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Sample records for middle income groups

  1. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  2. Middle Income Students and the Cost of Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, Joseph; And Others

    Current proposals to assist middle-income groups with college costs and estimates of the burden to parents in different income groups are considered. Reasons for discontent by middle-income and upper-income groups regarding college costs are considered in relation to the following issues: the demographic squeeze, the temptation to choose high-cost…

  3. Hospital payment systems based on diagnosis-related groups: experiences in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This paper provides a comprehensive overview of hospital payment systems based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in low- and middle-income countries. It also explores design and implementation issues and the related challenges countries face. Methods A literature research for papers on DRG-based payment systems in low- and middle-income countries was conducted in English, French and Spanish through Pubmed, the Pan American Health Organization’s Regional Library of Medicine and Google. Findings Twelve low- and middle-income countries have DRG-based payment systems and another 17 are in the piloting or exploratory stage. Countries have chosen from a wide range of imported and self-developed DRG models and most have adapted such models to their specific contexts. All countries have set expenditure ceilings. In general, systems were piloted before being implemented. The need to meet certain requirements in terms of coding standardization, data availability and information technology made implementation difficult. Private sector providers have not been fully integrated, but most countries have managed to delink hospital financing from public finance budgeting. Conclusion Although more evidence on the impact of DRG-based payment systems is needed, our findings suggest that (i) the greater portion of health-care financing should be public rather than private; (ii) it is advisable to pilot systems first and to establish expenditure ceilings; (iii) countries that import an existing variant of a DRG-based system should be mindful of the need for adaptation; and (iv) countries should promote the cooperation of providers for appropriate data generation and claims management. PMID:24115798

  4. Hospital payment systems based on diagnosis-related groups: experiences in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mathauer, Inke; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2013-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of hospital payment systems based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in low- and middle-income countries. It also explores design and implementation issues and the related challenges countries face. A literature research for papers on DRG-based payment systems in low- and middle-income countries was conducted in English, French and Spanish through Pubmed, the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Library of Medicine and Google. Twelve low- and middle-income countries have DRG-based payment systems and another 17 are in the piloting or exploratory stage. Countries have chosen from a wide range of imported and self-developed DRG models and most have adapted such models to their specific contexts. All countries have set expenditure ceilings. In general, systems were piloted before being implemented. The need to meet certain requirements in terms of coding standardization, data availability and information technology made implementation difficult. Private sector providers have not been fully integrated, but most countries have managed to delink hospital financing from public finance budgeting. Although more evidence on the impact of DRG-based payment systems is needed, our findings suggest that (i) the greater portion of health-care financing should be public rather than private; (ii) it is advisable to pilot systems first and to establish expenditure ceilings; (iii) countries that import an existing variant of a DRG-based system should be mindful of the need for adaptation; and (iv) countries should promote the cooperation of providers for appropriate data generation and claims management.

  5. Group B Streptococcus vaccine development: present status and future considerations, with emphasis on perspectives for low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Miwako; Vekemans, Johan; Baker, Carol J.; Ratner, Adam J.; Le Doare, Kirsty; Schrag, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young infants, with its greatest burden in the first 90 days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing, but not eliminating, the young infant GBS disease burden in many high income countries. However, identification of women at risk and administration of IAP is very difficult in many low and middle income country (LMIC) settings, and is not possible for home deliveries. Immunization of pregnant women with a GBS vaccine represents an alternate pathway to protecting newborns from GBS disease, through the transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus in utero. This approach to prevent GBS disease in young infants is currently under development, and is approaching late stage clinical evaluation. This manuscript includes a review of the natural history of the disease, global disease burden estimates, diagnosis and existing control options in different settings, the biological rationale for a vaccine including previous supportive studies, analysis of current candidates in development, possible correlates of protection and current status of immunogenicity assays. Future potential vaccine development pathways to licensure and use in LMICs, trial design and implementation options are discussed, with the objective to provide a basis for reflection, rather than recommendations. PMID:27803803

  6. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for youths with anxiety disorders in the community: effectiveness in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Maria Augusta Mansur; Salum, Giovanni A; Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Isolan, Luciano; Davis, Roberta; Knijnik, Daniela; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Heldt, Elizeth

    2013-05-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is established as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of CBT protocols in cases identified in the community in low and middle income countries (LaMICs). To evaluate the effectiveness of group CBT protocol for youths with anxiety disorders identified in a community sample in LaMICs. A total of 14 sessions of group CBT for youths and 2 concurrent sessions for parents based on Kendall's Coping Cat program were offered. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional community study; 45 subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria and 28 agreed to participate in the open clinical trial. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated with standard clinical, self- and parent-rated measures of anxiety, depression, externalizing symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Twenty youths completed the protocol. All scales showed an improvement of anxiety and reduction in externalizing symptoms over time, with a moderate to large effect size (d = 0.59 to 2.06; p < .05), but not in depressive symptoms or QoL. Consistent with previous evidence, group CBT is effective in treating anxiety disorders in youths. Results encourage further randomized clinical trials using CBT protocols adapted and developed to be used in LaMICs.

  7. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Ozaltin, Emre; Shankar, Anuraj H; Subramanian, S V

    2011-12-17

    Anaemia affects a quarter of the global population, including 293 million (47%) children younger than 5 years and 468 million (30%) non-pregnant women. In addition to anaemia's adverse health consequences, the economic effect of anaemia on human capital results in the loss of billions of dollars annually. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical assessment, pathophysiology, and consequences of anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. Our analysis shows that anaemia is disproportionately concentrated in low socioeconomic groups, and that maternal anaemia is strongly associated with child anaemia. Anaemia has multifactorial causes involving complex interaction between nutrition, infectious diseases, and other factors, and this complexity presents a challenge to effectively address the population determinants of anaemia. Reduction of knowledge gaps in research and policy and improvement of the implementation of effective population-level strategies will help to alleviate the anaemia burden in low-resource settings.

  8. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  9. Tobacco Control Progress in Low and Middle Income Countries in Comparison to High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carrie L.; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data representing years 2007 to 2014 were collected from all available World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the global tobacco epidemic. Corresponding policy percentage scores (PS) were calculated based on MPOWER measures. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data for years 2010 and 2015 were collected from the WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Trends of PS were analysed with respect to WHO region and OECD country income category. Scatter plots and regression analysis were used to depict the relationship between tobacco control policy of 2010 and change in smoking prevalence between 2015 and 2010 by sex and income category. Combined PS for all countries increased significantly from 47% in 2007 to 61% by 2014 (p < 0.001). When grouped by income category and region, policies were strengthened in all categories, albeit with varying progression. By 2014, tobacco control policy legislation had reached 45% in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 59% in Low Middle Income Countries (LMICs), 66% in Upper Middle Income Countries (UMICs) and 70% in High Income Countries (HICs). Overall, there was a negative relationship between higher policy scores and change in smoking prevalence. Although policy strengthening had been conducted between 2007 and 2014, room for considerable global improvement remains, particularly in LDCs. PMID:27783060

  10. Social support network typologies and health outcomes of older people in low and middle income countries--a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran A; Prince, Martin; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to assess the construct validity of the Wenger social support network typology in low and middle income countries. We hypothesize that, in comparison with the integrated network type, the non-integrated network type is associated with loneliness, depression, poor quality of life (less happiness), poor self-reported health, increased disability and higher care needs. Cross-sectional one-phase surveys were conducted of all residents aged 65 and over in catchment areas in eight low and middle income countries (India, China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Puerto Rico). Wenger's Practitioner Assessment of Network Type (PANT) was used to measure social network type. Family dependent, local self-contained, wider community-focused and private restricted network types were considered non-integrated, in comparison to the locally integrated network type. Overall, 17,031 participants were interviewed. Family dependent and locally integrated network types were the most prevalent. Adjusted pooled estimates across sites showed that loneliness, depression, less happiness, poor health, disability, and need for care were significantly associated with non-integrated network type. The findings of this study support the construct validity of Wenger's network typology in low and middle income countries. However, further research is required to test the criterion validity of Wenger typology using longitudinal data. Identifying older people who are vulnerable could inform the development of social care interventions to support older people and their families in the context of deteriorating health.

  11. An international survey of nutritional practices in low- and middle-income countries: a report from the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) PODC Nutrition Working Group.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A J; Mosby, T T; Rogers, P C; Cohen, J; Ladas, E J

    2014-12-01

    Optimal nutritional status is important in children with cancer, as it can influence clinical outcomes. To improve the nutritional health of children and adolescents receiving treatment for cancer residing in low income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we investigated nutrition practices among these nations' institutions providing treatment for childhood cancer. A cross-sectional survey of nutrition practice was administered to staff members at institutions providing treatment for children with cancer between 2011 and 2012. Countries classified as low income and middle income were divided by geographical region. Final analysis was performed with 96 surveys, which included 27 institutions from Asia, 27 institutions from Latin America and Caribbean, 27 institutions from Africa and 15 institutions from Europe. The study found that 55% of institutions had a dietician available on their service. Access to dieticians, lack of nutrition resources and lack of nutrition education of staff were the main barriers to providing nutrition care in LMIC. Half of the institutions performed nutritional assessment at diagnosis, and the methods used varied widely. Twenty-nine percent of all institutions used complementary and alternate therapies within their clinical practice, and 35% of institutions reported that nutrition education was provided to patients and families. Priority areas for improving the nutritional management in LMIC include the following: (1) improved nutrition education and assessment tools for doctors and nurses; (2) increased availability of nutrition education resources for families and patients; and (3) identification of the role of complementary and alternative therapies in closing gaps in symptom management in these institutions.

  12. A Framework for Adapted Nutritional Therapy for Children With Cancer in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Report From the SIOP PODC Nutrition Working Group.

    PubMed

    Ladas, Elena J; Arora, Brijesh; Howard, Scott C; Rogers, Paul C; Mosby, Terezie T; Barr, Ronald D

    2016-08-01

    The utilization of adapted regimens for the treatment of pediatric malignancies has greatly improved clinical outcomes for children receiving treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nutritional depletion has been associated with poorer outcomes, increased abandonment of therapy, and treatment-related toxicities. Surveys have found that nutritional intervention is not incorporated routinely into supportive care regimens. Establishing nutritional programs based upon institutional resources may facilitate the incorporation of nutritional therapy into clinical care in a way that is feasible in all settings. We present a framework for establishing and monitoring of nutritional care based on the infrastructure of institutions in LMIC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Economic disparities in middle childhood development: does income matter?

    PubMed

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-11-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and behavior problems during middle childhood. Early childhood income had enduring effects on children's behavior problems and academic skills in middle childhood. Middle childhood income did not influence academic skills but did affect the development of behavior problems during middle childhood. Children from low-income households were particularly sensitive to the effects of family income. The quality of home environment during early and middle childhood explained a portion of the effects of income on academic skills and behavior problems.

  14. [Risk sharing methods in middle income countries].

    PubMed

    Inotai, András; Kaló, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage

  15. Contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Jotheeswaran, AT; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. Methods We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). Findings In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25·1% [IQR 19·2–43·6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11·4% [1·8–21·4]), limb impairment (10·5% [5·7–33·8]), arthritis (9·9% [3·2–34·8]), depression (8·3% [0·5–23·0]), eyesight problems (6·8% [1·7–17·6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6·5% [0·3–23·1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. Interpretation On the basis

  16. Contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2009-11-28

    Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25.1% [IQR 19.2-43.6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11.4% [1.8-21.4]), limb impairment (10.5% [5.7-33.8]), arthritis (9.9% [3.2-34.8]), depression (8.3% [0.5-23.0]), eyesight problems (6.8% [1.7-17.6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6.5% [0.3-23.1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. On the basis of empirical research, dementia, not blindness, is overwhelmingly the most important

  17. The HIV-1 Epidemic: Low- to Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiming; Williamson, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Low- to middle-income countries bear the overwhelming burden of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in terms of the numbers of their citizens living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the high degrees of viral diversity often involving multiple HIV-1 clades circulating within their populations, and the social and economic factors that compromise current control measures. Distinct epidemics have emerged in different geographical areas. These epidemics differ in their severity, the population groups they affect, their associated risk behaviors, and the viral strains that drive them. In addition to inflicting great human cost, the high burden of HIV infection has a major impact on the social and economic development of many low- to middle-income countries. Furthermore, the high degrees of viral diversity associated with multiclade HIV epidemics impacts viral diagnosis and pathogenicity and treatment and poses daunting challenges for effective vaccine development. PMID:22393534

  18. New vaccine adoption in lower-middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Makinen, Marty; Kaddar, Miloud; Molldrem, Vivikka; Wilson, Lara

    2012-05-01

    Lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are lagging behind both high-income and low-income countries in new vaccine adoption. Our study involved the following objectives: (1) understand the decision-making processes of LMICs on new vaccine adoption, (2) identify the factors influencing LMIC decisions, (3) obtain the views of vaccine manufacturers about LMIC markets for new vaccines, and (4) make recommendations concerning how to speed up and improve decision making, including proposing mechanisms for implementation of the recommendations. Collect and analyse qualitative data from participants in decision making in 15 case study countries [12 LMICs and three upper-middle-income countries (UMICs)] and multinational and developing country vaccine manufacturers. Interviews of actors in decision making indicate that the aspects deemed most important for adoption are: World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, the existence of local epidemiological data and a set of factors comprising affordability, cost-effectiveness and overall cost of the new vaccine for the programme. National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) have a key role in advising decision-makers, although their resources and capacity vary. Country decision-makers and manufacturers both see advantages in pooled procurement mechanisms for vaccine purchasing. Recommendations for countries and the international community involve assisting with making epidemiological data and vaccine market information accessible to countries, building and reinforcing related analysis capacity, and assisting with purchasing mechanisms and practices such as pooled procurement.

  19. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  20. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  1. Teleradiotherapy Network: Applications and Feasibility for Providing Cost-Effective Comprehensive Radiotherapy Care in Low- and Middle-Income Group Countries for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Michael; Samiei, Massoud; Shah, Ragesh; Lutters, Gerd; Bodis, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Globally, new cancer cases will rise by 57% within the next two decades, with the majority in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Consequently, a steep increase of about 40% in cancer deaths is expected there, mainly because of lack of treatment facilities, especially radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is required for more than 50% of patients, but the capital cost for equipment often deters establishment of such facilities in LMICs. Presently, of the 139 LMICs, 55 do not even have a radiotherapy facility, whereas the remaining 84 have a deficit of 61.4% of their required radiotherapy units. Networking between centers could enhance the effectiveness and reach of existing radiotherapy in LMICs. A teleradiotherapy network could enable centers to share and optimally utilize their resources, both infrastructure and staffing. This could be in the form of a three-tier radiotherapy service consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary radiotherapy centers interlinked through a network. The concept has been adopted in some LMICs and could also be used as a “service provider model,” thereby reducing the investments to set up such a network. Teleradiotherapy networks could be a part of the multipronged approach to address the enormous gap in radiotherapy services in a cost-effective manner and to support better accessibility to radiotherapy facilities, especially for LMICs. PMID:25763906

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarki, Ahmed M.; Nduka, Chidozie U.; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Uthman, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of hypertension prevalence, and to examine the pattern of this disease condition across different socio-demographic characteristics in low-and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases from inception to August 2015. We included population-based studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the current definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates of hypertension, overall, by World Bank region and country income group. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. A total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI 33.1–45.2). Pooled prevalence estimate was also highest across upper middle income countries (37.8%, 95% CI 35.0–40.6) and lowest across low-income countries (23.1%, 95% CI 20.1–26.2). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher in the elderly (≥65 years) compared with younger adults (<65 years) overall and across the geographical regions; however, there was no significant sex-difference in hypertension prevalence (31.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.6). Persons without formal education (49.0% vs 24.9%, P < 0.00001), overweight/obese (46.4% vs 26.3%, P < 0.00001), and urban settlers (32.7% vs 25.2%, P = 0.0005) were also more likely to be hypertensive, compared with those who were educated, normal weight, and rural settlers respectively. This study provides contemporary and up-to-date estimates that reflect the significant burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, as well as evidence that hypertension remains a major public health issue

  3. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Sosa, Ana L; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A M; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L). Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.

  4. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Sosa, Ana L.; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D.; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A. M.; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7mmol/L). Results Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control

  5. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    2001-01-01

    Profiles middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts, examines where middle income undergraduates enroll by price of attendance, and discusses how they pay for postsecondary education, including the role of financial aid. (Author)

  6. Is Accessing Dental Care Becoming More Difficult? Evidence from Canada's Middle-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Ramraj, Chantel; Sadeghi, Laleh; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Dempster, Laura; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore trends in access to dental care among middle-income Canadians. Methods A secondary data analysis of six Canadian surveys that collected information on dental insurance coverage, cost-barriers to dental care, and out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care was conducted for select years from 1978 to 2009. Descriptive analyses were used to outline and compare trends among middle-income Canadians with other levels of income as well as national averages. Results By 2009, middle-income Canadians had the lowest levels of dental insurance coverage (48.7%) compared to all other income groups. They reported the greatest increase in cost-barriers to dental care, from 12.6% in 1996 to 34.1% by 2009. Middle-income Canadians had the largest rise in out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care since 1978. Conclusions This study suggests that affordability issues in accessing dental care are no longer just a problem for the lowest income groups in Canada, but are now impacting middle-income earners as a consequence of their lack of, or decreased access to, comprehensive dental insurance. PMID:23437378

  7. Reducing the Gap in Numerical Knowledge between Low- and Middle-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the learning from playing a linear number board game of preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds to the learning of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Playing this game produced greater learning by both groups than engaging in other numerical activities for the same amount of time. The benefits were present on number line…

  8. Reducing the Gap in Numerical Knowledge between Low- and Middle-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the learning from playing a linear number board game of preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds to the learning of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Playing this game produced greater learning by both groups than engaging in other numerical activities for the same amount of time. The benefits were present on number line…

  9. Parenting Practices and Tobacco Use in Middle School Students in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poms, Laura W.; Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices have been shown to have a strong influence on adolescent tobacco use in high-income countries. This study examined whether parenting practices also were associated with tobacco use by middle school students (approximately ages 13-15) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A secondary analysis was performed on…

  10. Parenting Practices and Tobacco Use in Middle School Students in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poms, Laura W.; Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices have been shown to have a strong influence on adolescent tobacco use in high-income countries. This study examined whether parenting practices also were associated with tobacco use by middle school students (approximately ages 13-15) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A secondary analysis was performed on…

  11. Strain and its correlates among carers of people with dementia in low-income and middle-income countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Brodaty, Henry; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, AT; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In a multi-site population-based study in several middle-income countries, we aimed to investigate relative contributions of care arrangements and characteristics of carers and care recipients to strain among carers of people with dementia. Based on previous research, hypotheses focused on carer sex, care inputs, behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and socioeconomic status, together with potential buffering effects of informal support and employing paid carers. Methods In population-based catchment area surveys in 11 sites in Latin America, India and China, we analysed data collected from people with dementia and care needs, and their carers. Carer strain was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview. Results With 673 care recipient/carer dyads interviewed (99% of those eligible), mean Zarit Burden Interview scores ranged between 17.1 and 27.9 by site. Women carers reported more strain than men. The most substantial correlates of carer strain were primary stressors BPSD, dementia severity, needs for care and time spent caring. Socioeconomic status was not associated with carer strain. Those cutting back on work experienced higher strain. There was tentative evidence for a protective effect of having additional informal or paid support. Conclusions Our findings underline the global impact of caring for a person with dementia and support the need for scaling up carer support, education and training. That giving up work to care was prevalent and associated with substantial increased strain emphasizes the economic impact of caring on the household. Carer benefits, disability benefits for people with dementia and respite care should all be considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22460403

  12. Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zar, H J; Madhi, S A; Aston, S J; Gordon, S B

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of childhood mortality and the most common reason for adult hospitalisation in low and middle income countries, despite advances in preventative and management strategies. In the last decade, pneumonia mortality in children has fallen to approximately 1.3 million cases in 2011, with most deaths occurring in low income countries. Important recent advances include more widespread implementation of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae, implementation of case-management algorithms and better prevention and treatment of HIV. Determining the aetiology of pneumonia is challenging in the absence of reliable diagnostic tests. High uptake of new bacterial conjugate vaccines may impact on pneumonia burden, aetiology and empiric therapy but implementation in immunisation programmes in many low and middle income countries remains an obstacle. Widespread implementation of currently effective preventative and management strategies for pneumonia remains challenging in many low and middle income countries. PMID:23956020

  13. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  14. Suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Iemmi, Valentina; Bantjes, Jason; Coast, Ernestina; Channer, Kerrie; Leone, Tiziana; McDaid, David; Palfreyman, Alexis; Stephens, Bevan; Lund, Crick

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is the 15th leading cause of death worldwide, with over 75% of suicides occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Nonetheless, evidence on the association between suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries is scarce. We did a systematic review to understand the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries. We included studies testing the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries using bivariate or multivariate analysis and published in English between January, 2004, and April, 2014. We identified 37 studies meeting these inclusion criteria. In 18 studies reporting the association between completed suicide and poverty, 31 associations were explored. The majority reported a positive association. Of the 20 studies reporting on the relationship between non-fatal suicidal ideations and behaviours and poverty, 36 associations were explored. Again, almost all studies reported a positive association. However, when considering each poverty dimension separately, we found substantial variations. These findings show a consistent trend at the individual level indicating that poverty, particularly in the form of worse economic status, diminished wealth, and unemployment is associated with suicidal ideations and behaviours. At the country level, there are insufficient data to draw clear conclusions. Available data show a potential benefit in addressing economic poverty within suicide prevention strategies, with particular attention to both chronic poverty and acute economic events.

  15. Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Rubach, Matthew P.; Halliday, Jo E.B.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Human brucellosis is a neglected, underrecognized infection of widespread geographic distribution. It causes acute febrile illness and a potentially debilitating chronic infection in humans, and livestock infection has substantial socioeconomic impact. This review describes new information regarding the epidemiology of brucellosis in the developing world and advances in diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings The highest recorded incidence of human brucellosis occurs in the Middle East and Central Asia. Fever etiology studies demonstrate brucellosis as a cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the developing world. Brucellosis is a rare cause of fever among returning travelers, but is more common among travelers returning from the Middle East and North Africa. Sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic tests appropriate for resource-limited settings have been validated. Randomized controlled trials demonstrate that optimal treatment for human brucellosis consists of doxycycline and an aminoglycoside. Decreasing the burden of human brucellosis requires control of animal brucellosis, but evidence to inform the design of control programs in the developing world is needed. Summary Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity in human and animal populations. While improvements in diagnostic options for resource-limited settings and stronger evidence for optimal therapy should enhance identification and treatment of human brucellosis, prevention of human disease through control in animals remains paramount. PMID:23963260

  16. Syphilis in drug users in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Lara S; Newberry, Ashley; Hagan, Holly; Cleland, Charles M; Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Genital ulcer disease (GUD), including syphilis, is an important cause of morbidity in low and middle income (LMI) countries and syphilis transmission is associated with HIV transmission. We conducted a literature review to evaluate syphilis infection among drug users in LMI countries for the period 1995-2007. Countries were categorized using the World Bank Atlas method [The World Bank. (2007). Data and statistics: Country groups. Retrieved online October 18, 2007 at http://go.worldbank.org/D7SN0B8YU0] according to 2006 gross national income per capita. Thirty-two studies were included (N=13,848 subjects), mostly from Southeast Asia with some from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Central and East Asia, North Africa and the Middle East but none from regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa. The median prevalence of overall lifetime syphilis (N=32 studies) was 11.1% (interquartile range: 6.3-15.3%) and of HIV (N=31 studies) was 1.1% (interquartile range: 0.22-5.50%). There was a modest relation (r=0.27) between HIV and syphilis prevalence. Median syphilis prevalence by gender was 4.0% (interquartile range: 3.4-6.6%) among males (N=11 studies) and 19.9% (interquartile range: 11.4-36.0%) among females (N=6 studies). There was a strong relation (r=0.68) between syphilis prevalence and female gender that may be related to female sex work. Drug users in LMI countries have a high prevalence of syphilis but data are limited and, in some regions, entirely lacking. Further data are needed, including studies targeting the risks of women. Interventions to promote safer sex, testing, counselling and education, as well as health care worker awareness, should be integrated in harm reduction programs and health care settings to prevent new syphilis infections and reduce HIV transmission among drug users and their partners in LMI countries.

  17. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle and low income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p < .001). In the LIG, the prevalence rates of central obesity (baseline vs follow-up, male: 30.8 vs 50.9%, p < .001; female: 16.9 vs 49.8%, p < .001), hypertension (8.4 vs 20.1%, p < .001), hypercholesterolemia (14.2 vs. 20.4%, p < .05), and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0 vs 23.5%, p < .001) significantly increased and became similar to that seen in the MIG. There is a rapid reversal of socioeconomic gradient for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in urban India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    In "Global Perspective on Early Diagnosis and Intervention for Children with Developmental Delays and Disabilities" (p1079-1084, this issue), Scherzer et al. highlighted the potential increase in neurodevelopmental impairments and disabilities affecting an increasing number of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In this…

  19. Preferred Supportive Services for Middle to Higher Income Retirement Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Victor; Gelwicks, Louis E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the service and facility feature preferences for retirement housing of middle and upper income elderly. Mandatory services and activities which require physical exertion were rejected, while security, convenient retail services, public transportation, and emergency health services are preferred. Underscores the importance of supportive…

  20. Research misconduct in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ana, Joseph; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Smith, Richard; Yan, Lijing L

    2013-01-01

    As part of a cluster of articles critically reflecting on the theme of "no health without research," Richard Smith and colleagues lay out what is currently known about research misconduct in low- and middle-income countries, summarizing some high profile cases and making suggestions on ways forward.

  1. Cigarette design features in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosalie V; O'Connor, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that country income grouping is correlated with cigarette engineering. Cigarettes (N = 111 brands) were purchased during 2008-2010 from 11 low-, middle-, and high-income countries to assess physical dimensions and an array of cigarette design features. Mean ventilation varied significantly across low- (7.5%), middle- (15.3%), and high-income (26.2%) countries (P ≤ 0.001). Differences across income groups were also seen in cigarette length (P = 0.001), length of the tipping paper (P = 0.01), filter weight (P = 0.017), number of vent rows (P = 0.003), per-cigarette tobacco weight (P = 0.04), and paper porosity (P = 0.008). Stepwise linear regression showed ventilation and tobacco length as major predictors of ISO tar yields in low-income countries (P = 0.909, 0.047), while tipping paper (P < 0.001), filter length (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.014), and per-cigarette weight (P = 0.015) were predictors of tar yields in middle-income countries. Ventilation (P < 0.001), number of vent rows (P = 0.009), per-cigarette weight (P < 0.001), and filter diameter (P = 0.004) predicted tar yields in high-income countries. Health officials must be cognizant of cigarette design issues to provide effective regulation of tobacco products.

  2. A comparative analysis of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia with low income, middle income and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Koay, C L; Patel, D K; Tajunisah, I; Subrayan, V; Lansingh, V C

    2015-04-01

    To determine the avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia and to compare this to other middle income countries, low income countries and high income countries. Data were obtained from a school of the blind study by Patel et al. and analysed for avoidable causes of childhood blindness. Six other studies with previously published data on childhood blindness in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Indonesia, China and the United Kingdom were reviewed for avoidable causes. Comparisons of data and limitations of the studies are described. Prevalence of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia is 50.5 % of all the cases of childhood blindness, whilst in the poor income countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Indonesia, the prevalence was in excess of 60 %. China had a low prevalence, but this is largely due to the fact that most schools were urban, and thus did not represent the situation of the country. High income countries had the lowest prevalence of avoidable childhood blindness. In middle income countries, such as Malaysia, cataract and retinopathy of prematurity are the main causes of avoidable childhood blindness. Low income countries continue to struggle with infections such as measles and nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A, both of which are the main contributors to childhood blindness. In high income countries, such as the United Kingdom, these problems are almost non-existent.

  3. Influenza vaccines in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jördis J.; Klein Breteler, Janna; Tam, John S.; Hutubessy, Raymond C.W.; Jit, Mark; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Economic evaluations on influenza vaccination from low resource settings are scarce and have not been evaluated using a systematic approach. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review on the value for money of influenza vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for economic evaluations published in any language between 1960 and 2011. Main outcome measures were costs per influenza outcome averted, costs per quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted, costs per benefit in monetary units or cost-benefit ratios. Results: Nine economic evaluations on seasonal influenza vaccine met the inclusion criteria. These were model- or randomized-controlled-trial (RCT)-based economic evaluations from middle-income countries. Influenza vaccination provided value for money for elderly, infants, adults and children with high-risk conditions. Vaccination was cost-effective and cost-saving for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and in elderly above 65 y from model-based evaluations, but conclusions from RCTs on elderly varied. Conclusion: Economic evaluations from middle income regions differed in population studied, outcomes and definitions used. Most findings are in line with evidence from high-income countries highlighting that influenza vaccine is likely to provide value for money. However, serious methodological limitations do not allow drawing conclusions on cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in middle income countries. Evidence on cost-effectiveness from low-income countries is lacking altogether, and more information is needed from full economic evaluations that are conducted in a standardized manner. PMID:23732900

  4. Reductions in Disability Prevalence Among the Highest Income Groups of Older Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kara; Henley, William; Lang, Iain A.; Melzer, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify the income–disability prevalence relationship among older Brazilians. Methods. Data were from 63 985 individuals 60 years and older from the 1998 and 2003 Brazilian National Household Surveys. Generalized additive logistic models with cubic regression splines were used to estimate the disability–income relationships. Results. There was a strong linear relationship between increased income and reduced disability prevalence for most of the income distribution. Benefits were still present above the 90th percentile of income but were more modest. Because incomes among the wealthiest few are disproportionately large, odds ratios of disability nevertheless showed marked improvements, even across the very highest income groups. Conclusions. Among older Brazilians, reduced disability is associated with higher income, and these associations are present even above the 90th percentile of income. In addition to understanding mechanisms of disability reduction among impoverished individuals, work is needed to understand these mechanisms in middle- and high-income groups. PMID:19008509

  5. Measuring disability across cultures — the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II in older people from seven low- and middle-income countries. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Renata M; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Daisy; Jotheeswaran, AT; Castro-Costa, Erico; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Pichardo, Juana Guillermina Rodriguez; Ramírez, Nayeli Garcia; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 12-item interviewer-administered screener version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule – version II (WHODAS II) among older people living in seven low- and middle-income countries. Principal component analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Mokken analyses were carried out to test for unidimensionality, hierarchical structure, and measurement invariance across 10/66 Dementia Research Group sites. PCA generated a one-factor solution in most sites. In CFA, the two-factor solution generated in Dominican Republic fitted better for all sites other than rural China. The two factors were not easily interpretable, and may have been an artefact of differing item difficulties. Strong internal consistency and high factor loadings for the one-factor solution supported unidimensionality. Furthermore, the WHODAS II was found to be a ‘strong’ Mokken scale. Measurement invariance was supported by the similarity of factor loadings across sites, and by the high between-site correlations in item difficulties. The Mokken results strongly support that the WHODAS II 12-item screener is a unidimensional and hierarchical scale confirming to item response theory (IRT) principles, at least at the monotone homogeneity model level. More work is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to different populations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20104493

  6. The management of adult psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela; Ragoni, Celina; de Azevedo Perocco, Sérgio Luiz; Fortes, Sandra; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kinyanda, Eugene; Rangaswamy, Thara; Patel, Vikram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this Review is to identify effective interventions and treatment guidelines to manage common types of psychiatric emergencies in non-specialist settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Mental health specialist services in low-income and middle-income countries are scarce. We did a systematic review of interventions for psychiatric emergencies and a literature search for low-income and middle-income-specific treatment guidelines for psychiatric emergencies. A dearth of high-quality guidelines and contextualised primary evidence for management of psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries exists. Filling these gaps in present guidelines needs to be an urgent research priority in view of the adverse health and social consequences of such presentations and the present drive to scale up mental health care.

  7. Migration to middle-income countries and tuberculosis-global policies for global economies.

    PubMed

    Pescarini, Julia Moreira; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2017-03-15

    International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies. TB rates in middle-income countries remain disproportionally high among the poorest and most vulnerable groups in large cities where most migrant populations are concentrated. Policies that tackle migrant TB in high-income countries may be inadequate for middle-income countries because of their different socio-economic and cultural scenarios. Strategies to control TB in these settings must take into account the characteristics of middle-income countries and the complexity of TB as a disease of poverty. Intersectoral policies of social protection such as cash-transfer programs help reducing poverty and improving health in vulnerable populations. We address the development of new approaches to improve well-established strategies including contact tracing and active and latent TB screening as an 'add on' to the existing health care guidelines of conditional cash transfer programs. In addition, we discuss how it might improve health and welfare among both poor migrants and locally-born populations. Authorities from middle-income countries should recognise that migrants are a vulnerable social group and promote cooperation efforts between sending and receiving countries for mitigation of poverty and prevention of disease in this group. Middle-income countries have long sent migrants overseas. However, the influx of large migrant populations into their societies is relatively new and a growing phenomenon and

  8. Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; De Silva, Mary; Plagerson, Sophie; Cooper, Sara; Chisholm, Dan; Das, Jishnu; Knapp, Martin; Patel, Vikram

    2011-10-22

    Growing international evidence shows that mental ill health and poverty interact in a negative cycle in low-income and middle-income countries. However, little is known about the interventions that are needed to break this cycle. We undertook two systematic reviews to assess the effect of financial poverty alleviation interventions on mental, neurological, and substance misuse disorders and the effect of mental health interventions on individual and family or carer economic status in countries with low and middle incomes. We found that the mental health effect of poverty alleviation interventions was inconclusive, although some conditional cash transfer and asset promotion programmes had mental health benefits. By contrast, mental health interventions were associated with improved economic outcomes in all studies, although the difference was not statistically significant in every study. We recommend several areas for future research, including undertaking of high-quality intervention studies in low-income and middle-income countries, assessment of the macroeconomic consequences of scaling up of mental health care, and assessment of the effect of redistribution and market failures in mental health. This study supports the call to scale up mental health care, not only as a public health and human rights priority, but also as a development priority.

  9. A Multidimensional Model for Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikton, Christopher; Mehra, Radhika; Butchart, Alexander; Addiss, David; Almuneef, Maha; Cardia, Nancy; Cheah, Irene; Chen, JingQi; Makoae, Mokhantso; Raleva, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The study's aim was to develop a multidimensional model for the assessment of child maltreatment prevention readiness in low- and middle-income countries. The model was developed based on a conceptual review of relevant existing models and approaches, an international expert consultation, and focus groups in six countries. The final model…

  10. A Multidimensional Model for Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikton, Christopher; Mehra, Radhika; Butchart, Alexander; Addiss, David; Almuneef, Maha; Cardia, Nancy; Cheah, Irene; Chen, JingQi; Makoae, Mokhantso; Raleva, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The study's aim was to develop a multidimensional model for the assessment of child maltreatment prevention readiness in low- and middle-income countries. The model was developed based on a conceptual review of relevant existing models and approaches, an international expert consultation, and focus groups in six countries. The final model…

  11. Need for radiotherapy in low and middle income countries – the silent crisis continues.

    PubMed

    Zubizarreta, E H; Fidarova, E; Healy, B; Rosenblatt, E

    2015-02-01

    About 57% of the total number of cancer cases occur in low and middle income countries. Radiotherapy is one of the main components of cancer treatment and requires substantial initial investment in infrastructure and training. Many departments continue to have basic facilities and to use simple techniques, while modern technologies have only been installed in big cities in upper-middle income countries. More than 50% of cancer patients requiring radiotherapy in low and middle income countries lack access to treatment. The situation is dramatic in low income countries, where the proportion is higher than 90%. The overall number of additional teletherapy units needed corresponds to about twice the installed capacity in Europe. The figures for different income level groups clearly show the correlation between gross national income per capita and the availability of services. The range of radiotherapy needs currently covered varies from 0% and 3-4% in low income countries in Latin America and Africa up to 59-79% in upper-middle income countries in Europe and Central Asia. The number of additional radiation oncologists, medical physicist, dosimetrists and radiation therapists (RTTs) required to operate additional radiotherapy departments needed is 43 200 professionals. Training and education programmes are not available in every developing country and in many cases the only option is sending trainees abroad, which is not a cost-effective solution. The implementation of adequate local training should be the following step after establishing the first radiotherapy facility in any country. Joint efforts should be made to establish at least one radiotherapy facility in countries where they do not exist, in order to create radiotherapy communities that could be the base for future expansion. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G; Walker, Susan P; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; de Onis, Mercedes; Ezzati, Majid; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Katz, Joanne; Martorell, Reynaldo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-08-03

    Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The technical report on sodium intake and cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries by the joint working group of the World Heart Federation, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Public Health Association.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Oparil, Suzanne; Whelton, Paul K; McKee, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Luft, Friedrich C; AlHabib, Khalid; Lanas, Fernando; Damasceno, Albertino; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; La Torre, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Smith, Sidney C; Narula, Jagat

    2017-01-21

    Ingestion of sodium is essential to health, but excess sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Defining an optimal range of sodium intake in populations has been challenging and controversial. Clinical trials evaluating the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure have shown blood pressure lowering effects down to sodium intake of less than 1.5 g/day. Findings from these blood pressure trials form the basis for current guideline recommendations to reduce sodium intake to less than 2.3 g/day. However, these clinical trials employed interventions that are not feasible for population-wide implementation (i.e. feeding studies or intensive behavioural interventions), particularly in low and middle-income countries. Prospective cohort studies have identified the optimal range of sodium intake to reside in the moderate range (3-5 g/day), where the risk of cardiovascular disease and death is lowest. Therefore, there is consistent evidence from clinical trials and observational studies to support reducing sodium intake to less than 5 g/day in populations, but inconsistent evidence for further reductions below a moderate intake range (3-5 g/day). Unfortunately, there are no large randomized controlled trials comparing low sodium intake (< 3 g/day) to moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) in general populations to determine the net clinical effects of low sodium intake. Until such trials are completed, it is likely that controversy about optimal sodium intake range will continue. This working group calls for the completion of large definitive clinical trials to clarify the range of sodium intake for optimal cardiovascular health within the moderate to low intake range. We support interventions to reduce sodium intake in populations who consume high sodium intake (> 5 g/day), which should be embedded within an overall healthy dietary pattern.

  14. Iron interventions in children from low-income and middle-income populations: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Barth-Jaeggi, Tanja

    2015-05-01

    Children from low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable to develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which can be prevented or controlled with different iron intervention strategies. However, there is a debate on the efficacy and safety of iron interventions, especially in children from areas with a high infectious disease burden. This review provides an overview of recent trials that investigated the benefits and potential risks of iron interventions in children from low and middle-income countries. Recent studies showed that intermittent iron supplementation is a promising strategy in reducing iron deficiency and IDA. Only a few studies investigated the effect of iron interventions on developmental outcomes, such as growth and cognition, and provided mixed results. An increasing number of studies reported that iron intervention increases morbidity and causes unfavourable shifts in the gut microbial composition along with increases in intestinal inflammation, particularly in children with a high infectious disease burden. More studies in children from low and middle-income populations are needed that provide evidence for the beneficial effects of iron interventions on functional outcomes beyond alleviating iron deficiency and IDA, and that explore potential mechanisms underlying the negative effects of iron reported in recent trials.

  15. Management of NCD in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Checkley, William; Ghannem, Hassen; Irazola, Vilma; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Levitt, Naomi S; Miranda, J Jaime; Niessen, Louis; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sigamani, Alben; Smith, Richard; Tandon, Nikhil; Wu, Yangfeng; Xavier, Denis; Yan, Lijing L

    2014-12-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD), comprising cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are increasing in incidence rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Some patients have access to the same treatments available in high-income countries, but most do not, and different strategies are needed. Most research on noncommunicable diseases has been conducted in high-income countries, but the need for research in LMICs has been recognized. LMICs can learn from high-income countries, but they need to devise their own systems that emphasize primary care, the use of community health workers, and sometimes the use of mobile technology. The World Health Organization has identified "best buys" it advocates as interventions in LMICs. Non-laboratory-based risk scores can be used to identify those at high risk. Targeting interventions to those at high risk for developing diabetes has been shown to work in LMICs. Indoor cooking with biomass fuels is an important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in LMICs, and improved cookstoves with chimneys may be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  16. Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Results from the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Parker, Lucy Anne; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the magnitude and pattern of socioeconomic inequality in current smoking in low and middle income countries. Methods We used data from the World Health Survey [WHS] in 48 low-income and middle-income countries to estimate the crude prevalence of current smoking according to household wealth quintile. A Poisson regression model with a robust variance was used to generate the Relative Index of Inequality [RII] according to wealth within each of the countries studied. Results In males, smoking was disproportionately prevalent in the poor in the majority of countries. In numerous countries the poorest men were over 2.5 times more likely to smoke than the richest men. Socioeconomic inequality in women was more varied showing patterns of both pro-rich and pro-poor inequality. In 20 countries pro-rich relative socioeconomic inequality was statistically significant: the poorest women had a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the richest women. Conversely, in 9 countries women in the richest population groups had a statistically significant greater risk of smoking compared to the poorest groups. Conclusion Both the pattern and magnitude of relative inequality may vary greatly between countries. Prevention measures should address the specific pattern of smoking inequality observed within a population. PMID:22952617

  17. Socioeconomic inequality in smoking in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Parker, Lucy Anne; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    To assess the magnitude and pattern of socioeconomic inequality in current smoking in low and middle income countries. We used data from the World Health Survey [WHS] in 48 low-income and middle-income countries to estimate the crude prevalence of current smoking according to household wealth quintile. A Poisson regression model with a robust variance was used to generate the Relative Index of Inequality [RII] according to wealth within each of the countries studied. In males, smoking was disproportionately prevalent in the poor in the majority of countries. In numerous countries the poorest men were over 2.5 times more likely to smoke than the richest men. Socioeconomic inequality in women was more varied showing patterns of both pro-rich and pro-poor inequality. In 20 countries pro-rich relative socioeconomic inequality was statistically significant: the poorest women had a higher prevalence of smoking compared to the richest women. Conversely, in 9 countries women in the richest population groups had a statistically significant greater risk of smoking compared to the poorest groups. Both the pattern and magnitude of relative inequality may vary greatly between countries. Prevention measures should address the specific pattern of smoking inequality observed within a population.

