). On the contrary, metals derived prominently from the anthropogenic sources were found lower in concentration compared to that of ADS and WS aerosols. We observed significantly high concentrations of Ni and V (which are abundantly found in crude oils of Middle-East origin) in the DS samples than that of ADS and WS samples. Also enrichment factor (EF) of these metals with respect to Fe shows no significant enrichment (<10). Fe (and Sr) concentrations were also 3-5 fold higher in DS samples compared to ADS and WS. These results suggest that Ni and V can be used as tracers for dust aerosols transported from Middle-East region. Lead isotope signatures can tell about the variation in the sources of urban aerosols. Therefore Pb isotope analyses of these samples were performed using MC-ICP-MS. The isotope ratios, 208Pb/206Pb is determined to be (mean ± sd) 2.1315 ± 0.0018, 2.1370 ± 0.0022 and 2.1389 ± 0.0016, whereas 206Pb/207Pb is 1.1311 ± 0.0022, 1.1244 ± 0.0017 and 1.1233 ± 0.0016 in DS, ADS and WS aerosols, respectively. There is a clear distinction in Pb isotope composition between DS and urban (ADS and WS) aerosols. Further, these results suggest that in urban aerosols, Pb is less radiogenic in nature compared to that of in transported dust aerosols collected in New Delhi.

  12. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  13. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Ordoñez, M E; Manisterski, J; Anikster, Y

    2011-07-01

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the previously characterized population from Central Asia to determine whether genetically similar groups of isolates are found in the two regions. In total, 118 isolates of P. triticina collected from common wheat and durum wheat in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Kenya were tested for virulence on 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance and for molecular genotypes with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After removal of isolates with identical virulence and SSR genotype in each country, 103 isolates were retained for further analysis. Clustering of SSR genotypes based on two-dimensional principal coordinates and virulence to wheat differential lines grouped the isolates into four Middle East (ME) groups. The two largest ME groups had virulence phenotypes typical of isolates collected from common wheat and two smaller ME groups had virulence typical of isolates collected from durum wheat. All pairs of ME groups were significantly differentiated for SSR genotype based on R(ST) and F(ST) statistics, and for virulence phenotype based on Φ(PT). All ME groups had observed values of heterozygosity greater than expected and significant fixation indices that indicated the clonal reproduction of urediniospores in the overall population. Linkage disequilibria for SSR genotypes was high across the entire population. The overall values of R(ST) and F(ST) were lower when isolates were grouped by country of origin that indicated the likely migration of isolates within the region. Although the two ME groups with virulence typical of isolates from common wheat were not differentiated for SSR genotype from groups of isolates from Central Asia based on

  14. Differential Expression of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Humans and Dromedary Camels

    PubMed Central

    Widagdo, W.; Raj, V. Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; Bosch, Berend J.; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Koopmans, Marion P.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor—dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)—is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not in that of humans. Lack of DPP4 expression may be the primary cause of limited MERS-CoV replication in the human upper respiratory tract and hence restrict transmission. PMID:26889022

  15. Characterisation of mineral dust emission in the Middle EAST using the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennen, M.; Shahgedanova, M.; White, K.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Spinning Enhanced Visual and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board Meteosat's second generation satellite (MSG), mineral dust emissions from the Middle East were observed at a high temporal and spatial resolution between the years 2006 and 2013. This research provides a subjective derivation of mineral dust source locations in the Middle East using the thermal infrared Dust RGB product. Focusing on the brightness temperature difference around 10.8 µm channel and their spectral contrast with clear sky conditions, the Dust RGB product has been recognised as a major asset in detecting dust. While the product has already been used to map dust emissions in Sahara and south Africa, this research is the first to map dust emissions in the Middle East using SEVIRI, one of the dustiest regions in the world second only to the Sahara Desert. For every dust storm activation within the Middle East, the point of first emission is derived from visual inspection of each 15 minute image, these points were then recorded in a dust source climatology (DSC) database, along with time and direction of dust movement. To take account of potential errors inherent in this subjective detection method, a degree of confidence is associated with each data point with relevance to time of day (which has a strong effect on ability to detect dust in these products) and weather conditions, in particular presence of clouds. These results are compared with an automated retrieval using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements form the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS); which, due to its sun-synchronous orbit allows a measurement of dust in the atmosphere once a day. Differences in the spatial distribution of SEVIRI dust sources and MODIS inferred dust source regions can be explained by inherent transport bias in the latter's low sampling rate and prevailing wind conditions. This database will provide an important tool in further understanding dust emission processes in the region