  18. Chronic kidney disease in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Muiru, Anthony; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Patel, Uptal D.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a result of rapid urbanization in LMICs, a growing number of populations are exposed to numerous environmental toxins, high infectious disease burdens and increasing rates of noncommunicable diseases. For CKD, this portends a high prevalence related to numerous etiologies, and it presents unique challenges. A better understanding of the epidemiology of CKD in LMICs is urgently needed, but this must be coupled with strong public advocacy and broad, collaborative public health efforts that address environmental, communicable, and non-communicable risk factors. PMID:27217391

  19. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  20. Comparison of Economic Evaluation Methods Across Low-income, Middle-income and High-income Countries: What are the Differences and Why?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Ulla Kou; Legood, Rosa; Pitt, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    There are marked differences in methods used for undertaking economic evaluations across low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. We outline the most apparent dissimilarities and reflect on their underlying reasons. We randomly sampled 50 studies from each of three country income groups from a comprehensive database of 2844 economic evaluations published between January 2012 and May 2014. Data were extracted on ten methodological areas: (i) availability of guidelines; (ii) research questions; (iii) perspective; (iv) cost data collection methods; (v) cost data analysis; (vi) outcome measures; (vii) modelling techniques; (viii) cost-effectiveness thresholds; (ix) uncertainty analysis; and (x) applicability. Comparisons were made across income groups and odds ratios calculated. Contextual heterogeneity rightly drives some of the differences identified. Other differences appear less warranted and may be attributed to variation in government health sector capacity, in health economics research capacity and in expectations of funders, journals and peer reviewers. By highlighting these differences, we seek to start a debate about the underlying reasons why they have occurred and to what extent the differences are conducive for methodological advancements. We suggest a number of specific areas in which researchers working in countries of differing environments could learn from one another.

  1. Bullying among middle-school students in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lila C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2010-03-01

    This analysis of data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey examined the prevalence of bully victimization in middle-school students in 19 low- and middle-income countries and also explored the relationship between bullying, mental health and health behaviors. In most countries, boys were more likely than girls to report being bullied and the prevalence of bullying was lower with increasing age. Students who reported being bullied in the past month were more likely than non-bullied students to report feelings of sadness and hopelessness, loneliness, insomnia and suicidal ideation. Bullied students also reported higher rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use and sexual intercourse.

  2. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environmental enteropathy, poor complementary feeding practices, and chronic and acute infections, contribute to the development of SAM. Careful anthropometry is key to making an accurate diagnosis of SAM and can be performed by village health workers or even laypeople in rural areas. The majority of children can be treated at home with ready-to-use therapeutic food under the community-based management of acute malnutrition model with recovery rates of approximately 90% under optimal conditions. A small percentage of children, often those with HIV, tuberculosis or other comorbidities, will still require inpatient therapy using fortified milk-based foods.

  3. Treatment and prevention of mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Araya, Ricardo; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Chisholm, Dan; Cohen, Alex; De Silva, Mary; Hosman, Clemens; McGuire, Hugh; Rojas, Graciela; van Ommeren, Mark

    2007-09-15

    We review the evidence on effectiveness of interventions for the treatment and prevention of selected mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression can be treated effectively in such countries with low-cost antidepressants or with psychological interventions (such as cognitive-behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapies). Stepped-care and collaborative models provide a framework for integration of drug and psychological treatments and help to improve rates of adherence to treatment. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are effective and cost effective for the treatment of schizophrenia; their benefits can be enhanced by psychosocial treatments, such as community-based models of care. Brief interventions delivered by primary-care professionals are effective for management of hazardous alcohol use, and pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have some benefits for people with alcohol dependence. Policies designed to reduce consumption, such as increased taxes and other control strategies, can reduce the population burden of alcohol abuse. Evidence about the efficacy of interventions for developmental disabilities is inadequate, but community-based rehabilitation models provide a low-cost, integrative framework for care of children and adults with chronic mental disabilities. Evidence for mental health interventions for people who are exposed to conflict and other disasters is still weak-especially for interventions in the midst of emergencies. Some trials of interventions for prevention of depression and developmental delays in low-income and middle-income countries show beneficial effects. Interventions for depression, delivered in primary care, are as cost effective as antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS. The process and effectiveness of scaling up mental health interventions has not been adequately assessed. Such research is needed to inform the continuing process of service reform and innovation. However, we recommend that

  4. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  5. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  6. Utilization of evidence-based therapy for acute coronary syndrome in high-income and low/middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Shimony, Avi; Grandi, Sonia M; Pilote, Louise; Joseph, Lawrence; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Rinfret, Stéphane; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Adamjee, Nasreen; Yadav, Rakesh; Gamra, Habib; Diodati, Jean G; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-03-01

    Limited data exist regarding the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in high-income countries compared with low/middle-income countries. We aimed to compare in-hospital trends of revascularization and prescription of medications at discharge in patients with ACS from high-income (Canada and United States) and low/middle-income (India, Iran, Pakistan, and Tunisia) countries. Data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial investigating the effect of bupropion on smoking cessation in patients after an enzyme-positive ACS was used for our study. A total of 392 patients, 265 and 127 from high-income and from low/middle-income countries, respectively, were enrolled. Patients from high-income countries were older, and were more likely to have diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia. During the index hospitalization, patients from high-income countries were more likely to be treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (odds ratio [OR] 19.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.5 to 37.0). Patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction from high-income countries were more often treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (OR 16.3, 95% CI 6.3 to 42.3) in contrast with thrombolytic therapy (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.41). Patients from high-income countries were also more likely to receive evidence-based medications at discharge (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.52, a composite of aspirin, clopidogrel, and statin). In conclusion, patients with ACS in low/middle-income countries were less likely to be revascularized and to receive evidence-based medications at discharge. Further studies are needed to understand the underutilization of procedures and evidence-based medications in low/middle-income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden cardiac death in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin; Fischer, Avi

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease, and the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD), will increase significantly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thus, SCD threatens to become a global public health problem. We present a summary of the current research that has investigated the epidemiology of SCD in LMIC. Few studies of SCD in LMIC exist, and they are of variable methodological quality. Risk factors for SCD are described, taking into account recent global burden of disease and risk factor statistics. We describe 1 proposal for a community-based, prospective, multiple-source methodology for SCD monitoring and surveillance that can be implemented in LMIC. Further research into the epidemiology of SCD in LMIC, using standardized methodology, would allow investigators and policy makers to determine the regions, communities, and individuals most at need for SCD prevention. Focusing on SCD and its prevention in LMIC should be a priority for the global health community.

  8. Financing pediatric surgery in low-, and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Grace; Abdullah, Fizan

    2016-02-01

    Congenital anomalies once considered fatal, are now surgically correctable conditions that now allow children to live a normal life. Pediatric surgery, traditionally thought of as a privilege of the rich, as being too expensive and impractical, and which has previously been overlooked and excluded in resource-poor settings, is now being reexamined as a cost-effective strategy to reduce the global burden of disease-particularly in low, and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, to date, global pediatric surgical financing suffers from an alarming paucity of data. To leverage valuable resources and prioritize pediatric surgical services, timely, accurate and detailed global health spending and financing for pediatric surgical care is needed to inform policy making, strategic health-sector budgeting and resource allocation. This discussions aims to characterize and highlight the evidence gaps that currently exist in global financing and funding flow for pediatric surgical care in LMICs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Antibiotics in low- and middle-income countries].

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Heiman F L; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize and discuss the problem of the antibiotic resistance issue and potential intervention strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMILs). In Europe and North America surveillance data are available and research networks are active, however, these are still largely lacking in LMILs. In recent years some initiatives have been set up for LMIL, such as 'Action on Antibiotic Resistance' (ReACT) and the 'Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership' (GARP). While better data on antibiotic resistance and its causes in LMILs are needed, there is a more urgent need for affordable interventions to turn the tide. Unlike programs aimed at combatting bacterial antibiotic resistance, there are already strong global programs to tackle resistance in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We should learn from these programs to improve efforts to control and treat resistant bacterial infections.

  10. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shillcutt, Samuel D.; Walker, Damian G.; Goodman, Catherine A.; Mills, Anne J.

    2010-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is increasingly important in public health decision making, including in low- and middle-income countries. The decision makers' valuation of a unit of health gain, or ceiling ratio (λ), is important in CEA as the relative value against which acceptability is defined, although values are usually chosen arbitrarily in practice. Reference case estimates for λ are useful to promote consistency, facilitate new developments in decision analysis, compare estimates against benefit-cost ratios from other economic sectors, and explicitly inform decisions about equity in global health budgets. The aim of this article is to discuss values for λ used in practice, including derivation based on affordability expectations (such as $US150 per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY]), some multiple of gross national income or gross domestic product, and preference-elicitation methods, and explore the implications associated with each approach. The background to the debate is introduced, the theoretical bases of current values are reviewed, and examples are given of their application in practice. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for defining λ are outlined, followed by an exploration of methodological and policy implications. PMID:19888791

  12. Political economy of tobacco control in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Thailand and Zimbabwe. Global Analysis Project Team.

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; Collin, J.; Dodgson, R.; Lee, K.; McCargo, D.; Seddon, D.; Vaughan, P.; Woelk, G.

    2000-01-01

    Crucial to the success of the proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control will be an understanding of the political and economic context for tobacco control policies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Policy studies in Thailand and Zimbabwe employed the analytical perspective of political economy and a research strategy that used political mapping, a technique for characterizing and evaluating the political environment surrounding a policy issue, and stakeholder analysis, which seeks to identify key actors and to determine their capacity to shape policy outcomes. These policy studies clearly revealed how tobacco control in low-income and middle-income countries is also being shaped by developments in the global and regional political economy. Hence efforts to strengthen national control policies need to be set within the context of globalization and the international context. Besides the transnational tobacco companies, international tobacco groups and foreign governments, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations are also playing influential roles. It cannot be assumed, therefore, that the tobacco control strategies being implemented in industrialized countries will be just as effective and appropriate when implemented in developing countries. There is an urgent need to expand the number of such tobacco policy studies, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Comprehensive guidelines for tobacco policy analysis and research are required to support this process, as is a broader international strategy to coordinate further tobacco policy research studies at country, regional and global levels. PMID:10994265

  13. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  14. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  15. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

  16. Chronic disease self-management education courses: utilization by low-income, middle-aged participants.

    PubMed

    Horrell, Lindsey N; Kneipp, Shawn M; Ahn, SangNam; Towne, Samuel D; Mingo, Chivon A; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-06-27

    Individuals living in lower-income areas face an increased prevalence of chronic disease and, oftentimes, greater barriers to optimal self-management. Disparities in disease management are seen across the lifespan, but are particularly notable among middle-aged adults. Although evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Education courses are available to enhance self-management among members of this at-risk population, little information is available to determine the extent to which these courses are reaching those at greatest risk. The purpose of this study is to compare the extent to which middle-aged adults from lower- and higher-income areas have engaged in CDSME courses, and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of lower-income, middle aged participants. The results of this study were produced through analysis of secondary data collected during the Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. During this initiative, data was collected from 100,000 CDSME participants across 45 states within the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Of the entire sample included in this analysis (19,365 participants), 55 people lived in the most impoverished counties. While these 55 participants represented just 0.3% of the total study sample, researchers found this group completed courses more frequently than participants from less impoverished counties once enrolled. These results signal a need to enhance participation of middle-aged adults from lower-income areas in CDSME courses. The results also provide evidence that can be used to inform future program delivery choices, including decisions regarding recruitment materials, program leaders, and program delivery sites, to better engage this population.

  17. Estimating costs of care for meningitis infections in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Allison; Jit, Mark; Lauer, Jeremy; Blommaert, Adriaan; Ozawa, Sachiko; Stack, Meghan; Murray, Jillian; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2015-05-07

    Meningitis infections are often associated with high mortality and risk of sequelae. The costs of treatment and care for meningitis are a great burden on health care systems, particularly in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study is to review data on the costs of care for meningitis in low- and middle-income countries, as well as to show how results could be extrapolated to countries without sound data. We conducted a systematic review of the literature from six databases to identify studies examining the cost of care in low- and middle-income countries for all age groups with suspected, probable, or confirmed meningitis. We extracted data on treatment costs and sequelae by infectious agent and/or pathogen, where possible. Using multiple regression analysis, a relationship between hospital costs and associated determinants was investigated in order to predict costs in countries with missing data. This relationship was used to predict treatment costs for all 144 low- and middle-income countries. The methodology of conducting a systematic review, extrapolating, and setting up a standard database can be used as a tool to inform cost-effectiveness analyses in situations where cost of care data are poor. Both acute and long-term costs of meningitis could be extrapolated to countries without reliable data. Although only bacterial causes of meningitis can be vaccine-preventable, a better understanding of the treatment costs for meningitis is crucial for low- and middle-income countries to assess the cost-effectiveness of proposed interventions in their country. This cost information will be important as inputs in future cost-effectiveness studies, particularly for vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact and cost-effectiveness of new tuberculosis vaccines in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Griffiths, Ulla K; Sumner, Tom; Laurence, Yoko V; Gheorghe, Adrian; Vassall, Anna; Glaziou, Philippe; White, Richard G

    2014-10-28

    To help reach the target of tuberculosis (TB) disease elimination by 2050, vaccine development needs to occur now. We estimated the impact and cost-effectiveness of potential TB vaccines in low- and middle-income countries using an age-structured transmission model. New vaccines were assumed to be available in 2024, to prevent active TB in all individuals, to have a 5-y to lifetime duration of protection, to have 40-80% efficacy, and to be targeted at "infants" or "adolescents/adults." Vaccine prices were tiered by income group (US $1.50-$10 per dose), and cost-effectiveness was assessed using incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted compared against gross national income per capita. Our results suggest that over 2024-2050, a vaccine targeted to adolescents/adults could have a greater impact than one targeted at infants. In low-income countries, a vaccine with a 10-y duration and 60% efficacy targeted at adolescents/adults could prevent 17 (95% range: 11-24) million TB cases by 2050 and could be considered cost-effective at $149 (cost saving to $387) per DALY averted. If targeted at infants, 0.89 (0.42-1.58) million TB cases could be prevented at $1,692 ($634-$4,603) per DALY averted. This profile targeted at adolescents/adults could be cost-effective at $4, $9, and $20 per dose in low-, lower-middle-, and upper-middle-income countries, respectively. Increased investments in adult-targeted TB vaccines may be warranted, even if only short duration and low efficacy vaccines are likely to be feasible, and trials among adults should be powered to detect low efficacies.

  19. Sectoral output, energy use, and CO2 emission in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sohag, Kazi; Al Mamun, Md; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Ahmed, Ali M

    2017-03-01

    Middle-income countries are currently undergoing massive structural changes towards more industrialized economies. In this paper, we carefully examine the impact of these transformations on the environmental quality of middle-income countries. Specifically, we examine the role of sector value addition to GDP on CO2 emission nexus for middle-income economies controlling for the effects of population growth, energy use, and trade openness. Using recently developed panel methods that consider cross-sectional dependence and allow for heterogeneous slope coefficients, we show that energy use and growth of industrial and service sectors positively explain CO2 emissions in middle-income economies. We also find that population growth is insignificantly associated with CO2 emission. Hence, our paper provides a solid ground for developing a sustainable and pro-growth policy for middle-income countries.

  20. Developing a web site for human immunodeficiency virus prevention in a middle income country: a pilot study from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M

    2012-10-01

    The Internet has often been used to reach men who have sex with men (MSMs) in developed countries. However, its use has not been as widespread in middle income countries because of a perceived lack of access to the web by residents of these countries. However, over half of the Internet users in the world now live in middle income countries. This article describes the development of web-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention program that can serve as a model for middle income countries. Thai nursing faculty worked with MSMs to create and evaluate a Web site that provided HIV prevention messages directed toward MSMs. The steps for creating the site are described. Forty-one MSMs used the site and provided feedback to the site developers. The group was young (median=19 years), low income (median income was ∼170 US$ per month). The users demonstrated that they had access to the Internet and that they could utilize the site. They also reported moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction with site design, content, ease of use, information obtained, and benefits obtained from using the site. A previous article in the Thai language also showed that they reduced risk behaviors. They also made many useful suggestions for improving the content of the site. In conclusion, the study showed that the combination of nurses and MSMs from a middle income country could develop a usable HIV prevention Web site that instructed and changed behavior.

  1. Divergent Fortunes: Top Incomes and the Middle Class in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mark; Sommeiller, Estelle; Wazeter, Ellis; Basurto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The pace of income growth since the 1970s has been slower for Pennsylvanians than in the 30 years following 1945. In addition to being slower, income growth since the 1970s has also been lopsided, with a small fraction of the highest-income households capturing most income growth in Pennsylvania. This report examines the extent to which these…

  2. Factors associated with pregnancy among adolescents in low-income and lower middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Rina; Wynter, Karen; Fisher, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality is much more prevalent among adolescents than adults. Adolescent pregnancy is therefore a significant public health problem. Most births to adolescents (95%) occur in resource-constrained countries. The aim was to review the available evidence about the factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in low-income and lower middle-income countries. The review used the PRISMA procedure of identification, screening and eligibility of publications. PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, SCOPUS and CINAHL plus were searched systematically for peer-reviewed English language papers published before December 2013. In total, 2005 articles were identified and 12 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Despite varied methods, there was substantial consistency in the findings. Limited education, low socioeconomic position, insufficient access to and non-use of contraception were consistently found to be risks for pregnancy among adolescents. There was some evidence that early marriage, living in a rural area, early sexual initiation, belonging to an ethnic and religious minority group also increased the risk of adolescent pregnancy. Higher education, access to income-generating work and family support were found to protect against adolescent pregnancy. In resource-constrained countries, as in well-resourced countries, low socioeconomic position appears to increase the risk of pregnancy among adolescents. Additional risks specific to these contexts include cultural traditions such as early marriage and inaccurate beliefs about contraception. It is unlikely that strategies to reduce pregnancy among women aged less than 20 years will be effective unless these are addressed directly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Exposing and addressing tobacco industry conduct in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Fooks, Gary; Drope, Jeffrey; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Jackson, Rachel Rose

    2015-03-14

    The tobacco industry's future depends on increasing tobacco use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which face a growing burden of tobacco-related disease, yet have potential to prevent full-scale escalation of this epidemic. To drive up sales the industry markets its products heavily, deliberately targeting non-smokers and keeps prices low until smoking and local economies are sufficiently established to drive prices and profits up. The industry systematically flaunts existing tobacco control legislation and works aggressively to prevent future policies using its resource advantage to present highly misleading economic arguments, rebrand political activities as corporate social responsibility, and establish and use third parties to make its arguments more palatable. Increasingly it is using domestic litigation and international arbitration to bully LMICs from implementing effective policies and hijacking the problem of tobacco smuggling for policy gain, attempting to put itself in control of an illegal trade in which there is overwhelming historical evidence of its complicity. Progress will not be realised until tobacco industry interference is actively addressed as outlined in Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Exemplar LMICs show this action can be achieved and indicate that exposing tobacco industry misconduct is an essential first step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Oncken, Cheryl A.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Belizán, José M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Lando, Harry A.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Bloch, Michele H.

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low-and middle-income countries. The health and economic burden of increasing tobacco use and dependence is predictable and will have devastating effects in countries with limited resources, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women. We sought to review effective tobacco prevention and intervention strategies for decreasing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure before and during pregnancy in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We reviewed several types of interventions, including population-level efforts (increasing tobacco prices, implementing tobacco control policies), community interventions, clinical interventions, and pharmacological treatments. A second purpose of this report is to present findings of an international expert working group that was convened to review the evidence and to establish research priorities in the following areas: 1) preventing the uptake and reducing tobacco use among girls and women of reproductive age and 2) reducing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women. The working group considered the evidence on existing interventions in terms of burden of disease, intervention impact, intervention costs, feasibility of integration into existing services, uniqueness of the contribution, and overall feasibility. Finally, we present the working group’s recommendations for intervention research priorities. PMID:20235895

  5. A critical review of interventions for clubfoot in low and middle-income countries: effectiveness and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rosalind M; Kembhavi, Gayatri

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate treatment provision for clubfoot in many low and middle-income countries results in a high prevalence of neglected clubfoot, a condition causing severe impairment. This study critically reviewed evidence on surgical, conservative and mixed (Ponseti) treatment interventions for clubfoot in low and middle-income countries. Intervention effectiveness was analysed by comparing outcomes within International Classification of Functioning groupings. Contextual factors were qualitatively analysed for effect on intervention outcomes. The Ponseti method appeared to be more effective than conservative techniques but was not directly comparable with surgical techniques. Contextual factors were reported to influence outcomes; service providers using the Ponseti technique had made most intentional steps to overcome contextual barriers.

  6. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  7. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia

    2015-08-27

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety.

  8. Correlates for healthful snacking among middle-income midwestern women.

    PubMed

    Schunk, Johanna M; McArthur, Laura H; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy A

    2009-01-01

    To assess snacking patterns, self-efficacy, barriers, stage of change, and awareness of healthful snacks among middle-income midwestern women. Self-administered questionnaire. An urban church. Convenience sample of 56 women, mean age 43.9 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 25.9 kg/m(2). A snack quality index (SQI) assessed healthfulness of snack choices; subscales identified self-efficacy and barriers; and a test measured knowledge of healthful snacks. SQI scores were based on energy density and frequency of consumption. Correlations identified associations between SQI scores and self-efficacy and barriers. Analysis of variance identified significant differences between subscale scores for self-efficacy and barriers. Statistical significance was P < .05. The mean SQI score was 64.9%. Participants felt least confident to choose healthful snacks when experiencing negative emotions, and the most important barrier to healthful snacking was an unfavorable taste perception. The majority of the women (86%) were in the pre-action and 14% in the action stages of change for healthful snacking. The mean score on the snack knowledge test was 84.2%. These women need information concerning snacks high in fiber and low in trans fat, and interventions for enhancing self-confidence for healthful snack selection under challenging circumstances and for overcoming barriers.

  9. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  10. A survey on critical care resources and practices in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Vukoja, Marija; Riviello, Elisabeth; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Adhikari, Neill K J; Kashyap, Rahul; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Gajic, Ognjen; Kilickaya, Oguz

    2014-09-01

    Timely and appropriate care is the key to achieving good outcomes in acutely ill patients, but the effectiveness of critical care may be limited in resource-limited settings. This study sought to understand how to implement best practices in intensive care units (ICU) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and to develop a point-of-care training and decision-support tool. An internationally representative group of clinicians performed a 22-item capacity-and-needs assessment survey in a convenience sample of 13 ICU in Eastern Europe (4), Asia (4), Latin America (3), and Africa (2), between April and July 2012. Two ICU were from low-income, 2 from low-middle-income, and 9 from upper-middle-income countries. Clinician respondents were asked about bed capacity, patient characteristics, human resources, available medications and equipment, access to education, and processes of care. Thirteen clinicians from each of 13 hospitals (1 per ICU) responded. Surveyed hospitals had median of 560 (interquartile range [IQR]: 232, 1,200) beds. ICU had a median of 9 (IQR: 7, 12) beds and treated 40 (IQR: 20, 67) patients per month. Many ICU had ≥ 1 staff member with some formal critical care training (n = 9, 69%) or who completed Fundamental Critical Care Support (n = 7, 54%) or Advanced Cardiac Life Support (n = 9, 69%) courses. Only 2 ICU (15%) used any kind of checklists for acute resuscitation. Ten (77%) ICU listed lack of trained staff as the most important barrier to improving the care and outcomes of critically ill patients. In a convenience sample of 13 ICU from LMIC, specialty-trained staff and standardized processes of care such as checklists are frequently lacking. ICU needs-assessment evaluations should be expanded in LMIC as a global priority, with the goal of creating and evaluating context-appropriate checklists for ICU best practices. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perspectives of physicians practicing in low and middle income countries towards generic medicines: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-09-01

    This review was conducted to document published literature related to physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of generic medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to compare the findings with high-income countries. A systematic search of articles published in peer-reviewed journals from January 2001 to February 2013 was performed. The search comprised nine electronic databases. The search strategy involved using Boolean operators for combinations of the following terms: generic medicines, generic medications, generic drugs, generic, generic substitution, generic prescribing, international non-proprietary, prescribers, doctors, general practitioners, physicians, and specialists. Sixteen articles were included in this review. The majority (n=11) were from high income countries and five from LMICs. The main difference between high income countries and LMICs is that physicians from high income countries generally have positive views whereas those from LMICs tend to have mixed views regarding generic medicines. Few similarities were identified among different country income groups namely low level of physicians' knowledge of the basis of bioequivalence testing, cost of generic medicines as an encouraging factor for generic medicine prescribing, physicians' concerns towards safety and quality of generic medicines and effect of pharmaceutical sales representative on generic medicine prescribing. The present literature review revealed that physicians from LMICs tend to have mixed views regarding generic medicines. This may be due to differences in the health care system and pharmaceutical funding system, medicine policies, the level of educational interventions, and drug information sources in countries of different income levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Mendis, Shanthi; Harper, Sam; Verdes, Emese; Kunst, Anton; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-06-22

    Noncommunicable diseases are an increasing health concern worldwide, but particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study quantified and compared education- and wealth-based inequalities in the prevalence of five noncommunicable diseases (angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and diabetes) and comorbidity in low- and middle-income country groups. Using 2002-04 World Health Survey data from 41 low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence estimates of angina, arthritis, asthma, depression, diabetes and comorbidity in adults aged 18 years or above are presented for wealth quintiles and five education levels, by sex and country income group. Symptom-based classification was used to determine angina, arthritis, asthma and depression rates, and diabetes diagnoses were self-reported. Socioeconomic inequalities according to wealth and education were measured absolutely, using the slope index of inequality, and relatively, using the relative index of inequality. Wealth and education inequalities were more pronounced in the low-income country group than the middle-income country group. Both wealth and education were inversely associated with angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and comorbidity prevalence, with strongest inequalities reported for angina, asthma and comorbidity. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with wealth and, to a lesser extent, education. Adjustments for confounding variables tended to decrease the magnitude of the inequality. Noncommunicable diseases are not necessarily diseases of the wealthy, and showed unequal distribution across socioeconomic groups in low- and middle-income country groups. Disaggregated research is warranted to assess the impact of individual noncommunicable diseases according to socioeconomic indicators.

  13. Post-licensure experience with rotavirus vaccination in high and middle income countries; 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Lopman, Ben A; Payne, Daniel C; Tate, Jacqueline E; Patel, Manish M; Cortese, Margaret M; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-08-01

    Rotavirus causes one-third to one-half of severe diarrheal disease in children under the age of five years worldwide. In 2006 two rotavirus vaccines became available and, in the intervening years, approximately thirty countries have introduced them into their immunization programs, primarily in high-income and middle-income settings. Major reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations have been observed in a number of these locations, and in select countries, there have been impacts on gastroenteritis mortality associated with rotavirus vaccine introduction. In addition to these direct health benefits, reduced gastroenteritis risk has been documented in unvaccinated groups, including older children and adults, suggesting indirect benefits (i.e. herd immunity). In this paper, we summarize what has been learned from programs studying post-licensure vaccine effectiveness, impact on health-care utilization and death, safety issues (namely, intussception and the detection of adventitious viruses) and the potential selective pressure of vaccination on the diversity of rotavirus genotypes.

  14. Meddling with middle modalities: a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between intersectional gender and economic middle groups in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; Sebastián, Miguel San; Mosquera, Paola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. Objective This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression. Design Participants (N=25,585) came from the cross-sectional ‘Health on Equal Terms’ survey covering 16- to 84-year-olds in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. Six intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and tertiles (low vs. medium vs. high) of disposable income. Mental health was measured through the General Health Questionnaire-12. Explanatory variables covered areas of material conditions, job relations, violence, domestic burden, and healthcare contacts. Analysis of variance (Aim 1) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2) were used. Results Significant mental health inequalities were found between dominant (high-income women and middle-income men) and subordinate (middle-income women and low-income men) middle groups. The health inequalities between adjacent middle groups were mostly explained by violence (mid-income women vs. men comparison); material conditions (mid- vs. low-income men comparison); and material needs, job relations, and unmet medical needs (high- vs. mid-income women comparison). Conclusions The study suggests complex processes whereby dominant middle groups in the intersectional space of economic affluence and gender can leverage strategic resources to gain

  15. Meddling with middle modalities: a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between intersectional gender and economic middle groups in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Per E; Sebastián, Miguel San; Mosquera, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression. Participants (N=25,585) came from the cross-sectional 'Health on Equal Terms' survey covering 16- to 84-year-olds in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. Six intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and tertiles (low vs. medium vs. high) of disposable income. Mental health was measured through the General Health Questionnaire-12. Explanatory variables covered areas of material conditions, job relations, violence, domestic burden, and healthcare contacts. Analysis of variance (Aim 1) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2) were used. Significant mental health inequalities were found between dominant (high-income women and middle-income men) and subordinate (middle-income women and low-income men) middle groups. The health inequalities between adjacent middle groups were mostly explained by violence (mid-income women vs. men comparison); material conditions (mid- vs. low-income men comparison); and material needs, job relations, and unmet medical needs (high- vs. mid-income women comparison). The study suggests complex processes whereby dominant middle groups in the intersectional space of economic affluence and gender can leverage strategic resources to gain mental health advantage relative to subordinate

  16. Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Araya, Ricardo; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression, a non-psychotic depressive episode of mild to major severity, is one of the major contributors of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Maternal depression (antepartum or post partum) has been linked to negative health-related behaviours and adverse outcomes, including psychological and developmental disturbances in infants, children, and adolescents. Despite its enormous burden, maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries remains under-recognised and undertreated. In this Series paper, we systematically review studies that focus on the epidemiology of perinatal depression (ie, during antepartum and post-partum periods) among women residing in low-income and middle-income countries. We also summarise evidence for the association of perinatal depression with infant and childhood outcomes. This review is intended to summarise fi ndings from the existing literature, identify important knowledge gaps, and set the research agenda for creating new generalisable knowledge pertinent to increasing our understanding of the prevalence, determinants, and infant and childhood health outcomes associated with perinatal depression. This review is also intended to set the stage for subsequent work aimed at reinforcing and accelerating investments toward providing services to manage maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:27650773

  17. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish 9th grade middle school students (M = 15.0 years-old). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youth in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youth in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked those in groups whose members participated in sports. PMID:20378125

  18. Opposites detract: middle school peer group antipathies.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-08-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youths in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked groups whose members participated in sports.

  19. Cervical cancer prevention in upper middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Salmerón, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    The manuscripts by Tota et al. and by Rossi et al., in this issue of Preventive Medicine provide ample evidence regarding the urgent need to switch to HPV based screening programs and how it will become even more imperative once HPV vaccinated girls reach the cervical cancer screening age. Worldwide primary prevention with vaccination is the final goal; but, in the coming 2 to 3 decades most of the prevention should be done through screening and treatment of precancerous lesions. Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in upper-middle income countries (UMICs). Coverage of vaccination against HPV by the end of 2014 was estimated to be <10% for girls and young women 10 to 20years with nearly no vaccination among older women. Therefore, multiple cohorts of women will remain dependent on secondary screening for cervical cancer prevention in the coming decades. Several UMICs currently have cytology-based screening programs with limited effectiveness. In addition to the limitations of cytology, summarized by Tota et al., screening programs in UMICs have other problems that further reduce their effectiveness including low programmatic coverage due to poor accessibility to health services and loss to follow-up of women screening positive. Cervical cancer prevention programs in UMICs should be urgently transformed to become more cost-efficient and most importantly more effective in reducing cervical cancer burden. Introduction of HPV vaccination where it is not available and where available, assuring high vaccination coverage among girls is a must. Screening programs should switch to HPV testing immediately while simultaneously solving other program deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Features of cardiovascular disease in low-income and middle-income countries in adults and children living with HIV.

    PubMed

    McCrary, Andrew W; Nduka, Chidozie U; Stranges, Saverio; Bloomfield, Gerald S

    2017-08-10

    The current article addresses crucial issues in identifying risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). These issues are in need of urgent attention to advance our knowledge and inform actions to mitigate CVD in this population. We address CVDs in adults living with HIV as well as the unique aspects pertaining to children living with HIV (CLHIV), a group sorely under-represented in this field. CVDs affecting adults such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and heart failure, in addition to myocardial dysfunction, vascular diseases, and autoimmune phenomena are also being reported in CLHIV. In addition to the background disparity in prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors, it is also likely that differential access to antiretroviral treatment, the younger age of the HIV-infected population, and types of antiretroviral treatment commonly used in LMICs contribute to the observed differences. Overall, the state of evidence for CVD in LMICs is limited and at times contradictory. We summarize the evidence with suggestions for high priorities for further scientific investigation. Now is the crucial time to intervene in modifying CVD risk in LMICs.

  1. The effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages across different income groups.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Siciliani, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) taxes on consumption, bodyweight and tax burden for low-income, middle-income and high-income groups using an Almost Ideal Demand System and 2011 Household level scanner data. A significant contribution of our paper is that we compare two types of SSB taxes recently advocated by policy makers: A 20% flat rate sales (valoric) tax and a 20 cent/L volumetric tax. Censored demand is accounted for using a two-step procedure. We find that the volumetric tax would result in a greater per capita weight loss than the valoric tax (0.41 kg vs. 0.29 kg). The difference between the change in weight is substantial for the target group of heavy purchasers of SSBs in low-income households, with a weight reduction of up to 3.20 kg for the volumetric and 2.06 kg for the valoric tax. The average yearly per capita tax burden on low-income households is $17.87 (0.21% of income) compared with $15.17 for high-income households (0.07% of income) for the valoric tax, and $13.80 (0.15%) and $10.10 (0.04%) for the volumetric tax. Thus, the tax burden is lower, and weight reduction is higher under a volumetric tax. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maternal mental health, and child growth and development, in four low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ian M; Schott, Whitney; Krutikova, Sofya; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-02-01

    Extend analyses of maternal mental health and infant growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to children through age eight years, and broaden analyses to cognitive and psychosocial outcomes. Community-based longitudinal cohort study in four LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam). Surveys and anthropometric assessments were carried out when the children were approximately ages 1, 5 and 8 years. Risk of maternal common mental disorders (rCMDs) was assessed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ)-20 (score ≥8). Rural and urban as well as low- and middle-income communities. 7722 mothers and their children. Child stunting and underweight (Z score ≤2 of height and weight for age), and <20th centile for: cognitive development (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), and the psychosocial outcomes self pride and life satisfaction. A high rate of rCMD, stunting and underweight was seen in the cohorts. After adjusting for confounders, significant associations were found between maternal rCMDs and growth variables in the first year of life, with persistence to age 8 years in India and Vietnam, but not in the other countries. India and Vietnam also showed significant associations between rCMDs and lower cognitive development. After adjustment, rCMD was associated with low life satisfaction in Ethiopia but not in the other cohorts. Associations of maternal rCMD in the first year of life with child outcomes varied across the study cohorts and, in some cases, persisted across the first 8 years of life of the child, and included growth, cognitive development and psychosocial domains. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Cardiovascular risk and events in 17 low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Salim; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Islam, Shofiqul; Li, Wei; Liu, Lisheng; Bo, Jian; Lou, Qinglin; Lu, Fanghong; Liu, Tianlu; Yu, Liu; Zhang, Shiying; Mony, Prem; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Mohan, Viswanathan; Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Lear, Scott; Anand, Sonia; Wielgosz, Andreas; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Ismail, Noorhassim; Iqbal, Romaina; Rahman, Omar; Rosengren, Annika; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kelishadi, Roya; Kruger, Annamarie; Puoane, Thandi; Szuba, Andrzej; Chifamba, Jephat; Oguz, Aytekin; McQueen, Matthew; McKee, Martin; Dagenais, Gilles

    2014-08-28

    More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown. We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the INTERHEART Risk Score, a validated score for quantifying risk-factor burden without the use of laboratory testing (with higher scores indicating greater risk-factor burden). Participants were followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death for a mean of 4.1 years. The mean INTERHEART Risk Score was highest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (P<0.001). However, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lower in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries (3.99 events per 1000 person-years vs. 5.38 and 6.43 events per 1000 person-years, respectively; P<0.001). Case fatality rates were also lowest in high-income countries (6.5%, 15.9%, and 17.3% in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, respectively; P=0.01). Urban communities had a higher risk-factor burden than rural communities but lower rates of cardiovascular events (4.83 vs. 6.25 events per 1000 person-years, P<0.001) and case fatality rates (13.52% vs. 17.25%, P<0.001). The use of preventive medications and revascularization procedures was significantly more common in high-income countries than in middle- or low-income countries (P<0.001). Although the risk-factor burden was lowest in low-income countries, the rates of major cardiovascular disease and death were substantially higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. The high burden of risk factors in high-income countries may have been mitigated by better control of risk factors and more frequent use of proven pharmacologic

  4. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5-15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT.

  5. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  6. Systematic review of barriers to surgical care in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Caris E; Bowman, Kendra G; Dodgion, Christopher M; Lavy, Christopher B D

    2011-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that lack of facilities, equipment, and expertise in district hospitals across many low- and middle-income countries constitutes a major barrier to accessing surgical care. However, what is less clear, is the extent to which people perceive barriers when trying to access surgical care. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using key words ("access" and "surgery," "barrier" and "surgery," "barrier" and "access"), MeSH headings ("health services availability," "developing countries," "rural population"), and the subject heading "health care access." Articles were included if they were qualitative and applied to illnesses where the treatment is primarily surgical. Key barriers included difficulty accessing surgical services due to distance, poor roads, and lack of suitable transport; lack of local resources and expertise; direct and indirect costs related to surgical care; and fear of undergoing surgery and anesthesia. The significance of cultural, financial, and structural barriers pertinent to surgery and their role in wider health care issues are discussed. Immediate action to improve financial and geographic accessibility along with investment in district hospitals is likely to make a significant impact on overcoming access and barrier issues. Further research is needed to identify issues that need to be addressed to close the gap between the care needed and that provided.

  7. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-07-01

    National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm-SGA. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology

  8. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  9. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129

  10. Non-stationary individual and household income of poor, rich and middle classes in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Córdoba-Rodríguez, O.; Mansilla-Corona, R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite Mexican peso crisis in 1994 followed by a severe economic recession, individual and household income distributions in the period 1992-2008 always exhibit a two-class structure; a highly fluctuating high-income class adjusted to a Pareto power-law distribution, and a low-income class (including poor and middle classes) adjusted to either Log-normal or Gamma distributions, where poor agents are defined as those with income below the maximum of the uni-modal distribution. Then the effects of crisis on the income distributions of the three classes are briefly analysed.

  11. Characteristics of food group intake by household income in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo; Horikawa, Chika; Murayama, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between of food group intake and household income in a representative Japanese population. A total of 11,015 subjects (5,127 men and 5,888 women) aged 20 to 79 years, in 5,475 households who were part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 were analyzed. Dietary intake was recorded for one day in November for those aged one year and older, from 300 randomly selected survey districts. Household income per year was recorded in the questionnaire in three categories: low (<2 million yen), middle (2-6 million yen) and high (>=6 million yen). Multilevel regression modelling was applied to take into account the hierarchical data structure of subjects nested within households, and households nested within survey districts. Dichotomous variables divided at the median intake of each food group were used. In a model where sex, age, household size and population size of municipalities to which survey districts belonged were adjusted, the total energy intake was found to be highest in individuals from middle income households, and lowest for those from low income households. In models where a total energy intake was additionally adjusted, household members with low and middle incomes had a significantly higher intake of cereals, and a lower intake of potatoes and starches, pulses, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fish and shellfish, milk and seasonings and spices compared with those with high incomes. In conclusion, household members with lower incomes in Japan consumed more staple foods, but less vegetable, fruit and fish.

  12. Tobacco control funding for low-income and middle-income countries in a time of economic hardship.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2014-11-01

    To assess how levels of tobacco control funding for low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) changed following the 2008-2009 global economic downturn. In order to estimate the amount of tobacco control funding in LMICs, we created an integrated database of Development Assistance to Control Tobacco (DACT). This database includes data on funding from bilateral and multilateral donors, non-governmental organisations, private foundations and the corporate sector. The database contains information on 1389 disbursements awarded by 30 entities between 2000 and 2012. DACT declined only marginally from US$68.8 million (US$0.016 per adult) in 2009 to US$68.2 million (US$0.016 per adult) in 2011, but deviated significantly from its 2000 to 2009 trend. The sources of funding remain highly concentrated, with nearly a half of the money coming from the Bloomberg Initiative and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2011. The relative importance of institutional and research grants has declined. Our findings are consistent with the patterns in general levels of development assistance for health: after a decade of rapid growth, funding for tobacco control activities in LMICs has levelled off. Just as the tobacco control community is beginning to envision the endgame for tobacco, the funding remains erratic, inadequate, and highly vulnerable due to its level of concentration. Innovative financing mechanisms might help to increase the funding pool. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  14. Micronutrients in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C

    2015-03-10

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world's pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  15. Research protocol: a realist synthesis of cross-border patient mobility from low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Jo; Blondell, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People are increasingly mobile for numerous reasons, including healthcare. Patient mobility has vast implications for individuals, communities and whole populations and yet, to date, research on patient mobility has been quite limited. Only a small body of evidence exists on patient mobility between low-income and middle-income countries, instead having focused primarily on cross-border movement between high-income and low-income countries. In this paper, we present a protocol for examining this under-studied phenomenon. Methods and analysis We propose to examine patient mobility between low-income and middle-income countries using a realist synthesis approach. Specifically, we aim to document why patients from low-income and middle-income countries cross international borders for healthcare, by identifying the mechanisms through which patients decide to cross-borders, and the contextual characteristics of domestic health markets that influence this choice. An underlying theory was established, based on the lead author's experience and a brief literature review, which will provide the basis to analyse search results in a subsequent paper. Search results will be obtained from databases (Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, EconLit, Web of Science) and the grey literature. An expert committee will be enlisted, prior to screening results, to review search results to ensure comprehensiveness. Based on this preliminary theory, we propose that, in some low-income and middle-income country markets, the interaction between demand-side and supply-side determinants results in market imperfections that, in turn, lead to patient movement across borders. Ethics and dissemination The study does not involve primary research and, therefore, does not require formal ethical approval; we do, however, follow the relevant standards of utility, usefulness, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and accountability. The standards of realist and meta-narrative evidence synthesis (RAMESES

  16. Cigarette stick as valuable communicative real estate: a content analysis of cigarettes from 14 low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    C Smith, Katherine; Washington, Carmen; Welding, Kevin; Kroart, Laura; Osho, Adami; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-09-01

    The current cigarette market is heavily focused on low-income and middle-income countries. Branding of tobacco products is key to establishing and maintaining a customer base. Greater restrictions on marketing and advertising of tobacco products create an incentive for companies to focus more on branding via the product itself. We consider how tobacco sticks are used for communicative purposes in 14 low-income and middle-income countries with extensive tobacco markets. In 2013, we collected and coded 3232 cigarette and kretek packs that were purchased from vendors in diverse neighbourhoods in 44 cities across the 14 low-income and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. A single stick from each pack was assessed for branding, decorative and communicative elements using a common coding framework. Stick communication variables included brand name, brand image/logo, brand descriptor, colour and design carried through from pack, 'capsule cigarette' symbol, and embellishment of filter end. Communication and branding on the stick is essentially ubiquitous (99.75%); 97% of sticks include explicit branding (brand name or logo present). Colour is commonly carried through from the pack (95%), and some sticks (13%) include decorative elements matching the pack. Decorative elements can be found anywhere on the stick, including the filter tip (8%), and 'convertible' cigarettes include a symbol to show where to push. Cigarette sticks are clearly valuable 'real estate' that tobacco companies are using for communicative purposes. Across all countries and brands, the stick communicates branding via text, colour and imagery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Educational Outcomes and Socioeconomic Status: A Decomposition Analysis for Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…

  18. School Inspections in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Explaining Impact and Mechanisms of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehren, Melanie C. M.; Eddy-Spicer, David; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Reid, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Many efforts to implement and improve school inspections have been modelled on examples from high-income countries, and many studies on the effectiveness of such systems have also only been carried out in these countries. However, local contexts in low- and middle-income countries are very different from those in developed countries, and findings…

  19. Educational Outcomes and Socioeconomic Status: A Decomposition Analysis for Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…

  20. Is There or Isn't There a Middle Income Crunch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Alstyne, Carol

    An analysis is made of the way data were treated in several studies which concluded that family incomes have increased as fast as college costs and that there is no special difficulty in paying for higher education for middle income families. Trends in tuition costs are confounded by presenting average tuition data aggregated for all types of…

  1. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries.

  2. Addressing the Growing Burden of Trauma and Injury in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Karen; Primack, Aron; Keusch, Gerald; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries suffer disproportionately from reduced life expectancy and quality of life. Injuries are overlooked as contributors to global inequities in health, yet the long-term disabilities they frequently produce represent a significant burden. The Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health convened a panel of experts in trauma and injury from the United States and low- and middle-income nations to identify research gaps in this area and opportunities to create new knowledge. Panel members identified sustainable programs of research established through stable linkages between institutions in high-income nations and those in low- and middle-income nations as a priority. The resulting benefits of addressing the growing burden of trauma and injury to communities in resource-constrained settings around the world would be substantial. PMID:15623852

  3. Development and implementation of Models of Care for musculoskeletal conditions in middle-income and low-income Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keith K; Chan, Madelynn; Navarra, Sandra; Haq, Syed Atiqul; Lau, Chak Sing

    2016-06-01

    This chapter discusses the challenges faced in the development and implementation of musculoskeletal (MSK) Models of Care (MoCs) in middle-income and low-income countries in Asia and outlines the components of an effective MoC for MSK conditions. Case studies of four such countries (The Philippines, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Myanmar) are presented, and their unique implementation issues are discussed. The success experienced in one high-income country (Singapore) is also described as a comparison. The Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) project and the role of Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR), a professional body supporting MoC initiatives in this region, are also discussed. The experience and lessons learned from these case studies can provide useful information to guide the implementation of future MSK MoC initiatives in other middle-income and low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximising access to achieve appropriate human antimicrobial use in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne; Gopinathan, Unni; Hamer, Davidson H; Wertheim, Heiman; Basnyat, Buddha; Butler, Christopher; Tomson, Göran; Balasegaram, Manica

    2016-01-09

    Access to quality-assured antimicrobials is regarded as part of the human right to health, yet universal access is often undermined in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of access to the instruments necessary to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe antimicrobials appropriately, in addition to weak health systems, heightens the challenge faced by prescribers. Evidence-based interventions in community and health-care settings can increase access to appropriately prescribed antimicrobials. The key global enablers of sustainable financing, governance, and leadership will be necessary to achieve access while preventing excess antimicrobial use.

  5. Sustainability of Seniors in Low- and Middle-Income Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesmin, Syeda S.; Amin, Iftekhar; Ingman, Stan

    2011-01-01

    As low income societies are aging rapidly, government and families face challenges to support the seniors, who are already at greater risks of being negatively affected by many other social, cultural, and global changes occurring around them. This paper reviews some of the major challenges faced by seniors in China, India, Mexico, and African…

  6. Socioeconomic factors in adherence to HIV therapy in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2013-06-01

    It is not clear what effect socioeconomic factors have on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a systematic review of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases to identify studies concerning SES and HIV/AIDS and collected data on the association between various determinants of SES (income, education, occupation) and adherence to ART in low- and middle-income countries. From 252 potentially-relevant articles initially identified, 62 original studies were reviewed in detail, which contained data evaluating the association between SES and adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Income, level of education, and employment/occupational status were significantly and positively associated with the level of adherence in 15 studies (41.7%), 10 studies (20.4%), and 3 studies (11.1%) respectively out of 36, 49, and 27 studies reviewed. One study for income, four studies for education, and two studies for employment found a negative and significant association with adherence to ART. However, the aforementioned SES determinants were not found to be significantly associated with adherence in relation to 20 income-related (55.6%), 35 education-related (71.4%), 23 employment/occupational status-related (81.5%), and 2 SES-related (100%) studies. The systematic review of the available evidence does not provide conclusive support for the existence of a clear association between SES and adherence to ART among adult patients infected with HIV/ AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. There seems to be a positive trend among components of SES (income, education, employment status) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in many of the reviewed studies.

  7. Socioeconomic Factors in Adherence to HIV Therapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear what effect socioeconomic factors have on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients in low- and middle-income countries.  We performed a systematic review of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases to identify studies concerning SES and HIV/AIDS and collected data on the association between various determinants of SES (income, education, occupation) and adherence to ART in low- and middle-income countries. From 252 potentially-relevant articles initially identified, 62 original studies were reviewed in detail, which contained data evaluating the association between SES and adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Income, level of education, and employment/occupational status were significantly and positively associated with the level of adherence in 15 studies (41.7%), 10 studies (20.4%), and 3 studies (11.1%) respectively out of 36, 49, and 27 studies reviewed. One study for income, four studies for education, and two studies for employment found a negative and significant association with adherence to ART. However, the aforementioned SES determinants were not found to be significantly associated with adherence in relation to 20 income-related (55.6%), 35 education-related (71.4%), 23 employment/occupational status-related (81.5%), and 2 SES-related (100%) studies. The systematic review of the available evidence does not provide conclusive support for the existence of a clear association between SES and adherence to ART among adult patients infected with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. There seems to be a positive trend among components of SES (income, education, employment status) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in many of the reviewed studies. PMID:23930333

  8. Measurement of social capital in relation to health in low and middle income countries (LMIC): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Glozier, Nicholas; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2015-03-01

    Social capital is a neglected determinant of health in low and middle income countries. To date, majority of evidence syntheses on social capital and health are based upon high income countries. We conducted this systematic review to identify the methods used to measure social capital in low and middle-income countries and to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. An electronic search was conducted using Pubmed, Science citation index expanded, Social science citation index expanded, Web of knowledge, Cochrane, Trip, Google scholar and selected grey literature sources. We aimed to include all studies conducted in low and middle-income countries, published in English that have measured any aspect of social capital in relation to health in the study, from 1980 to January 2013. We extracted data using a data extraction form and performed narrative synthesis as the measures were heterogeneous. Of the 472 articles retrieved, 46 articles were selected for the review. The review included 32 studies from middle income countries and seven studies from low income countries. Seven were cross national studies. Most studies were descriptive cross sectional in design (n = 39). Only two randomized controlled trials were included. Among the studies conducted using primary data (n = 32), we identified18 purposely built tools that measured various dimensions of social capital. Validity (n = 11) and reliability (n = 8) of the tools were assessed only in very few studies. Cognitive constructs of social capital, namely trust, social cohesion and sense of belonging had a positive association towards measured health outcome in majority of the studies. While most studies measured social capital at individual/micro level (n = 32), group level measurements were obtained by aggregation of individual measures. As many tools originate in high income contexts, cultural adaptation, validation and reliability assessment is mandatory in adapting the tool to the study setting. Evidence

  9. A snapshot of current gestational diabetes management practices from 26 low-income and lower-middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Utz, Bettina; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    To identify screening and management practices for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 12, 2014 and May 11, 2015. Questionnaires were distributed to gynecologists, endocrinologists, and medical doctors who were representatives of national professional societies or were involved in providing care to patients with GDM in low-income or lower-middle-income countries in Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. The data were descriptively analyzed. Questionnaires were sent to 182 individuals and 77 healthcare providers from 26 countries completed the survey. The results demonstrated high diversity in screening and management practices. Only 52 (68%) participants reported that any guidelines were available in their setting. Management of GDM was found to take place mainly at the tertiary level and reported practices, including the frequency of post-diagnosis follow-up, modalities of glucose surveillance, and treatment and practices surrounding delivery, varied and did not always reflect the most recent evidence. Attempts to ensure greater adherence to latest consensus guidelines are required, and should be accompanied by systemic changes to improve the detection and management of GDM at primary- and secondary-level healthcare facilities to facilitate patient access to GDM screening and treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Engle, Patrice L; Fernald, Lia C H; Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere; O'Gara, Chloe; Yousafzai, Aisha; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Hidrobo, Melissa; Ulkuer, Nurper; Ertem, Ilgi; Iltus, Selim

    2011-10-08

    This report is the second in a Series on early child development in low-income and middle-income countries and assesses the effectiveness of early child development interventions, such as parenting support and preschool enrolment. The evidence reviewed suggests that early child development can be improved through these interventions, with effects greater for programmes of higher quality and for the most vulnerable children. Other promising interventions for the promotion of early child development include children's educational media, interventions with children at high risk, and combining the promotion of early child development with conditional cash transfer programmes. Effective investments in early child development have the potential to reduce inequalities perpetuated by poverty, poor nutrition, and restricted learning opportunities. A simulation model of the potential long-term economic effects of increasing preschool enrolment to 25% or 50% in every low-income and middle-income country showed a benefit-to-cost ratio ranging from 6·4 to 17·6, depending on preschool enrolment rate and discount rate.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in risk factors for non communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Kunst, Anton; Harper, Sam; Guthold, Regina; Rekve, Dag; d'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-10-28

    Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4). The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men) 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women) 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65). Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in risk factors for non communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002–2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4). The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men) 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women) 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65). Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non

  13. A Brief Assessment of Learning for Orphaned and Abandoned Children in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Karen; Murphy, Robert; Ostermann, Jan; Masnick, Max; Whetten, Rachel A.; Madden, Elisabeth; Thielman, Nathan M.; Whetten, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of children’s learning and performance in low and middle income countries has been critiqued as lacking a gold standard, an appropriate norm reference group, and demonstrated applicability of assessment tasks to the context. This study was designed to examine the performance of three nonverbal and one adapted verbal measure of children’s problem solving, memory, motivation, and attention across five culturally diverse sites. The goal was to evaluate the tests as indicators of individual differences affected by life events and care circumstances for vulnerable children. We conclude that the measures can be successfully employed with fidelity in non-standard settings in LMICs, and are associated with child age and educational experience across the settings. The tests can be useful in evaluating variability in vulnerable child outcomes. PMID:21538088

  14. A brief assessment of learning for orphaned and abandoned children in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Karen; Murphy, Robert; Ostermann, Jan; Masnick, Max; Whetten, Rachel A; Madden, Elisabeth; Thielman, Nathan M; Whetten, Kathryn

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of children's learning and performance in low and middle income countries has been critiqued as lacking a gold standard, an appropriate norm reference group, and demonstrated applicability of assessment tasks to the context. This study was designed to examine the performance of three nonverbal and one adapted verbal measure of children's problem solving, memory, motivation, and attention across five culturally diverse sites. The goal was to evaluate the tests as indicators of individual differences affected by life events and care circumstances for vulnerable children. We conclude that the measures can be successfully employed with fidelity in non-standard settings in LMICs, and are associated with child age and educational experience across the settings. The tests can be useful in evaluating variability in vulnerable child outcomes.

  15. Authorship ethics in global health research partnerships between researchers from low or middle income countries and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Hunt, Matthew; Master, Zubin

    2014-05-28

    Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of "technical tasks" such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and conceptual research regarding

  16. Authorship ethics in global health research partnerships between researchers from low or middle income countries and high income countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. Discussion In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of “technical tasks” such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and

  17. Group Therapy with Low-Income Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulette, Teresa Ramirez

    1975-01-01

    Author describes difficulties facing counselors in dealing with low income Mexican Americans. Counselors should be bilingual and have comprehensive knowledge of Mexican-American culture to provide effective help to counselees. Counselors should encourage counselee to participate in group therapy sessions in which behavioral and problem solving…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fesenfeld, Michaela; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2013-08-20

    The World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income countries and many middle income countries lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited.

  19. Self-help: What future role in health care for low and middle-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, KR; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Razum, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the debate on 'Third options' for health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries it is proposed that self-help should play a larger role. Self-help is expected to contribute towards improving population health outcomes and reducing government health care expenditure. We review scope and limitations of self-help groups in Europe and South Asia and assess their potential role in health care within the context of health sector reform. Self-help groups are voluntary unions of peers, formed for mutual assistance in accomplishing a health-related purpose. In Europe, self-help groups developed out of dissatisfaction with a de-personalised health care system. They successfully complement existing social and health services but cannot be instrumentalized to improve health outcomes while reducing health expenditure. In South Asia, with its hierarchical society, instrumental approaches towards self-help prevail in Non-governmental Organizations and government. The utility of this approach is limited as self-help groups are unlikely to be sustainable and effective when steered from outside. Self-help groups are typical for individualistic societies with developed health care systems – they are less suitable for hierarchical societies with unmet demand for regulated health care. We conclude that self-help groups can help to achieve some degree of synergy between health care providers and users but cannot be prescribed to partially replace government health services in low-income countries, thereby reducing health care expenditure and ensuring equity in health care. PMID:15084250

  20. Neurobiology of food addiction and adolescent obesity prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Gibbs, Susannah E

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent obesity has become an increasingly urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries. Recent relevant advances include the application of the neurobiology of addiction to food addiction and obesity. The biochemistry of the etiology of obesity indicates the need for multilevel interventions that go beyond simple behavioral approaches. Additional research on the neurobiology of food addiction and adolescent obesity in low- and middle-income countries, as well as program evaluations that examine the biochemical effects of complex interventions, is urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A path to eradication of hepatitis C in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Graham, Camilla S; Swan, Tracy

    2015-07-01

    We are entering a new era in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and almost all patient groups in high-income countries have the potential to be cured with all-oral, highly potent combinations of direct-acting antiviral drugs. Soon the main barrier to curing hepatitis C, even in wealthy countries, will be the high price of these all-oral regimens. The gulf between the advances in HCV drug development and access to treatment for individual patients will be even greater in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where 80% of the global burden of HCV infection and mortality exists. Ensuring that people in LMIC have access to regimens against HCV will require a similar level of advocacy and public-private partnerships as has transformed the control of other global diseases such as HIV. Numerous challenges will need to be overcome. These include improving low-cost diagnostic tests, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the false-positive rate is unacceptably high, reducing iatrogenic spread of HCV, addressing transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), and ensuring affordable access to antiviral treatment for all people living with HCV infection in LMIC. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication." Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: Results from the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases are an increasing health concern worldwide, but particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study quantified and compared education- and wealth-based inequalities in the prevalence of five noncommunicable diseases (angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and diabetes) and comorbidity in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods Using 2002–04 World Health Survey data from 41 low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence estimates of angina, arthritis, asthma, depression, diabetes and comorbidity in adults aged 18 years or above are presented for wealth quintiles and five education levels, by sex and country income group. Symptom-based classification was used to determine angina, arthritis, asthma and depression rates, and diabetes diagnoses were self-reported. Socioeconomic inequalities according to wealth and education were measured absolutely, using the slope index of inequality, and relatively, using the relative index of inequality. Results Wealth and education inequalities were more pronounced in the low-income country group than the middle-income country group. Both wealth and education were inversely associated with angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and comorbidity prevalence, with strongest inequalities reported for angina, asthma and comorbidity. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with wealth and, to a lesser extent, education. Adjustments for confounding variables tended to decrease the magnitude of the inequality. Conclusions Noncommunicable diseases are not necessarily diseases of the wealthy, and showed unequal distribution across socioeconomic groups in low- and middle-income country groups. Disaggregated research is warranted to assess the impact of individual noncommunicable diseases according to socioeconomic indicators. PMID:22726343

  3. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-03-01

    To understand transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. TTCs' strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes-economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them.

  4. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand transnational tobacco companiesr’ (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Methods Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. Results TTCs’ strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes—economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. Conclusions TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them. PMID:22370696

  5. Global support for new vaccine implementation in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah; Makinen, Marty; Milstien, Julie

    2013-04-18

    Middle-income countries (MICs) as a group are not only characterized by a wide range of gross national income (GNI) per capita (US $1026 to $12,475), but also by diversity in size, geography, governance, and infrastructure. They include the largest and smallest countries of the world-including 16 landlocked developing countries, 27 small island developing states, and 17 least developed countries-and have a significant diversity in burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Given the growth in the number of MICs and their considerable domestic income disparities, they are now home to the greatest proportion of the world's poor, having more inhabitants below the poverty line than low-income countries (LICs). However, they have little or no access to external funding for the implementation of new vaccines, nor are they benefiting from an enabling global environment. The MICs are thus not sustainably introducing new life-saving vaccines at the same rate as donor-funded LICs or wealthier countries. The global community, through World Health Assembly resolutions and the inclusion of MIC issues in several recent studies and important documents-including the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) for the Decade of Vaccines-has acknowledged the sub-optimal situations in some MICs and is actively seeking to enhance the situation by expanding support to these countries. This report documents some of the activities already going on in a subset of MICs, including strengthening of national regulatory authorities and national immunization technical advisory groups, and development of comprehensive multi-year plans. However, some additional tools developed for LICs could prove useful to MICs and thus should be adapted for use by them. In addition, new approaches need to be developed to support MIC-specific needs. It is clear that no one solution will address the needs of this diverse group. We suggest tailored interventions in the four categories of evidence and capacity-building, policy

  6. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    This report provides a profile of middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts and examines where middle income students enroll by price of attendance and how they and their families pay for college. Data are from the 1995-1996 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:96). Middle income…

  7. Early life opportunities for prevention of diabetes in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    future child for “the 1000 days”, whether from planned or unplanned conception would break the cycle of risk and demonstrate benefit in the shortest possible time. Such interventions will be particularly important in adolescents and young women in disadvantaged groups and can improve the physiological status of the fetus as well as reduce the prevalence of pregnancy conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus which both predispose to non-communicables diseases in both the mother and her child. Pre-conception interventions require equipping prospective parents with the necessary knowledge and skills to make healthy lifestyle choices for themselves and their children. Addressing the promotion of such health literacy in parents-to-be in low- and middle-income countries requires a wider social perspective. It requires a range of multisectoral agencies to work together and could be linked to the issues of women’s empowerment, to reproductive health, to communicable disease prevention and to the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. PMID:23176627

  8. Early life opportunities for prevention of diabetes in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Ma, Ronald C W; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien G

    2012-11-23

    ", whether from planned or unplanned conception would break the cycle of risk and demonstrate benefit in the shortest possible time. Such interventions will be particularly important in adolescents and young women in disadvantaged groups and can improve the physiological status of the fetus as well as reduce the prevalence of pregnancy conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus which both predispose to non-communicables diseases in both the mother and her child. Pre-conception interventions require equipping prospective parents with the necessary knowledge and skills to make healthy lifestyle choices for themselves and their children. Addressing the promotion of such health literacy in parents-to-be in low- and middle-income countries requires a wider social perspective. It requires a range of multisectoral agencies to work together and could be linked to the issues of women's empowerment, to reproductive health, to communicable disease prevention and to the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

  9. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: A Complementary Strategy for Hypertension Diagnosis and Management in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Marwah

    2017-02-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can assess out-of-clinic blood pressure. ABPM is an underutilized resource in low-income and middle-income countries but should be considered a complementary strategy to clinic blood pressure measurement for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Potential uses for ABPM in low-income and middle-income countries include screening of high-risk individuals who have concurrent communicable diseases, such as HIV, and in task-shifting health care strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Tsang, A; Breslau, J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Angermeyer, M; Borges, G; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Fayyad, J; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Kawakami, N; Levinson, D; Oakley Browne, M A; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Williams, D R; Kessler, R C

    2009-05-01

    Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Sixteen countries taking part in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were surveyed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=41 688). Survival models were used to estimate associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-attainment of educational milestones. In high-income countries, prior substance use disorders were associated with non-completion at all stages of education (OR 1.4-15.2). Anxiety disorders (OR=1.3), mood disorders (OR=1.4) and impulse control disorders (OR=2.2) were associated with early termination of secondary education. In LAMI countries, impulse control disorders (OR=1.3) and substance use disorders (OR=1.5) were associated with early termination of secondary education. Onset of mental disorder and subsequent non-completion of education are consistently associated in both high-income and LAMI countries.

  11. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M. A. Oakley; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D. R.; Kessler, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were surveyed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=41 688). Survival models were used to estimate associations between DSM–IV mental disorders and subsequent non-attainment of educational milestones. Results In high-income countries, prior substance use disorders were associated with non-completion at all stages of education (OR 1.4–15.2). Anxiety disorders (OR=1.3), mood disorders (OR=1.4) and impulse control disorders (OR=2.2) were associated with early termination of secondary education. In LAMI countries, impulse control disorders (OR=1.3) and substance use disorders (OR=1.5) were associated with early termination of secondary education. Conclusions Onset of mental disorder and subsequent non-completion of education are consistently associated in both high-income and LAMI countries. PMID:19407270

  12. Child development assessment tools in low-income and middle-income countries: how can we use them more appropriately?

    PubMed Central

    Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Wills, Bridget; Gladstone, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Global emphasis has shifted beyond reducing child survival rates to improving health and developmental trajectories in childhood. Optimum early childhood experience is believed to allow children to benefit fully from educational opportunities resulting in improved human capital. Investment in early childhood initiatives in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. These initiatives use early childhood developmental assessment tools (CDATs) as outcome measures. CDATs are also key measures in the evaluation of programmatic health initiatives in LMICs, influencing public health policy. Interpretation of CDAT outcomes requires understanding of their structure and psychometric properties. This article reviews the structure and main methods of CDAT development with specific considerations when applied in LMICs. PMID:25825411

  13. Interventions for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Robertson, Janet; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although interventions for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have been the focus of research effort and evidence reviews in many Western countries, this evidence has not been assessed in the context of low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries especially in terms of the fit with different cultures and resources.…

  14. Best Practice Program for Low-Income African American Students Transitioning from Middle to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentle-Genitty, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of systematic evaluation of three program databases, totaling 246 programs, this article provides a discussion on a best practice program for low-income African American students transitioning from middle school to high school in urban school settings. The main research question was "Of the programs touted as best practice, is there…

  15. The Experience of Middle-Income Countries Participating in PISA 2000. PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a systematic review and empirical evidence related to the experiences of middle-income countries and economies participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2000 to 2015. PISA is a triennial survey that aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old…

  16. The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Orain; Peterson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Young people ages 10-24 account for 25 percent of the world's population: a total of 1.8 billion, most of whom are living in low- and middle-income countries. They face significant challenges, including HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), adolescent pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence. Youth have the right to lead…

  17. Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.; Singhal, Nidhi; Krishnamurthy, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is being identified in an ever-increasing number of countries, including many that are low or middle income (LMIC). Research conducted in these countries requires awareness of unique ethical issues. Drawing on the experience of two organizations that have been involved in conducting and collaborating in ASD research…

  18. A Developmental Analysis of Caregiving Modalities across Infancy in 38 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child's 1st year (0-12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within…

  19. Interventions Provided by Parents for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Gray, Kylie M.; Sofronoff, Kate; Rice, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers. Materials and Methods: After searches of appropriate scientific…

  20. The Decline of the Guru: "The Academic Profession in Developing and Middle-Income Countries."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    Contributions to this collection shed light on the dramatic changes in the academic profession in developing and middle-income countries. The chapters are: (1) "Centers and Peripheries in the Academic Profession: The Special Challenges of Developing Countries" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "Big City Love: The Academic Workplace in Mexico" (Manuel…

  1. Higher Education Financial Assistance Tools for Middle- and Upper-Income Taxpayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes higher education financial assistance tools designed mainly for students of middle- and upper-income families who may not be eligible for financial aid from other sources. It includes the 2007 legislative updates for these tools, all of which have been devised and offered by either state or federal governments. The authors…

  2. Children's Emerging Digital Literacies: Investigating Home Computing in Low- and Middle-Income Families. CCT Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Harouna; Tally, Bill; Tsikalas, Kallen

    The EDC (Educational Development Center) Center for Children and Technology (CCT) and Computers for Youth (CFY) completed a 1-year comparative study of children's use of computers in low- and middle-income homes. The study explores the digital divide as a literacy issue, rather than merely a technical one. Digital literacy is defined as a set of…

  3. The Experience of Middle-Income Countries Participating in PISA 2000. PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a systematic review and empirical evidence related to the experiences of middle-income countries and economies participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2000 to 2015. PISA is a triennial survey that aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old…

  4. Characterizing the Achievement Motivation Orientation of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…

  5. Interventions Provided by Parents for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Gray, Kylie M.; Sofronoff, Kate; Rice, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers. Materials and Methods: After searches of appropriate scientific…

  6. Classroom Literacy Practices in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Interpretative Synthesis of Ethnographic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nag, Sonali; Snowling, Margaret J.; Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun

    2016-01-01

    Surveys in low- and middle-income (LMI countries) reveal persistently low levels of learning among children in disadvantaged communities. Against this background, our synthesis of ethnographies aims at a fresh interpretation of classroom practices to clarify instruction-related barriers to literacy attainments. The review focuses on the period…

  7. Characterizing the Achievement Motivation Orientation of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…

  8. Middle-Income Black Fathers: An Analysis of the Provider Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the provider role among middle-income Black fathers. Respondents are moving toward more developmental patterns of fathering with increases in their ability to provide. The provider role is an interface phenomenon making execution of other familial roles possible. Economic provision is essential to all paternal modalities and styles.…

  9. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lydia A.; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted…

  10. A Developmental Analysis of Caregiving Modalities across Infancy in 38 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child's 1st year (0-12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within…

  11. The Decline of the Guru: "The Academic Profession in Developing and Middle-Income Countries."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    Contributions to this collection shed light on the dramatic changes in the academic profession in developing and middle-income countries. The chapters are: (1) "Centers and Peripheries in the Academic Profession: The Special Challenges of Developing Countries" (Philip G. Altbach); (2) "Big City Love: The Academic Workplace in Mexico" (Manuel…

  12. The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Orain; Peterson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Young people ages 10-24 account for 25 percent of the world's population: a total of 1.8 billion, most of whom are living in low- and middle-income countries. They face significant challenges, including HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), adolescent pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence. Youth have the right to lead…

  13. Breast cancer in South East Asia: comparison of presentation and outcome between a middle income and a high income country.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Nakul; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lim, Jennifer N W; Aw, Tar-Ching; Iau, Philip; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lee, Soo-Chin; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2012-12-01

    There are large differences in socio-economic growth within the region of South East Asia, leading to sharp contrasts in health-systems development between countries. This study compares breast cancer presentation and outcome between patients from a high income country (Singapore) and a middle income country (Malaysia) in South East Asia. Within the Singapore Malaysia Breast Cancer Registry we identified all consecutive patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2007 at the National University Hospital in Singapore (high income country, n=2,141) and the University of Malaya Medical Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (middle income country, n=3,320). We compared demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival between patients from both countries. In Malaysia, patients were less often diagnosed with in situ breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.1-0.3), more likely to be diagnosed with late stage (III and IV) disease (ORadj for stage III 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0; ORadj for stage IV 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4) as compared to patients from Singapore. Univariate analysis showed that Malaysian patients were at a 72% increased risk of death as compared to Singaporeans. After adjusting for other prognostic factors, the risk decreased by only 5% (ORadj 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). Differences in way of presentation (except stage and tumor size) and treatment of breast cancer patients from the two countries are small. The overall survival of breast cancer patients from Malaysia is much lower than that of Singaporean patients.

  14. Disaster management in low- and middle-income countries: scoping review of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew Chee Keng; Booth, Andrew; Challen, Kirsty; Gardois, Paolo; Goodacre, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Globally, there has been an increase in the prevalence and scale of disasters with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) tending to be more affected. Consequently, disaster risk reduction has been advocated as a global priority. However, the evidence base for disaster management in these settings is unclear. This study is a scoping review of the evidence base for disaster management in LMIC. Potentially relevant articles between 1990 and 2011 were searched for, assessed for relevance and subsequently categorised using a thematic coding framework based on the US Integrated Emergency Management System model. Out of 1545 articles identified, only 178 were from LMIC settings. Most were of less robust design such as event reports and commentaries, and 66% pertained to natural disasters. There was a paucity of articles on disaster mitigation or recovery, and more were written on disaster response and preparedness issues. Considerably more articles were published from high-income country settings that may reflect a publication bias. Current grey literature on disaster management tends not to be peer reviewed, is not well organised and not easy to access. The paucity of peer-reviewed publications compromises evidence review initiatives that seek to provide an evidence-base for disaster management in LMIC. As such, there is an urgent need for greater research and publication of findings on disaster management issues from these settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Peak oil and health in low- and middle-income countries: impacts and potential responses.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter; Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels.

  16. Peak Oil and Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Impacts and Potential Responses

    PubMed Central

    Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels. PMID:21778508

  17. Influenza vaccines in low and middle income countries: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ott, Jördis J; Klein Breteler, Janna; Tam, John S; Hutubessy, Raymond C W; Jit, Mark; de Boer, Michiel R

    2013-07-01

    Economic evaluations on influenza vaccination from low resource settings are scarce and have not been evaluated using a systematic approach. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review on the value for money of influenza vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for economic evaluations published in any language between 1960 and 2011. Main outcome measures were costs per influenza outcome averted, costs per quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted, costs per benefit in monetary units or cost-benefit ratios. Nine economic evaluations on seasonal influenza vaccine met the inclusion criteria. These were model- or randomized-controlled-trial (RCT)-based economic evaluations from middle-income countries. Influenza vaccination provided value for money for elderly, infants, adults and children with high-risk conditions. Vaccination was cost-effective and cost-saving for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and in elderly above 65 y from model-based evaluations, but conclusions from RCTs on elderly varied. Economic evaluations from middle income regions differed in population studied, outcomes and definitions used. Most findings are in line with evidence from high-income countries highlighting that influenza vaccine is likely to provide value for money. However, serious methodological limitations do not allow drawing conclusions on cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in middle income countries. Evidence on cost-effectiveness from low-income countries is lacking altogether, and more information is needed from full economic evaluations that are conducted in a standardized manner.

  18. The role of health technology assessment on pharmaceutical reimbursement in selected middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Oortwijn, Wija; Mathijssen, Judith; Banta, David

    2010-05-01

    Middle-income countries are often referred to as developing or emerging economies and face multiple challenges of severe financial stresses in their health care sectors, and high disease burden. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of how health technology assessment (HTA) is used and organized in selected middle-income countries and its role in the process of pharmaceutical coverage. We selected middle-income countries where HTA activities are evident: Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Israel, Mexico, Philippines, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. We collected and reviewed relevant information to describe the health care and reimbursement systems and how HTA relates to coverage decision-making of pharmaceuticals. This was supplemented by information from a structured survey among professionals working in public and private health insurance, industry, regulatory authorities, ministries of health, academic units or HTA. All countries require market authorization for pharmaceuticals to be sold and most countries have a national plan defining which pharmaceuticals can be reimbursed. However, the use of HTA in reimbursement decisions is still in its early stages with varying levels of HTA guidance implementation. The study provides evidence of the development of HTA in coverage decision-making in middle-income countries. Increased health care spending and the resulting access to modern technology give a strong impetus to HTA. However, HTA is developing with uneven speed in middle-income countries and many countries are building on the organisational and methodological experience from established HTA agencies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Second hand smoke and cardiovascular disease in Low and Middle Income Countries: a case for action

    PubMed Central

    Olasky, Sheera Joy; Levy, David; Moran, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is an environmental toxin and an established cause of cardiovascular disease in nonsmokers. Smoke free laws reduce SHS and its downstream cardiovascular disease, but until recently evidence to support smoke free law implementation in low and middle income country settings was limited. In 14 low and middle income nations surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey active smoking prevalence in adults (≥15 years old) was universally higher in males (range 21.6–60.2%) compared with females (0.5–24.4%), and the highest burden of SHS exposure was in women (strong positive association between male/female active smoking ratio and female SHS exposure prevalence). A systematic review was conducted of MEDLINE-indexed studies of self-reported SHS exposure and cardiovascular harms in low or middle income nations. Eight papers reported the association of SHS with ischemic heart disease and four reported the association of SHS with stroke. For all the studies, and almost all sources of SHS surveyed, a strong positive association between SHS and ischemic heart disease (main relative odds ratio range 1.17–2.36) and SHS and stroke (odds ratio or hazard ratio 1.41–1.49). Prevalence of SHS exposure is high in low and middle income nations, especially among women. Epidemiologic evidence supports the conclusion that SHS harms are the same across low, middle and high income nations. Governments have an obligation to protect citizens from SHS exposure, enforcing smoke-free legislation and providing public education about SHS harms. PMID:23139915

  20. Economic costs of childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Attina, Teresa M; Trasande, Leonardo

    2013-09-01

    Children's blood lead levels have declined worldwide, especially after the removal of lead in gasoline. However, significant exposure remains, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there have been no global estimates of the costs related to lead exposure in children in developing countries. Our main aim was to estimate the economic costs attributable to childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. We developed a regression model to estimate mean blood lead levels in our population of interest, represented by each 1-year cohort of children < 5 years of age. We used an environmentally attributable fraction model to estimate lead-attributable economic costs and limited our analysis to the neurodevelopmental impacts of lead, assessed as decrements in IQ points. Our main outcome was lost lifetime economic productivity due to early childhood exposure. We estimated a total cost of $977 billions of international dollars in low- and middle-income countries, with economic losses equal to $134.7 billion in Africa [4.03% of gross domestic product (GDP)], $142.3 billion in Latin America and the Caribbean (2.04% of GDP), and $699.9 billion in Asia (1.88% of GDP). Our sensitivity analysis indicates a total economic loss in the range of $728.6-1162.5 billion. We estimated that, in low- and middle-income countries, the burden associated with childhood lead exposure amounts to 1.20% of world GDP in 2011. For comparison, in the United States and Europe lead-attributable economic costs have been estimated at $50.9 and $55 billion, respectively, suggesting that the largest burden of lead exposure is now borne by low- and middle-income countries.

  1. Is the relative increase in income inequality related to tooth loss in middle-aged adults?

    PubMed

    Goulart, Mariél de Aquino; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether Brazilian middle-aged adults living in cities that experienced a relative increase on income inequality were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition. Data on Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from state capitals and Federal District from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were analyzed. Clinically assessed tooth loss outcomes were severe tooth loss (<9 remaining natural teeth) and lack of functional dentition (<21 natural teeth). Income inequality was assessed by Gini Index in 1991, 2000, and 2003 using tertiles of distribution. Variation in Gini Index was assessed by changes in the tertiles distribution between years. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 percent CI) between variation in income inequality and tooth loss outcomes adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Prevalence of severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 4.8 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively. Individuals living in cities with moderate and high increase in income inequality between 1991 and 2003 were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition in 2010 compared with those living in cities with stable income inequality in the same period. Relationships between low family income and both tooth loss outcomes were significantly attenuated by relative increases in income inequality. Relative increases in income inequality were significantly associated with severe tooth loss and lack of a functional dentition in Brazilian middle-aged adults. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006?2009.

    PubMed

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-01-12

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  3. Mortality of emergency abdominal surgery in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Surgical mortality data are collected routinely in high-income countries, yet virtually no low- or middle-income countries have outcome surveillance in place. The aim was prospectively to collect worldwide mortality data following emergency abdominal surgery, comparing findings across countries with a low, middle or high Human Development Index (HDI). This was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Self-selected hospitals performing emergency surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive patients from at least one 2-week interval during July to December 2014. Postoperative mortality was analysed by hierarchical multivariable logistic regression. Data were obtained for 10 745 patients from 357 centres in 58 countries; 6538 were from high-, 2889 from middle- and 1318 from low-HDI settings. The overall mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at 24 h (high 1·1 per cent, middle 1·9 per cent, low 3·4 per cent; P < 0·001), increasing to 5·4 per cent by 30 days (high 4·5 per cent, middle 6·0 per cent, low 8·6 per cent; P < 0·001). Of the 578 patients who died, 404 (69·9 per cent) did so between 24 h and 30 days following surgery (high 74·2 per cent, middle 68·8 per cent, low 60·5 per cent). After adjustment, 30-day mortality remained higher in middle-income (odds ratio (OR) 2·78, 95 per cent c.i. 1·84 to 4·20) and low-income (OR 2·97, 1·84 to 4·81) countries. Surgical safety checklist use was less frequent in low- and middle-income countries, but when used was associated with reduced mortality at 30 days. Mortality is three times higher in low- compared with high-HDI countries even when adjusted for prognostic factors. Patient safety factors may have an important role. NCT02179112 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Systematic Review of Postgraduate Surgical Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Surgical care is recognized as an important component of public health, however, many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are faced with a shortage of trained personnel. In response to this unmet need, many countries have developed local postgraduate training programs in surgery. This study aims to characterize general surgery postgraduate education in LMICs. PubMed, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus databases were searched for articles related to postgraduate general surgery education in LMICs. Studies in other surgical specialties and those published prior to 1990 were excluded. Data were collected on the characteristics of postgraduate training programs. Sixty-four articles discussed postgraduate surgical education in LMICs. Programs in 34 different countries and 6 different regions were represented. Nine countries were low-income, 12 were low-middle-income, and 13 were upper-middle-income countries. Sixty-four articles described aspects of the local postgraduate training program. Prior to postgraduate training, residents complete an undergraduate medical degree with 19 programs describing a pre-training experience such as internship. Surgical curricula were broad-based to prepare trainees to work in low-resource settings. At the completion of postgraduate training, examination formats varied including oral, written, and clinical exams. Postgraduate general surgery programs ranged from 2.5 to 7 years. Postgraduate surgical education is one mechanism to increase surgical capacity in LMICs. Different strategies have been employed to improve surgical education in LMICs and learning from these programs can optimize surgical education across teaching sites.