  16. Assessing the risk of observing multiple generations of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases given an imported case.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, H; Miyamatsu, Y; Chowell, G; Saitoh, M

    2015-07-09

    To guide risk assessment, expected numbers of cases and generations were estimated, assuming a case importation of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Our analysis of 36 importation events yielded the risk of observing secondary transmission events at 22.7% (95% confidence interval: 19.3–25.1). The risks of observing generations 2, 3 and 4 were estimated at 10.5%, 6.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Countries at risk should be ready for highly variable outcomes following an importation of MERS.

  17. The Camp David Accords: A U.S. Strategic Foothold or Achilles Heel in the Middle East?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt, Attached Letters; http://www.israel- mfa.gov.il/mfa/go.asp? MFAH00sc0 5 Daniel C. Diller and John V. Moore, The...International Studies, Washington, D.C. 10 November2002 Diller, Daniel C, and John L. Moore, Eds. The Middle East, 8th ed. Washington, D.C...www.sis.gov.eg/egyptinf/economy/html/eep/html/text26.htm; Internet. Accessed 30 September 2002. Fisher, Sydney Nettleton and William Ochsenwald. The

  18. Water Quality in Courtland Creek, East Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho, H.; Ahumada, A.; Hernandez, G.; Quintero, D.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, L.; Pham, T.; Holt, J.; Johnson, A.; Rubio, E.; Ponce, X.; Medina, S.; Limon, S.

    2013-12-01

    Courtland Creek is a tributary of the larger East Creek system that runs southeast from the Oakland Hills down to the San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. In an effort to assess the overall health of Courtland Creek our team conducted a water quality research study. Stream water samples were collected from 4 sites between MacArthur Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) and Thompson Avenue (describe geographically as not all readers are familiar with Oakland geography) at accessible sections of this largely culverted stream. Dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorine concentrations in were measured using wet chemistry procedures. Analysis of collected samples indicates that dissolved oxygen levels in the stream are sufficient for invertebrates, ranging from 5 and 9 parts per million (ppm). Nitrate levels were significantly high, with concentrations ranging from 15 and 40 ppm. Other chemical species associated with waste products--ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate--also were present, but at low concentrations. Small amounts of chlorine also were found in waters of the creek system. The presence of high concentrations of nitrate, together with chlorine, suggests that untreated sewage may be leaking into Courtland Creek at an unidentified location.

  19. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No. 2079... project. This meeting is posted on the Commission's calendar located at...

  20. The welfare risks and impacts of heat stress on sheep shipped from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive

    2016-12-01

    This review considers the welfare issues confronting sheep due to heat stress on board ships undertaking long distance voyages. Sheep engage in behavioural and physiologic mechanisms to attempt to mitigate heat stress, but the evidence from Australian shipments from 2005 to 2014 is that mortality approximately doubles when sheep are transported from Australia in winter to the Middle East in summer. Much of this increase has been attributed to salmonellosis and inanition, but this may have been mistaken for, or exacerbated by, heat stress. The Australian government's estimate of the heat stress threshold of sheep is substantially higher than that observed under simulated live export conditions, which leads to an underestimate of the importance of heat stress in sheep on voyages where mortality is high. Improved temperature monitoring on ships and the creation of both a robust model of the impact of increased temperatures on sheep morbidity and mortality, and a heat stress scale for sheep would assist in understanding and addressing this welfare concern. The high risk to sheep exported from Australia during summer in the Middle East is sufficient to warrant consideration of restriction of trade during this period.