  5. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality.

  6. The global burden of visual difficulty in low, middle, and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Samson, Elodie; Haddad, Slim; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Vela, Claudia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Using a world-wide, population-based dataset of adults, we sought to determine the frequency of far visual difficulty and its associated risk factors. The World Health Survey (WHS) was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design of adults ages 18 years and older. Far vision was assessed by asking "In the last 30 days, how much difficulty did you have in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters)?". Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank. Prevalence and regression estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. 21% of adults reported any visual difficulty. The rate varied by the income status of the country with the percentage who had any visual difficulty being 24%, 23%, and 13% in low, middle, and high income countries, respectively. Five percent of people reported severe or extreme visual difficulty with rates in low, middle, and high income countries of 6%, 5%, and 2% respectively. Risk factors for visual difficulty included older age, female sex, poorer socioeconomic status, little to no formal education, and diabetes (P<0.05). One out of five adults in the WHS reported some degree of far visual difficulty. Given the importance of vision to living an independent life, better access to quality eye care services and life course factors affecting vision health (e.g. repeated eye infections, diet lacking vitamin A) must receive adequate attention and resources, especially in low and middle income countries.

  7. Economic Costs of Childhood Lead Exposure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children’s blood lead levels have declined worldwide, especially after the removal of lead in gasoline. However, significant exposure remains, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there have been no global estimates of the costs related to lead exposure in children in developing countries. Objective: Our main aim was to estimate the economic costs attributable to childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We developed a regression model to estimate mean blood lead levels in our population of interest, represented by each 1-year cohort of children < 5 years of age. We used an environmentally attributable fraction model to estimate lead-attributable economic costs and limited our analysis to the neurodevelopmental impacts of lead, assessed as decrements in IQ points. Our main outcome was lost lifetime economic productivity due to early childhood exposure. Results: We estimated a total cost of $977 billions of international dollars in low- and middle-income countries, with economic losses equal to $134.7 billion in Africa [4.03% of gross domestic product (GDP)], $142.3 billion in Latin America and the Caribbean (2.04% of GDP), and $699.9 billion in Asia (1.88% of GDP). Our sensitivity analysis indicates a total economic loss in the range of $728.6–1162.5 billion. Conclusions: We estimated that, in low- and middle-income countries, the burden associated with childhood lead exposure amounts to 1.20% of world GDP in 2011. For comparison, in the United States and Europe lead-attributable economic costs have been estimated at $50.9 and $55 billion, respectively, suggesting that the largest burden of lead exposure is now borne by low- and middle-income countries. Citation: Attina TM, Trasande L. 2013. Economic costs of childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. Environ Health Perspect 121:1097–1102; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206424 PMID:23797342

  8. Factors influencing medical students' motivation to practise in rural areas in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Pokharel, Paras K; Scherpbier, Albert J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There is a shortage of doctors working in rural areas all over the world, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. The choice to practise medicine in a rural area is influenced by many factors. Motivation developed as a medical student is one key determinant of this choice. This study explores influences on medical students' motivation to practise in rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries following graduation. Design A systematic review was conducted to identify influences on medical students' motivation to work in rural areas in low-income and middle-income countries. Papers reporting influences on motivation were included, and content analysis was conducted to select the articles. Articles not published in English were excluded from this review. Results A rural background (ie, being brought up in a rural area), training in rural areas with a community-based curriculum, early exposure to the community during medical training and rural location of medical school motivate medical students to work in rural areas. Perceived lack of infrastructure, high workload, poor hospital management and isolation are among the health facility factors that demotivate medical students for medical practice in rural areas. Conclusions Medical school selection criteria focusing on a rural background factor and medical education curriculum focusing on rural area are more relevant factors in low-income and middle-income countries. The factors identified in this review may assist the planners, medical educators and policymakers in low-income and middle-income countries in designing relevant interventions to positively influence rural choices where the shortage of rural physicians is an ongoing and increasing concern. PMID:28232465

  9. Systems and capacity to address noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed K; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Flanigan, John; Blanchard, Claire; Narayan, K M Venkat; Engelgau, Michael

    2013-04-17

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly getting attention from different forums, including media outlets, health agencies, and the public and private sectors. Progress is being made in addressing NCDs, though more slowly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as compared with high-income settings. Here, we offer an analysis of the challenges faced in LMICs. We discuss realistic strategies to understand and develop capacity needs (workforce, finances, and infrastructure) and systems (institutions and processes) to sustainably optimize NCD prevention and care in LMICs.

  10. Stigma and discrimination related to mental illness in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Semrau, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Koschorke, M; Ashenafi, L; Thornicroft, G

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) worldwide to address: the nature of stigma and discrimination, relevant context-specific factors, global patterns of these phenomena and their measurement and quantitative and qualitative evidence of interventions intended to reduce their occurrence and impact. The background to this study is that the large majority of studies concerned with identifying effective interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination originate in high-income countries (HICs). This paper therefore presents such evidence from, and relevant to, LAMICs. Conceptual overview of the relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature on stigma and discrimination related to mental illness in LAMICs are available in English, Spanish, French and Russian. Few intervention studies were identified related to stigma re-education in LAMICs. None of these addressed behaviour change/discrimination, and there were no long-term follow-up studies. There is therefore insufficient evidence at present to know which overall types of intervention may be effective and feasible and in LAMICs, how best to target key groups such as healthcare staff, and how far they may need to be locally customised to be acceptable for large-scale use in these settings. In particular, forms of social contacts, which have been shown to be the most effective intervention to reduce stigma among adults in HICs, have not yet been assessed sufficiently to know whether these methods are also effective in LAMICs. Generating information about effective interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in LAMICs is now an important mental health priority worldwide.

  11. Sociodemographic factors related to handgrip strength in children and adolescents in a middle income country: The SALUS study.

    PubMed

    Otero, Johanna; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Herrera, Victor Mauricio; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Bernal, Oscar; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    To determine sociodemographic factors associated with handgrip (HG) strength in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a middle income country. We evaluated youth between the ages of 8 and 17 from a representative sample of individuals from the Department of Santander, Colombia. Anthropometric measures, HG strength, and self-reported physical activity were assessed, and parents/guardians completed sociodemographic questionnairres. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics and tertiles of relative HG strength. We also produced centile data for raw HG strength using quantile regression. 1,691 young people were evaluated. HG strength increased with age, and was higher in males than females in all age groups. Lower HG strength was associated with indicators of higher socioeconomic status, such as living in an urban area, residence in higher social strata neighborhoods, parent/guardian with secondary education or higher, higher household income, and membership in health insurance schemes. In addition, low HG strength was associated with lower physical activity levels and higher waist-to-hip ratio. In a fully adjusted regression model, all factors remained significant except for health insurance, household income, and physical activity level. While age and gender specific HG strength values were substantially lower than contemporary data from high income countries, we found that within this middle income population indicators of higher socioeconomic status were associated with lower HG strength. This analysis also suggests that in countries undergoing rapid nutrition transition, improvements in socioeconomic conditions may be accompanied by reduction in muscle strength. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The association between obesity and severe disability among adults aged 50 or over in nine high-income, middle-income and low-income countries: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Ai; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Sainio, Päivi; Galas, Aleksander; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-04-02

    The association between obesity and disability may differ between high-income and low-income/middle-income countries but there are no studies comparing this association between these settings. The aim of the study was to assess this association in nine countries using nationally-representative data from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study and the WHO's Study on global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE). Population-based cross-sectional study The survey was conducted in China, Finland, Ghana, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Africa and Spain between 2007 and 2012. 42 116 individuals 50 years and older. The institutionalised and those with limited cognition were excluded. Disability was defined as severe or extreme difficulty in conducting at least one of six types of basic activities of daily living (ADL). The mean body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.4 kg/m(2) in India to 30.7 kg/m(2) in South Africa. Compared to normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), BMI≥35 kg/m(2) was associated with significantly higher odds for ADL disability in Finland (OR 4.64), Poland (OR 2.77), South Africa (OR 2.19) and Spain (OR 2.42). Interaction analysis showed that obese individuals in high-income countries were more likely to have ADL limitations than those in low-income or middle-income countries. The higher odds for disability among obese individuals in high-income countries may imply longer life lived with disability due to factors such as the decline in cardiovascular disease mortality. In South Africa, this may have been due to the exceptionally high prevalence of class III obesity. These findings underscore the importance of obesity prevention to reduce the disability burden among older adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Umbilical cord-care practices in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Patricia S; Brown, Siobhan C

    2017-02-20

    Neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of deaths for infants in their first month of life. The newly cut umbilical cord can be a pathway for bacteria that can cause newborn sepsis and death. Optimal umbilical cord care practices for newborns and during the first week of life, especially in settings with poor hygiene, has the potential to avoid these preventable neonatal deaths. The purpose of this review of cord care practices is to assist in the development of behavior-change strategies to support introduction of novel cord-care regimens, particularly 7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care. We searched domestic and international databases for articles that were published in English between January 1, 2000, and August 24, 2016. We found 321 articles and reviewed 65 full-text articles using standardized inclusion criteria. The primary criteria for inclusion was a description of substances applied to the umbilical cord stump in the days following birth. We included 46 articles in this review of umbilical cord-care practices. Articles included data from 15 low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa (8 countries), Asia (5 countries), North Africa (1 country), and Latin America and the Caribbean (1 country). Findings from this review suggest that documentation of cord-care practices is not consistent throughout low- and middle-income countries, yet existing literature depicts a firm tradition of umbilical cord care in every culture. Cord-care practices vary by country and by regions or cultural groups within a country and employ a wide range of substances. The desire to promote healing and hasten cord separation are the underlying beliefs related to application of substances to the umbilical cord. The frequency of application of the substance (either the number of days or the number of times per day the substance was applied), and source and cost of products used is not well-characterized. This desire to actively care for the umbilical

  14. [Socioeconomic differences in physical activity in the middle-aged working population: The role of education, occupation, and income].

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Jens; Finger, Jonas D; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Regular physical activity has positive effects on health at all ages. This study aims to investigate how far physical activity and regular sports engagement, as a more specific type of physical activity, are associated with socioeconomic factors in the middle-aged working population. Data were obtained from 21,699 working men and women aged between 30 and 64 years who participated in the 2009 and 2010 population-based national German Health Update (GEDA) surveys conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. Besides a multi-dimensional index of socioeconomic status (SES), three single dimensions of SES (education, occupation, and income) were used to analyse socioeconomic differences in total physical activity and regular sports engagement. While the prevalence of total physical activity increased with lower SES, the proportion of people with regular sports engagement decreased with lower SES. These associations remained after adjusting for age in men and women. After mutual adjustment of the three single socioeconomic dimensions, physical activity was independently associated with lower education and lower occupational status. Regular sports engagement was observed to be independently associated with higher education, higher occupational status, as well as higher income after mutual adjustment. This study demonstrates significant socioeconomic differences in physical and sports activity in the middle-aged working population. Education, occupation, and income show varying independent associations with physical activity behaviour. Such differences need to be considered when identifying target groups for health-enhancing physical activity interventions.

  15. Fighting poor-quality medicines in low- and middle-income countries: the importance of advocacy and pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Vandenbergh, Daniel; Macé, Cécile; Pouget, Corinne; Renchon, Brigitte; Rigal, Jean; Schiavetti, Benedetta; Caudron, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of pharmaceutical production has not been accompanied by a strengthening and harmonization of the regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the global market is characterized today by a situation of multiple standards, and patients in low- and middle-income countries are exposed to the risk of receiving poor-quality medicines. Among those who first raised the alarm on this problem, there were pioneering humanitarian groups, who were in a privileged position to witness the gap in quality of medicines between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Despite an increasing awareness of the problem and the launch of some positive initiatives, the divide in pharmaceutical quality between the North and the South remains important, and insufficiently addressed. More advocacy is needed for universal access to quality-assured medicines. It should target all those who are strongly "involved" with medicines: regulators, international organizations, journalists, purchasers, prescribers, program managers, policy makers, public health actors and the patients. Advocacy should be based on evidence from research and monitoring programs, and technical concepts should be translated in lay language through communication tools that address all the stakeholders. The fight to ensure universal access to quality medicines needs the participation of all, and can only be successful if grounded in common understanding.

  16. Educational and wealth inequalities in tobacco use among men and women in 54 low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Harper, Sam; Ernstsen, Linda

    2016-11-24

    Socioeconomic differentials of tobacco smoking in high-income countries are well described. However, studies to support health policies and place monitoring systems to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smokeless tobacco use common in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are seldom reported. We aimed to describe, sex-wise, educational and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco use in LMICs. We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data on tobacco use collected from large nationally representative samples of men and women in 54 LMICs. We estimated the weighted prevalence of any current tobacco use (including smokeless tobacco) in each country for 4 educational groups and 4 wealth groups. We calculated absolute and relative measures of inequality, that is, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII), which take into account the distribution of prevalence across all education and wealth groups and account for population size. We also calculated the aggregate SII and RII for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (lMIC) and upper-middle-income (uMIC) countries as per World Bank classification. Male tobacco use was highest in Bangladesh (70.3%) and lowest in Sao Tome (7.4%), whereas female tobacco use was highest in Madagascar (21%) and lowest in Tajikistan (0.22%). Among men, educational inequalities varied widely between countries, but aggregate RII and SII showed an inverse trend by country wealth groups. RII was 3.61 (95% CI 2.83 to 4.61) in LICs, 1.99 (95% CI 1.66 to 2.38) in lMIC and 1.82 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.67) in uMIC. Wealth inequalities among men varied less between countries, but RII and SII showed an inverse pattern where RII was 2.43 (95% CI 2.05 to 2.88) in LICs, 1.84 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.21) in lMICs and 1.67 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.42) in uMICs. For educational inequalities among women, the RII varied much more than SII varied between the countries, and the aggregate RII was 14.49 (95% CI 8.87 to 23.68) in LICs, 3

  17. Investigating DRG cost weights for hospitals in middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Shahram; Doran, Christopher; Wilson, Andrew; Aisbett, Chris; Jackson, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the cost of hospital outputs, particularly acute inpatients measured by Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs), is an important component of casemix implementation. Measuring the relative costliness of specific DRGs is useful for a wide range of policy and planning applications. Estimating the relative use of resources per DRG can be done through different costing approaches depending on availability of information and time and budget. This study aims to guide costing efforts in Iran and other countries in the region that are pursuing casemix funding, through identifying the main issues facing cost finding approaches and introducing the costing models compatible with their hospitals accounting and management structures. The results show that inadequate financial and utilisation information at the patient's level, poorly computerized 'feeder systems'; and low quality data make it impossible to estimate reliable DRGs costs through clinical costing. A cost modelling approach estimates the average cost of 2.723 million Rials (Iranian Currency) per DRG. Using standard linear regression, a coefficient of 0.14 (CI = 0.12-0.16) suggests that the average cost weight increases by 14% for every one-day increase in average length of stay (LOS).We concluded that calculation of DRG cost weights (CWs) using Australian service weights provides a sensible starting place for DRG-based hospital management; but restructuring hospital accounting systems, designing computerized feeder systems, using appropriate software, and development of national service weights that reflect local practice patterns will enhance the accuracy of DRG CWs.

  18. Growing Epidemic of Coronary Heart Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Thomas A.; Bitton, Asaf; Anand, Shuchi; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Murphy, Adrianna

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the leading causes of disease burden in developing countries. In 2001, there were 7.3 million deaths due to CHD worldwide. Three-fourths of global deaths due to CHD occurred in the low and middle-income countries. The rapid rise in CHD burden in most of the low and middle and income countries is due to socio-economic changes, increase in life span and acquisition of lifestyle related risk factors. The CHD death rate, however, varies dramatically across the developing countries. The varying incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates reflect the different levels of risk factors, other competing causes of death, availability of resources to combat CVD, and the stage of epidemiologic transition that each country or region finds itself. The economic burden of CHD is equally large but solutions exist to manage this growing burden. PMID:20109979

  19. Scaling Up Chronic Disease Prevention Interventions in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Thomas A.; Pagidipati, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases are increasingly becoming a health burden in lower-and middle-income countries, putting pressure on public health efforts to scale up interventions. This article reviews current efforts in interventions on a population and individual level. Population-level interventions include ongoing efforts to reduce smoking rates, reduce intake of salt and trans–fatty acids, and increase physical activity in increasingly sedentary populations. Individual-level interventions include control and treatment of risk factors for chronic diseases and secondary prevention. This review also discusses the barriers in interventions, particularly those specific to low- and middle-income countries. Continued discussion of proven cost-effective interventions for chronic diseases in the developing world will be useful for improving public health policy. PMID:23297660

  20. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  1. Getting it right: Culturally safe approaches to health partnership work in low to middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison

    2017-05-01

    Many health professionals become engaged in international health and education work in low to middle income countries, often as part of health partnerships. This type of work, increasingly popular in an age of global health, can present a number of challenges. Many of these involve cultural factors which are often acknowledged in the literature on overseas health work but rarely explored in depth. This paper aims to illustrate the key cultural considerations to be made by those currently engaged in or considering overseas health and education work in a low to middle income country. A comprehensive literature review methodology was used to examine data through the lens of Cultural Safety Theory and as a result provide guidance for professionals working with international colleagues. Recommendations for practice are based on the importance of gaining an understanding of the host country's history and social context and of professionals examining their own individual worldviews. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  3. Parental Involvement among Middle-Income Latino Parents Living in a Middle-Class Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoa, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Parental involvement has often shared a positive correlation with student academic achievement. To better understand parental involvement dynamics among middle-class Latino families, in-depth parent interviews were conducted among 21 such parents. Results from this study which add to the educational literature include high levels of academic…

  4. Economic analyses of breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support the development of global strategies against breast cancer, this study reviews available economic evidence on breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A systematic article search was conducted through electronic scientific databases, and studies were included only if they concerned breast cancer, used original data, and originated from LMICs. Independent assessment of inclusion criteria yielded 24 studies that evaluated different kinds of screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions in various age and risk groups. Studies were synthesized and appraised through the use of a checklist, designed for evaluating economic analyses. Results The majority of these studies were of poor quality, particularly in examining costs. Studies demonstrated the economic attractiveness of breast cancer screening strategies, and of novel treatment and diagnostic interventions. Conclusions This review shows that the evidence base to guide strategies for breast cancer control in LMICs is limited and of poor quality. The limited evidence base suggests that screening strategies may be economically attractive in LMICs – yet there is very little evidence to provide specific recommendations on screening by mammography versus clinical breast examination, the frequency of screening, or the target population. These results demonstrate the need for more economic analyses that are of better quality, cover a comprehensive set of interventions and result in clear policy recommendations. PMID:23566447

  5. Ethical considerations for designing GBS maternal vaccine efficacy trials in low-middle income countries.

    PubMed

    White, Amina; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-11-25

    Many in the scientific community agree that a randomized, placebo-controlled trial would offer the most scientifically rigorous study design for establishing the efficacy of a Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine administered to pregnant women for the prevention of invasive GBS disease in young infants. There are compelling reasons to conduct such a trial in low-middle income countries (LMICs) with a high burden of disease, such as South Africa, and to adopt an add-on trial design in which participants are randomized to receive the GBS vaccine or placebo in addition to the locally available standard of care. Yet there is a longstanding debate about whether trials in LMICs should offer participants the worldwide best available standard of care. In this article, we examine both the risk-benefit profile and the potential for exploitation with an add-on trial design in the context of the locally available standard of care in South Africa. Our analysis suggests that providing the local standard of care to participants in this case may be not only more scientifically valuable but also more ethically acceptable than attempting to provide the worldwide best available standard of care in the South African setting. Moreover, the example of GBS in the South African setting can help to elucidate important ethical considerations for determining the acceptability of testing vaccine efficacy in the context of locally available rather than the worldwide best available standard of care in Phase III trials of other new maternal vaccines.

  6. Inequalities in full immunization coverage: trends in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluísio JD; Wong, Kerry LM; Johnson, Hope L; Pariyo, George; França, Giovanny VA; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate disparities in full immunization coverage across and within 86 low- and middle-income countries. Methods In May 2015, using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we investigated inequalities in full immunization coverage – i.e. one dose of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, one dose of measles vaccine, three doses of vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and three doses of polio vaccine – in 86 low- or middle-income countries. We then investigated temporal trends in the level and inequality of such coverage in eight of the countries. Findings In each of the World Health Organization’s regions, it appeared that about 56–69% of eligible children in the low- and middle-income countries had received full immunization. However, within each region, the mean recorded level of such coverage varied greatly. In the African Region, for example, it varied from 11.4% in Chad to 90.3% in Rwanda. We detected pro-rich inequality in such coverage in 45 of the 83 countries for which the relevant data were available and pro-urban inequality in 35 of the 86 study countries. Among the countries in which we investigated coverage trends, Madagascar and Mozambique appeared to have made the greatest progress in improving levels of full immunization coverage over the last two decades, particularly among the poorest quintiles of their populations. Conclusion Most low- and middle-income countries are affected by pro-rich and pro-urban inequalities in full immunization coverage that are not apparent when only national mean values of such coverage are reported. PMID:27821882

  7. The Ponseti Method in Low and Middle Income Countries: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Morcuende, Jose A; Cook, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Diffusing a health care innovation like the Ponseti method in low and middle income countries requires more than the application of the traditional continuing medical education approach of providing lectures on the topic. Challenges include limited personnel, competing priorities, inadequate medical supplies, and limited resources. Experience has indicated that the best chances of success in establishing such a program include identifying and advising in-country "champions" to provide the leadership, energy, and direction to build the program.

  8. Health state valuation in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A; Johnson, Newell W; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Cost-utility analysis is widely used in high-income countries to inform decisions on efficient health care resource allocation. Cost-utility analysis uses the quality-adjusted life-year as the outcome measure of health. High-income countries have undertaken health state valuation (HSV) studies to determine country-specific utility weights to facilitate valuation of health-related quality of life. Despite an evident need, however, the extent of HSVs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is unclear. The literature was searched systematically by using four databases and additional Web searches to identify HSV studies carried out in LMICs. The Preferred Reporting System for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) strategy was followed to ensure systematic selection of the articles. The review identified 17 HSV studies from LMICs. Twelve studies were undertaken in upper middle-income countries, while lower middle- and low-income countries contributed three and two studies, respectively. There were 7 generic HSV and 10 disease-specific HSV studies. The seven generic HSVs included five EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire, one six-dimensional health state short form (derived from short-form 36 health survey), and one Assessment of Quality of Life valuations. Time trade-off was the predominant valuation method used across all studies. This review found that health state valuations from LMICs are uncommon and utility weights are generally unavailable for these countries to carry out health economic evaluation. More HSV studies need to be undertaken in LMICs to facilitate efficient resource allocation in their respective health systems. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Environmental Justice, Cumulative Environmental Risk, and Health Among Low- and Middle-Income Children in Upstate New York

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gary W.; Marcynyszyn, Lyscha A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We documented inequitable, cumulative environmental risk exposure and health between predominantly White low-income and middle-income children residing in rural areas in upstate New York. Methods. Cross-sectional data for 216 third- through fifth-grade children included overnight urinary neuroendocrine levels, noise levels, residential crowding (people/room), and housing quality. Results. After control for income, maternal education, family structure, age, and gender, cumulative environmental risk exposure (0–3) (risk >1 SD above the mean for each singular risk factor [0, 1]) was substantially greater for low-income children. Cumulative environmental risk was positively correlated with elevated overnight epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in the low-income sample but not in the middle-income sample. Conclusions. Cumulative environmental risk exposure among low-income families may contribute to bad health, beginning in early childhood. PMID:15514234

  10. Screening for autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lydia A; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted to understand the use of autism spectrum disorder screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries from studies published between 1992 and 2015. This review found that 18 different autism spectrum disorder screeners have been used in low- and middle-income settings with wide ranges of sensitivities and specificities. The significant variation in study design, screening methodology, and population characteristics limits the ability of this review to make robust recommendations about optimal screening tool selection. Clinical-based screening for autism spectrum disorder was the most widely reported method. However, community-based screening was shown to be an effective method for identifying autism spectrum disorder in communities with limited clinical resources. Only a few studies included in this review reported cultural adaptation of screening tools and collaboration with local stakeholders. Establishing guidelines for the reporting of cultural adaptation and community collaboration procedures as well as screening instrument psychometrics and screening methodology will enable the field to develop best practices for autism spectrum disorder screening in low-resource settings.

  11. Disintegrated care: the Achilles heel of international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Ghilbert, Patricia; Soors, Werner; Green, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To review the evidence basis of international aid and health policy. Context of case Current international aid policy is largely neoliberal in its promotion of commoditization and privatisation. We review this policy's responsibility for the lack of effectiveness in disease control and poor access to care in low and middle-income countries. Data sources National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Conclusions and discussion We document how health care privatisation has led to the pool of patients being cut off from public disease control interventions—causing health care disintegration—which in turn resulted in substandard performance of disease control. Privatisation of health care also resulted in poor access. Our analysis consists of three steps. Pilot local contracting-out experiments are scrutinized; national health care records of Colombia and Chile, two countries having adopted contracting-out as a basis for health care delivery, are critically examined against Costa Rica; and specific failure mechanisms of the policy in low and middle-income countries are explored. We conclude by arguing that the negative impact of neoliberal health policy on disease control and health care in low and middle-income countries justifies an alternative aid policy to improve both disease control and health care. PMID:17006553

  12. Prevention of domestic violence against women and children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Erminia; Hassan, Ghayda

    2014-09-01

    Violence against women and children is increasingly recognized as an important and urgent public health, social and human rights issue cutting across geographical, socioeconomic and cultural boundaries. There is a large and growing body of literature that demonstrates the negative impact of such violence on the victim's mental and physical health, as well as several other consequences on them, their families and communities. However, this literature for the most part comes from the so-called 'developed countries'. This review, at the opposite, focused on current literature on prevention of domestic/family violence against children and women in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Establishing effective prevention programmes for domestic violence against women and children in LMICs requires an understanding of the sociopolitical, economic and cultural settings and a multilevel collaboration among various stakeholders. This review confirms the lack of research in the so-called 'developing countries' and provides suggestions for further research and prevention efforts in this setting.

  13. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-03-21

    To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. A systematic review of the literature. 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Effect of Vocabulary Test Preparation on Low-Income Black Middle School Students' Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ingrid; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate; Brown, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Black middle school students in the United States continue to perform poorly on standardized reading achievement tests in comparison to other racial and ethnic groups. The purpose of this research study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary-focused test preparation program for Black middle school students. The theoretical framework…

  15. Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally. Methods Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression. Results This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed. Conclusions Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas. Trial registration number NCT02179112; Pre-results. PMID:28588977

  16. Lessons Learned on Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences Across Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Otmani Del Barrio, Mariam

    2017-06-20

    There is limited published evidence of the effectiveness of adaptation in managing the health risks of climate variability and change in low- and middle-income countries. To document lessons learned and good practice examples from health adaptation pilot projects in low- and middle-income countries to facilitate assessing and overcoming barriers to implementation and to scaling up. We evaluated project reports and related materials from the first five years of implementation (2008-2013) of multinational health adaptation projects in Albania, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. We also collected qualitative data through a focus group consultation and 19 key informant interviews. Our recommendations include that national health plans, policies, and budget processes need to explicitly incorporate the risks of current and projected climate variability and change. Increasing resilience is likely to be achieved through longer-term, multifaceted, and collaborative approaches, with supporting activities (and funding) for capacity building, communication, and institutionalized monitoring and evaluation. Projects should be encouraged to focus not just on shorter-term outputs to address climate variability, but also on establishing processes to address longer-term climate change challenges. Opportunities for capacity development should be created, identified, and reinforced. Our analyses highlight that, irrespective of resource constraints, ministries of health and other institutions working on climate-related health issues in low- and middle-income countries need to continue to prepare themselves to prevent additional health burdens in the context of a changing climate and socioeconomic development patterns. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP405.

  17. Financing mental health services in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Anna; McDaid, David; Knapp, Martin; Curran, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Mental disorders account for a significant and growing proportion of the global burden of disease and yet remain a low priority for public financing in health systems globally. In many low-income countries, formal mental health services are paid for directly by patients out-of-pocket and in middle-income countries undergoing transition there has been a decline in coverage. The paper explores the impact of health care financing arrangements on the efficient and equitable utilization of mental health services. Through a review of the literature and a number of country case studies, the paper examines the impact of financing mental health services from out-of-pocket payments, private health insurance, social health insurance and taxation. The implications for the development of financing systems in low- and middle-income countries are discussed. International evidence suggests that charging patients for mental health services results in levels of use which are below socially efficient levels as the benefits of the services are distributed according to ability to pay, resulting in inequitable access to care. Private health insurance poses three main problems for mental health service users: exclusion of mental health benefits, limited access to those without employment and refusal to insure pre-existing conditions. Social health insurance may offer protection to those with mental health problems. However, in many low- and middle-income countries, eligibility is based on contributions and limited to those in formal employment (therefore excluding many with mental health problems). Tax-funded systems provide universal coverage in theory. However, the quality and distribution of publicly financed health care services makes access difficult in practice, particularly for rural poor communities.

  18. Emergency general surgery in a low-middle income health care setting: Determinants of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adil A; Latif, Asad; Zogg, Cheryl K; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Riviello, Robert; Halim, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Zia; Haider, Adil H; Zafar, Hasnain

    2016-02-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) has emerged as an important component of frontline operative care. Efforts in high-income settings have described its burden but have yet to consider low- and middle-income health care settings in which emergent conditions represent a high proportion of operative need. The objective of this study was to describe the disease spectrum of EGS conditions and associated factors among patients presenting in a low-middle income context. March 2009-April 2014 discharge data from a university teaching hospital in South Asia were obtained for patients (≥16 years) with primary International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes consistent with an EGS condition as defined by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and occurrence of ≥1 major complication(s). Multivariable analyses were performed, adjusting for differences in demographic and case-mix factors. A total of 13,893 discharge records corresponded to EGS conditions. Average age was 47.2 years (±16.8, standard deviation), with a male preponderance (59.9%). The majority presented with admitting diagnoses of biliary disease (20.2%), followed by soft-tissue disorders (15.7%), hernias (14.9%), and colorectal disease (14.3%). Rates of death and complications were 2.7% and 6.6%, respectively; increasing age was an independent predictor of both. Patients in need of resuscitation (n = 225) had the greatest rates of mortality (72.9%) and complications (94.2%). This study takes an important step toward quantifying outcomes and complications of EGS, providing one of the first assessments of EGS conditions using American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definitions in a low-middle income health care setting. Further efforts in varied settings are needed to promote representative benchmarking worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socioeconomic inequality in neonatal mortality in countries of low and middle income: a multicountry analysis.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S; Bergevin, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) in countries of low and middle income have been only slowly decreasing; coverage of essential maternal and newborn health services needs to increase, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Our aim was to produce comparable estimates of changes in socioeconomic inequalities in NMR in the past two decades across these countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for countries in which a survey was done in 2008 or later and one about 10 years previously. We measured absolute inequalities with the slope index of inequality and relative inequalities with the relative index of inequality. We used an asset-based wealth index and maternal education as measures of socioeconomic position and summarised inequality estimates for all included countries with random-effects meta-analysis. 24 low-income and middle-income countries were eligible for inclusion. In most countries, absolute and relative wealth-related and educational inequalities in NMR decreased between survey 1 and survey 2. In five countries (Cameroon, Nigeria, Malawi, Mozambique, and Uganda), the difference in NMR between the top and bottom of the wealth distribution was reduced by more than two neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths per year. By contrast, wealth-related inequality increased by more than 1·5 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths per year in Ethiopia and Cambodia. Patterns of change in absolute and relative educational inequalities in NMR were similar to those of wealth-related NMR inequalities, although the size of educational inequalities tended to be slightly larger. Socioeconomic inequality in NMR seems to have decreased in the past two decades in most countries of low and middle income. However, a substantial survival advantage remains for babies born into wealthier households with a high educational level, which should be considered in global efforts to further reduce NMR. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Copyright © 2014 Mc

  20. Potential market size and impact of hepatitis C treatment in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Woode, M E; Abu-Zaineh, M; Perriëns, J; Renaud, F; Wiktor, S; Moatti, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has made hepatitis C infection curable in the vast majority of cases and the elimination of the infection possible. Although initially too costly for large-scale use, recent reductions in DAA prices in some low- and middle-income countries (LaMICs) has improved the prospect of many people having access to these drugs/medications in the future. This article assesses the pricing and financing conditions under which the uptake of DAAs can increase to the point where the elimination of the disease in LaMICs is feasible. A Markov simulation model is used to study the dynamics of the infection with the introduction of treatment over a 10-year period. The impact on HCV-related mortality and HCV incidence is assessed under different financing scenarios assuming that the cost of the drugs is completely paid for out-of-pocket or reduced through either subsidy or drug price decreases. It is also assessed under different diagnostic and service delivery capacity scenarios separately for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (LMIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC). Monte Carlo simulations are used for sensitivity analyses. At a price of US$ 1680 per 12-week treatment duration (based on negotiated Egyptian prices for an all oral two-DAA regimen), most of the people infected in LICs and LMICs would have limited access to treatment without subsidy or significant drug price decreases. However, people in UMICs would be able to access it even in the absence of a subsidy. For HCV treatment to have a significant impact on mortality and incidence, a significant scaling-up of diagnostic and service delivery capacity for HCV infection is needed. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. Method A systematic review of the literature. Data sources 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Study selection Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Data extraction Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Data synthesis The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. Results This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. Conclusions This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. PMID:27000787

  2. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eating Dinner Away from Home: Perspectives of Middle- to High-Income Parents

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Shannon M.; Crosby, Lori E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand barriers and facilitators for preparing and eating dinner at home in families who report eating dinner away from home ≥3 per week. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (focus groups, questionnaires) study. Twenty-seven parents with a child 3–10 years-old who reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week from a pediatric medical center in the Midwest participated. The key concepts analytic framework guided focus group analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize parent demographics, anthropometrics, attitudes and confidence toward cooking, perceptions of dinner costs and portions, and parent and child dinners. Parents reported confidence in cooking a home prepared meal, but that eating away from home was reinforcing because it provided quality family time and diminished barriers such as picky eating and perceived costs. Home cooking was also hindered by early school lunch and after-school sports as children were not hungry or home at the typical dinner hour and parents did not want to cook after 8pm. Parents estimated preparing and eating a meal at home took significantly more time than driving and eating out (80.7 minutes vs. 30.3 minutes, p<0.001). Parents significantly (F (3, 104) = 8.80, p<0.001) overestimated the cost of home-prepared meals compared to take-out and frozen meals. Portion size was also overestimated for a protein serving. Findings are limited to predominantly married, female parents whom are highly educated and working. To reduce eating out, interventions should address family factors (e.g., time management, quality time) and child behavior (e.g., picky eating). Innovative interventions that include experiential cooking opportunities that incorporate time management, address picky eating and enthusiasm for cooking with education on decreasing costs may be particularly beneficial for middle- to high-income families. PMID:26386299

  4. Diagnostic reference levels in low- and middle-income countries: early "ALARAm" bells?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Steven; Groenewald, Willem A; Pitcher, Richard D

    2017-04-01

    Background In 1996 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introduced diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a quality assurance tool for radiation dose optimization. While many countries have published DRLs, available data are largely from high-income countries. There is arguably a greater need for DRLs in low- and middle-income-countries (LMICs), where imaging equipment may be older and trained imaging technicians are scarce. To date, there has been no critical analysis of the published work on DRLs in LMICs. Such work is important to evaluate data deficiencies and stimulate future quality assurance initiatives. Purpose To review the published work on DRLs in LMICs and to critically analyze the comprehensiveness of available data. Material and Methods Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science database searches were conducted for English-language articles published between 1996 and 2015 documenting DRLs for diagnostic imaging in LMICs. Retrieved articles were analyzed and classified by geographical region, country of origin, contributing author, year of publication, imaging modality, body part, and patient age. Results Fifty-three articles reported DRLs for 28 of 135 LMICs (21%), reflecting data from 26/104 (25%) middle-income countries and 2/31 (6%) low-income countries. General radiography (n = 26, 49%) and computerized tomography (n = 17, 32%) data were most commonly reported. Pediatric DRLs (n = 14, 26%) constituted approximately one-quarter of published work. Conclusion Published DRL data are deficient in the majority of LMICs, with the paucity most striking in low-income countries. DRL initiatives are required in LMICs to enhance dose optimization.

  5. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  6. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  7. Tobacco use and household expenditures on food, education, and healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Bautista, Mary Ann

    2015-10-31

    The majority of one billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the highest proportion of smokers in most of these countries belong to the lower socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to investigate the associations between tobacco use within households and expenditures on food, education, and healthcare in LMICs. Using data from the World Health Survey, this cross-sectional study included a sample of 53,625 adult males aged <60 years from 40 LMICs. Multilevel, mixed-effects linear regression was used to determine the association between current tobacco use status of the main income provider (daily; occasional; no use) and three categories of (logged) household expenditures: food, education, and healthcare; controlling for age, level of education, household wealth quintile, marital status, urban-rural setting, country-level income group, and region. In the preferred random-slope models that controlled for covariates, daily tobacco use was associated with lower household expenditures on education and healthcare by 8.0% (95% confidence interval: -12.8 to -3.2%) and 5.5% (-10.7 to -0.3%), respectively. The association between tobacco use and food expenditure was inconsistent across models. Tobacco use in LMICs may have a negative influence on investment in human capital development. Addressing the tobacco use problem in LMICs could benefit not only the health and economic well-being of smokers and their immediate families but also long-run economic development at a societal level.

  8. The Diagnosis of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experience from Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Reece, Jody; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The administration requirements of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, widely used in high-income countries, make them less feasible for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries. The flexible administration requirements of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale have…

  9. Resources Required for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Sharma, Monisha; Clark, Andrew; Kim, Jane J; Resch, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a modeling analysis to estimate 1) for girls aged 10 years, the cost of 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination; and 2) for women aged 30 to 49 years, the cost of cervical cancer screening (with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV testing, or cytology) and preventive treatment in 102 low- and middle-income countries from 2015 to 2024. We used an Excel-based costing and service utilization model to estimate financial costs (2013 US$) based on prevalence of HPV, prevalence of precancerous lesions, and screening test performance. Where epidemiologic data were unavailable, we extrapolated from settings with data using an individual-based microsimulation model of cervical carcinogenesis (calibrated to 20 settings) and multivariate regression. Total HPV vaccination costs ranged from US$8.6 billion to US$24.2 billion for all scenarios considered (immediate, 5-year, or 10-year roll-out; price per dose US$4.55-US$70 by country income level). The total cost of screening and preventive treatment ranged from US$5.1 billion (10-year roll-out, screening once at age 35 years) to US$42.3 billion (immediate roll-out, high intensity screening). Limitations of this analysis include the assumption of standardized protocols by country income level that did not account for the potential presence of multiple screening modalities or management strategies within a country, and extrapolation of cost

  10. A New Approach of Measuring Hospital Performance for Low- and Middle-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Vishnu Prasad; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency of the hospitals affects the price of health services. Health care payments have equity implications. Evidence on hospital performance can support to design the policy; however, the recent literature on hospital efficiency produced conflicting results. Consequently, policy decisions are uncertain. Even the most of evidence were produced by using data from high income countries. Conflicting results were produced particularly due to differences in methods of measuring performance. Recently a management approach has been developed to measure the hospital performance. This approach to measure the hospital performance is very useful from policy perspective to improve health system from cost-effective way in low and middle income countries. Measuring hospital performance through management approach has some basic characteristics such as scoring management practices through double blind survey, measuring hospital outputs using various indicators, estimating the relationship between management practices and outputs of the hospitals. This approach has been successfully applied to developed countries; however, some revisions are required without violating the fundamental principle of this approach to replicate in low- and middle-income countries. The process has been clearly defined and applied to Nepal. As the results of this, the approach produced expected results. The paper contributes to improve the approach to measure hospital performance. PMID:26617448

  11. Depression and Type 2 Diabetes in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A.; Shidhaye, Rahul; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-01-01

    Eighty percent of people with type 2 diabetes reside in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet much of the research around depression among people with diabetes has been conducted in high-income countries (HICs). In this systematic review we searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, and PsychINFO for studies that assessed depression among people with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Our focus on quantitative studies provided a prevalence of co-morbid depression among those with diabetes. We reviewed 48 studies from 1,091 references. We found that this research has been conducted primarily in middle-income countries, including India (n=8), Mexico (n=8), Brazil (n=5), and China (n=5). There was variation in prevalence of co-morbid depression across studies, but these differences did not reveal regional differences and seemed to result from study sample (e.g., urban vs rural and clinical vs population-based samples). Fifteen depression inventories were administered across the studies. We concluded that despite substantial diabetes burden in LMICs, few studies have reviewed co-morbid depression and diabetes. Our review suggests depression among people with diabetes in LMICs may be higher than in HICs. Evidence from these 48 studies underscores the need for comprehensive mental health care that can be integrated into diabetes care within LMIC health systems. PMID:24485858

  12. Reflections on the development of health economics in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne

    2014-08-22

    Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623-1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding.

  13. Reflections on the development of health economics in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623–1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost–benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding. PMID:25009059

  14. The impact of health systems on diabetes care in low and lower middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Beran, David

    2015-04-01

    This review will highlight the current challenges and barriers to diabetes management in low and lower middle income countries using the World Health Organization's 6 Building Blocks for Health Systems (service delivery; healthcare workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; financing; and leadership and governance). Low and lower middle income countries are characterized by low levels of income and insufficient health expenditure. These countries face a shift in disease burden from communicable to non-communicable diseases including diabetes. Many argue that health systems in these countries do not have the capacity to meet the needs of people with chronic conditions such as diabetes. A variety of barriers exist in terms of organization of health systems and care, human resources, sufficient information for decision-making, availability and affordability of medicines, policies, and alleviating the financial burden of care. These health system barriers need to be addressed, taking into account the need to have diabetes included in the global development agenda and also tailoring the response to local contexts including the needs of people with diabetes.

  15. Strategies for Better Hypertension Control in India and Other Lower Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Khedar, Raghuvir Singh; Panwar, Raja Babu

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most important cause of global burden of disease. It is highly prevalent in India and other low and lower-middle income countries. Prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension varies from 70-90% and is significantly greater in rural vs urban locations. Guidelines based treatment strategy has improved blood pressure (BP) control in high income countries but no context-specific guidelines exist in low and lower-middle income countries such as India. There are numerous barriers to proper BP control in these countries and include political apathy, bureaucratic inertia, weak health systems, overburdened healthcare providers and unempowered patients. Hypertension control can be improved in these countries by better political focus on social determinants of health such as education, development of health systems, proper healthcare financing, free or low-cost BP medicines, healthcare provider education for hypertension management, free primary care, task sharing with trained community health workers, patient empowerment and use of technological innovations. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  16. A New Approach of Measuring Hospital Performance for Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Sapkota, Vishnu Prasad; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-11-01

    Efficiency of the hospitals affects the price of health services. Health care payments have equity implications. Evidence on hospital performance can support to design the policy; however, the recent literature on hospital efficiency produced conflicting results. Consequently, policy decisions are uncertain. Even the most of evidence were produced by using data from high income countries. Conflicting results were produced particularly due to differences in methods of measuring performance. Recently a management approach has been developed to measure the hospital performance. This approach to measure the hospital performance is very useful from policy perspective to improve health system from cost-effective way in low and middle income countries. Measuring hospital performance through management approach has some basic characteristics such as scoring management practices through double blind survey, measuring hospital outputs using various indicators, estimating the relationship between management practices and outputs of the hospitals. This approach has been successfully applied to developed countries; however, some revisions are required without violating the fundamental principle of this approach to replicate in low- and middle-income countries. The process has been clearly defined and applied to Nepal. As the results of this, the approach produced expected results. The paper contributes to improve the approach to measure hospital performance.

  17. Withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments in low-middle-income versus high-income Asian countries and regions.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Joynt, Gavin M; Nishimura, Masaji; Deng, Yiyun; Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Chan, Yiong Huak; Binh, Nguyen Gia; Tan, Cheng Cheng; Faruq, Mohammad Omar; Arabi, Yaseen M; Wahjuprajitno, Bambang; Liu, Shih-Feng; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kashif, Waqar; Staworn, Dusit; Palo, Jose Emmanuel; Koh, Younsuck

    2016-07-01

    To compare the attitudes of physicians towards withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in intensive care units (ICUs) in low-middle-income Asian countries and regions with those in high-income ones, and to explore differences in the role of families and surrogates, legal risks, and financial considerations between these countries and regions. Questionnaire study conducted in May-December 2012 on 847 physicians from 255 ICUs in 10 low-middle-income countries and regions according to the World Bank's classification, and 618 physicians from 211 ICUs in six high-income countries and regions. After we accounted for personal, ICU, and hospital characteristics on multivariable analyses using generalised linear mixed models, physicians from low-middle-income countries and regions were less likely to limit cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and inotropes, tracheostomy and haemodialysis than those from high-income countries and regions. They were more likely to involve families in end-of-life care discussions and to perceive legal risks with limitation of life-sustaining treatments and do-not-resuscitate orders. Nonetheless, they were also more likely to accede to families' requests to withdraw life-sustaining treatments in a patient with an otherwise reasonable chance of survival on financial grounds in a case scenario (adjusted odds ratio 5.05, 95 % confidence interval 2.69-9.51, P < 0.001). Significant differences in ICU physicians' self-reported practice of limiting life-sustaining treatments, the role of families and surrogates, perception of legal risks and financial considerations exist between low-middle-income and high-income Asian countries and regions.

  18. The use of private-sector contracts for primary health care: theory, evidence and lessons for low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, N.

    2000-01-01

    Contracts for the delivery of public services are promoted as a means of harnessing the resources of the private sector and making publicly funded services more accountable, transparent and efficient. This is also argued for health reforms in many low- and middle-income countries, where reform packages often promote the use of contracts despite the comparatively weaker capacity of markets and governments to manage them. This review highlights theories and evidence relating to contracts for primary health care services and examines their implications for contractual relationships in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:10916919

  19. New dynamics in global obesity facing low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Slining, M M

    2013-11-01

    Levels of overweight and obesity across low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have approached levels found in higher-income countries. This is particularly true in the Middle East and North Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean. Using nationally representative samples of women aged 19-49, n = 815,609, this paper documents the annualized rate of increase of overweight from the first survey in early 1990 to the last survey in the present millennium. Overweight increases ranged from 0.31% per year to 0.92% per year for Latin America and the Caribbean and for the Middle East and North Africa, respectively. For a sample of eight countries, using quantile regression, we further demonstrate that mean body mass index (BMI) at the 95th percentile has increased significantly across all regions, representing predicted weight increases of 5-10 kg. Furthermore we highlight a major new concern in LMICs, documenting waist circumference increases of 2-4 cm at the same BMI (e.g. 25) over an 18-year period. In sum, this paper indicates growing potential for increased cardiometabolic problems linked with a large rightward shift in the BMI distribution and increased waist circumference at each BMI level.

  20. Gender gap matters in maternal mortality in low and lower-middle-income countries: A study of the global Gender Gap Index.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hongsoo

    2017-09-01

    Reducing maternal mortality has been a crucial part of the global development agenda. According to modernisation theory, the effect of gender equality on maternal health may differ depending on a country's economic development status. We explored the correlation between the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) provided by the World Economic Forum and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) obtained from the World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. The relationships between each score in the GGI, including its four sub-indices (measuring gender gaps in economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment), and the MMR were analysed. When the countries were stratified by gross national income per capita, the low and lower-middle-income countries had lower scores in the GGI, and lower scores in the economic participation, educational attainment, and political empowerment sub-indices than the high-income group. Among the four sub-indices, the educational attainment sub-index showed a significant inverse correlation with the MMR in low and lower-middle-income countries when controlling for the proportion of skilled birth attendance and public share of health expenditure. This finding suggests that strategic efforts to reduce the gender gap in educational attainment could lead to improvements in maternal health in low and lower-middle-income countries.

  1. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country: a call for urgency.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hiong, Tee Guat; Cheong, Kee Chee; Lim, Chiao Mei; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and its clustering. The findings are to help shape the Malaysian future healthcare planning for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was used. The survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire. A total of 37,906 eligible participants aged 18 years and older was identified, of whom 34,505 (91%) participated. Focus was on hypertension, hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired fasting glucose), hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity. Overall, 63% (95% confidence limits 62, 65%) of the participants had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, 33% (32, 35%) had two or more and 14% (12, 15%) had three risk factors or more. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity were 38%, 15%, 24% and 37%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors for most age groups; adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.1 (0.91, 1.32) to 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for the presence of one risk factor and 1.07 (0.91, 1.32) to 2.00 (1.78, 2.25) for two or more risk factors. Cardiovascular risk-factor clustering provides a clear impression of the true burden of cardiovascular disease risk in the population. Women displayed higher prevalence and a younger age shift in clustering was seen. These findings signal the presence of a cardiovascular epidemic in an upcoming middle-income country and provide evidence that drastic measures have to be taken to safeguard the health of the nation.

  2. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3–6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents’ attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Results Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents’ attitude to school were not significant. Conclusions A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school. PMID:22500015

  3. Management of Noncommunicable Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, William; Ghannem, Hassen; Irazola, Vilma; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Levitt, Naomi S.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Niessen, Louis; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sigamani, Alben; Smith, Richard; Tandon, Nikhil; Wu, Yangfeng; Xavier, Denis; Yan, Lijing L.

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD), comprising cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are increasing in incidence rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Some patients have access to the same treatments available in high-income countries, but most do not, and different strategies are needed. Most research on noncommunicable diseases has been conducted in high-income countries, but the need for research in LMICs has been recognized. LMICs can learn from high-income countries, but they need to devise their own systems that emphasize primary care, the use of community health workers, and sometimes the use of mobile technology. The World Health Organization has identified “best buys” it advocates as interventions in LMICs. Non-laboratory-based risk scores can be used to identify those at high risk. Targeting interventions to those at high risk for developing diabetes has been shown to work in LMICs. Indoor cooking with biomass fuels is an important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in LMICs, and improved cookstoves with chimneys may be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25592798

  4. Extending Marketplace Tax Credits Would Make Coverage More Affordable for Middle-Income Adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jodi; Eiber, Christine

    2017-07-01

    ISSUE: Affordability of health coverage is a growing challenge for Americans facing rising premiums, deductibles, and copayments. The Affordable Care Act's tax credits make marketplace insurance more affordable for eligible lower-income individuals. However, individuals lose tax credits when their income exceeds 400 percent of the federal poverty level, creating a steep cliff. GOALS: To analyze the effects of extending eligibility for tax credits to individuals with incomes above 400 percent of the federal poverty level. METHODS: We used RAND's COMPARE microsimulation model to examine changes in insurance coverage and health care spending. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Extending tax-credit eligibility increases insurance enrollment by 1.2 million, at a total federal cost of $6.0 billion. Those who would benefit from the tax-credit extension are mostly middle-income adults ages 50 to 64. These new enrollees would be healthier than current enrollees their age, which would improve the risk pool and lower premiums. Eliminating the cliff at 400 percent of the federal poverty level is one policy option that may be considered to increase affordability of insurance.

  5. Infectious complications in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in low-middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Caniza, Miguela A; Odio, Carla; Mukkada, Sheena; Gonzalez, Miriam; Ceppi, Francesco; Chaisavaneeyakorn, Sujittra; Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Howard, Scott C; Conter, Valentino; Bonilla, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Infections are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The rates of infection-associated mortality are up to 10-times higher in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) than in high-income countries. The prevention, early recognition and management of infectious complications is especially challenging in LMIC because of disease and poverty-related factors, as well as the shortage of trained personnel, supplies, diagnostic tools and adequate organizational infrastructure. Children in LMIC with ALL, who are frequently underweight, are at increased risk of community-acquired pathogens, nosocomial multidrug-resistant pathogens and opportunistic microorganisms. This review summarizes the challenges of managing the major categories of infections in children receiving treatment for ALL and provides updated practical recommendations for preventing and managing these infections in LMIC.

  6. Is there a role for 3D dosimetry in low- and middle-income countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Court, L. E.

    2017-05-01

    Low- and middle-income countries face significant challenges in developing comprehensive cancer programs. In some cases this involves opening radiation therapy centres in countries where patients have had almost no access to radiotherapy. In additiona to many political and administrative hurdles, staff and equipment shortages are significant. It is these shortages, perhaps, that researchers in high-income countries can have an impact. Perhaps we can adapt our technologies or processes to improve simplicity, robustness and efficiency, or perhaps we can redesign them to reduce cost. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the challenges to the 3D dosimetry community, and to promote discussion on whether 3D dosimetry systems can be redesigned or newly developed to help address some of these.

  7. Treatment strategies for chronic osteomyelitis in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Geurts, J; Hohnen, A; Vranken, T; Moh, P

    2017-09-01

    To identify a standard treatment regime or highly successful procedure for chronic osteomyelitis in low- and middle-income countries. Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. The initial search resulted in 102 studies of which nine met the inclusion criteria and were analysed qualitatively. The included studies involved 1173 patients from Africa and Asia. All patients were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis. Surgical and antibiotic treatment regimens differed substantially. No better judgement than moderate risk of selection bias could be made due to the study designs. The evidence is not sufficiently robust to identify the most effective treatment, or to even allow a recommendation of the best suitable treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in low-income countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Challenges in the management of breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cheng-Har; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to 'westernization' of risk factors for developing breast cancer. However, survival remains low because of barriers in early detection and optimal access to treatment, which are the two main determinants of breast cancer outcome. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment gives the best results. An accurate diagnosis is dependent on a reliable pathology service, which will provide an adequate pathology report with prognostic and predictor information to allow optimal oncological treatment. Stratification of clinical practice guidelines based on resource level will ensure that women will have access to treatment even in a low-resource setting. Advocacy and civil society play a role in galvanizing the political will required to meet the challenge of providing opportunities for breast cancer control in LMICs. Collaboration between high-income countries and LMICs could be a strategy in facing these challenges.

  9. Predicting individual differences in low-income children's executive control from early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Cybele Raver, C; McCoy, Dana Charles; Lowenstein, Amy E; Pess, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    The present longitudinal study tested the roles of early childhood executive control (EC) as well as exposure to poverty-related adversity at family and school levels as key predictors of low-income children's EC in elementary school (n = 391). Findings suggest that children's EC difficulties in preschool and lower family income from early to middle childhood are robust predictors of later EC difficulties as rated by teachers in 2nd and 3rd grades. Findings also suggest enrollment in unsafe elementary schools is significantly predictive of higher levels of teacher-rated EC difficulty, but only for those children who showed initially elevated levels of EC difficulty in early childhood. Implications for scientific models of cognitive development and poverty-related adversity are discussed.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heart Failure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Alenezi, Fawaz; Barasa, Felix A; Lumsden, Rebecca; Mayosi, Bongani M; Velazquez, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    Successful combination therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed this disease from a short-lived infection with high mortality to a chronic disease associated with increasing life expectancy. This is true for high- as well as low- and middle-income countries. As a result of this increased life expectancy, people living with HIV are now at risk of developing other chronic diseases associated with aging. Heart failure has been common among people living with HIV in the eras of pre- and post- availability of antiretroviral therapy; however, our current understanding of the pathogenesis and approaches to management have not been systematically addressed. HIV may cause heart failure through direct (e.g., viral replication, mitochondrial dysfunction, cardiac autoimmunity, autonomic dysfunction) and indirect (e.g., opportunistic infections, antiretroviral therapy, alcohol abuse, micronutrient deficiency, tobacco use) pathways. In low- and middle-income countries, 2 large observational studies have recently reported clinical characteristics and outcomes in these patients. HIV-associated heart failure remains a common cardiac diagnosis in people living with heart failure, yet a unifying set of diagnostic criteria is lacking. Treatment patterns for heart failure fall short of society guidelines. Although there may be promise in cardiac glycosides for treating heart failure in people living with HIV, clinical studies are needed to validate in vitro findings. Owing to the burden of HIV in low- and middle-income countries and the concurrent rise of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, strategic and concerted efforts in this area are likely to impact the care of people living with HIV around the globe. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Past, present, and future of stroke in middle-income countries: the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sheila Cristina Ouriques; Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; Alves, Cloer Vescia; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez; Filho, Jamary Oliveira; Tosta, Elza Dias; Cabral, Norberto Luiz

    2013-10-01

    Stroke is one of the major public health challenges in middle-income countries. Brazil is the world's sixth largest economy but was clearly behind the milestones in the fight against stroke, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the country. Nevertheless, many initiatives are now reshaping stroke prevention, care, and rehabilitation in the country. The present article discusses the evolution of stroke care in Brazil over the last decade. We describe the main characteristics of stroke care before 2008; a pilot study in a Southern Brazilian city between 2008 and 2010, the Brazilian Stroke Project initiative; and the 2012 National Stroke Policy Act. The National Stroke Project was followed by a major increased on the number of stroke center in the country. The key elements of the 2012 National Stroke Policy Act included: definition of the requirements and levels of stroke centers; improved reimbursement for stroke care; promotion of stroke telemedicine; definition of the Line of Stroke Care (to integrate available resources and other health programs); increased funding for stroke rehabilitation; funding for training of healthcare professionals and initiatives to increase awareness about stroke within the population. The evolution of stroke care in Brazil over the last decade is a pathway that exemplifies the challenges that middle-income countries have to face in order to improve stroke prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. The reported Brazilian experience can be extrapolated to understand the past, present, and future of stroke care in middle-income countries. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Influencing policy change: the experience of health think tanks in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Sara; Corluka, Adrijana; Doherty, Jane; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Jesani, Amar; Kyabaggu, Joseph; Namaganda, Grace; Hussain, A M Zakir; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in the number of independent health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries which has occurred in response to the limitation of government analytical capacity and pressures associated with democratization. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the contribution made by health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries to health policy agenda setting, formulation, implementation and monitoring and evaluation; and (ii) assess which factors, including organizational form and structure, support the role of health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries in terms of positively contributing to health policy. Six case studies of health policy analysis institutes in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam were conducted including two NGOs, two university and two government-owned policy analysis institutes. Case studies drew on document review, analysis of financial information, semi-structured interviews with staff and other stakeholders, and iterative feedback of draft findings. Some of the institutes had made major contributions to policy development in their respective countries. All of the institutes were actively engaged in providing policy advice and most undertook policy-relevant research. Relatively few were engaged in conducting policy dialogues, or systematic reviews, or commissioning research. Much of the work undertaken by institutes was driven by requests from government or donors, and the primary outputs for most institutes were research reports, frequently combined with verbal briefings. Several factors were critical in supporting effective policy engagement. These included a supportive policy environment, some degree of independence in governance and financing, and strong links to policy makers that facilitate trust and influence. While the formal relationship of the institute to government was not found to be critical, units within

  13. Choice of injury scoring system in low- and middle-income countries: Lessons from Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Laytin, Adam D; Kumar, Vineet; Juillard, Catherine J; Sarang, Bhakti; Lashoher, Angela; Roy, Nobhojit; Dicker, Rochelle A

    2015-12-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Effective trauma surveillance is imperative to guide research and quality improvement interventions, so an accurate metric for quantifying injury severity is crucial. The objectives of this study are (1) to assess the feasibility of calculating five injury scoring systems--ISS (injury severity score), RTS (revised trauma score), KTS (Kampala trauma score), MGAP (mechanism, GCS (Glasgow coma score), age, pressure) and GAP (GCS, age, pressure)--with data from a trauma registry in a lower middle-income country and (2) to determine which of these scoring systems most accurately predicts in-hospital mortality in this setting. This is a retrospective analysis of data from an institutional trauma registry in Mumbai, India. Values for each score were calculated when sufficient data were available. Logistic regression was used to compare the correlation between each score and in-hospital mortality. There were sufficient data recorded to calculate ISS in 73% of patients, RTS in 35%, KTS in 35%, MGAP in 88% and GAP in 92%. ISS was the weakest predictor of in-hospital mortality, while RTS, KTS, MGAP and GAP scores all correlated well with in-hospital mortality (area under ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve 0.69 for ISS, 0.85 for RTS, 0.86 for KTS, 0.84 for MGAP, 0.85 for GAP). Respiratory rate measurements, missing in 63% of patients, were a major barrier to calculating RTS and KTS. Given the realities of medical practice in low- and middle-income countries, it is reasonable to modify the approach to characterising injury severity to favour simplified injury scoring systems that accurately predict in-hospital mortality despite limitations in trauma registry datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2016-10-13

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as 'quality assessment tool', 'quality assessment method', 'quality measurement', 'LMIC', 'developing country', 'family planning' and 'reproductive health' were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  15. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  16. Involvement of low- and middle-income countries in randomized controlled trial publications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janice C; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Amin, Shubarna; Lwin, Zarnie; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2014-12-13

    We describe trends in participation by investigators from low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) in publications describing oncology randomized control trials (RCTs) over a decade. We used Medline to identify RCTs published in English from 1998 to 2008 evaluating treatment in lung, breast, colorectal, stomach and liver cancers. Data on author affiliations, authorship roles, trial characteristics, funding and interventions were extracted from each article. Countries were stratified as low-, middle- or high-income using World Bank data. Interventions were categorized as requiring basic, limited, enhanced or maximal resources as per the Breast Health Global Initiative classification. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with authorship by investigators from LMCs. 454 publications were identified. Proportion of articles with at least one LMC author increased over time from 20% in 1998 to 29% in 2008 (p = 0.01), but almost all LMC authors were from middle-income countries. Proportion of articles with at least one LMC author was higher among articles that explicitly reported recruitment in at least one LMC vs those that did not (76% vs 13%). Among 87 articles (19%) that involved authors from LMCs, 17% had LMC authors as first or corresponding authors, and 67% evaluated interventions requiring enhanced or maximal resources. Factors associated with LMC authorship included industry funding (OR = 3.54, p = 0.0001), placebo comparator arm (OR = 2.57, p = 0.02) and palliative intent treatment (OR = 4.00, p = 0.0003). An increasing number of publications describing oncology RCTs involve authors from LMC countries but primarily in non-leadership roles in industry-funded trials.

  17. Immunodeficiency at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy in low-, middle- and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC) and high-income (HIC) countries. Methods Patients aged ≥16 years starting cART in a clinic participating in a multi-cohort collaboration spanning six continents (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS and ART Cohort Collaboration) were eligible. Multi-level linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender and calendar year; missing CD4 counts were imputed. Findings 379,865 patients from nine LIC, four LMIC, four UMIC and six HIC were included. In LIC the median CD4 cell count at cART initiation increased by 83% from 80 to 145 cells/μl between 2002 and 2009. Corresponding increases in LMIC, UMIC and HIC were from 87 to 155 cells/μl (76% increase), 88 to 135 cells/μl (53%) and 209 to 274 cells/μl (31%). In 2009, compared to LIC, median counts were 13 cells/μl (95% CI -56 to +30) lower in LMIC, 22 cells/μl (-62 to +18) lower in UMIC and 112 /μl (+75 to +149) higher in HIC. They were 23 cells/μl (95% CI +18 to +28) higher in women than men. Median counts were 88 cells/μl (95% CI +35 to +141) higher in countries with an estimated national cART coverage >80%, compared to countries with <40% coverage. Conclusions Median CD4 cell counts at start of cART increased 2000-2009 but remained below 200 cells/μl in LIC and MIC and below 300 cells/μl in HIC. Earlier start of cART will require substantial efforts and resources globally. PMID:24419071

  18. Ethics issues in social media-based HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chingche J; Menacho, Luis; Fisher, Celia; Young, Sean D

    2015-07-01

    Questions have been raised regarding participants' safety and comfort when participating in e-health education programs. Although researchers have begun to explore this issue in the United States, little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where Internet and social media use is rapidly growing. This article reports on a quantitative study with Peruvian men who have sex with men who had previously participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) program, a Facebook-based HIV education program. The survey assessed participants' ethics-relevant perspectives during recruitment, consent, intervention, and follow-up.

  19. EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Suryanto; Plummer, Virginia; Boyle, Malcolm

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Prehospital care is one of the many issues that require addressing by lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where approximately 90% of global injuries occur. This may arise from more traffic in LMICs, poor road conditions, lack of public awareness of the importance of road safety, and the lack of ability to provide first aid to the victims. However, prehospital care in LMICs remains underdeveloped. Problem There is insufficient evidence regarding the development of prehospital care among LMICs. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the status of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in these countries.

  20. Can we prevent cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Lenfant, C.

    2001-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, the largest cause of death worldwide, is rapidly becoming a major threat in low- and middle-income countries. Experience in a variety of populations has demonstrated that lowering certain risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, reduces illness and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. A dual approach is recommended: screening and intervening in cases of relatively high risk, while fostering population-wide preventive activities. This is both feasible and affordable. Now is the time to make such efforts. PMID:11693981

  1. Enhancing Neurosurgical Education in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Current Methods and New Advances.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kevin E; Bernstein, Ilia; Kato, Yoko; Kawase, Takeshi; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-11-15

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a critical shortage of basic surgical services. Adequate neurosurgical services can have a far-reaching positive impact on society's health care and, consequently, the economic development in LMICs. Yet surgery, and specifically neurosurgery has been a long neglected sector of global health. This article reviews the current efforts to enhance neurosurgery education in LMICs and outlines ongoing approaches for improvement. In addition, we introduce the concept of a sustainable and cost-effective model to enhance neurosurgical resources in LMICs and describe the process and methods of online curriculum development.

  2. Lessons learnt from school-based health promotion projects in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Skar, M; Kirstein, E; Kapur, A

    2015-11-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are now the leading cause of death worldwide. As habits and lifestyle are established in childhood and adolescence, targeting school children before they develop unhealthy habits offers a window of opportunity to halt and reverse the emerging NCD epidemic. However, few experiences from school interventions in low- and middle-income countries have been collected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review experiences of implementing school-based health promotion interventions to identify barriers and recommendations for future interventions. A qualitative investigation of 17 school-based health promotion interventions in low- and middle-income countries was conducted. Data were collected through questionnaires (15 project leaders) and in-depth interviews with nine project leaders. The data from the questionnaires and interviews was triangulated and analysed using content analysis, where themes and categories emerging from the material were explored. Three key themes emerged from the data: 1) policy environment and stakeholder engagement, 2) health education sessions, and 3) practical health promotion activities. The themes explored the experiences and lessons learned from 17 school-based health promotion projects in low- and middle-income countries. Stakeholders at different administrative levels were important for the projects; however, stakeholders close to implementation were seen to be more engaged. Most projects conducted traditional health education lectures, which formed the basis of their intervention. Promotion of physical activity and healthy eating through participatory approaches were identified; however, barriers such as lack of areas suitable for physical activity and lack of healthy food alternatives in schools can obstruct the successful implementation of interventions. This study has documented experiences with school-based health promotion in low- and middle-income countries, and has shown that schools can play

  3. Enhancing Neurosurgical Education in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Current Methods and New Advances

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, Kevin E; BERNSTEIN, Ilia; KATO, Yoko; KAWASE, Takeshi; HODAIE, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a critical shortage of basic surgical services. Adequate neurosurgical services can have a far-reaching positive impact on society’s health care and, consequently, the economic development in LMICs. Yet surgery, and specifically neurosurgery has been a long neglected sector of global health. This article reviews the current efforts to enhance neurosurgery education in LMICs and outlines ongoing approaches for improvement. In addition, we introduce the concept of a sustainable and cost-effective model to enhance neurosurgical resources in LMICs and describe the process and methods of online curriculum development. PMID:27616319

  4. Financail Disaster Risk Mangement Solutions for Life Systems Infrastructure in Low and Middle Income Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skees, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Growing populations and increased frequency of extreme climate events as a result of anthropogenic climate change will make poor populations more vulnerable in the future. Seismic events (earthquakes and tsunamis) also create extreme hazards for the poor and vulnerable living in cities in low and middle income countries. Vulnerability of life-systems infrastructure (e.g., water treatment facilities, hospitals, protective sea walls, etc.) to extreme climate and seismic events compound problems for the poor and vulnerable. By using risk hazard modelling with engineering design, it is possible to blend improved engineering in concert with financial disaster risk management (including insurance) solutions to improve the resiliency of life-systems infrastructure.

  5. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Reid, A. J.; Van den Bergh, R.; Isaakidis, P.; Draguez, B.; Delaunois, P.; Nagaraja, S. B.; Ramsay, A.; Reeder, J. C.; Denisiuk, O.; Ali, E.; Khogali, M.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Kosgei, R. J.; van Griensven, J.; Quaglio, G. L.; Maher, D.; Billo, N. E.; Terry, R. F.; Harries, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the ‘open-access spectrum’. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access. PMID:26400799

  6. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Kumar, A M V; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Isaakidis, P; Draguez, B; Delaunois, P; Nagaraja, S B; Ramsay, A; Reeder, J C; Denisiuk, O; Ali, E; Khogali, M; Hinderaker, S G; Kosgei, R J; van Griensven, J; Quaglio, G L; Maher, D; Billo, N E; Terry, R F; Harries, A D

    2014-09-21

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the 'open-access spectrum'. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access.

  7. Education Modifies the Association of Wealth with Obesity in Women in Middle-Income but Not Low-Income Countries: An Interaction Study Using Seven National Datasets, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15–49 years collected in the period 2005–2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented Results In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001). Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects. PMID:24608086

  8. Education modifies the association of wealth with obesity in women in middle-income but not low-income countries: an interaction study using seven national datasets, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J; Marmot, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented. In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001). Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001). The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.

  9. Low income, unemployment, and suicide mortality rates for middle-age persons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Sakai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-04-01

    The relationships between age-specific suicide mortality rates and social life factors for all 47 Japanese prefectures in 1980, 1985, and 1990 were assessed by multiple regression analysis after factor analysis on 20 social life indicators. During this period, Japan experienced a secondary oil crisis in 1980-1983 and a bubble economy in 1986-1990. It was concluded that (1) low income was the major determinant which positively affected suicide mortality rate in middle-aged men during a previous 20-yr. period (1970-1990), (2) urbanization was negatively associated with male suicide mortality rates in most of the age classes in the 1980s, (3) unemployment was one of the major determinants of increased suicide mortality rate in middle-age men in the 1980s, and (4) unemployment was the major factor which was inversely associated with suicide mortality rate for elderly women from 1980 to 1990 in Japan.

  10. Exploring the impact of a career development program on underrepresented minorities and low-income middle and high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder-Luchey, Keli Koran F.

    Initially, when academic outreach programs for low income students and underrepresented minorities were created, the idea was to inspire and motivate students to prepare for a college education in very general terms. However, the new trend in outreach programming is to concentrate on career goals, as opposed to programs that simply provide basic information and enrichment. The focus is to create curriculum-based outreach programs, addressing the specific academic and career needs of low income and underrepresented minorities. This study explored the impact of participation in the University at Buffalo's Science and Technology Enrichment Program (STEP), a comprehensive career exploration and academic enrichment program for low income and underrepresented minority middle and high school students, on the level of education and career attainment---particularly in the areas in which they have historically been underrepresented---science, technology, health and the health-related professions. A survey questionnaire was mailed to former STEP high school graduates to measure the impact of STEP program services on the pursuit and attainment of postsecondary education as well as career attainment, particularly in the fields of Science and Technology. A control group, consisting of non-STEP high school graduates, was established and used to compare to the STEP program outcomes. Results indicate that former STEP participants were more likely to attend and graduate from college, along with be employed in a Science or Science related occupation. Results of additional findings, along with policy implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.

  11. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  12. The global cancer divide: relationships between national healthcare resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Batouli, Ali; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Gross, Cary P; Makarov, Danil V; Yu, James B

    2014-06-01

    Cancer continues to rise as a contributor to premature death in the developing world. Despite this, little is known about whether cancer outcomes are related to a country's income level, and what aspects of national healthcare systems are associated with improved cancer outcomes. The most recent estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were used to calculate mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) for the 85 countries with reliable data. Countries were categorized according to high-income (Gross Domestic Product (GDP)>$15,000) or middle/low-income (GDP<$15,000), and a multivariate linear regression model was used to determine the association between healthcare system indicators and cancer MIR. Indicators study included per capita GDP, overall total healthcare expenditure (THE), THE as a proportion of GDP, total external beam radiotherapy devices (TEBD) per capita, physician density, and the year 2000 WHO healthcare system rankings. Cancer MIR in high-income countries (0.47) was significantly lower than that of middle/low-income countries (0.64), with a p<0.001. In high-income countries, GDP, health expenditure and TEBD showed significant inverse correlations with overall cancer MIR. A $3040 increase in GDP (p=0.004), a $379 increase in THE (p<0.001), or an increase of 0.59 TEBD per 100,000 population (p=0.027) were all associated with a 0.01 decrease in cancer MIR. In middle/low-income countries, only WHO scores correlated with decreased cancer MIR (p=0.022); 12 specific cancer types also showed similar significant correlations (p<0.05) as overall cancer MIR. The analysis of this study suggested that cancer MIR is greater in middle/low-income countries. Furthermore, the WHO healthcare score was associated with improved cancer outcomes in middle/low-income countries while absolute levels of financial resources and infrastructure played a more important role in high-income countries. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  14. Socioeconomic status and COPD among low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Matthew; Siddharthan, Trishul; Chowdhury, Muhammad AH; Siddiquee, Ali; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sobrino, Edgardo; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong social determinant of health. There remains a limited understanding of the association between SES and COPD prevalence among low- and middle-income countries where the majority of COPD-related morbidity and mortality occurs. We examined the association between SES and COPD prevalence using data collected in Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. Methods We compiled lung function, demographic, and SES data from three population-based studies for 11,042 participants aged 35–95 years. We used multivariable alternating logistic regressions to study the association between COPD prevalence and SES indicators adjusted for age, sex, self-reported daily smoking, and biomass fuel smoke exposure. Principal component analysis was performed on monthly household income, household size, and education to create a composite SES index. Results Overall COPD prevalence was 9.2%, ranging from 1.7% to 15.4% across sites. The adjusted odds ratio of having COPD was lower for people who completed secondary school (odds ratio [OR] =0.73, 95% CI 0.55–0.98) and lower with higher monthly household income (OR =0.96 per category, 95% CI 0.93–0.99). When combining SES factors into a composite index, we found that the odds of having COPD was greater with lower SES (interquartile OR =1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.43) even after controlling for subject-specific factors and environmental exposures. Conclusion In this analysis of multiple population-based studies, lower education, lower household income, and lower composite SES index were associated with COPD. Since household income may be underestimated in population studies, adding household size and education into a composite index may provide a better surrogate for SES. PMID:27785006

  15. Socioeconomic status and COPD among low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Matthew; Siddharthan, Trishul; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ah; Siddiquee, Ali; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sobrino, Edgardo; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong social determinant of health. There remains a limited understanding of the association between SES and COPD prevalence among low- and middle-income countries where the majority of COPD-related morbidity and mortality occurs. We examined the association between SES and COPD prevalence using data collected in Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay. We compiled lung function, demographic, and SES data from three population-based studies for 11,042 participants aged 35-95 years. We used multivariable alternating logistic regressions to study the association between COPD prevalence and SES indicators adjusted for age, sex, self-reported daily smoking, and biomass fuel smoke exposure. Principal component analysis was performed on monthly household income, household size, and education to create a composite SES index. Overall COPD prevalence was 9.2%, ranging from 1.7% to 15.4% across sites. The adjusted odds ratio of having COPD was lower for people who completed secondary school (odds ratio [OR] =0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98) and lower with higher monthly household income (OR =0.96 per category, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). When combining SES factors into a composite index, we found that the odds of having COPD was greater with lower SES (interquartile OR =1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.43) even after controlling for subject-specific factors and environmental exposures. In this analysis of multiple population-based studies, lower education, lower household income, and lower composite SES index were associated with COPD. Since household income may be underestimated in population studies, adding household size and education into a composite index may provide a better surrogate for SES.

  16. Global educational disparities in the associations between body mass index and diabetes mellitus in 49 low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolin; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2014-08-01

    Despite the well-established link between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes mellitus (DM), it remains unclear whether this association is more pronounced at certain levels of education. This study assessed the modifying effect of educational attainment on the associations between BMI and DM-as well as the joint associations of BMI and education with DM-in low-income countries (LICs) and middle-income countries (MICs). The authors used cross-sectional data from 160 381 participants among 49 LICs and MICs in the World Health Survey. Overweight and obesity levels were defined using WHO's classification. Educational attainment was classified in four categories: 'no formal education', 'some/completed primary school', 'secondary/high school completed' and 'college and beyond'. We used random-intercept multilevel logistic regressions to investigate the modifying influence of educational attainment on the associations of different BMI levels-as well as their joint associations-with DM. We found positive associations between excessive BMI and DM at each education level in both LICs and MICs. We found that the joint associations of BMI and education with DM were larger than the product of their separate single associations among females in LICs. With joint increases in BMI and education, males and females in LICs had similar increased odds of DM, but males had higher such odds than females in MICs. BMI and education are associated with the DM, but the associations seem to differ in complex ways between LICs and MICs and by gender. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Interventions for improving coverage of childhood immunisation in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Wiysonge, Charles S; Oringanje, Chioma; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Oduwole, Olabisi; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunisation is a powerful public health strategy for improving child survival, not only by directly combating key diseases that kill children but also by providing a platform for other health services. However, each year millions of children worldwide, mostly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), do not receive the full series of vaccines on their national routine immunisation schedule. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2011 and focuses on interventions for improving childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies to boost and sustain high childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2016, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 12 May 2016); MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 12 May 2016); CINAHL 1981 to present, EbscoHost (searched 12 May 2016); Embase 1980 to 2014 Week 34, OvidSP (searched 2 September 2014); LILACS, VHL (searched 2 September 2014); Sociological Abstracts 1952 - current, ProQuest (searched 2 September 2014). We did a citation search for all included studies in Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, 1975 to present; Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 2 July 2016). We also searched the two Trials Registries: ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 5 July 2016) Selection criteria Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series conducted in LMICs involving children aged from birth to four years, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Data collection and analysis We independently screened the search output, reviewed

  18. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    PubMed

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  19. Big data in global health: improving health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Vaillancourt, Samuel; Perry, William; Mannava, Priya; Folaranmi, Temitope; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Over the last decade, a massive increase in data collection and analysis has occurred in many fields. In the health sector, however, there has been relatively little progress in data analysis and application despite a rapid rise in data production. Given adequate governance, improvements in the quality, quantity, storage and analysis of health data could lead to substantial improvements in many health outcomes. In low- and middle-income countries in particular, the creation of an information feedback mechanism can move health-care delivery towards results-based practice and improve the effective use of scarce resources. We review the evolving definition of big data and the possible advantages of - and problems in - using such data to improve health-care delivery in low- and middle-income countries. The collection of big data as mobile-phone based services improve may mean that development phases required elsewhere can be skipped. However, poor infrastructure may prevent interoperability and the safe use of patient data. An appropriate governance framework must be developed and enforced to protect individuals and ensure that health-care delivery is tailored to the characteristics and values of the target communities.

  20. Feasibility and effectiveness of a brief, intensive phylogenetics workshop in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Pollett, S; Leguia, M; Nelson, M I; Maljkovic Berry, I; Rutherford, G; Bausch, D G; Kasper, M; Jarman, R; Melendrez, M

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing role for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis in tropical medicine research. However, scientists working in low- and middle-income regions may lack access to training opportunities in these methods. To help address this gap, a 5-day intensive bioinformatics workshop was offered in Lima, Peru. The syllabus is presented here for others who want to develop similar programs. To assess knowledge gained, a 20-point knowledge questionnaire was administered to participants (21 participants) before and after the workshop, covering topics on sequence quality control, alignment/formatting, database retrieval, models of evolution, sequence statistics, tree building, and results interpretation. Evolution/tree-building methods represented the lowest scoring domain at baseline and after the workshop. There was a considerable median gain in total knowledge scores (increase of 30%, p<0.001) with gains as high as 55%. A 5-day workshop model was effective in improving the pathogen-applied bioinformatics knowledge of scientists working in a middle-income country setting.

  1. mHealth Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Kathryn; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether mHealth interventions were effective in low- and middle-income countries in order to create a baseline for the evidence to support mHealth in developing countries. Studies were identified by searching Medline on 02 October 2014 for articles published in the English language between January 2000 and September 2014. Inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English, 2) completion of an mHealth intervention in a low or middle-income country, 3) measurement of patient outcomes, and 4) participants 18 years of age or older. 7,920 titles were reviewed and 7 were determined eligible based on inclusion criteria. Interventions included a cluster randomized trial, mixed methods study, retrospective comparison of an opt-in text message program, a two-arm proof of concept, single arm trial, a randomized trial, and a single subject design. Five out of seven of the studies showed significant difference between the control and intervention. Currently there is little evidence on mHealth interventions in developing countries, and existing studies are very diverse; however initial studies show changes in clinical outcomes, adherence, and health communication, including improved communication with providers, decrease in travel time, ability to receive expert advice, changes in clinical outcomes, and new forms of cost-effective education. While this initial review is promising, more evidence is needed to support and direct system-level resource investment. PMID:27157176

  2. Behaviour change techniques and contraceptive use in low and middle income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Mwelwa; King, R; Newell, J N

    2015-10-30

    We aimed to identify effective behaviour change techniques to increase modern contraceptive use in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Literature was identified in Global Health, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Popline, as well as peer reviewed journals. Articles were included if they were written in English, had an outcome evaluation of contraceptive use, modern contraceptive use, contraceptive initiation/uptake, contraceptive adherence or continuation of contraception, were a systematic review or randomised controlled trial, and were conducted in a low or middle income country. We assessed the behaviour change techniques used in each intervention and included a new category of male partner involvement. We identified six studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The most effective interventions were those that involve male partner involvement in the decision to initiate contraceptive use. The findings also suggest that providing access to contraceptives in the community promotes their use. The interventions that had positive effects on contraceptive use used a combination of behaviour change techniques. Performance techniques were not used in any of the interventions. The use of social support techniques, which are meant to improve wider social acceptability, did not appear except in two of the interventions. Our findings suggest that when information and contraceptives are provided, contraceptive use improves. Recommendations include reporting of behaviour change studies to include more details of the intervention and techniques employed. There is also a need for further research to understand which techniques are especially effective.