  1. Enhancing the care of women with rheumatic diseases during pregnancy: challenges and unmet needs in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Al-Emadi, S; Abutiban, F; El Zorkany, B; Ziade, N; Al-Herz, A; Al-Maini, M; Khan, B; Ghanem, A; Al Rayes, H; Al Saleh, J; Al-Osaimi, H; Østensen, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with rheumatic disorders is known to be associated with risks for both the mother and fetus; however, these risks can be minimized with proper planning and careful management of the disease. In the Middle East, there are specific cultural challenges that may have a negative impact on the care that women with rheumatic disorders receive. There is a need for cross-collaboration between specialist physicians, improved awareness of rheumatic disorders among the general public and more open discussion with patients about the potential complications of pregnancy. Women in the region are often unwilling to discuss their disease with their partner and are even less likely to seek advice regarding family planning from their physician. The objective of this review is to highlight the specific challenges of pregnancy management and to discuss why establishing specialist pregnancy clinics for women with rheumatic disorders could be an effective solution. Such clinics can provide high quality care before, during and after pregnancy as shown in several European and US centers. Additionally, such clinics could be useful for the collection of pregnancy outcomes data from the Middle East, which may currently be lacking in the region, in order to highlight where further improvements can be made. With specialist care and analysis of pregnancy outcomes, the standard of care for women with rheumatic disorders in this area could be significantly improved.

  2. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  3. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Isma’eel, Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East. PMID:25401502

  4. Institutional Preparedness to Prevent Future Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Outbreaks in Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A year has passed since the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in the Republic of Korea. This 2015 outbreak led to a better understanding of healthcare infection control. The first Korean patient infected by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was diagnosed on May 20, 2015, after he returned from Qatar and Bahrain. Thereafter, 186 Korean people were infected with the MERS-CoV in a short time through human-to-human transmission. All these cases were linked to healthcare settings, and 25 (13.5 %) infected patients were healthcare workers. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the MERS-CoV isolate found in the Korean patient was closely related to the Qatar strain, and did not harbor transmission efficiency-improving mutations. Nevertheless, with the same infecting virus strain, Korea experienced the largest MERS-CoV outbreak outside the Arabian Peninsula, primarily due to the different characteristics of population density and the healthcare system. We aimed to review the epidemiological features and existing knowledge on the Korean MERS outbreak, and suggest methods to prevent future epidemics. PMID:27433377

  5. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region.

  6. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  7. Consumer knowledge, attitudes and salt-related behavior in the Middle-East: the case of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2014-11-13

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  8. Mapping crustal heterogeneity using Lg propagation efficiency throughout the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Walter, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a technique for mapping the lateral variation of Lg characteristics such as Lg blockage, efficient Lg propagation, and regions of very high attenuation in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean regions. Lg is used in a variety of seismological applications from magnitude estimation to identification of nuclear explosions for monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These applications can give significantly biased results if the Lg phase is reduced or blocked by discontinuous structure or thin crust. Mapping these structures using quantitative techniques for determining Lg amplitude attenuation can break down when the phase is below background noise. In such cases Lg blockage and inefficient propagation zones are often mapped out by hand. With our approach, we attempt to visually simplify this information by imaging crustal structure anomalies that significantly diminish the amplitude of Lg. The visualization of such anomalies is achieved by defining a grid of cells that covers the entire region of interest. We trace Lg rays for each event/ station pair, which is simply the great circle path, and attribute to each cell a value equal to the maximum value of the Lg/P-coda amplitude ratio for all paths traversing that particular cell. The resulting map, from this empirical approach, is easily interpreted in terms of crustal structure and can successfully image small blockage features often missed by analysis of raypaths alone. This map can then be used to screen out events with blocked Lg prior to performing Q tomography, and to avoid using Lg-based methods of event identification for the CTBT in regions where they cannot work. For this study we applied our technique to one of the most tectonically complex regions on the earth. Nearly 9000 earthquake/station raypaths, traversing the vast region comprised of the Middle East, Mediterranean, Southern Europe and Northern Africa, have been

  9. Stable isotope analysis of the middle helladic population from two cemeteries at asine: barbouna and the east cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingvarsson Sundström, A.; Richards, M. P.; Voutsaki, S.

    In this paper we report the results of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of humans from two Middle Bronze Age cemeteries at Asine, Greece: Barbouna (n=6) and the East Cemetery (n=13). In general, the dietary pattern of adults and juveniles shows a heavy reliance on mainly terrestrial foods; C3 plants and a varying amount of animal protein (meat, milk or dairy products). The high nitrogen values of some individuals from the East cemetery indicate a substantial consumption of animal protein, although the carbon values show that no detectable amounts of marine foods, or C4 plants such as millet had been consumed. High nitrogen values as well as the high slaughter age of domestic animals, as found in previous studies point towards a significant utilization of milk and dairy products at Asine. A low increase of nitrogen values in subadults younger than one years of age from Barbouna compared to females at the East cemetery indicates that these children may have been fed breast milk as well as supplementary foods. Therefore, despite the poor preservation and uneven sample size, the Asine isotopic data give us information on diet during the MH period, as well as variation between the members of the community.