  3. mHealth Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Kathryn; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether mHealth interventions were effective in low- and middle-income countries in order to create a baseline for the evidence to support mHealth in developing countries. Studies were identified by searching Medline on 02 October 2014 for articles published in the English language between January 2000 and September 2014. Inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English, 2) completion of an mHealth intervention in a low or middle-income country, 3) measurement of patient outcomes, and 4) participants 18 years of age or older. 7,920 titles were reviewed and 7 were determined eligible based on inclusion criteria. Interventions included a cluster randomized trial, mixed methods study, retrospective comparison of an opt-in text message program, a two-arm proof of concept, single arm trial, a randomized trial, and a single subject design. Five out of seven of the studies showed significant difference between the control and intervention. Currently there is little evidence on mHealth interventions in developing countries, and existing studies are very diverse; however initial studies show changes in clinical outcomes, adherence, and health communication, including improved communication with providers, decrease in travel time, ability to receive expert advice, changes in clinical outcomes, and new forms of cost-effective education. While this initial review is promising, more evidence is needed to support and direct system-level resource investment.

  4. Cancer control capacity in 50 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Rolando; Sepúlveda, Cecilia; Neves, Diogo; Piñeros, Marion; Villanueva, Maria; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Fadhil, Ibtihal; Galea, Gauden; Garg, Renu; Luciani, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Within the World Health Organization-International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO-IAEA) collaboration for delivery of technical assistance to its Member States, the National Cancer Control Programme/Plan (NCCP) Core Capacity Self-Assessment Tool has been used to obtain a simple and quick qualitative overview of national cancer control planning and on-going activities. The NCCP tool was applied in 50 Member States, which were classified as low- and middle-income countries in 2012. Results show that half of these countries reported having officially endorsed an NCCP and 42% were in the process of preparing or updating one. Overall, the most relevant cancer control interventions reported to be partially developed or well established in most countries were related to the cancer prevention, early detection of cervical and breast cancers, as well as diagnosis and treatment of curable cancers. Contrarily, patient's rehabilitation, psychosocial support, human papilloma virus vaccination, breast cancer screening with mammography and control of occupational carcinogens were noted as being in early development phases. The availability of crucial resources to support interventions was perceived to be the highest in upper middle-income countries. These findings highlight specific areas where WHO, IAEA and partners could strengthen collaboration with countries to leverage on-going interventions and improve availability of resources.

  5. Big data in global health: improving health in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Samuel; Perry, William; Mannava, Priya; Folaranmi, Temitope; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, a massive increase in data collection and analysis has occurred in many fields. In the health sector, however, there has been relatively little progress in data analysis and application despite a rapid rise in data production. Given adequate governance, improvements in the quality, quantity, storage and analysis of health data could lead to substantial improvements in many health outcomes. In low- and middle-income countries in particular, the creation of an information feedback mechanism can move health-care delivery towards results-based practice and improve the effective use of scarce resources. We review the evolving definition of big data and the possible advantages of – and problems in – using such data to improve health-care delivery in low- and middle-income countries. The collection of big data as mobile-phone based services improve may mean that development phases required elsewhere can be skipped. However, poor infrastructure may prevent interoperability and the safe use of patient data. An appropriate governance framework must be developed and enforced to protect individuals and ensure that health-care delivery is tailored to the characteristics and values of the target communities. PMID:25767300

  6. Comparison of medicines management strategies in insurance schemes in middle-income countries: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Warren A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Brooks, Mohamad I; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2017-01-01

    Many middle-income countries are scaling up health insurance schemes to provide financial protection and access to affordable medicines to poor and uninsured populations. Although there is a wealth of evidence on how high income countries with mature insurance schemes manage cost-effective use of medicines, there is limited evidence on the strategies used in middle-income countries. This paper compares the medicines management strategies that four insurance schemes in middle-income countries use to improve access and cost-effective use of medicines among beneficiaries. We compare key strategies promoting cost-effective medicines use in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in China, National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana, Jamkesmas in Indonesia and Seguro Popular in Mexico. Through the peer-reviewed and grey literature as of late 2013, we identified strategies that met our inclusion criteria as well as any evidence showing if, and/or how, these strategies affected medicines management. Stakeholders involved and affected by medicines coverage policies in these insurance schemes were asked to provide relevant documents describing the medicines related aspects of these insurance programs. We also asked them specifically to identify publications discussing the unintended consequences of the strategies implemented. Use of formularies, bulk procurement, standard treatment guidelines and separation of prescribing and dispensing were present in all four schemes. Also, increased transparency through publication of tender agreements and procurement prices was introduced in all four. Common strategies shared by three out of four schemes were medicine price negotiation or rebates, generic reference pricing, fixed salaries for prescribers, accredited preferred provider network, disease management programs, and monitoring of medicines purchases. Cost-sharing and payment for performance was rarely used. There was a lack of performance monitoring strategies in all

  7. Eating dinner away from home: Perspectives of middle-to high-income parents.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannon M; Crosby, Lori E; Stark, Lori J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to understand barriers and facilitators for preparing and eating dinner at home in families who report eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (focus groups, questionnaires) study. Twenty-seven parents with a child 3-10 years-old who reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week from a pediatric medical center in the Midwest participated. The key concepts analytic framework guided focus group analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize parent demographics, anthropometrics, attitudes and confidence toward cooking, perceptions of dinner costs and portions, and parent and child dinners. Parents reported confidence in cooking a home prepared meal, but that eating away from home was reinforcing because it provided quality family time and diminished barriers such as picky eating and perceived costs. Home cooking was also hindered by early school lunch and after-school sports as children were not hungry or home at the typical dinner hour and parents did not want to cook after 8pm. Parents estimated preparing and eating a meal at home took significantly more time than driving and eating out (80.7 min vs. 30.3 min, p < 0.001). Parents significantly (F (3, 104) = 8.80, p < 0.001) overestimated the cost of home-prepared meals compared to take-out and frozen meals. Portion size was also overestimated for a protein serving. Findings are limited to predominantly married, female parents whom are highly educated and working. To reduce eating out, interventions should address family factors (e.g., time management, quality time) and child behavior (e.g., picky eating). Innovative interventions that include experiential cooking opportunities that incorporate time management, address picky eating and enthusiasm for cooking with education on decreasing costs may be particularly beneficial for middle-to high-income families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems.

  9. Infant Feeding and School Attainment in Five Cohorts from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo L.; Bas, Abet; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Feranil, Alan; de Kadt, Julia; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association. Methodology and Principal Findings Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa). The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3–12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa. Conclusion Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries. PMID:23977075

  10. Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo L; Bas, Abet; Bhargava, Santosh K; Fall, Caroline H D; Feranil, Alan; de Kadt, Julia; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association. Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa). The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3-12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa. Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries.

  11. Availability and affordability of cardiovascular disease medicines and their effect on use in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: an analysis of the PURE study data.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Rasha; McKee, Martin; Shannon, Harry; Chow, Clara; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Wei, Li; Mony, Prem; Mohan, Viswanathan; Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Lear, Scott A; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Ismail, Noorhassim; Kazmi, Khawar; Rahman, Omar; Rosengren, Annika; Monsef, Nahed; Kelishadi, Roya; Kruger, Annamarie; Puoane, Thandi; Szuba, Andrzej; Chifamba, Jephat; Temizhan, Ahmet; Dagenais, Gilles; Gafni, Amiram; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-02

    WHO has targeted that medicines to prevent recurrent cardiovascular disease be available in 80% of communities and used by 50% of eligible individuals by 2025. We have previously reported that use of these medicines is very low, but now aim to assess how such low use relates to their lack of availability or poor affordability. We analysed information about availability and costs of cardiovascular disease medicines (aspirin, β blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins) in pharmacies gathered from 596 communities in 18 countries participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Medicines were considered available if present at the pharmacy when surveyed, and affordable if their combined cost was less than 20% of household capacity-to-pay. We compared results from high-income, upper middle-income, lower middle-income, and low-income countries. Data from India were presented separately given its large, generic pharmaceutical industry. Communities were recruited between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2013. All four cardiovascular disease medicines were available in 61 (95%) of 64 urban and 27 (90%) of 30 rural communities in high-income countries, 53 (80%) of 66 urban and 43 (73%) of 59 rural communities in upper middle-income countries, 69 (62%) of 111 urban and 42 (37%) of 114 rural communities in lower middle-income countries, eight (25%) of 32 urban and one (3%) of 30 rural communities in low-income countries (excluding India), and 34 (89%) of 38 urban and 42 (81%) of 52 rural communities in India. The four cardiovascular disease medicines were potentially unaffordable for 0·14% of households in high-income countries (14 of 9934 households), 25% of upper middle-income countries (6299 of 24,776), 33% of lower middle-income countries (13,253 of 40,023), 60% of low-income countries (excluding India; 1976 of 3312), and 59% households in India (9939 of 16,874). In low-income and middle-income countries, patients with previous

  12. Etiology of Severe Febrile Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Namrata; Murdoch, David R.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With apparent declines in malaria worldwide during the last decade and more widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers in low-resource areas face a growing proportion of febrile patients without malaria. We sought to describe current knowledge and identify information gaps of the etiology severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in low-and-middle income countries 1980–2013 that prospectively assessed consecutive febrile patients admitted to hospital using rigorous laboratory-based case definitions. We found 45 eligible studies describing 54,578 patients; 9,771 (17.9%) had a positive result for ≥1 pathogen meeting diagnostic criteria. There were no eligible studies identified from Southern and Middle Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania, Latin American and Caribbean regions, and the European region. The median (range) number of diagnostic tests meeting our confirmed laboratory case definitions was 2 (1 to 11) per study. Of diagnostic tests, 5,052 (10.3%) of 49,143 had confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection; 709 (3.8%) of 18,142 had bacterial zoonosis; 3,488 (28.5%) of 12,245 had malaria; and 1,804 (17.4%) of 10,389 had a viral infection. Conclusions We demonstrate a wide range of pathogens associated with severe febrile illness and highlight the substantial information gaps regarding the geographic distribution and role of common pathogens. High quality severe febrile illness etiology research that is comprehensive with respect to pathogens and geographically representative is needed. PMID:26126200

  13. Maternal anemia and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Abe, Sarah Krull; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Kanda, Mikiko; Narita, Saki; Bilano, Ver; Ota, Erika; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is a leading cause of maternal deaths and adverse pregnancy outcomes in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of anemia, the association between maternal anemia and pregnancy outcomes, and the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of these outcomes that are due to anemia in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Index were searched from inception to May 2015 to identify cohort studies of the association between maternal anemia and pregnancy outcomes. The anemic group was defined as having hemoglobin concentrations <10 or <11 g/dL or hematocrit values <33% or <34% depending on the study. A metaregression and stratified analysis were performed to assess the effects of study and participant characteristics on adverse pregnancy risk. The pooled prevalence of anemia in pregnant women by region and country-income category was calculated with the use of a random-effects meta-analysis. Of 8182 articles reviewed, 29 studies were included in the systematic review, and 26 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, 42.7% (95% CI: 37.0%, 48.4%) of women experienced anemia during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries. There were significantly higher risks of low birth weight (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51), preterm birth (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.01), perinatal mortality (RR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.76), and neonatal mortality (RR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.19, 6.25) in pregnant women with anemia. South Asian, African, and low-income countries had a higher pooled anemia prevalence than did other Asian and upper-middle-income countries. Overall, in low- and middle-income countries, 12% of low birth weight, 19% of preterm births, and 18% of perinatal mortality were attributable to maternal anemia. The proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes attributable to anemia was higher in low-income countries and in the South Asian region. Maternal anemia remains a

  14. Small area associations between social context and alcohol-attributable mortality in a middle income country.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Kaufman, Jay S; Pino, Paulina

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the association between alcohol-attributable mortality and small area socioeconomic variables when considering causes both wholly and partially attributable to alcohol. An ecological study was conducted of the entire Chilean population aged 15 and older in 345 municipalities nationwide between 2004 and 2009. Deaths were attributed to alcohol consumption either wholly or partially, along with the estimated attributable fractions for each specified cause. Each municipality was characterized according to its average income and educational attainment. Estimates of the ecological associations were produced using a hierarchical Bayesian model, separating out deaths caused by alcohol and dividing them into seven groups of causes. Alcohol-attributable mortality risk showed an inverse association with income and education at the ecological level. A one-quintile increase in income was associated with an average decrease in risk of 10% (CI 95%: 10-20%) for cardiovascular deaths, 8% (6-10%) for intentional injuries and 7% (3-11%) for unintentional injuries. No associations were found between deaths due to cancers and other causes with income and education. Municipalities with lower income and education have higher risk of alcohol-attributable mortality in Chile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public stewardship of private for-profit healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries. Search methods For related systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2015, Issue 4; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) 2015, Issue 1; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) 2015, Issue 1; all part of The Cochrane Library, and searched 28 April 2015. For primary studies, we searched MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 16 June 2016); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1987 to present, and Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 3 May 2016 for papers citing included studies); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 3, part of The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 28 April 2015); Embase 1980 to 2015 Week 17, OvidSP (searched 28 April 2015); Global Health 1973 to 2015 Week 16, OvidSP (searched 30 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 30 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1975 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 30 April 2015); Health Management, ProQuest (searched 22 November 2013). In addition, in April 2016, we searched the reference lists of relevant

  16. Improving Care for Children With Cancer in Low- and Middle-Income Countries--a SIOP PODC Initiative.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ramandeep Singh; Challinor, Julia M; Howard, Scott C; Israels, Trijn

    2016-03-01

    The Paediatric Oncology in Developing Countries (PODC) committee of International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) has 10 working groups that provide a forum for individuals to engage, network, and implement improvements in the care of children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries. The development of adapted guidelines (medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, Burkitt lymphoma, supportive care), advocacy and awareness (on hospital detention and essential drugs), education and training, and global mapping (nutritional practice, abandonment rates, and twinning collaborations) have been the initial areas of focus, and the impact of some of these activities is evident, for example, in the SIOP Africa PODC Collaborative Wilms tumor project. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. Methods We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. Result 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. Conclusions The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources. PMID:27362356

  18. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  19. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. Objective To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. Data sources We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. Study eligibility criteria, participants and interventions We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We used the constant comparative method of

  20. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to extract recurrent themes from the interviews, and we integrated these themes with findings from the

  1. Resources Required for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Nicole G.; Sharma, Monisha; Clark, Andrew; Kim, Jane J.; Resch, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We performed a modeling analysis to estimate 1) for girls aged 10 years, the cost of 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination; and 2) for women aged 30 to 49 years, the cost of cervical cancer screening (with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV testing, or cytology) and preventive treatment in 102 low- and middle-income countries from 2015 to 2024. We used an Excel-based costing and service utilization model to estimate financial costs (2013 US$) based on prevalence of HPV, prevalence of precancerous lesions, and screening test performance. Where epidemiologic data were unavailable, we extrapolated from settings with data using an individual-based microsimulation model of cervical carcinogenesis (calibrated to 20 settings) and multivariate regression. Total HPV vaccination costs ranged from US$8.6 billion to US$24.2 billion for all scenarios considered (immediate, 5-year, or 10-year roll-out; price per dose US$4.55-US$70 by country income level). The total cost of screening and preventive treatment ranged from US$5.1 billion (10-year roll-out, screening once at age 35 years) to US$42.3 billion (immediate roll-out, high intensity screening). Limitations of this analysis include the assumption of standardized protocols by country income level that did not account for the potential presence of multiple screening modalities or management strategies within a

  2. Methodological difficulties in the conduct of neuroepidemiological studies in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Nadir; Odermatt, Peter; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The majority of people with epilepsy (PWE) live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, they remain largely untreated and the bulk of resources are used to treat patients in the developed world. This disparity constitutes a challenge for neuroepidemiological studies on a global scale. In the past, several studies have focused on diverse populations in disparate countries at various periods of time and for particular purposes. The specificity of different contexts and circumstances makes it difficult to analyse PWE as a group either qualitatively or quantitatively. Such methodological limitations are further complicated by a lack of logistical support. There is a lack of interest in conducting studies, which results in inadequate funding and, in addition, there is the considerable challenge of publishing research reports from LMICs in peer-reviewed international journals. This paper focuses on methodological problems related to studies in LMICs and attempts to give the reasons for their limitations using epilepsy as an example. Regional conditions and environmental factors must be given careful consideration in the research design because of the importance of understanding the challenges of living in these environments. There are further limitations to the successful implementation of studies. Existing information on epilepsy is often not readily accessible; there is a lack of census data, and migratory patterns into cities make enumeration and sampling even more challenging. As there is usually no well-developed healthcare system a door-to-door screening process is often the only way to identify those with convulsive epilepsy. The questionnaire and study design should preferably be adapted from standardized protocols, and pre-tested and validated in local conditions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies in LMICs can provide data on the burden, risk factors, treatment and outcome of epilepsy only if the primary studies used are properly

  3. Maternal depression and mental health in early childhood: an examination of underlying mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Herba, Catherine M; Glover, Vivette; Ramchandani, Paul G; Rondon, Marta B

    2016-10-01

    Studies examining mechanisms underlying associations between maternal depression and adverse child outcomes (including behaviour, socioemotional adjustment, and emotion regulation) indicate that during pregnancy, maternal depression could affect child outcomes through altered placental function, epigenetic changes in the child, and stress reactivity. Infection and dietary deficiencies in the mother and the child, together with the child's genetic vulnerability, might also affect outcome. Postnatally, associations between maternal depression and child outcome are influenced by altered mother-child interactions, sociodemographic or environmental influences, and social support. Knowledge is scarce on mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries where maternal depression is highly prevalent, and stressful factors that influence the development of perinatal maternal depression and adverse child outcome (eg, food insecurity, perinatal infections, crowded or rural living conditions, and interpersonal violence) are both more intense and more common than in high-income countries. We reviewed evidence and use the biopsychosocial model to illustrate risk factors, mediators and moderators underlying associations between maternal depression and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries.

  4. Cigarette stick as valuable communicative real estate: a content analysis of cigarettes from 14 low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    C Smith, Katherine; Washington, Carmen; Welding, Kevin; Kroart, Laura; Osho, Adami; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Background The current cigarette market is heavily focused on low-income and middle-income countries. Branding of tobacco products is key to establishing and maintaining a customer base. Greater restrictions on marketing and advertising of tobacco products create an incentive for companies to focus more on branding via the product itself. We consider how tobacco sticks are used for communicative purposes in 14 low-income and middle-income countries with extensive tobacco markets. Methods In 2013, we collected and coded 3232 cigarette and kretek packs that were purchased from vendors in diverse neighbourhoods in 44 cities across the 14 low-income and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. A single stick from each pack was assessed for branding, decorative and communicative elements using a common coding framework. Stick communication variables included brand name, brand image/logo, brand descriptor, colour and design carried through from pack, ‘capsule cigarette’ symbol, and embellishment of filter end. Results Communication and branding on the stick is essentially ubiquitous (99.75%); 97% of sticks include explicit branding (brand name or logo present). Colour is commonly carried through from the pack (95%), and some sticks (13%) include decorative elements matching the pack. Decorative elements can be found anywhere on the stick, including the filter tip (8%), and ‘convertible’ cigarettes include a symbol to show where to push. Conclusions Cigarette sticks are clearly valuable ‘real estate’ that tobacco companies are using for communicative purposes. Across all countries and brands, the stick communicates branding via text, colour and imagery. PMID:27534777

  5. Systematic review of feasibility and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Petersen, Inge; Asher, Laura; Mall, Sumaya; Egbe, Catherine O; Lund, Crick

    2015-02-12

    In low and middle income countries there is evidence to suggest effectiveness of community-based psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. Many psychosocial interventions have however been conceptualized in high income countries and assessing their feasibility and acceptability in low and middle income countries is pertinent and the objective of this review. Six databases were searched using search terms (i) "Schizophrenia"; (ii) "Low and middle income or developing countries" and (iii) "Psychosocial interventions". Abstracts identified were extracted to an EndNote Database. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts according to defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full papers were accessed of studies meeting these criteria, or for which more information was needed to include or exclude them. Data were extracted from included studies using a predesigned data extraction form. Qualitative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data was conducted. 14 037 abstracts were identified through searches. 196 full articles were reviewed with 17 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Little data emerged on feasibility. Barriers to feasibility were noted including low education levels of participants, unavailability of caregivers, and logistical issues such as difficulty in follow up of participants. Evidence of acceptability was noted in high participation rates and levels of satisfaction with interventions. While there is preliminary evidence to suggest acceptability of community-based psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries, evidence for overall feasibility is currently lacking. Well-designed intervention studies incorporating specific measures of acceptability and feasibility are needed.

  6. Implementation Science in Cancer Prevention and Control: A framework for research and programs in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Michael A.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation Science is a set of tools, principles and methodologies that can be used to bring scientific evidence into action, improve health care quality and delivery and improve public health. As the burden of cancer increases in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to plan cancer control programs that are both evidence-based and delivered in ways that are feasible, cost-effective, contextually appropriate and sustainable. This review presents a framework for using implementation science for cancer control planning and implementation and discusses potential areas of focus for research and programs in low and middle-income countries interested in integrating research into practice and policy. PMID:25178984

  7. Perioperative nutrition management as an important component of surgical capacity in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinji; Nguyen, Do Huy; Bui, An Tho; Sugiyama, Michiko; Ichikawa, Masao; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    Needs for surgical care are growing in low- and middle-income countries. Existing surgical care capacity indicators, focusing on the availability of equipment, personnel, and operation and anaesthetic skills, are not intended to evaluate perioperative nutrition management, which influences surgical outcomes. In this narrative review, we describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its clinical consequences among surgical patients in low- and middle-income countries, suggest potential measures to improve nutrition management and discuss the necessity of considering nutrition management as a component of surgical care capacity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implementation science in cancer prevention and control: a framework for research and programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Sanchez, Michael A; Rimer, Barbara K; Samet, Jonathan M; Glasgow, Russell E

    2014-11-01

    Implementation science is a set of tools, principles, and methodologies that can be used to bring scientific evidence into action, improve health care quality and delivery, and improve public health. As the burden of cancer increases in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to plan cancer control programs that are both evidence based and delivered in ways that are feasible, cost-effective, contextually appropriate, and sustainable. This review presents a framework for using implementation science for cancer control planning and implementation and discusses potential areas of focus for research and programs in low- and middle-income countries interested in integrating research into practice and policy.

  9. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  10. Challenges Associated with Informed Consent in Low- and Low-Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Upjohn, Melissa; Wells, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from research participants is a generally recognized step of undertaking research. While the concept of informed consent is well understood in western research environments, it requires further consideration when reviewing studies involving humans and owned animals in low- and low-middle-income countries (LMICs), in order to take account of different social, educational, and research norms. Here, we identify some of the challenges that need to be considered, and how they might affect the process of obtaining informed consent. We explain the approach taken by an animal welfare non-governmental organization working in LMICs to addressing these challenges. There are also questions that reviewers might consider when commenting on work originating in this context. PMID:27812525

  11. Research and the health of indigenous populations in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2017-06-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)-when there are available data-a 'health divide' exists between indigenous and non-indigenous populations living in the same society. Despite the limited available evidence suggesting that indigenous populations have high levels of health needs, there is scant research on indigenous health, especially in Africa, China and South Asia. Pursuing research, however, is clouded by the prior negative experiences that indigenous populations have had with researchers. In this paper, we describe the current evidence base on indigenous health in LMICs, propose practical strategies for undertaking future research, and conclude by describing how global health researchers can contribute to improving the health of indigenous populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Chandraratna, Sahani; Cavill, Sue; Mahon, Therese; Phillips-Howard, Penelope

    2016-06-06

    The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls' and women's contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing. There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls' and women's health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls' and women's rights.

  13. Nutrition, Agriculture and the Global Food System in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2014-08-01

    The entire food value chain and diet of low and middle income countries (LMICs) are rapidly shifting. Many of the issues addressed by the nutrition community ignore some of the major underlying shifts in purchases of consumer packaged foods and beverages. At the same time, the drivers of the food system at the farm level might be changing. There is a need for the agriculture and nutrition communities to understand these changes and focus on some of their implications for health. This rapid growth of the retail sector will change the diets of the food insecure as much as that of the food secure across rural and urban LMIC's. This short commentary contents that current research, programs and policies are ignoring these rapid dynamic shifts.

  14. Improving Access to Medicines in Low and Middle Income Countries: Corporate Responsibilities in Context

    PubMed Central

    Leisinger, Klaus Michael; Garabedian, Laura Faden; Wagner, Anita Katharina

    2012-01-01

    More than two billion people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack adequate access to essential medicines. In this paper, we make strong public health, human rights and economic arguments for improving access to medicines in LMIC and discuss the different roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including national governments, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We then establish a framework of pharmaceutical firms’ corporate responsibilities - the “must,” the “ought to,” and the “can” dimensions - and make recommendations for actionable business strategies for improving access to medicines. We discuss controversial topics, such as pharmaceutical profits and patents, with the goal of building consensus around facts and working towards a solution. We conclude that partnerships and collaboration among multiple stakeholders are urgently needed to improve equitable access to medicines in LMIC. PMID:23535994

  15. Innovative Approaches to Hypertension Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Herasme, Omarys I; Joshi, Rohina; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Thrift, Amanda G; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ieremia, Merina; Johnson, Claire; Kamano, Jemima H; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Limbani, Felix; Liu, Peter; McCready, Tara; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Oldenburg, Brian; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Owolabi, Mayowa; Peiris, David; Ponce-Lucero, Vilarmina; Praveen, Devarsetty; Pillay, Arti; Schwalm, Jon-David; Tobe, Sheldon W; Trieu, Kathy; Yusoff, Khalid; Fuster, Valentin

    2017-02-01

    Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, is the leading global risk for mortality. Treatment and control rates are very low in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases sponsored research projects focus on controlling hypertension, including community engagement, salt reduction, salt substitution, task redistribution, mHealth, and fixed-dose combination therapies. This paper reviews the rationale for each approach and summarizes the experience of some of the research teams. The studies demonstrate innovative and practical methods for improving hypertension control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Public health strategies to ensure reduction in suicide incidence in middle and low income nations.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of suicide has increased at an alarming rate and in the year 2012 close to 1 million people died because of suicide. Although, it is a well-acknowledged fact that suicides are completely preventable, the public health authorities have failed to halt the rising trend of the suicide because of the presence of various social and health related factors. As suicide is a complex issue, in the low and middle-income nations, the most cost-effective approach is to ensure the integration of suicide prevention program into the primary health care network. To conclude, suicide is an important public health concern which is definitively preventable. However, the need of the hour is that all the stakeholders should take collective responsibility, and work in collaboration to develop and implement a comprehensive multi-sectoral suicide prevention strategy.

  17. Postgraduate Education in Radiation Oncology in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, J G

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the most cost-effective ways to treat cancer patients on both a curative and palliative basis in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, the gap in radiation oncology capacity is enormous and is even increasing due to a rapid rise in the incidence of cancer cases in LMICs. The urgent need for radiotherapy resources in terms of bunkers and megavoltage machines is important, but equally important is the tremendous lack of properly educated health care professionals. This includes not just medical doctors, but also medical physicists, radiation therapists and nurses, as well as other supporting health care personnel. This overview discusses different ways to develop the standard setting of postgraduate specialist training and continuous medical education in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Essential medicines for COPD and asthma in low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Yaser T; de Boer, Anthonious; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-12-01

    Access to medications for chronic disease management is limited in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs), resulting in suboptimal care and avoidable morbidity and mortality. We performed a survey of COPD and asthma medicines that appeared on the national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) of 32 LMICs. Nearly all countries (>90%) had assigned essential medicines for treatment of exacerbations and early stable disease stages, but not for steps 4 (22%) and 5 (6%) controlled asthma management. The number of treatment options was limited, with long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) and combination dosage forms being notably absent. Suboptimal availability of chronic respiratory disease medicines suggests that implementation of NEMLs is the main problem in clinical practice.

  19. Global Access to Radiotherapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, M; Fidarova, E; Polo, A

    2017-02-01

    Over the last 60 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working to introduce, expand and improve radiotherapy services, working with partners such as the World Health Organization (WHO) to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, care and control through collective action in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Lancet Oncology Commission on radiotherapy published a report that defined five calls for action to expand global access to radiotherapy, drawing on the previous work of the Global Taskforce on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control. The IAEA supports LMICs in the development of the required national infrastructure and regulatory authority for radiation and nuclear safety and in the training of human resources necessary for the provision of high-quality effective and safe radiation medicine services for the diagnosis, treatment and palliative care of cancer patients, helping in this way to address the different priorities outlined in the Lancet Commission report.

  20. Non-specialist health worker interventions for mental health care in low- and middle- income countries

    PubMed Central

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Tharyan, Prathap; Lewin, Simon; Rao, Girish N; Romeo, Renee; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Overall objective In order to assess the impact of delivery by non-specialist health workers (NSHWs) and other professionals with health roles (OPHRs) on the effectiveness of mental healthcare interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), we will specifically analyse the effectiveness of NSHWs and OPHRS in delivering acute mental health interventions; as well as the effectiveness of NSHWs and OPHRs in delivering long term follow-up and rehabilitation for people with mental disorders; and the effect of the detection of mental disorders by NSHWs and OPHRs on patient and health delivery outcomes. For each of these objectives we will examine the current evidence for the impact of delivery by NSHWs and OPHRs on the resource use and costs associated with mental healthcare provision in LMICs. PMID:24143128

  1. Fostering secure attachment in low- and middle-income countries: Suggestions for evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Alto, Michelle E; Petrenko, Christie L M

    2017-02-01

    Children struggling with the effects of trauma in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) face a substantial mental health resource gap that limits their opportunities for positive psychosocial development. Multidisciplinary interventions working to close this gap may benefit from incorporating an empirically supported treatment (EST) into their approach that targets a universal mechanism implicated in resilience, like attachment. ESTs should be selected based on their level of empirical support and cultural adaptability, and then modified on the basis of qualitative evaluations conducted with the local population and stakeholders. This paper will provide an overview of attachment as a mechanism of resilience, a critical analysis of existing attachment-based ESTs, and recommendations for overcoming EST implementation barriers in LMIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition, Agriculture and the Global Food System in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    The entire food value chain and diet of low and middle income countries (LMICs) are rapidly shifting. Many of the issues addressed by the nutrition community ignore some of the major underlying shifts in purchases of consumer packaged foods and beverages. At the same time, the drivers of the food system at the farm level might be changing. There is a need for the agriculture and nutrition communities to understand these changes and focus on some of their implications for health. This rapid growth of the retail sector will change the diets of the food insecure as much as that of the food secure across rural and urban LMIC’s. This short commentary contents that current research, programs and policies are ignoring these rapid dynamic shifts. PMID:24932059

  3. Controlling cardiovascular diseases in low and middle income countries by placing proof in pragmatism

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mayowa; Miranda, Jaime J; Yaria, Joseph; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Low and middle income countries (LMICs) bear a huge, disproportionate and growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which constitutes a threat to development. Efforts to tackle the global burden of CVD must therefore emphasise effective control in LMICs by addressing the challenge of scarce resources and lack of pragmatic guidelines for CVD prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. To address these gaps, in this analysis article, we present an implementation cycle for developing, contextualising, communicating and evaluating CVD recommendations for LMICs. This includes a translatability scale to rank the potential ease of implementing recommendations, prescriptions for engaging stakeholders in implementing the recommendations (stakeholders such as providers and physicians, patients and the populace, policymakers and payers) and strategies for enhancing feedback. This approach can help LMICs combat CVD despite limited resources, and can stimulate new implementation science hypotheses, research, evidence and impact. PMID:27840737

  4. Clinical Trials Infrastructure as a Quality Improvement Intervention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that participation in clinical trials confers neither advantage nor disadvantage on those enrolled. Narrow focus on the question of a "trial effect," however, distracts from a broader mechanism by which patients may benefit from ongoing clinical research. We hypothesize that the existence of clinical trials infrastructure-the organizational culture, systems, and expertise that develop as a product of sustained participation in cooperative clinical trials research-may function as a quality improvement lever, improving the quality of care and outcomes of all patients within an institution or region independent of their individual participation in trials. We further contend that this "infrastructure effect" can yield particular benefits for patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The hypothesis of an infrastructure effect as a quality improvement intervention, if correct, justifies enhanced research capacity in LMIC as a pillar of health system development.

  5. A Developmental Analysis of Caregiving Modalities across Infancy in 38 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child’s first year (0–12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within and across countries. However, caregiving practices followed one of two developmental trajectories: (1) greater proportions of caregivers read, told stories, and named, counted, and drew with each additional month of infant age, (2) proportions of caregivers who played, sang songs, and took their infants outside increased each month from birth but reached an asymptote at 4–5 months. Rates and growth functions of caregiving have implications for infant care and development. PMID:26280672

  6. A practical field guide to conducting nursing research in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Virginia T; Iribarren, Sarah J; Perri, Seneca; Beck, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to offer practical guidance to nurse investigators interested in international research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lessons learned and strategies for planning and implementing an international research project are addressed. Four nurse researchers who conducted studies in diverse international settings (Argentina, India, South Africa, and Tanzania) describe their collective experiences regarding study planning and implementation; data collection using a variety of methods; and cultural, contextual and ethical considerations. Nurses who undertake international health research projects, particularly in LMICs, can face unique challenges and opportunities. Recommendations for success include advance planning, remaining flexible, having a backup plan, cultivating an attitude of curiosity and cultural humility, establishing collaborative and respectful partnerships, and budgeting adequate time. Nurse scientists often receive little training and support to conduct international research. Guidance to undertake research projects in LMICs can build capacity for nurses to make significant contributions to global health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Raising more domestic money for health: prospects for low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Riku; Evans, David B

    2017-04-01

    Since the 2007/2008 financial crisis, the rhetoric in the development assistance dialogue has shifted away from raising more international funding for health, to requesting countries to move toward self-sufficiency. This paper examines the potential of 46 countries identified by an international panel in 2009 as being of high need to raise additional funding for health from domestic sources. Economic growth alone would allow 12 of them to reach a level of health spending where their populations could have access to a very basic set of health services. All of them have the potential to raise additional domestic funds through a range of measures that have been tried successfully in other low- and middle-income countries, but they would all remain well below the eventual objective of universal health coverage without increased and predictable external financial support.

  8. Is Child Labor a Barrier to School Enrollment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving universal primary education is one of the Millennium Development Goals. In low- and middle-income developing countries (LMIC), child labor may be a barrier. Few multi-country, controlled studies of the relations between different kinds of child labor and schooling are available. This study employs 186,795 families with 7- to 14-year-old children in 30 LMIC to explore relations of children’s work outside the home, family work, and household chores with school enrollment. Significant negative relations emerged between each form of child labor and school enrollment, but relations were more consistent for family work and household chores than work outside the home. All relations were moderated by country and sometimes by gender. These differentiated findings have nuanced policy implications. PMID:26034342

  9. A practical fieldguide to conducting nursing research in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    LeBaron, Virginia; Iribarren, Sarah; Perri, Seneca; Beck, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To offer practical guidance to nurse investigators interested in international research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lessons learned and strategies for planning and implementing an international research project are addressed. Method Four nurse researchers who conducted studies in diverse international settings (Argentina, India, South Africa and Tanzania) describe their collective experiences regarding study planning and implementation, data collection using a variety of methods, and cultural, contextual and ethical considerations. Discussion Nurses who undertake international health research projects–particularly in LMICs–can face unique challenges and opportunities. Recommendations for success include: advance planning, remaining flexible, having a back-up plan, cultivating an attitude of curiosity and cultural humility, establishing collaborative and respectful partnerships, and budgeting adequate time. Conclusions Nurse scientists often receive little training and support to conduct international research. Guidance to undertake research projects in LMICs can build capacity for nurses to make significant contributions to global health. PMID:26187086

  10. Economic evaluations of hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Yegenoglu, Selen; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Tu, Hong-Anh T; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-12-01

    Economic evaluations of hepatitis A vaccination are important to assist national and international policy makers in different jurisdictions on making effective decisions. Up to now, a comprehensive review of the potential health and economic benefits on hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries (MICs) has not been performed yet. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in MICs. Most of the studies confirmed that hepatitis A vaccination was cost effective or even cost saving under certain conditions. We found that vaccine price, medical costs, incidence and discount rate were the most influential parameters on the sensitivity analyses. Vaccine price has been shown as a barrier for MICs in implementing universal vaccination of hepatitis A. Given their relatively limited financial resources, implementation of single-dose vaccination could be considered. Despite our findings, we argue that further economic evaluations in MICs are still required in the near future.

  11. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  12. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  13. The quality of sero-surveillance in low- and middle-income countries: status and trends through 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, R; Gouws, E; Garcia-Calleja, J M

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of HIV sero-surveillance systems in 127 low-income and middle-income countries by 2007, as well as gaps in data needed for reliable estimates of HIV prevalence and size of populations at risk for infection. Methods: The quality of countries’ surveillance systems was scored using information from 2001 through 2007. Sero-surveillance data were compiled from the US Census Bureau’s HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database, from countries’ national HIV surveillance reports available to UNAIDS, from demographic and health survey (DHS) data, from the scientific literature and from countries’ Estimation and Projection Programme (EPP) data files. The quality of systems was scored according to the classification of the epidemic in each country (generalised, concentrated or low-level). Result: The number of countries categorised as fully functioning in 2007 was 40. 43 countries were identified as partially functioning while 44 were categorised as poorly functioning. Low scores were most often attributed to a lack of recent data or data from appropriate risk groups. Conclusion: Many countries still have poorly functioning surveillance systems. The inclusion of HIV testing in national population-based surveys in recent years has resulted in some countries with generalised epidemics receiving higher coverage scores, but many countries with concentrated or low-level epidemics continue to lack data on high-risk populations. PMID:18647872

  14. Cancer Genetics Education in a Low- to Middle-Income Country: Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop for Clinicians in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jessica A.; Lee, Su Yeon; Njambi, Lucy; Corson, Timothy W.; Dimaras, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills. Methods The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire. Results Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions. Conclusion A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling. PMID:26035834

  15. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  16. Alcohol taxation policy in Thailand: implications for other low- to middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

      Prevention of drinking initiation is a significant challenge in low- and middle-income countries that have a high prevalence of abstainers, including life-time abstainers. This paper aims to encourage a debate on an alternative alcohol taxation approach used currently in Thailand, which aims specifically to prevent drinking initiation in addition to reduce alcohol-attributable harms.   Theoretical evaluation, simulation and empirical analysis.   The taxation method of Thailand, 'Two-Chosen-One' (2C1) combines specific taxation (as a function of the alcohol content) and ad valorem taxation (as a function of the price), resulting in an effective tax rate that puts a higher tax both on beverages which are preferred by heavy drinkers and on beverages which are preferred by potential alcohol consumption neophytes, compared to either taxation system alone. As a result of these unique properties of the 2C1 taxation system, our simulations indicate that 2C1 taxation leads to a lower overall consumption than ad valorem or specific taxation alone. In addition, it puts a relatively high tax on beverages attractive to young people, the majority of whom are currently abstaining. Currently, the abstention rates in Thailand are higher than expected based on its economic wealth, which could be taken as an indication that the taxation strategy is successful.   'Two-chosen-one' (2C1) taxation has the potential to simultaneously reduce alcohol consumption and prevent drinking initiation among youth; however, additional empirical evidence is needed to assess its effectiveness in terms of the public health impact in low- and middle-income countries. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities.

  18. Research Priorities for Eight Areas of Adolescent Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Ferguson, B Jane; Ross, David A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct an expert-led process for identifying research priorities for eight areas of adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries. Specific adolescent health areas included communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, noncommunicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy. We used a modified version of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for reaching consensus on research priorities. In a three phase process, we (1) identified research and program experts with wide-ranging backgrounds and experiences from all geographic regions through systematic searches and key informants; (2) invited these experts to propose research questions related to descriptive epidemiology, interventions (discovery, development/testing, and delivery/implementation), and health policy/systems; and (3) asked the experts to prioritize the research questions based on five criteria: clarity, answerability, importance or impact, implementation, and equity. A total of 142 experts submitted 512 questions which were edited and reduced to 303 for scoring. Overall, the types of the top 10 research questions in each of the eight health areas included descriptive epidemiology (26%), interventions: discovery (11%), development/testing (25%), delivery (33%), and policy, health and social systems (5%). Across health areas, the top questions highlighted integration of health services, vulnerable populations, and different health platforms (such as primary care, schools, families/parents, and interactive media). Priority questions have been identified for research in eight key areas of adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries. These expert-generated questions may be used by donors, program managers, and researchers to prioritize and stimulate research in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries.

  20. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  1. A survey on socioeconomic determinants of diabetes mellitus management in a lower middle income setting.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; De Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal; Haniffa, Rashan; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Jayasinghe, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri; Katulanda, Prasad; Wijeratne, Chandrika Neelakanthi; Wijeratne, Sumedha; Rajapakse, Lalini Chandika

    2016-05-04

    Information on socioeconomic determinants in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce in lower middle income countries. The aim of this study is to describe the socioeconomic determinants of management and complications of diabetes mellitus in a lower middle income setting. Cross sectional descriptive study on a stratified random sample of 1300 individuals was conducted by an interviewer administered questionnaire, clinical examinations and blood investigations. A single fasting venous blood sugar of ≥126 mg/dl was considered diagnostic of new diabetics and poor control of diabetes mellitus as HbA1C > 6.5 %. There were 202 (14.7 %) with diabetes mellitus. Poor control was seen in 130 (90.7 %) while 71 (49.6 %) were not on regular treatment. Highest proportions of poor control and not on regular medication were observed in estate sector, poorest social status category and poorest geographical area. The annual HbA1C, microalbuminuria, retinal and neuropathy examination were performed in less than 6.0 %. Social gradient not observed in the management lapses. Most (76.6 %) had accessed private sector while those in estate (58.1 %) accessed the state system. The microvascular complications of retinopathy, neuropathy and microalbuminuria observed in 11.1 %, 79.3 % and 54.5 % respectively. Among the macrovascular diseases, angina, ischaemic heart disease and peripheral arterial disease seen in 15.5 %, 15.7 % and 5.5 % respectively. These complications do not show a social gradient. Diabetes mellitus patients, irrespective of their socioeconomic status, are poorly managed and have high rates of complications. Most depend on the private healthcare system with overall poor access to care in the estate sector.

  2. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  3. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. Study design A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. Results From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Conclusion Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved

  4. Childhood diarrhoeal deaths in seven low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Moinuddin, Md; Molla, Mitike; Worku, Alemayehu; Hurt, Lisa; Kirkwood, Betty; Mohan, Sanjana Brahmawar; Mazumder, Sarmila; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Raza, Farrukh; Mrema, Sigilbert; Masanja, Honorati; Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Bahl, Rajiv; Zangenberg, Mike; Muhe, Lulu

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of children who died from diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries, such as the duration of diarrhoea, comorbid conditions, care-seeking behaviour and oral rehydration therapy use. The study included verbal autopsy data on children who died from diarrhoea between 2000 and 2012 at seven sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, respectively. Data came from demographic surveillance sites, randomized trials and an extended Demographic and Health Survey. The type of diarrhoea was classified as acute watery, acute bloody or persistent and risk factors were identified. Deaths in children aged 1 to 11 months and 1 to 4 years were analysed separately. The proportion of childhood deaths due to diarrhoea varied considerably across the seven sites from less than 3% to 30%. Among children aged 1-4 years, acute watery diarrhoea accounted for 31-69% of diarrhoeal deaths, acute bloody diarrhoea for 12-28%, and persistent diarrhoea for 12-56%. Among infants aged 1-11 months, persistent diarrhoea accounted for over 30% of diarrhoeal deaths in Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. At most sites, more than 40% of children who died from persistent diarrhoea were malnourished. Persistent diarrhoea remains an important cause of diarrhoeal death in young children in low- and middle-income countries. Research is needed on the public health burden of persistent diarrhoea and current treatment practices to understand why children are still dying from the condition.

  5. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren: efforts in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Orito, Aya; Löwik, Marianne; Mclean, Catherine; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    To reverse the trend of rising child obesity rates in many middle-income countries, recommendations include increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Schools can positively impact children's eating behavior, and multicomponent interventions that include the curriculum, school food environments, and parental involvement are most effective. To find out how fruits and vegetables feature in the dietary guidelines provided to schools, what specific schemes are available for providing these foods, the extent to which nutrition education is included in the curriculum, and how vegetables and fruits are procured in primary schools. In 2008, a survey questionnaire previously validated and revised was sent electronically to national program managers and focal points for school feeding programs in 58 middle-income countries. The rationale was to obtain information relevant to the entire country from these key informants. The survey response rate was 46%. The information provided by 22 respondents in 18 countries was included in the current study. On average, respondents answered 88% of the questions analyzed in this paper. Of the respondents, 73% worked for the national authority responsible for school food programs, with 45% at the program coordinator or director level. Few countries have any special fruit and vegetable schemes; implementation constraints include cost and lack of storage facilities. Although 11 of 18 countries have both nutrient-based guidelines and school food guidelines for meals, fruits and vegetables are often not adequately specified. In some countries, nutrition education, special activities, school gardens, and parental participation are used to promote fruits and vegetables. Specific schemes are needed in some, together with school food guidelines that include fruits and vegetables.

  6. Childhood diarrhoeal deaths in seven low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Moinuddin, Md; Molla, Mitike; Worku, Alemayehu; Hurt, Lisa; Kirkwood, Betty; Mohan, Sanjana Brahmawar; Mazumder, Sarmila; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Raza, Farrukh; Mrema, Sigilbert; Masanja, Honorati; Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Bahl, Rajiv; Zangenberg, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of children who died from diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries, such as the duration of diarrhoea, comorbid conditions, care-seeking behaviour and oral rehydration therapy use. Methods The study included verbal autopsy data on children who died from diarrhoea between 2000 and 2012 at seven sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, respectively. Data came from demographic surveillance sites, randomized trials and an extended Demographic and Health Survey. The type of diarrhoea was classified as acute watery, acute bloody or persistent and risk factors were identified. Deaths in children aged 1 to 11 months and 1 to 4 years were analysed separately. Findings The proportion of childhood deaths due to diarrhoea varied considerably across the seven sites from less than 3% to 30%. Among children aged 1–4 years, acute watery diarrhoea accounted for 31–69% of diarrhoeal deaths, acute bloody diarrhoea for 12–28%, and persistent diarrhoea for 12–56%. Among infants aged 1–11 months, persistent diarrhoea accounted for over 30% of diarrhoeal deaths in Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. At most sites, more than 40% of children who died from persistent diarrhoea were malnourished. Conclusion Persistent diarrhoea remains an important cause of diarrhoeal death in young children in low- and middle-income countries. Research is needed on the public health burden of persistent diarrhoea and current treatment practices to understand why children are still dying from the condition. PMID:25378757

  7. Priorities for research into human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Mickey; Atkins, Salla; Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Bennett, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the human resources for health (HRH) policy concerns and research priorities of key stakeholders in low- and middle-income countries; to assess the extent to which existing HRH research addresses these concerns and priorities; and to develop a prioritized list of core research questions requiring immediate attention to facilitate policy development and implementation. Methods The study involved interviews with key informants, including health policy-makers, researchers and community and civil society representatives, in 24 low- and middle-income countries in four regions, a literature search for relevant reviews of research completed to date, and the assessment of interview and literature search findings at a consultative multinational workshop, during which research questions were prioritized. Findings Twenty-one research questions emerged from the key informant interviews, many of which had received little or no attention in the reviewed literature. The questions ranked as most important at the consultative workshop were: (i) To what extent do incentives work in attracting and retaining qualified health workers in underserviced areas? (ii) What is the impact of dual practice and multiple employment? and (iii) How can incentives be used to optimize efficiency and the quality of health care? Conclusion There was a clear consensus about the type of HRH policy problems faced by different countries and the nature of evidence needed to tackle them. Coordinated action to support and implement research into the highest priority questions identified here could have a major impact on health worker policies and, ultimately, on the health of the poor. PMID:20539857

  8. Use of the 'Accountability for Reasonableness' Approach to Improve Fairness in Accessing Dialysis in a Middle-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Mohammed Rafique; Maree, Jonathan David; Chirehwa, Maxwell T; Benatar, Solomon R

    2016-01-01

    Universal access to renal replacement therapy is beyond the economic capability of most low and middle-income countries due to large patient numbers and the high recurrent cost of treating end stage kidney disease. In countries where limited access is available, no systems exist that allow for optimal use of the scarce dialysis facilities. We previously reported that using national guidelines to select patients for renal replacement therapy resulted in biased allocation. We reengineered selection guidelines using the 'Accountability for Reasonableness' (procedural fairness) framework in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, applying these in a novel way to categorize and prioritize patients in a unique hierarchical fashion. The guidelines were primarily premised on patients being transplantable. We examined whether the revised guidelines enhanced fairness of dialysis resource allocation. This is a descriptive study of 1101 end stage kidney failure patients presenting to a tertiary renal unit in a middle-income country, evaluated for dialysis treatment over a seven-year period. The Assessment Committee used the accountability for reasonableness-based guidelines to allocate patients to one of three assessment groups. Category 1 patients were guaranteed renal replacement therapy, Category 3 patients were palliated, and Category 2 were offered treatment if resources allowed. Only 25.2% of all end stage kidney disease patients assessed were accepted for renal replacement treatment. The majority of patients (48%) were allocated to Category 2. Of 134 Category 1 patients, 98% were accepted for treatment while 438 (99.5%) Category 3 patients were excluded. Compared with those palliated, patients accepted for dialysis treatment were almost 10 years younger, employed, married with children and not diabetic. Compared with our previous selection process our current method of priority setting based on procedural fairness arguably resulted in more equitable allocation of

  9. Cervical cancer screening programs and guidelines in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brody; Gribble, Beth; Dias, Jasmyni; Curryer, Cassie; Vo, Kha; Kowal, Paul; Byles, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Screening reduces cervical cancer incidence and mortality. To describe cervical cancer epidemiology and screening guidelines in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Incidence, mortality, and screening-rate data were obtained for six LMICs and three higher-income comparator countries (Australia, USA, and UK). SCOPUS and PubMed were used to identify literature published after 2000 in English, using several screening-linked terms. Literature describing the use of cervical cancer screening guidelines in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa were included. Incidence, mortality trends, and screening rates were graphed and screening recommendations were summarized. Higher rates of cervical cancer incidence, mortality, and 5-year prevalence were found in LMICs compared with the comparator countries. LMICs with absent or newly implemented screening guidelines had the lowest rates of crude and effective cervical cancer screening, with high cancer incidence and mortality. Countries with established guidelines had higher screening rates and lower disease burden. Cost, inadequate knowledge, geographical location, and cultural views were common barriers to effective screening coverage. Work must continue to improve the implementation of affordable, relevant, and achievable methods to improve screening coverage in LMICs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Emergency medical systems in low- and middle-income countries: recommendations for action.

    PubMed Central

    Kobusingye, Olive C.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Bishai, David; Hicks, Eduardo Romero; Mock, Charles; Joshipura, Manjul

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical care is not a luxury for rich countries or rich individuals in poor countries. This paper makes the point that emergency care can make an important contribution to reducing avoidable death and disability in low- and middle-income countries. But emergency care needs to be planned well and supported at all levels--at the national, provincial and community levels--and take into account the entire spectrum of care, from the occurrence of an acute medical event in the community to the provision of appropriate care at the hospital. The mix of personnel, materials, and health-system infrastructure can be tailored to optimize the provision of emergency care in settings with different levels of resource availability. The misconception that emergency care cannot be cost effective in low-income settings is demonstrably inaccurate. Emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume resources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. With better planning, the ongoing costs of emergency care can result in better outcomes and better cost-effectiveness. Every country and community can and should provide emergency care regardless of their place in the ratings of developmental indices. We make the case for universal access to emergency care and lay out a research agenda to fill the gaps in knowledge in emergency care. PMID:16184282

  11. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Epidemiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Bowry, Ashna D K; Lewey, Jennifer; Dugani, Sagar B; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 17 million deaths in 2013. More than 80% of these cases were in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although the risk factors for the development of CVD are similar throughout the world, the evolving change in lifestyle and health behaviours in LMICs-including tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and obesity-are contributing to the escalating presence of CVD and mortality. Although CVD mortality is falling in high-income settings because of more effective preventive and management programs, access to evidence-based interventions for combating CVD in resource-limited settings is variable. The existing pressures on both human and financial resources impact the efforts of controlling CVD. The implementation of emerging innovative interventions to improve medication adherence, introducing m-health programs, and decentralizing the management of chronic diseases are promising methods to reduce the burden of chronic disease management on such fragile health care systems.

  12. Practice, training and safety of laparoscopic surgery in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Osaghae, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of diseases is recognised as a major unmet need in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Laparoscopic surgery has been present since the 1980s and offers the benefit of minimising the morbidity and potential mortality associated with laparotomies. Laparotomies are often carried out in LMICs for diagnosis and management, due to lack of radiological investigative and intervention options. The use of laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment is globally variable, with high-income countries using laparoscopy routinely compared with LMICs. The specific advantages of minimally invasive surgery such as lower surgical site infections and earlier return to work are of great benefit for patients in LMICs, as time lost not working could result in a family not being able to sustain themselves. Laparoscopic surgery and training is not cheap. Cost is a major barrier to healthcare access for a significant population in LMICs. Therefore, cost is usually seen as a major barrier for laparoscopic surgery to be integrated into routine practice in LMICs. The aim of this review is to focus on the practice, training and safety of laparoscopic surgery in LMICs. In addition it highlights the barriers to progress in adopting laparoscopic surgery in LMICs and how to address them. PMID:28138364

  13. Return On Investment From Childhood Immunization In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 2011-20.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Clark, Samantha; Portnoy, Allison; Grewal, Simrun; Brenzel, Logan; Walker, Damian G

    2016-02-01

    An analysis of return on investment can help policy makers support, optimize, and advocate for the expansion of immunization programs in the world's poorest countries. We assessed the return on investment associated with achieving projected coverage levels for vaccinations to prevent diseases related to ten antigens in ninety-four low- and middle-income countries during 2011-20, the Decade of Vaccines. We derived these estimates by using costs of vaccines, supply chains, and service delivery and their associated economic benefits. Based on the costs of illnesses averted, we estimated that projected immunizations will yield a net return about 16 times greater than costs over the decade (uncertainty range: 10-25). Using a full-income approach, which quantifies the value that people place on living longer and healthier lives, we found that net returns amounted to 44 times the costs (uncertainty range: 27-67). Across all antigens, net returns were greater than costs. But to realize the substantial positive return on investment from immunization programs, it is essential that governments and donors provide the requisite investments.

  14. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals. PMID:14576894

  15. The impact of violence on health in low- to middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Bowman, Brett; Butchart, Alexander; Mercy, James A

    2008-12-01

    More than 90% of violence-related deaths occur in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), where the mortality rate due to violence is almost 2.5 times greater than in high-income countries. Over and above the substantial contribution of violence as a cause of death and physical injuries, victims of violence are also more vulnerable to a range of mental and physical health problems. Several studies describe the deleterious impact of different types of violence on a range of health outcomes, but no review has yet been undertaken that presents a composite overview of the current state of knowledge in LMICs. This paper reviews the scientific literature describing the nature, magnitude and impact of violence on health, describing the current state of violence-prevention policy developments within the global health agenda and highlighting the health consequences, disease burden and economic costs of violence. Although data are limited, the review indicates that costs relating to violence deplete health care budgets considerably and that scarce resources could be better used to address other health threats that hamper development.

  16. The pediatric surgery workforce in low- and middle-income countries: problems and priorities.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Ameh, Emmanuel A

    2016-02-01

    Most of the world is in a surgical workforce crisis. While a lack of human resources is only one component of the myriad issues affecting surgical care in resource-poor regions, it is arguably the most consequential. This article examines the current state of the pediatric surgical workforce in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the reasons for the current shortfalls. We also note progress that has been made in capacity building and discuss priorities going forward. The existing literature on this subject has naturally focused on regions with the greatest workforce needs, particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, wherever possible we have included workforce data and related literature from LMICs worldwide. The pediatric surgeon is of course critically dependent on multi-disciplinary teams. Surgeons in high-income countries (HICs) often take for granted the ready availability of excellent anesthesia providers, surgically trained nurses, radiologists, pathologists, and neonatologists among many others. While the need exists to examine all of these disciplines and their contribution to the delivery of surgical services for children in LMICs, for the purposes of this review, we will focus primarily on the role of the pediatric surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cervical Cancer Prevention Through HPV Vaccination in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Asia

    PubMed

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Licciardi, Paul V; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M; Batmunkh, Tsetsegsaikhan; Mulholland, Edward K

    2017-09-27

    Cervical cancer is ranked the first or second most common cancer in women of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia. Cervical cancer is almost exclusively caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and majority of the cases can be prevented with the use of HPV vaccines. The HPV vaccines have demonstrated high vaccine efficacies against HPV infection and cervical cancer precursors in clinical and post-marketing studies, and are in use in most high-income countries. However, their use in LMICs are limited mainly due to the high costs and logistics in delivering multiple doses of the vaccine. Other issues such as the safety of the vaccines, social and cultural factors, as well as poor knowledge and awareness of the virus have also contributed to the low uptake of the vaccine. This mini-review focuses on the need for HPV vaccine implementation in Asia given the substantial disease burden and underuse of HPV vaccines in LMICs in this region. In addition, the progress towards HPV vaccine introduction, and barriers preventing further rollout of these essential, life-saving vaccines are also discussed in this article. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals.

  19. Obesity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Burden, Drivers, and Emerging Challenges.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole D; Patel, Shivani A; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2016-12-23

    We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries. Overweight occurs alongside persistent burdens of underweight in LMICs, especially in young women. Changes in the global diet and physical activity are among the hypothesized leading contributors to obesity. Emerging risk factors include environmental contaminants, chronic psychosocial stress, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and genetic/epigenetic mechanisms. Data on effective strategies to prevent the onset of obesity in LMICs or elsewhere are limited. Expanding the research in this area is a key priority and has important possibilities for reverse innovation that may also inform interventions in high-income countries. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Access to Medications for Cardiovascular Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Kaplan, Warren A; Kwan, Gene F; Laing, Richard O

    2016-05-24

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent the highest burden of disease globally. Medicines are a critical intervention used to prevent and treat CVD. This review describes access to medication for CVD from a health system perspective and strategies that have been used to promote access, including providing medicines at lower cost, improving medication supply, ensuring medicine quality, promoting appropriate use, and managing intellectual property issues. Using key evidence in published and gray literature and systematic reviews, we summarize advances in access to cardiovascular medicines using the 5 health system dimensions of access: availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of medicines. There are multiple barriers to access of CVD medicines, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Low availability of CVD medicines has been reported in public and private healthcare facilities. When patients lack insurance and pay out of pocket to purchase medicines, medicines can be unaffordable. Accessibility and acceptability are low for medicines used in secondary prevention; increasing use is positively related to country income. Fixed-dose combinations have shown a positive effect on adherence and intermediate outcome measures such as blood pressure and cholesterol. We have a new opportunity to improve access to CVD medicines by using strategies such as efficient procurement of low-cost, quality-assured generic medicines, development of fixed-dose combination medicines, and promotion of adherence through insurance schemes that waive copayment for long-term medications. Monitoring progress at all levels, institutional, regional, national, and international, is vital to identifying gaps in access and implementing adequate policies.

  1. Linking agriculture and health in low- and middle-income countries: an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Green, Rosemary; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan; Shankar, Bhavani; Waage, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Recent global fluctuations in food prices and continuing environmental degradation highlight the future challenge of feeding a growing world population. However, current dialogues rarely address the relationship between agricultural changes and health. This relationship is traditionally associated with the role of food in nutrition and with food safety, and while these are key interactions, we show in this paper that the relationship is far more complex and interesting. Besides the direct effects of agriculture on population nutrition, agriculture also influences health through its impact on household incomes, economies and the environment. These effects are felt particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where dramatic changes are affecting the agriculture-health relationship, in particular the growth of nutrition-related chronic disease and the associated double burden of under- and over-nutrition. Greater understanding of the negative effects of agriculture on health is also needed. While lengthening food value chains make the chain of influence between agricultural policy, food consumption, nutrition and health more complex, there remain opportunities to improve health by changing agricultural systems. The first challenge in doing this, we suggest, is to improve our capacity to measure the impact of agricultural interventions on health outcomes, and vice versa.

  2. Gender bias in careseeking practices in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Calu Costa, Janaína; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Barros, Aluísio Jd; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-06-01

    Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider. Results were stratified by sex at the national level and within each wealth quintile. Ecological analyses were carried out to assess if sex ratios varied by world region, religion, national income and its distribution, and gender inequality indices. Linear multilevel regression models were used to estimate time trends in careseeking by sex between 1994 and 2014. Eight out of 57 countries showed significant differences in careseeking; in six countries, girls were less likely to receive care (Colombia, Egypt, India, Liberia, Senegal and Yemen). Seven countries had significant interactions between sex and wealth quintile, but the patterns varied from country to country. In the ecological analyses, lower careseeking for girls tended to be more common in countries with higher income concentration (P = 0.039) and higher Muslim population (P = 0.006). Coverage increased for both sexes; 0.95 percent points (pp) a year among girls (32.9% to 51.9%), and 0.91 pp (34.8% to 52.9%) among boys. The overall frequency of careseeking is similar for girls and boys, but not in all countries, where there is evidence of gender bias. A gender perspective should be an integral part of monitoring, accountability and programming. Countries where bias is present need renewed attention by national and international initiatives, in order to ensure that girls receive adequate care and protection.

  3. Socio-Economic Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Middle-Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Janko; Erić, Miloš; Stojisavljević, Dragana; Marinković, Jelena; Janković, Slavenka

    2015-01-01

    Background A relatively consistent body of literature, mainly from high-income countries, supports an inverse association between socio-economic status (SES) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from low- and middle-income countries are scarce. This study explores SES differences in cardiovascular health (CVH) in the Republic of Srpska (RS), Bosnia and Herzegovina, a middle-income country. Methods We collected information on SES (education, employment status and household’s relative economic status, i.e. household wealth) and the 7 ideal CVH components (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose) among 3601 participants 25 years of age and older, from the 2010 National Health Survey in the RS. Based on the sum of all 7 CVH components an overall CVH score (CVHS) was calculated ranging from 0 (all CVH components at poor levels) to 14 (all CVH components at ideal levels). To assess the differences between groups the chi-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used where appropriate. The association between SES and CVHS was analysed with multivariate linear regression analyses. The dependent variable was CVHS, while independent variables were educational level, employment status and wealth index. Results According to multiple linear regression analysis CVHS was independently associated with education attainment and employment status. Participants with higher educational attainment and those economically active had higher CVHS (b = 0.57; CI = 0.29–0.85 and b = 0.27; CI = 0.10–0.44 respectively) after adjustment for sex, age group, type of settlement, and marital status. We failed to find any statistically significant difference between the wealth index and CVHS. Conclusion This study presents the novel information, since CVHS generated from the individual CVH components was not compared by socio-economic status till now. Our finding that the higher overall CVHS was independently

  4. Potential ecological footprints of active pharmaceutical ingredients: an examination of risk factors in low-, middle- and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kookana, Rai S.; Williams, Mike; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Gaw, Sally; Choi, Kyungho; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Thatikonda, Shashidhar; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the natural environment during manufacture, use and/or disposal, and consequently public concern about their potential adverse impacts in the environment is growing. Despite the bulk of the human population living in Asia and Africa (mostly in low- or middle-income countries), limited work relating to research, development and regulations on APIs in the environment have so far been conducted in these regions. Also, the API manufacturing sector is gradually shifting to countries with lower production costs. This paper focuses mainly on APIs for human consumption and highlights key differences between the low-, middle- and high-income countries, covering factors such as population and demographics, manufacture, prescriptions, treatment, disposal and reuse of waste and wastewater. The striking differences in populations (both human and animal), urbanization, sewer connectivity and other factors have revealed that the environmental compartments receiving the bulk of API residues differ markedly between low- and high-income countries. High sewer connectivity in developed countries allows capture and treatment of the waste stream (point-source). However, in many low- or middle-income countries, sewerage connectivity is generally low and in some areas waste is collected predominantly in septic systems. Consequently, the diffuse-source impact, such as on groundwater from leaking septic systems or on land due to disposal of raw sewage or septage, may be of greater concern. A screening level assessment of potential burdens of APIs in urban and rural environments of countries representing low- and middle-income as well as high-income has been made. Implications for ecological risks of APIs used by humans in lower income countries are discussed. PMID:25405973

  5. Potential ecological footprints of active pharmaceutical ingredients: an examination of risk factors in low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kookana, Rai S; Williams, Mike; Boxall, Alistair B A; Larsson, D G Joakim; Gaw, Sally; Choi, Kyungho; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Thatikonda, Shashidhar; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2014-11-19

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the natural environment during manufacture, use and/or disposal, and consequently public concern about their potential adverse impacts in the environment is growing. Despite the bulk of the human population living in Asia and Africa (mostly in low- or middle-income countries), limited work relating to research, development and regulations on APIs in the environment have so far been conducted in these regions. Also, the API manufacturing sector is gradually shifting to countries with lower production costs. This paper focuses mainly on APIs for human consumption and highlights key differences between the low-, middle- and high-income countries, covering factors such as population and demographics, manufacture, prescriptions, treatment, disposal and reuse of waste and wastewater. The striking differences in populations (both human and animal), urbanization, sewer connectivity and other factors have revealed that the environmental compartments receiving the bulk of API residues differ markedly between low- and high-income countries. High sewer connectivity in developed countries allows capture and treatment of the waste stream (point-source). However, in many low- or middle-income countries, sewerage connectivity is generally low and in some areas waste is collected predominantly in septic systems. Consequently, the diffuse-source impact, such as on groundwater from leaking septic systems or on land due to disposal of raw sewage or septage, may be of greater concern. A screening level assessment of potential burdens of APIs in urban and rural environments of countries representing low- and middle-income as well as high-income has been made. Implications for ecological risks of APIs used by humans in lower income countries are discussed.

  6. Public stewardship of private for-profit healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Abdullahi, Leila H; Ndze, Valantine N; Hussey, Gregory D

    2016-08-11

    Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries. For related systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2015, Issue 4; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) 2015, Issue 1; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) 2015, Issue 1; all part of The Cochrane Library, and searched 28 April 2015. For primary studies, we searched MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and MEDLINE 1946 to Present, OvidSP (searched 16 June 2016); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1987 to present, and Emerging Sources Citation Index 2015 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 3 May 2016 for papers citing included studies); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 3, part of The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 28 April 2015); Embase 1980 to 2015 Week 17, OvidSP (searched 28 April 2015); Global Health 1973 to 2015 Week 16, OvidSP (searched 30 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 30 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index 1975 to present, ISI Web of Science (searched 30 April 2015); Health Management, ProQuest (searched 22 November 2013). In addition, in April 2016, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles, WHO International Clinical

  7. Drinking and Driving among University Students in 22 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

    PubMed Central

    PELTZER, Karl; PENGPID, Supa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was investigate drinking, driving, and socio-behavioral factors among university students in low and middle income and emerging economy countries. Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18476 university students, of which 15151 (82.0%) were drivers of a car or motorcycle (41.3% men and 58.7% women), with a mean age of 20.7 years (SD=2.9), from 22 countries across Africa, Asia and Americas. Results: Overall, 17.3% reported to have been driving a car or motorcycle after having had too much to drink in the past 12 months, ranging from below 5% in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Kyrgyzstan to above 35% in China, Singapore and Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among both men and women, earlier year of study, living in an upper middle income or high income country (OR=3.58, CI=3.00–4.27 and OR=2.95, CI=2.52–3.46), low intrinsic religiosity (OR=0.67, CI=0.54–0.83 and OR=0.34, CI=0.28–0.42), injury from motorcycle accidents (OR=4.29, CI=2.69–6.82 and OR=3.24, CI=2.26–4.63), and weak belief in the importance of not drinking (OR=1.78, CI=1.50–2.11 and OR=1.61, CI=1.37–1.88) and driving were associated with drinking and driving. Further, among men, older age (OR=1.04, CI=1.01–1.07), binge drinking (OR=1.53, CI=1.27–1.86) and illicit drug use (OR=1.22, CI=1.01–1.47), and among women, younger age (OR=0.95, CI=0.97–0.98), and a lower country BAC limit (OR=0.01, CI=0.001–0.18) was associated with drinking and driving. Conclusion: This study confirms low to high levels of drinking and driving in different cultures across Africa, Asia and the Americas. Various factors identified can be used to guide interventions to reduce drinking and driving among university students. PMID:26576345

  8. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, R.; Budukh, A. M.; Rajkumar, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes--either organized or opportunistic--have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening, should reorganize their programmes in the light of experiences from other countries and lessons from their past failures. Middle-income countries intending to organize a new screening programme should start first in a limited geographical area, before considering any expansion. It is also more realistic and effective to target the screening on high-risk women once or twice in their lifetime using a highly sensitive test, with an emphasis on high coverage (>80%) of the targeted population. Efforts to organize an effective screening programme in these developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the needed manpower, and elaborate surveillance mechanisms

  9. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Igor; Sidhu, Simrita; Papana, Angeliki; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Xin-Wei, Yu; Wang, Wei; Campbell-Page, Ruth M; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Nair, Harish; Sridhar, Devi; Theodoratou, Evropi; Dowman, Ben; Adeloye, Davies; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Campbell, Harry; Wang, Wei; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small joints of the body. It is one of the leading causes of chronic morbidity in high-income countries, but little is known about the burden of this disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RA in six of the World Health Organization's (WHO) regions that harbour LMIC by identifying all relevant studies in those regions. To accomplish this aim various bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, LILACS and the Chinese databases CNKI and WanFang. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, including a definition of RA based on the 1987 revision of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Meta-estimates of regional RA prevalence rates for countries of low or middle income were 0.40% (95% CI: 0.23-0.57%) for Southeast Asian, 0.37% (95% CI: 0.23-0.51%) for Eastern Mediterranean, 0.62% (95% CI: 0.47-0.77%) for European, 1.25% (95% CI: 0.64-1.86%) for American and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.30-0.53%) for Western Pacific regions. A formal meta-analysis could not be performed for the sub-Saharan African region due to limited data. Male prevalence of RA in LMIC was 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%) while the prevalence in women reached 0.75% (95% CI: 0.60-0.90%). This difference between males and females was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of RA did not differ significantly between urban and rural settings (P = 0.353). These prevalence estimates represent 2.60 (95% CI: 1.85-3.34%) million male sufferers and 12.21 (95% CI: 9.78-14.67%) million female sufferers in LMIC in the year 2000, and 3.16 (95% CI: 2.25-4.05%) million affected males and 14.87 (95% CI: 11.91-17.86%) million affected females in LMIC in the year 2010. Given that majority of the world's population resides in LMIC, the number of affected people is substantial, with a projection to increase in the coming

  10. Drinking and Driving among University Students in 22 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was investigate drinking, driving, and socio-behavioral factors among university students in low and middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18476 university students, of which 15151 (82.0%) were drivers of a car or motorcycle (41.3% men and 58.7% women), with a mean age of 20.7 years (SD=2.9), from 22 countries across Africa, Asia and Americas. Overall, 17.3% reported to have been driving a car or motorcycle after having had too much to drink in the past 12 months, ranging from below 5% in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Kyrgyzstan to above 35% in China, Singapore and Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among both men and women, earlier year of study, living in an upper middle income or high income country (OR=3.58, CI=3.00-4.27 and OR=2.95, CI=2.52-3.46), low intrinsic religiosity (OR=0.67, CI=0.54-0.83 and OR=0.34, CI=0.28-0.42), injury from motorcycle accidents (OR=4.29, CI=2.69-6.82 and OR=3.24, CI=2.26-4.63), and weak belief in the importance of not drinking (OR=1.78, CI=1.50-2.11 and OR=1.61, CI=1.37-1.88) and driving were associated with drinking and driving. Further, among men, older age (OR=1.04, CI=1.01-1.07), binge drinking (OR=1.53, CI=1.27-1.86) and illicit drug use (OR=1.22, CI=1.01-1.47), and among women, younger age (OR=0.95, CI=0.97-0.98), and a lower country BAC limit (OR=0.01, CI=0.001-0.18) was associated with drinking and driving. This study confirms low to high levels of drinking and driving in different cultures across Africa, Asia and the Americas. Various factors identified can be used to guide interventions to reduce drinking and driving among university students.

  11. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Budukh, A M; Rajkumar, R

    2001-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes--either organized or opportunistic--have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening, should reorganize their programmes in the light of experiences from other countries and lessons from their past failures. Middle-income countries intending to organize a new screening programme should start first in a limited geographical area, before considering any expansion. It is also more realistic and effective to target the screening on high-risk women once or twice in their lifetime using a highly sensitive test, with an emphasis on high coverage (>80%) of the targeted population. Efforts to organize an effective screening programme in these developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the needed manpower, and elaborate surveillance mechanisms

  12. Methods for conducting systematic reviews of risk factors in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Yulia; Eisner, Manuel; Mikton, Christopher; Gardner, Frances; Liu, Jianghong; Murray, Joseph

    2016-03-15

    Rates of youth violence are disproportionately high in many low- and middle-income countries [LMICs] but existing reviews of risk factors focus almost exclusively on high-income countries. Different search strategies, including non-English language searches, might be required to identify relevant evidence in LMICs. This paper discusses methodological issues in systematic reviews aiming to include evidence from LMICs, using the example of a recent review of risk factors for child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs. We searched the main international databases, such as PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE in English, as well as 12 regional databases in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. In addition, we used internet search engines and Google Scholar, and contacted over 200 researchers and organizations to identify potentially eligible studies in LMICs. The majority of relevant studies were identified in the mainstream databases, but additional studies were also found through regional databases, such as CNKI, Wangfang, LILACS and SciELO. Overall, 85% of eligible studies were in English, and 15% were reported in Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian or French. Among eligible studies in languages other than English, two-thirds were identified only by regional databases and one-third was also indexed in the main international databases. There are many studies on child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs which have not been included in prior reviews. Most research on these subjects in LMICs has been produced in the last two-three decades and mostly in middle-income countries, such as China, Brazil, Turkey, South Africa and Russia. Based on our findings, it appears that many studies of child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs are reported in English, Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese, but few such studies are published in French, Arabic or Russian. If non-English language searches and screening had not been conducted in

  13. Are estimates of socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease artefactually narrowed by self-reported measures of prevalence in low-income and middle-income countries? Findings from the WHO-SAGE survey.

    PubMed

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Khan, Zaky; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Stuckler, David; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-03-01

    The use of self-reported measures of chronic disease may substantially underestimate prevalence in low-income and middle-income country settings, especially in groups with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to determine whether socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) differ if estimated by using symptom-based or criterion-based measures compared with self-reported physician diagnoses. Using population-representative data sets of the WHO Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2007-2010 (n=42 464), we calculated wealth-related and education-related concentration indices of self-reported diagnoses and symptom-based measures of angina, hypertension, asthma/chronic lung disease, visual impairment and depression in three 'low-income and lower middle-income countries'-China, Ghana and India-and three 'upper-middle-income countries'-Mexico, Russia and South Africa. SES gradients in NCD prevalence tended to be positive for self-reported diagnoses compared with symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In China, Ghana and India, SES gradients were positive for hypertension, angina, visual impairment and depression when using self-reported diagnoses, but were attenuated or became negative when using symptom-based/criterion-based measures. In Mexico, Russia and South Africa, this distinction was not observed consistently. For example, concentration index of self-reported versus symptom-based angina were: in China: 0.07 vs. -0.11, Ghana: 0.04 vs. -0.21, India: 0.02 vs. -0.16, Mexico: 0.19 vs. -0.22, Russia: -0.01 vs. -0.02 and South Africa: 0.37 vs. 0.02. Socioeconomic inequalities in NCD prevalence tend to be artefactually positive when using self-report compared with symptom-based or criterion-based diagnostic criteria, with greater bias occurring in low-income countries. Using standardised, symptom-based measures would provide more valid estimates of NCD inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  14. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  15. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  16. Low and Middle Income Mothers' Regulation of Negative Emotion: Effects of Children's Temperament and Situational Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Tanya S.; Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of situational (child situational emotions) and dispositional (child temperament) child variables on mothers' regulation of their own hostile (anger) and nonhostile (sadness and anxiety) emotions. Participants included 94 low and middle income mothers and their children (41 girls; 53 boys) aged 3 to 6…

  17. Treated Prevalence of and Mental Health Services Received by Children and Adolescents in 42 Low-and-Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jodi; Belfer, Myron; Daniels, Amy; Flisher, Alan; Ville, Liesbet; Lora, Antonio; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the treated prevalence and services received by children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics and capacity of mental health services for children and adolescents in 42 LAMICs. Methods: The "World Health Organization Assessment…

  18. Underutilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low and middle income countries: a review of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Chidyaonga-Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen Leah; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

    2015-01-01

    This review aims at identifying barriers to utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low- and middle-income countries. An electronic search was conducted using the following key words, HPV vaccination, screening, barriers, utilization and low and middle income/developed countries. Using the Garrard (1999) Matrix method approach, a modified matrix was designed and used as a data collection tool and data related to each category listed on the tool were entered into a matrix containing columns reflecting the categories. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify thematic categories. 31 articles published between 2001 and 2014 were yielded from the search. Analysis of the contents of the articles showed that the underutilization of cervical cancer screening services in low and middle-income countries is the result of barriers in accessing and utilizing of the prevention services. Though not mutually exclusive, the barriers were categorized in three categories; individual, community and health system related. Individual barriers include lack of awareness and knowledge about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer. Age, marital status, diffidence, social economic status, cultural and religious belief of the women also determine the women's' willingness to utilize the services. In some communities there is stigma attached to discussing reproductive health issues and this limits the young women's awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention. Understanding individual, community and health system barriers that hinder women's utilization of cervical cancer prevention services is very crucial in designing effective cervical cancer control programs in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26523173

  19. Epidemiology and public health policy of tobacco use and cardiovascular disorders in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Saleheen, Danish; Zhao, Wei; Rasheed, Asif

    2014-09-01

    All forms of tobacco lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. During the past few decades, the number of people who consume tobacco has increased worldwide because of an overall increase in the global population. It is estimated that close to 80% of the >1.3 billion people who smoke tobacco in the world are in low- and middle-income countries. Smokeless forms of tobacco are also widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries, including chewable and snuffed forms. Lack of targeted and effective strategies to control tobacco consumption contributes to a large burden of cardiovascular disorders in low- and middle-income countries, where cardiovascular disorders have become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiology of tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries and assess the public health policies needed to control tobacco use in such regions for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other tobacco-related morbidities and mortality. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Understanding Caregivers' Attitudes towards Physical Punishment of Children: Evidence from 34 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual…

  1. Educational Quality Differences in a Middle-Income Country: The Urban-Rural Gap in Malaysian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Mariam; Muijs, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Shortcomings of educational quality in rural schools remain a key focus in the literature related to developing countries. This paper studies whether rural primary schools in Malaysia, an upper middle-income developing country, are still experiencing lower levels of educational resources, school climate, school leadership, and parental involvement…

  2. Challenges and barriers for implementation of the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan in low- and middle- income countries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fary; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Amatya, Bhasker; Hamzat, Talhatu Kolapo; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Oshinowo, Helen; Elmalik, Alaeldin; Galea, Mary P

    2017-10-05

    To identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP) in Nigeria and compare these with other low- and middle-income countries. A rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia, conducted intensive workshops at medical/academic institutions in Nigeria for healthcare professionals from various local Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation facilities. A modified Delphi method identified challenges for person with disability, using 3 GDAP objectives. Findings were compared with similar exercises in Madagascar, Pakistan and Mongolia. Despite differences in the healthcare system and practice, the challenges reported in Nigeria were similar to those in other 3 low- and middle-income countries, at both macro (governmental/policymakers) and micro levels (community/social/individual). Common challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services, limited Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation workforce, guidelines and accreditation standards; coordination amongst healthcare sectors; social issues; data and research; legislation and political commitment. Common potential facilitators included: need for strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in infrastructure/human resources; coordination/partnerships in healthcare sector; and research. Disability care is an emerging priority in low- and middle-income countries to address the needs of people with disability. The challenges identified in Nigeria are common to most low- and middle-income countries. The GDAP framework can facilitate access and strengthen Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation services.

  3. Understanding Caregivers' Attitudes towards Physical Punishment of Children: Evidence from 34 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual…

  4. Experiences of midwives and nurses in policy development in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine; Vukic, Adele; Aston, Megan; Boadu, Nana Yaa; Helwig, Melissa; Macdonald, Danielle; Sikora, Lindsey; Wright, Erica; Babatunde, Seye; George, Awoala Nelson

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the qualitative evidence on the experiences of midwives' and nurses' involvement in policy development in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This qualitative review seeks to address the following question:What are midwives' and nurses' experiences of being involved in policy development in LMICs?