  10. The change in wind vector and dust storm in the Middle East in last 32 years and their correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.; Yang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    [1] Winds play an important role in dust aerosols emission, transport, and deposition. Using NCEP reanalysis2 data, the changes in wind direction and speed during 1948 and 2010 were analyzed over the Middle East (the Gulf of Omen and Eastern Saudi Arabia abbreviated as R1). Wind patterns from R1 were compared with those in South Asia Monsoon Area (R2), East China (R3), and East China Sea (R4). The Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to study the effects of winds change on dust emissions over the period from 1979 to 2010. Modifications to soil types and land cover types were implemented to the default WRF-Chem MOSAIC dust scheme to ensure realistic simulations of dust emissions. In all the four regions, the yearly average wind speed decreased. In R1 and R3, winds greater than 2.5 m/s exhibited a decreasing trend throughout the year; while in R2 and R4, the decreasing trend was found only in spring and summer. The model simulations were compared with available observations including satellite data (e.g. AERONET and Calipso) and continual improvements are being made to revise the dust emission scheme within WRF-Chem.

  11. Proposed reference model for middle atmosphere water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rodgers, C. D.; Munro, R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.

    Several new and significant satellite data sets on middle atmosphere water vapor have been produced recently. They include data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and the Nimbus-7 Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) experiment. The SAGE II data provide an estimate of interannual variability of water vapor in the stratosphere. The SAMS data are appropriate for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. We combine these two data sets with those from the Nimbus-7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment to update the COSPAR interim reference model for water vapor. Water vapor profiles from the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment, ground-based microwave, and in situ balloon and aircraft measurements have been used to check the quality of the satellite data sets. The updated reference model is given as a function of latitude and pressure altitude and now covers all four seasons. Tabulations are included for these seasonal water vapor mixing ratios (in ppmv) and their estimated errors (in percent).

  12. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric

  13. The Same Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) yet Different Outbreak Patterns and Public Health Impacts on the Far East Expert Opinion from the Rapid Response Team of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    A Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak, the largest outbreak outside the Middle East in 2012, occurred in the Republic of Korea and resulted in a large number of cases, with 186 infected people, including 38 deaths. A Rapid Response Team (RRT) was appointed after a request from the Korean government on June 8, 2015 calling for specialists to manage and control the MERS-CoV outbreak. This report presents the opinion of the RRT who worked to manage this healthcare-associated MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea.

  14. Tectonic and regional metamorphic implications of the discovery of Middle Ordovician conodonts in cover rocks east of the Green Mountain massif, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Harris, A.G.; Walsh, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Middle Ordovician (late Arenigian - early Caradocian) conodonts were recovered from a dolostone lens in carbonaceous schist 30 m below the base of the Pinney Hollow Formation in the Eastern Cover sequence near West Bridgewater, Vermont. These are the first reported fossils from the metamorphic cover sequence rocks east of the Green Mountain, Berkshire, and Housatonic massifs of western New England. The conodonts are recrystallized, coated with graphitic matter, thermally altered to a color alteration index (CAI) of at least 5, and tectonically deformed. The faunule is nearly monospecific, consisting of abundant Periodon aculeatus Hadding? and rare Protopanderodus. The preponderance of Periodon and the absence of warm, shallow-water species characteristic of the North American Midcontinent Conodont Province suggest a slope or basin depositional setting. The conodont-bearing carbonaceous schist is traceable 3 km southeast to the Plymouth area, where it had been designated the uppermost member of the Plymouth Formation, previously regarded as Early Cambrian in age. The age and structural position of the carbonaceous schist above dolostones of the Plymouth Formation but below the Pinney Hollow Formation (upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian?) suggest that this unit may be correlative or time transgressive with the Ira Formation, which underlies the Taconic allochthons in the Vermont Valley. Such a correlation supports the concept of placing the western limit of the root zone of the Taconic allochthons beneath the Pinney Hollow Formation. An approximate absolute age assignment for the conodont-bearing rock is between 470 and 454 Ma. This suggests that dynamothermal metamorphism during the Taconian orogeny on the east flank of the Green Mountains was younger than early Caradocian, which is in accord with the middle Caradocian age of the Ira Formation west of the Green Mountain massif.

  15. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  16. The Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera, its resurgent intrusion, and enduring landscape stability in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Fork is a relatively well preserved caldera within a broad region of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic plutons bounded by northeast-trending faults. In the relatively downdropped and less deeply exhumed crustal blocks, Cretaceous–Early Tertiary silicic volcanic rocks attest to long-term stability of the landscape. Within the Middle Fork caldera, the granite porphyry is interpreted to have been exposed by erosion of thick intracaldera tuff from an asymmetric resurgent dome. The Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River incised an arcuate valley into and around the caldera fill on the west and north and may have cut down from within an original caldera moat. The 70 Ma land surface is preserved beneath proximal outflow tuff at the west margin of the caldera structure and beneath welded outflow tuff 16–23 km east-southeast of the caldera in a paleovalley. Within ∼50 km of the Middle Fork caldera are 14 examples of Late Cretaceous (?)–Tertiary felsic volcanic and hypabyssal intrusive rocks that range in area from <1 km2 to ∼100 km2. Rhyolite dome clusters north and northwest of the caldera occupy tectonic basins associated with northeast-trending faults and are relatively little eroded. Lava of a latite complex, 12–19 km northeast of the caldera, apparently flowed into the paleovalley of the Middle Fork of the North Fork of the Fortymile River. To the northwest of the Middle Fork caldera, in the Mount Harper crustal block, mid-Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely exposed, indicating greater total exhumation. To the southeast of the Middle Fork block, the Mount Veta block has been uplifted sufficiently to expose a ca. 68–66 Ma equigranular granitic pluton. Farther to the southeast, in the Kechumstuk block, the flat-lying outflow tuff remnant in Gold Creek and a regionally extensive high terrace indicate that the landscape there has been little modified since 70 Ma other than entrenchment of tributaries in response to post–2

  17. Biting midges of the tribe Ceratopogonini (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    PubMed

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    Middle East predatory biting midges of the tribe Ceratopogonini, covering 22 species of 7 genera are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: Allohelea israelensis Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov., Kolenohelea levantica Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov. and Serromyia galilaeae Szadziewski & Alwin sp. nov. The genus Boreohelea Clastrier & Delécolle, 1990 syn. nov. is recognized as a junior synonym of Allohelea Kieffer, 1917. Thysanognathus nilogenes Kieffer, 1925 syn. nov. from Egypt is a junior synonym of Alluaudomyia melanosticta (Ingram & Macfie, 1922). Keys to identification of subfamilies, tribes, genera and species of Ceratopogonini of the Middle East are also provided.

  18. East Antarctic Ice Sheet fluctuations during the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition inferred from faunal and biogeochemical data on planktonic foraminifera (ODP Hole 747A, Kerguelen Plateau)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verducci, M.; Foresi, L.M.; Scott, G.H.; ,; Sprovieri, M.; Lirer, F.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed study of faunal and biogeochemical changes that occurred at ODP Hole 747A in the Kerguelen Plateau region of the Southern Ocean during the middle Miocene (14.8-11.8 Ma). Abundance fluctuations of several planktonic foraminiferal taxa, stable oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca ratios have been integrated as a multi-proxy approach to reach a better understanding of the growth modality and fluctuations of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) during this period. A 7°C decrease in Sea Surface Temperature (SST), an abrupt turnover in the planktonic foraminiferal assemblage, a 1.5‰ shift towards heavier δ18O values (Mi3 event) and a related shift towards heavier seawater δ118O values between 13.9 and 13.7 Ma, are interpreted to reflect rapid surface water cooling and EAIS expansion. Hole 747A data suggest a major change in the variability of the climate system fostered by EAIS expansion between 13.9 and 13.7 Ma. Ice sheet fluctuations were greater during the interval 14.8-13.9 Ma compared with those from 13.7 to 11.8 Ma, whereas the latter interval was characterized by a more stable EAIS. In our opinion, the middle Miocene ice sheet expansion in Antarctica represents a first step towards the development of the modern permanent ice sheet

  19. Were West Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding events in the Ross Sea a consequence of East Antarctic Ice Sheet expansion during the middle Miocene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Philip J.

    2003-11-01

    Seismic correlation of glacial unconformities from the Ross Sea outer continental shelf to chronostratigraphic control at DSDP sites 272 and 273 indicates that at least two West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) expansions occurred during the early part of the middle Miocene (i.e. well before completion of continental-scale expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) inferred from δ 18O and eustatic shifts). Therefore, if the volume of the EAIS was indeed relatively low, and if the Ross Sea age model is valid, then these WAIS expansions/contractions were not a direct consequence of EAIS expansion over the Transantarctic Mountains onto West Antarctica. An in-situ development of the WAIS during the middle Miocene suggests that either West Antarctic land elevations were above sea level and/or that air and water temperatures were sufficiently cold to support a marine-based ice sheet. Additional chronostratigraphic and lithologic data are needed from Antarctic margins to test these speculations.

  20. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  1. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an “asylum seeker” or “refugee” from the Middle East. Results In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16–84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified

  2. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2013-07-01

    Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric

  3. Revolutionising Engineering Education in the Middle East Region to Promote Earthquake-Disaster Mitigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enroll on engineering courses through lenient…

  4. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children (with Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    The goal of this collection is to present an annotated bibliographical listing of children's literature, written in English, about the Middle Eastern countries of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Republic (Egypt), and other countries located near the Persian Gulf. The bibliographic entries…

  5. Soviet Foreign Policy in the Middle East: Internal and External Determinants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    SECURIty CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY I DIStRIIUTION/AVAILAILItY OF REPORT 2b (CLSSIiCTIOIDONGR~iG SHEDLEApproved for Public Release 2b ECLSS ~CATON OWNRAONG...34 Current History 33 (November 1957): 285.: substantial reserve of pro-American feeling in many Arab countries, including Egypt. 22 One reason was that... history , predicted by Lenin, when the peoples of the East play an active part in deciding the destinies of the whole world ... has arrived. ’ 2" Khrushchev

  6. Droughts in East European Plain Since the Middle of 20th Century: Regional Changes and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakin, A. B.; Popova, V.; Zolotokrylin, A.; Cherenkova, E.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed statistical study of atmospheric droughts over North Eurasia is carried out for the period 1950-2011 based on daily meteorological records. Criteria for the atmospheric droughts include both low precipitation and high maximum daily temperature. Regions with high frequency of the atmospheric droughts include south of East European plain, south of Western Siberia, and parts of Eastern Siberia and Far East. Large-scale atmospheric circulation situations favourable for the atmospheric droughts include combination of anomalous values of West Pacific and some other indices such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Polar-Eurasian, etc. Changes of the atmospheric drought frequency over the North Eurasia during the last decades are explored and mapped. Overall, the frequency of the atmospheric droughts has increased, especially over certain parts of Siberia and Far East, as well as over East European Plain (the latter due to the 2010 event). To a significant extent, increase of the atmospheric drought frequency is related to the changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. The statistical relationships between the atmospheric drought frequency and atmospheric circulation indices can vary on the decadal scale. Since the beginning of 1980s, there is a significant trend in some of the circulation indices values, resulting in changes of the atmospheric droughts frequency over North Eurasia. At the same time, some of the drought indices evaluated by monthly temperature and precipitation anomalies do not demonstrate significant anomalies in 2010 as compared to several other drought events (1936, 1938, 1972, etc.). Applicability of various monthly indices for the drought analysis in Eastern Europe is studied.

  7. The state of harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: A focus on Iran and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Himmich, Hakima; Madani, Navid

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. But the regional response to the epidemic falls short both in terms of the quality and scale of response. From the threat of the death sentence for drug offenses to the burden of refugees fleeing conflict, there are many legal, political and social barriers that hinder the introduction and expansion of harm reduction in the region. However Iran and Morocco are two pioneering countries and over the last decade they have been providing evidence that harm reduction is feasible and acceptable in MENA. Using different approaches, these two countries have overcome various obstacles and encouraged discussion and collaboration among stakeholders, including government, health professionals, civil society and community-based organizations. In so doing they have created an enabling environment to endorse a national harm strategy.

  8. Response to Emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Al Hosani, Farida Ismail; Al Mulla, Mariam; Kim, Lindsay; Pham, Huong; Alami, Negar N.; Khudhair, Ahmed; Hall, Aron J.; Aden, Bashir; El Saleh, Feda; Al Dhaheri, Wafa; Al Bandar, Zyad; Bunga, Sudhir; Abou Elkheir, Kheir; Tao, Ying; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Nguyen, Duc; Turner, Andrew; Pradeep, Krishna; Sasse, Jurgen; Weber, Stefan; Tong, Suxiang; Whitaker, Brett L.; Haynes, Lia M.; Curns, Aaron; Gerber, Susan I.

    2016-01-01

    In January 2013, several months after Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, began surveillance for MERS-CoV. We analyzed medical chart and laboratory data collected by the Health Authority–Abu Dhabi during January 2013–May 2014. Using real-time reverse transcription PCR, we tested respiratory tract samples for MERS-CoV and identified 65 case-patients. Of these patients, 23 (35%) were asymptomatic at the time of testing, and 4 (6%) showed positive test results for >3 weeks (1 had severe symptoms and 3 had mild symptoms). We also identified 6 clusters of MERS-CoV cases. This report highlights the potential for virus shedding by mildly ill and asymptomatic case-patients. These findings will be useful for MERS-CoV management and infection prevention strategies. PMID:27314227

  9. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  10. Development and validation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antigen in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Song, Daesub; Ha, Gunwoo; Serhan, Wissam; Eltahir, Yassir; Yusof, Mohammed; Hashem, Farouq; Elsayed, Elsaeid; Marzoug, Bahaaeldin; Abdelazim, Assem; Al Muhairi, Salama

    2015-04-01

    We present here a rapid immunochromatographic assay for the detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) antigen in the nasal swabs of dromedary camels. The assay is based on the detection of MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in a short time frame using highly selective monoclonal antibodies at room temperature. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 93.90% and 100%, respectively, compared to that of the UpE and open reading frame 1A (Orf1A) real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The results suggest that the assay developed here is a useful tool for the rapid diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

  11. Neurological Complications of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Subahi, Ahmad; Shirah, Bader

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first discovered in September 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Since then, it caused more than 1600 laboratory-confirmed cases and more than 580 deaths among them. The clinical course of the disease ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe lower respiratory tract illness with multiorgan involvement and death. The disease can cause pulmonary, renal, hematological, and gastrointestinal complications. In this paper, we report neurological complications of MERS-CoV in two adult patients, and we hypothesize the pathophysiology. The first patient had an intracerebral hemorrhage as a result of thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and platelet dysfunction. The second case was a case of critical illness polyneuropathy complicating a long ICU stay. In these cases, the neurological complications were secondary to systemic complications and long ICU stay. Autopsy studies are needed to further understand the pathological mechanism. PMID:27239356

  12. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Madani, Navid; Doroudi, Fardad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  13. Mushrooms and Truffles: Historical Biofactories for Complementary Medicine in Africa and in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710

  14. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  15. Identification of Information Types and Sources by the Public for Promoting Awareness of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoda, Jradi

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease of serious consequences caused by MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Saudi communities still lack awareness of available protective measures to prevent the transmission of the virus. It is necessary to explore the current information-seeking strategies and preferences for…

  16. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  17. The Design of Online Tertiary Courseware for a Blended Learning, Project-Based, E-Business Management Program in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    This case study briefly explores how an online, multimedia learning module based on a Cognitive Apprenticeship higher level pedagogy can positively affect students achieving the learning outcomes of a Constructivist project-based curriculum in a blended e-business management program in the Middle East. The cohort in this program is nonnative…

  18. Innovative technologies targeting vector populations to mitigate the risk of exposure to leishmaniasis and protect deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are blood feeders and vectors of significant public health importance because they transmit Leishmania spp., which cause leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East suffer from sand fly bites and are at risk of contract...

  19. Innovative technologies targeting vector populations to mitigate the risk of exposure to leishmaniasis and protect deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are blood feeders and vectors of significant public health importance because they transmit Leishmania spp., which cause leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East suffer from sand fly bites and are at risk of contracti...

  20. The Sustainability of GEAR UP Project Initiatives in East Tennessee Middle Schools: A Study of the Residual Impacts of the University of Tennessee GEAR UP Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary; Lashley, Terry; King, Peggy

    The Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program was implemented in a partnership between the University of Tennessee (UT) and two rural East Tennessee school systems. The study addressed the residual impact of UT GEAR UP on middle school teachers and schools that were left behind as the cohort progressed to…