  5. Assessing the Impact of Violence and War on Youth in Low-and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Suzan; Shaheen, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to understand the effects of violence and armed conflict in low-and middle-income countries, though there are logistical and ethical concerns that should be taken prior to study design. Objective: This paper provides commentary on some of the challenges inherent in conducting research with youth affected by war in…

  6. Treated Prevalence of and Mental Health Services Received by Children and Adolescents in 42 Low-and-Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jodi; Belfer, Myron; Daniels, Amy; Flisher, Alan; Ville, Liesbet; Lora, Antonio; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the treated prevalence and services received by children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics and capacity of mental health services for children and adolescents in 42 LAMICs. Methods: The "World Health Organization Assessment…

  7. Nothing Succeeds Like Success? Equity, Student Outcomes, and Opportunity to Learn in High- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santibañez, Lucrecia; Fagioli, Loris

    2016-01-01

    A strong relationship between article background and educational outcomes fuels a negative inequality cycle. This paper explores the interplay between student socioeconomic status and educational outcomes, and the mediating role of Opportunity-to-Learn (OTL) in high- and middle-income countries. Using data from PISA 2012, we find that the…

  8. Influences on Middle-Income, First-Generation Prospective College Students: Perspectives of College-Bound High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which prospective first-generation students from middle-income families make decisions about attending college. I sought to discover the following: (1) what influenced students' decisions, and how the students felt about these influences; (2) how students interpreted the importance of going to…

  9. Doing away with Debt: Using Existing Resources to Ensure College Affordability for Low and Middle-Income Families. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    America's financial-aid system has become almost impossible to navigate and burdensome for those who need it most. Tuition and fees are skyrocketing, forcing almost half of college-going students to borrow. Low and middle-income students are taking on frightening levels of debt. Bachelor's degree recipients leave school with an average of $26,600…

  10. Doing away with Debt: Using Existing Resources to Ensure College Affordability for Low and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannenberg, Michael; Voight, Mamie

    2013-01-01

    America's college financial-aid system has helped millions of students obtain a postsecondary education, but the system's flaws are increasingly apparent. Growth in tuition and fees outpace available resources, particularly for students striving to rise out of poverty. Low- and middle-income students confront frightening levels of education debt.…

  11. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  12. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: Assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country

    PubMed Central

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. PMID:24495808

  13. Overweight and obesity among children at risk of intellectual disability in 20 low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Savage, A; Emerson, E

    2016-11-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) in high income countries are at significantly greater risk of obesity than their non-disabled peers. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 3 to 4-year-old children who are/are not at risk of ID in low and middle income countries. Secondary analysis of Round 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 20 low and middle income countries that included a total of 83 597 3 to 4-year-old children. Few differences in risk of overweight or obesity were apparent between 3 and 4-year-old children identified as being at risk/not at risk of ID in 20 low and middle income countries. In the two countries where statistically significant differences were observed, prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower among children at risk of ID. These results stand in stark contrast to evidence from high income countries which suggest that children with ID are at significantly increased risk of obesity when compared to their non-intellectually disabled peers. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008–2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure: (1) Relative Index of Inequality and (2) Slope Index of Inequality. Results: SHS exposure at home ranged from 17.4% in Mexico to 73.1% in Vietnam; exposure at workplace ranged from 16.9% in Uruguay to 65.8% in Bangladesh. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Uruguay, Poland, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing wealth (Relative Index of Inequality range: 1.13 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.22] in Turkey to 3.31 [95% CI 2.91–3.77] in Thailand; Slope Index of Inequality range: 0.06 [95% CI 0.02–0.11] in Turkey to 0.43 [95% CI 0.38–0.48] in Philippines). In these 11 countries, and in China, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing education. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Philippines, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing wealth. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Poland, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing education. Conclusion: SHS exposure at homes is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged in the majority of LMICs studied; at workplaces, exposure is higher among the less educated. Pro-equity tobacco control interventions alongside targeted efforts in these groups are recommended to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure. Implications: SHS exposure is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in high-income countries. Comprehensive smoke

  15. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008-2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure: (1) Relative Index of Inequality and (2) Slope Index of Inequality. SHS exposure at home ranged from 17.4% in Mexico to 73.1% in Vietnam; exposure at workplace ranged from 16.9% in Uruguay to 65.8% in Bangladesh. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Uruguay, Poland, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing wealth (Relative Index of Inequality range: 1.13 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.22] in Turkey to 3.31 [95% CI 2.91-3.77] in Thailand; Slope Index of Inequality range: 0.06 [95% CI 0.02-0.11] in Turkey to 0.43 [95% CI 0.38-0.48] in Philippines). In these 11 countries, and in China, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing education. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Philippines, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing wealth. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Poland, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing education. SHS exposure at homes is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged in the majority of LMICs studied; at workplaces, exposure is higher among the less educated. Pro-equity tobacco control interventions alongside targeted efforts in these groups are recommended to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure. SHS exposure is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in high-income countries. Comprehensive smoke-free policies are pro-equity for certain health outcomes that are

  16. District mental healthcare plans for five low- and middle-income countries: commonalities, variations and evidence gaps.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Honikman, Simone; Lund, Crick; Prince, Martin; Raja, Shoba; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the service and system interventions required for successful integration of mental healthcare into primary care across diverse low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). To examine the commonalities, variations and evidence gaps in district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) developed in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Uganda and South Africa for the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). A comparative analysis of MHCP components and human resource requirements. A core set of MHCP goals was seen across all countries. The MHCPs components to achieve those goals varied, with most similarity in countries within the same resource bracket (low income v. middle income). Human resources for advanced psychosocial interventions were only available in the existing health service in the best-resourced PRIME country. Application of a standardised methodological approach to MHCP across five LMIC allowed identification of core and site-specific interventions needed for implementation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. The impact of conditional cash transfers on health outcomes and use of health services in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Mylene; Haines, Andy; Palmer, Natasha

    2009-10-07

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) provide monetary transfers to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-defined requirements. CCT programmes have been justified on the grounds that demand-side subsidies are necessary to address inequities in access to health and social services for poor people. In the past decade they have become increasingly popular, particularly in middle income countries in Latin America. To assess the effectiveness of CCT in improving access to care and health outcomes, in particular for poorer populations in low and middle income countries. We searched a wide range of international databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, in addition to development studies and economic databases. We also searched the websites and online resources of numerous international agencies, organisations and universities to find relevant grey literature. The original searches were conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. An updated search in MEDLINE was carried out in May 2009. CCT were defined as monetary transfers made to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-determined requirements in relation to health care. Studies had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: health care utilisation, health expenditure, health outcomes or equity outcomes. Eligible study designs were: randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, or controlled before-after study of the impact of health financing policies following criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. We performed qualitative analysis of the evidence. We included ten papers reporting results from six intervention studies. Overall, design quality and analysis limited the risks of bias. Several CCT programmes provided strong evidence of a positive impact on the use of health services, nutritional status and health outcomes

  18. Strategies for integrating primary health services in middle- and low-income countries at the point of delivery.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C J; Garner, P

    2006-04-19

    Strategies to integrate primary health care aim to bring together inputs, organisation, management and delivery of particular service functions to make them more efficient, and accessible to the service user. In some middle and low income countries, services have been fragmented by separate vertical programmes established to ensure delivery of particular technologies. We examined the effectiveness of integration strategies at the point of delivery. To assess the effects of strategies to integrate primary health care services on producing a more coherent product and improving health care delivery and health status. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group specialised register (August 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2005), EMBASE (1988 to 2005), Socio Files (1974 to September 2005), Popline (1970 to September 2005), HealthStar (1975 to September 2005), Cinahl (1982 to September 2005); Cab Health (1972 to 1999), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (1970 to 1999), and reference lists of articles. We also searched the Internet and World Health Organization (WHO) library database, hand searched relevant WHO publications and contacted experts in the field. Randomised trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses of integration strategies in primary health care services. Health services in high-income countries were excluded. The primary outcomes were indicators of health care delivery, user views on any measure of service coherence, and health status. We also sought information on comparative costs. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Three cluster randomised trials and two controlled before and after studies were included, with three types of comparison: integration by adding on an additional component to an existing service (family planning); integrated services versus single special services (for sex workers); integrated delivery systems versus a

  19. Out-of-pocket health expenditures and antimicrobial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Alsan, Marcella; Schoemaker, Lena; Eggleston, Karen; Kammili, Nagamani; Kolli, Prasanthi; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2015-10-01

    The decreasing effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is a growing global public health concern. Low-income and middle-income countries are vulnerable to the loss of antimicrobial efficacy because of their high burden of infectious disease and the cost of treating resistant organisms. We aimed to assess if copayments in the public sector promoted the development of antibiotic resistance by inducing patients to purchase treatment from less well regulated private providers. We analysed data from the WHO 2014 Antibacterial Resistance Global Surveillance report. We assessed the importance of out-of-pocket spending and copayment requirements for public sector drugs on the level of bacterial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries, using linear regression to adjust for environmental factors purported to be predictors of resistance, such as sanitation, animal husbandry, and poverty, and other structural components of the health sector. Our outcome variable of interest was the proportion of bacterial isolates tested that showed resistance to a class of antimicrobial agents. In particular, we computed the average proportion of isolates that showed antibiotic resistance for a given bacteria-antibacterial combination in a given country. Our sample included 47 countries (23 in Africa, eight in the Americas, three in Europe, eight in the Middle East, three in southeast Asia, and two in the western Pacific). Out-of-pocket health expenditures were the only factor significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance. A ten point increase in the percentage of health expenditures that were out-of-pocket was associated with a 3·2 percentage point increase in resistant isolates (95% CI 1·17-5·15; p=0·002). This association was driven by countries requiring copayments for drugs in the public health sector. Of these countries, moving from the 20th to 80th percentile of out-of-pocket health expenditures was associated with an increase in resistant bacterial isolates

  20. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pauliah, Shreela S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Wade, Angie; Cady, Ernest B.; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2013-01-01

    Although selective or whole body cooling combined with optimal intensive care improves outcomes following neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, the safety and efficacy of cooling in low-and middle-income countries is not known. Objective We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cooling therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries. Results Seven trials, comprising a total of 567 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Most study infants had mild (15%) or moderate encephalopathy (48%) and did not receive invasive ventilation (88%). Cooling devices included water-circulating cooling caps, frozen gel packs, ice, water bottles, and phase-changing material. No statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality was seen with cooling (risk ratio: 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44 to 1.25). Data on other neonatal morbidities and long-term neurological outcomes were insufficient. Conclusion Cooling therapy was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality in low-and middle-income countries although the confidence intervals were wide and not incompatible with results seen in high-income countries. The apparent lack of treatment effect may be due to the heterogeneity and poor quality of the included studies, inefficiency of the low technology cooling devices, lack of optimal neonatal intensive care, sedation and ventilatory support, overuse of oxygen, or may be due to the intrinsic difference in the population, for example higher rates of perinatal infection, obstructed labor, intrauterine growth retardation and maternal malnutrition. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cooling in adequately powered randomised controlled trials is required before cooling is offered in routine clinical practice in low-and middle-income countries. PMID:23527034

  1. Should pharmacogenetics be incorporated in major depression treatment? Economic evaluation in high- and middle-income European countries.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2012-01-10

    The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12 weeks. The drugs were alternatively selected according to an 'as usual' algorithm or based on response and tolerability predicted by 5-HTTLPR profile. Here we apply this model to conduct a cost-utility analysis in three European regions with high GDP (Euro A), middle GDP (Euro B) and middle-high GDP (Euro C). In addition we test a verification scenario in which citalopram+bupropion augmentation is administered to individuals with the least favorable 5-HTTLPR genotype. Treatment outcomes are remission and Quality Adjusted-Life Weeks (QALW). Cost data (international $, year 2009) are retrieved from the World Health Organization (WHO) and national official sources. In base-case scenario incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) values are $1147 (Euro A), $1185 (Euro B) and $1178 (Euro C). From cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC), the probability of having an ICER value below WHO recommended cost-utility threshold (3 GDP per capita=$1926) is >90% in high-income countries (Euro A). In middle- income regions, these probabilities are <30% (Euro B) and <55% (Euro C) respectively. All estimates are robust against variations in treatment parameters, but if genetic test cost decreases to $100, pharmacogenetic approach becomes cost-effective in middle-income countries (Euro B). This simulation using data from 27 European states suggests that choosing antidepressant treatment from the results of 5-HTTLPR might be a cost-effective solution in high income countries. Its feasibility in middle income countries needs further research.

  2. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21(st) standard: analysis of CHERG datasets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne Cc; Kozuki, Naoko; Cousens, Simon; Stevens, Gretchen A; Blencowe, Hannah; Silveira, Mariangela F; Sania, Ayesha; Rosen, Heather E; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Adair, Linda S; Baqui, Abdullah H; Barros, Fernando C; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Manandhar, Dharma; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Roberfroid, Dominique; Saville, Naomi; Terlouw, Dianne J; Tielsch, James M; Victora, Cesar G; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Willey, Barbara A; Ezzati, Majid; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E; Katz, Joanne

    2017-08-17

    Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated.Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries.Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%.Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the

  3. Tobacco control law implementation in a middle-income country: Transnational tobacco control network overcoming tobacco industry opposition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales. A transnational network including international health groups and funders helped strengthen domestic capacity to implement the law by; promoting public awareness of Ley [Law] 1335; training local health department staff on enforcement; facilitating health agencies' sharing of educational strategies; and providing legal defence assistance. This network included vigilant efforts by local health groups, which continuously monitored and alerted the media to noncompliance, engaged government officials and policy-makers on implementation, and raised public awareness. Support from international health NGOs and funders and continuous engagement by local health groups enhanced implementation capacities to counter continued tobacco industry interference and ensure effective tobacco control implementation.

  4. Human Health and Economic Impacts of Ozone Reductions by Income Group.

    PubMed

    Saari, Rebecca K; Thompson, Tammy M; Selin, Noelle E

    2017-02-21

    Low-income households may be disproportionately affected by ozone pollution and ozone policy. We quantify how three factors affect the relative benefits of ozone policies with household income: (1) unequal ozone reductions; (2) policy delay; and (3) economic valuation methods. We model ozone concentrations under baseline and policy conditions across the full continental United States to estimate the distribution of ozone-related health impacts across nine income groups. We enhance an economic model to include these impacts across household income categories, and present its first application to evaluate the benefits of ozone reductions for low-income households. We find that mortality incidence rates decrease with increasing income. Modeled ozone levels yield a median of 11 deaths per 100 000 people in 2005. Proposed policy reduces these rates by 13%. Ozone reductions are highest among low-income households, which increases their relative welfare gains by up to 4% and decreases them for the rich by up to 8%. The median value of reductions in 2015 is either $30 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) or $1 billion if reduced mortality risks are valued with willingness-to-pay or as income from increased life expectancy. Ozone reductions were relatively twice as beneficial for the lowest- compared to the highest-income households. The valuation approach affected benefits more than a policy delay or differential ozone reductions with income.

  5. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  6. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  7. Barriers to Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Uptake in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed

    Islam, Rakibul M; Billah, Baki; Hossain, Md Nassif; Oldroyd, John

    2017-07-27

    Background: Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015. This review was done in accordance with the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results: 53 eligible studies, 31 CCa screening studies and 22 BCa screening studies, provided information on 81,210 participants. We found fewer studies in low-income and lower - middle - income countries than in upper - middle - income countries. Lack of knowledge about CCa and BCa, and understanding of the role of screening were the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in LMICs. Factors that are opportunities for knowledge acquisition, such as level of education, urban living, employment outside the home, facilitated CCa and BCa screening uptake in women in LMICs. Conclusions: Improvements to CCa and BCa screening uptake in LMICs must be accompanied by educational interventions which aim to improve knowledge and understanding of CCa and BCa and screening to asymptomatic women. It is imperative for governments and health policy makers in LMICs to implement screening programmes, including educational interventions, to ensure the prevention and early detection of women with CCa and BCa. These programmes and policies will be an integral part of a comprehensive population-based CCa and BCa control framework in LMICs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The

  9. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low-income and middle-income countries: overview of the Breast Health Global Initiative Global Summit 2007.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin O; Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Shyyan, Roman; Sener, Stephen F; Eniu, Alexandru; Carlson, Robert W; Azavedo, Edward; Harford, Joe

    2008-10-15

    Breast cancer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) correlate with the degree to which 1) cancers are detected at early stages, 2) newly detected cancers can be diagnosed correctly, and 3) appropriately selected multimodality treatment can be provided properly in a timely fashion. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) invited international experts to review and revise previously developed BHGI resource-stratified guideline tables for early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare systems. Focus groups addressed specific issues in breast pathology, radiation therapy, and management of locally advanced disease. Process metrics were developed based on the priorities established in the guideline stratification. The groups indicated that cancer prevention through health behavior modification could influence breast cancer incidence in LMCs. Diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages will reduce breast cancer mortality. Programs to promote breast self-awareness and clinical breast examination and resource-adapted mammographic screening are important early detection steps. Breast imaging, initially with ultrasound and, at higher resource levels with diagnostic mammography, improves preoperative diagnostic assessment and permits image-guided needle sampling. Multimodality therapy includes surgery, radiation, and systemic therapies. Government intervention is needed to address drug-delivery problems relating to high cost and poor access. Guideline dissemination and implementation research plays a crucial role in improving care. Adaptation of technology is needed in LMCs, especially for breast imaging, pathology, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment. Curricula for education and training in LMCs should be developed, applied, and studied in LMC-based learning laboratories to aid information transfer of evidence-based BHGI guidelines.

  10. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review✩

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Crick; Breen, Alison; Flisher, Alan J; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Corrigall, Joanne; Joska, John A; Swartz, Leslie; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    In spite of high levels of poverty in low and middle income countries (LMIC), and the high burden posed by common mental disorders (CMD), it is only in the last two decades that research has emerged that empirically addresses the relationship between poverty and CMD in these countries. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature in LMIC, with the aim of examining this relationship. Of 115 studies that were reviewed, most reported positive associations between a range of poverty indicators and CMD. In community-based studies, 73% and 79% of studies reported positive associations between a variety of poverty measures and CMD, 19% and 15% reported null associations and 8% and 6% reported negative associations, using bivariate and multivariate analyses respectively. However, closer examination of specific poverty dimensions revealed a complex picture, in which there was substantial variation between these dimensions. While variables such as education, food insecurity, housing, social class, socio-economic status and financial stress exhibit a relatively consistent and strong association with CMD, others such as income, employment and particularly consumption are more equivocal. There are several measurement and population factors that may explain variation in the strength of the relationship between poverty and CMD. By presenting a systematic review of the literature, this paper attempts to shift the debate from questions about whether poverty is associated with CMD in LMIC, to questions about which particular dimensions of poverty carry the strongest (or weakest) association. The relatively consistent association between CMD and a variety of poverty dimensions in LMIC serves to strengthen the case for the inclusion of mental health on the agenda of development agencies and in international targets such as the millenium development goals. PMID:20621748

  11. Financing HIV Programming: How Much Should Low- And Middle-Income Countries and their Donors Pay?

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2013-01-01

    Global HIV control funding falls short of need. To maximize health outcomes, it is critical that national governments sustain reasonable commitments, and that international donor assistance be distributed according to country needs and funding gaps. We develop a country classification framework in terms of actual versus expected national domestic funding, considering resource needs and donor financing. With UNAIDS and World Bank data, we examine domestic and donor HIV program funding in relation to need in 84 low- and middle-income countries. We estimate expected domestic contributions per person living with HIV (PLWH) as a function of per capita income, relative size of the health sector, and per capita foreign debt service. Countries are categorized according to levels of actual versus expected domestic contributions, and resource gap. Compared to national resource needs (UNAIDS Investment Framework), we identify imbalances among countries in actual versus expected domestic and donor contributions: 17 countries, with relatively high HIV prevalence and GNI per capita, have domestic funding below expected (median per PLWH $143 and $376, respectively), yet total available funding including from donors would exceed the need ($368 and $305, respectively) if domestic contribution equaled expected. Conversely, 27 countries have actual domestic funding above the expected (medians $294 and $149) but total (domestic+donor) funding does not meet estimated need ($685 and $1,173). Across the 84 countries, in 2009, estimated resource need totaled $10.3 billion, actual domestic contributions $5.1 billion and actual donor contributions $3.7 billion. If domestic contributions would increase to the expected level in countries where the actual was below expected, total domestic contributions would increase to $7.4 billion, turning a funding gap of $1.5 billion into a surplus of $0.8 billion. Even with imperfect funding and resource-need data, the proposed country classification

  12. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A; Ewen, M; Ross-Degnan, D; Ball, D; Laing, R

    2009-01-17

    WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. Data from 45 WHO/HAI surveys in 36 countries were adjusted for inflation or deflation and purchasing power parity. International reference prices from open international procurements for generic products were used as comparators. Results are presented for 15 medicines included in at least 80% of surveys and four individual medicines. Average public sector availability of generic medicines ranged from 29.4% to 54.4% across WHO regions. Median government procurement prices for 15 generic medicines were 1.11 times corresponding international reference prices, although purchasing efficiency ranged from 0.09 to 5.37 times international reference prices. Low procurement prices did not always translate into low patient prices. Private sector patients paid 9-25 times international reference prices for lowest-priced generic products and over 20 times international reference prices for originator products across WHO regions. Treatments for acute and chronic illness were largely unaffordable in many countries. In the private sector, wholesale mark-ups ranged from 2% to 380%, whereas retail mark-ups ranged from 10% to 552%. In countries where value added tax was applied to medicines, the amount charged varied from 4% to 15%. Overall, public and private sector prices for originator and generic medicines were substantially higher than would be expected if purchasing and distribution were efficient and mark-ups were reasonable. Policy options such as promoting generic medicines and alternative financing mechanisms are needed to increase availability, reduce prices, and improve affordability.

  13. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; Breen, Alison; Flisher, Alan J; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Corrigall, Joanne; Joska, John A; Swartz, Leslie; Patel, Vikram

    2010-08-01

    In spite of high levels of poverty in low and middle income countries (LMIC), and the high burden posed by common mental disorders (CMD), it is only in the last two decades that research has emerged that empirically addresses the relationship between poverty and CMD in these countries. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature in LMIC, with the aim of examining this relationship. Of 115 studies that were reviewed, most reported positive associations between a range of poverty indicators and CMD. In community-based studies, 73% and 79% of studies reported positive associations between a variety of poverty measures and CMD, 19% and 15% reported null associations and 8% and 6% reported negative associations, using bivariate and multivariate analyses respectively. However, closer examination of specific poverty dimensions revealed a complex picture, in which there was substantial variation between these dimensions. While variables such as education, food insecurity, housing, social class, socio-economic status and financial stress exhibit a relatively consistent and strong association with CMD, others such as income, employment and particularly consumption are more equivocal. There are several measurement and population factors that may explain variation in the strength of the relationship between poverty and CMD. By presenting a systematic review of the literature, this paper attempts to shift the debate from questions about whether poverty is associated with CMD in LMIC, to questions about which particular dimensions of poverty carry the strongest (or weakest) association. The relatively consistent association between CMD and a variety of poverty dimensions in LMIC serves to strengthen the case for the inclusion of mental health on the agenda of development agencies and in international targets such as the millenium development goals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Benefits of Providing External Beam Radiotherapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Yap, M L; Hanna, T P; Shafiq, J; Ferlay, J; Bray, F; Delaney, G P; Barton, M

    2017-02-01

    More than half of all cancer diagnoses worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the incidence is projected to rise substantially within the next 20 years. Radiotherapy is a vital, cost-effective treatment for cancer; yet there is currently a huge deficit in radiotherapy services within these countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential outcome benefits if external beam radiotherapy was provided to all patients requiring such treatment in LMICs, according to the current evidence-based guidelines. Projected estimates of these benefits were calculated to 2035, obtained by applying the previously published Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes, Research and Evaluation (CCORE) demand and outcome benefit estimates to cancer incidence and projection data from the GLOBOCAN 2012 data. The estimated optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate for all LMICs was 50%. There were about 4.0 million cancer patients in LMICs who required radiotherapy in 2012. This number is projected to increase by 78% by 2035, a far steeper increase than the 38% increase expected in high-income countries. National radiotherapy benefits varied widely, and were influenced by case mix. The 5 year population local control and survival benefits for all LMICs, if radiotherapy was delivered according to guidelines, were estimated to be 9.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared with no radiotherapy use. This equates to about 1.3 million patients who would derive a local control benefit in 2035, whereas over 615 000 patients would derive a survival benefit if the demand for radiotherapy in LMICs was met. The potential outcome benefits were found to be higher in LMICs. These results further highlight the urgent need to reduce the gap between the supply of, and demand for, radiotherapy in LMICs. We must attempt to address this 'silent crisis' as a matter of priority and the approach must consider the complex societal challenges unique to LMICs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  15. Consensus recommendations for essential vascular care in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Giannou, Christos; Mishra, Brijesh; Rich, Norman; Wren, Sherry M; Mock, Charles; Kushner, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are ill equipped to care for the large and growing burden of vascular conditions. We aimed to develop essential vascular care recommendations that would be feasible for implementation at nearly every setting worldwide, regardless of national income. The normative Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on essential vascular care resources among 27 experts in multiple areas of vascular care and public health as well as with experience in LMIC health care. Five anonymous, iterative rounds of survey with controlled feedback and a statistical response were used to reach consensus on essential vascular care resources. The matrices provide recommendations for 92 vascular care resources at each of the four levels of care in most LMICs, comprising primary health centers and first-level, referral, and tertiary hospitals. The recommendations include essential and desirable resources and encompass the following categories: screening, counseling, and evaluation; diagnostics; medical care; surgical care; equipment and supplies; and medications. The resources recommended have the potential to improve the ability of LMIC health care systems to respond to the large and growing burden of vascular conditions. Many of these resources can be provided with thoughtful planning and organization, without significant increases in cost. However, the resources must be incorporated into a framework that includes surveillance of vascular conditions, monitoring and evaluation of vascular capacity and care, a well functioning prehospital and interhospital transport system, and vascular training for existing and future health care providers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Financing HIV programming: how much should low- and middle-income countries and their donors pay?

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Wirtz, Veronika J; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Korenromp, Eline L

    2013-01-01

    Global HIV control funding falls short of need. To maximize health outcomes, it is critical that national governments sustain reasonable commitments, and that international donor assistance be distributed according to country needs and funding gaps. We develop a country classification framework in terms of actual versus expected national domestic funding, considering resource needs and donor financing. With UNAIDS and World Bank data, we examine domestic and donor HIV program funding in relation to need in 84 low- and middle-income countries. We estimate expected domestic contributions per person living with HIV (PLWH) as a function of per capita income, relative size of the health sector, and per capita foreign debt service. Countries are categorized according to levels of actual versus expected domestic contributions, and resource gap. Compared to national resource needs (UNAIDS Investment Framework), we identify imbalances among countries in actual versus expected domestic and donor contributions: 17 countries, with relatively high HIV prevalence and GNI per capita, have domestic funding below expected (median per PLWH $143 and $376, respectively), yet total available funding including from donors would exceed the need ($368 and $305, respectively) if domestic contribution equaled expected. Conversely, 27 countries have actual domestic funding above the expected (medians $294 and $149) but total (domestic+donor) funding does not meet estimated need ($685 and $1,173). Across the 84 countries, in 2009, estimated resource need totaled $10.3 billion, actual domestic contributions $5.1 billion and actual donor contributions $3.7 billion. If domestic contributions would increase to the expected level in countries where the actual was below expected, total domestic contributions would increase to $7.4 billion, turning a funding gap of $1.5 billion into a surplus of $0.8 billion. Even with imperfect funding and resource-need data, the proposed country classification

  17. American Brachytherapy Society: Brachytherapy treatment recommendations for locally advanced cervix cancer for low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Gita; Brown, Derek; Chang, Amy; Erickson, Beth; Fidarova, Elena; Grover, Surbhi; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Nag, Subir; Narayan, Kailash; Bvochora-Nsingo, Memory; Viegas, Celia; Viswanathan, Akila N; Lin, Ming Yin; Gaffney, David

    Most cervix cancer cases occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), and outcomes are suboptimal, even for early stage disease. Brachytherapy plays a central role in the treatment paradigm, improving both local control and overall survival. The American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) aims to provide guidelines for brachytherapy delivery in resource-limited settings. A panel of clinicians and physicists with expertise in brachytherapy administration in LMIC was convened. A survey was developed to identify practice patterns at the authors' institutions and was also extended to participants of the Cervix Cancer Research Network. The scientific literature was reviewed to identify consensus papers or review articles with a focus on treatment of locally advanced, unresected cervical cancer in LMIC. Of the 40 participants invited to respond to the survey, 32 responded (response rate 80%). Participants were practicing in 14 different countries including both high-income (China, Singapore, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States) and low-income or middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). Recommendations for modifications to existing ABS guidelines were reviewed by the panel members and are highlighted in this article. Recommendations for treatment of locally advanced, unresectable cervical cancer in LMIC are presented. The guidelines comment on staging, external beam radiotherapy, use of concurrent chemotherapy, overall treatment duration, use of anesthesia, applicator choice and placement verification, brachytherapy treatment planning including dose and prescription point, recommended reporting and documentation, physics support, and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Violent conflict and opiate use in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jack, Helen; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2014-03-01

    Violent conflicts disproportionately affect populations in low and middle-income countries, and exposure to conflict is a known risk factor for mental disorders and substance use, including use of illicit opiates. Opiate use can be particularly problematic in resource-limited settings because few treatment options are available and dependence can impede economic development. In this systematic review, we explore the relationship between violent conflict and opiate use in conflict-affected populations in low and middle-income countries. We searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, PILOTS, and select grey literature databases using a defined list of key terms related to conflict and opiate use, screened the results for relevant and methodologically rigorous studies, and conducted a forward search of the bibliographies of selected results to identify additional studies. We screened 707 articles, selecting 6 articles for inclusion: 4 quantitative studies and 2 qualitative studies that examined populations in 9 different countries. All study participants were adults (aged 15-65) living in or displaced from a conflict-affected country. Data sources included death records, hospital records, and interviews with refugees, internally displaced persons, and others affected by conflict. Overall, we found a positive, but ambiguous, association between violent conflict and opiate use, with five of six studies suggesting that opiate use increases with violent conflict. Five key factors mediate the conceptual relationship between opiate use and violent conflict: (1) pre-conflict opiate presence, (2) mental disorders, (3) lack of economic opportunity, (4) changes in social norms or structure, and (5) changes in drug availability. The strength and direction of the association between opiate use and violent conflict and the proposed mediating factors may differ between contexts, necessitating country and population-specific research and interventions. Prevalence of opiate use prior to the

  19. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for migraine in four low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J; Chisholm, Dan

    2015-02-18

    Evidence of the cost and effects of interventions for reducing the global burden of migraine remains scarce. Our objective was to estimate the population-level cost-effectiveness of evidence-based migraine interventions and their contributions towards reducing current burden in low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard WHO approach to cost-effectiveness analysis (CHOICE), we modelled core set intervention strategies for migraine, taking account of coverage and efficacy as well as non-adherence. The setting was primary health care including pharmacies. We modelled 26 intervention strategies implemented during 10 years. These included first-line acute and prophylactic drugs, and the expected consequences of adding consumer-education and provider-training. Total population-level costs and effectiveness (healthy life years [HLY] gained) were combined to form average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We executed runs of the model for the general populations of China, India, Russia and Zambia. Of the strategies considered, acute treatment of attacks with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was by far the most cost-effective and generated a HLY for less than US$ 100. Adding educational actions increased annual costs by 1-2 US cents per capita of the population. Cost-effectiveness ratios then became slightly less favourable but still less than US$ 100 per HLY gained for ASA. An incremental cost of > US$ 10,000 would have to be paid per extra HLY by adding a triptan in a stepped-care treatment paradigm. For prophylaxis, amitriptyline was more cost-effective than propranolol or topiramate. Self-management with simple analgesics was by far the most cost-effective strategy for migraine treatment in low- and middle-income countries and represents a highly efficient use of health resources. Consumer education and provider training are expected to accelerate progress towards desired levels of coverage and adherence, cost relatively little to implement, and can

  1. Dietary management of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current WHO guidelines on the management and treatment of diarrhea in children strongly recommend continued feeding alongside the administration of oral rehydration solution and zinc therapy, but there remains some debate regarding the optimal diet or dietary ingredients for feeding children with diarrhea. Methods We conducted a systematic search for all published randomized controlled trials evaluating food-based interventions among children under five years old with diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries. We classified 29 eligible studies into one or more comparisons: reduced versus regular lactose liquid feeds, lactose-free versus lactose-containing liquid feeds, lactose-free liquid feeds versus lactose-containing mixed diets, and commercial/specialized ingredients versus home-available ingredients. We used all available outcome data to conduct random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the average effect of each intervention on diarrhea duration, stool output, weight gain and treatment failure risk for studies on acute and persistent diarrhea separately. Results Evidence of low-to-moderate quality suggests that among children with acute diarrhea, diluting or fermenting lactose-containing liquid feeds does not affect any outcome when compared with an ordinary lactose-containing liquid feeds. In contrast, moderate quality evidence suggests that lactose-free liquid feeds reduce duration and the risk of treatment failure compared to lactose-containing liquid feeds in acute diarrhea. Only limited evidence of low quality was available to assess either of these two approaches in persistent diarrhea, or to assess lactose-free liquid feeds compared to lactose-containing mixed diets in either acute or persistent diarrhea. For commercially prepared or specialized ingredients compared to home-available ingredients, we found low-to-moderate quality evidence of no effect on any outcome in either acute or persistent diarrhea, though when we restricted these

  2. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in term neonates in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Haider, Batool A; Sharma, Renee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-02-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Vitamin A supplementation in children six months of age and older has been found to be beneficial, but no effect of supplementation has been noted for children between one and five months of age. Supplementation during the neonatal period has been suggested to have an impact by increasing body stores in early infancy. To evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation for term neonates in low and middle income countries with respect to prevention of mortality and morbidity. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 13 March 2016), Embase (1980 to 13 March 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 13 March 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Also trials with a factorial design. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted study data. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 12 trials (168,460 neonates) in this review, with only a few trials reporting disaggregated data for term infants. Therefore, we analysed data and presented estimates for term infants (when specified) and for all infants.Data for term neonates from three studies did not show a statistically significant effect on the risk of infant mortality at six months in the vitamin A group compared with the control group (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 1.18; I(2) = 63%). Analysis of data for all infants from 11 studies revealed no evidence of a significant reduction in the risk of

  3. Estimating the number of men who have sex with men in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, C; Konda, K; Pecheny, M; Chatterjee, A; Lyerla, R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To collect and analyse published and unpublished surveillance and research data on the prevalence of same sex sexual activity among male adults (including male‐to‐female transgenders and sex workers) in low and middle income countries. Methods Key indicators were operationalised (ever sex with a man, sex with a man last year, high risk sex last year (as defined by unprotected anal sex or commercial sex)) and a database was designed for data collection. Searches were conducted (PubMed, databases (US Census Bureau, World Bank, conferences)) and regional informants helped. Reference reports were used to assess the methodology and quality of information in each record. The best data available per region were identified and indicator estimates were used to propose regional range estimates. Results Of 561 studies on male sexual behaviour and/or MSM population characteristics, 67 addressed prevalence of sex between men, with diverse numbers per region and virtual unavailability in sub‐Saharan Africa, Middle East/North Africa, and the English speaking Caribbean. Overall, data on lifetime prevalence of sex with men (among males) yielded figures of 3–5% for East Asia, 6–12% for South and South East Asia, 6–15% for Eastern Europe, and 6–20% for Latin America. Last year figures were approximately half of lifetime figures, and prevalence of high risk sex among MSM last year was approximately 40–60% in all regions except South Asia, where it is 70–90%. Conclusions Data available on the prevalence of male same sex sexual activity across regions are scarce (non‐existent in some areas), with validity and comparability problems. In South and South East Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, a lifetime prevalence of 6–20% was estimated, with smaller figures in East Asia. A cross cultural analysis of terminology and practices is needed, as is continued work on epidemiological and social analysis of male‐male sexual practices in societies across

  4. Assessment of the Status of Prehospital Care in 13 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Katie; Mock, Charles; Joshipura, Manjul; Rubiano, Andres M.; Zakariah, Ahmed; Rivara, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Injury and other medical emergencies are becoming increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many to most of the deaths from these conditions occur outside of hospitals, necessitating the development of prehospital care. Prehospital capabilities are inadequately developed to meet the growing needs for emergency care in most LMICs. In order to better plan for development of prehospital care globally, this study sought to better understand the current status of prehospital care in a wide range of LMICs. Methods A survey was conducted of emergency medical services (EMS) leaders and other key informants in 13 LMICs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Questions addressed methods of transport to hospital, training and certification of EMS providers, organization and funding of EMS systems, public access to prehospital care, and barriers to EMS development. Results Prehospital care capabilities varied significantly, but in general, were less developed in low-income countries and in rural areas, where utilization of formal emergency medical services was often very low. Commercial drivers, volunteers, and other bystanders provided a large proportion of prehospital transport and occasionally also provide first aid in many locations. Although taxes and mandatory motor vehicle insurance provided supplemental funds to EMS in 85% of the countries, the most frequently cited barriers to further development of prehospital care was inadequate funding (36% of barriers cited). The next most commonly sited barriers were lack of leadership within the system (18%) and lack of legislation setting standards (18%). Conclusions Expansion of prehospital care to currently under- or un-served areas, especially in low-income countries and in rural areas, could make use of the already existing networks of first responders, such as commercial drivers and lay persons. Efforts to increase their effectiveness, such as more widespread first aid training, and better

  5. Interventions to reduce tuberculosis mortality and transmission in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; Floyd, Katherine; Broekmans, Jaap F.

    2002-01-01

    Tuberculosis is among the top ten causes of global mortality and affects low-income countries in particular. This paper examines, through a literature review, the impact of tuberculosis control measures on tuberculosis mortality and transmission, and constraints to scaling-up. It also provides estimates of the effectiveness of various interventions using a model proposed by Styblo. It concludes that treatment of smear-positive tuberculosis using the WHO directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy has by far the highest impact. While BCG immunization reduces childhood tuberculosis mortality, its impact on tuberculosis transmission is probably minimal. Under specific conditions, an additional impact on mortality and transmission can be expected through treatment of smear-negative cases, intensification of case-finding for smear-positive tuberculosis, and preventive therapy among individuals with dual tuberculosis-HIV infection. Of these interventions, DOTS is the most cost-effective at around US$ 5-40 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) gained. The cost for BCG immunization is likely to be under US$ 50 per DALY gained. Treatment of smear-negative patients has a cost per DALY gained of up to US$ 100 in low-income countries, and up to US$ 400 in middle-income settings. Other interventions, such as preventive therapy for HIV-positive individuals, appear to be less cost-effective. The major constraint to scaling up DOTS is lack of political commitment, resulting in shortages of funding and human resources for tuberculosis control. However, in recent years there have been encouraging signs of increasing political commitment. Other constraints are related to involvement of the private sector, health sector reform, management capacity of tuberculosis programmes, treatment delivery, and drug supply. Global tuberculosis control could benefit strongly from technical innovation, including the development of a vaccine giving good protection against smear

  6. Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth

    2015-04-26

    Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for

  7. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working <21, 21-27, and 28+ hours during the past week, and child labour (UNICEF definition). Results The majority of OAC (60.7%) engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample) worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample) met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC. PMID

  8. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  9. Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination for Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Lall, Dorothy; Cason, E; Pasquel, F J; Ali, M K; Narayan, K M V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death globally. In addition to the mortality associated with it, people with COPD experience significant morbidity, making this set of conditions a major public health concern. Infections caused by influenza virus are a preventable cause of morbidity and vaccination has been shown to be effective. The evidence of their benefit in persons with COPD mainly comes from high-income countries where influenza vaccination is used in routine practice, but little is known about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and scalability of vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore systematically reviewed and present evidence related to vaccination against influenza in persons with COPD with a special focus on studies from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Available data from 19 studies suggest that the use of influenza vaccine in persons with COPD is beneficial, cost-effective, and may be relevant for low- and middle-income countries. Wider implementation of this intervention needs to take into account the health care delivery systems of LMICs and use of prevalent viral strains in vaccines to be most cost effective.

  10. Assessment of Adaptive Breast Cancer Screening Policies for Improved Mortality Reduction in Low to Middle Income Countries

    PubMed

    Wagh, Baban; Chaluvarayaswamy, Ramesh; Pal, Debnath

    2017-09-27

    Objective: To investigate adaptive breast cancer screening policies using clinical breast examination for early detection and mortality reduction in low to middle income countries like India. Methods: Using published data from the Mumbai randomized cluster control trial (1998-2006), we first estimated the mean sojourn time at 5.9 years (95% Confidence Interval: 5.3-6.5) assuming 52% sensitivity of the test. The estimated mean sojourn time was used as a “silent interval” in time varying cellular kinetics with the two stage deterministic clonal expansion model, and we found age specific sojourn times in years as follows: 35-39. 0.8; 40-44, 1.0; 45-49, 1.8; 50-54, 3.2; and 55+, 5.9. Equipped with age specific sojourn times and sensitivity, we investigate adaptive screening policies for various year age groups using different screening intervals, maintaining a constant screen count of 10 and a 6 state Markov transition model. The rationale for using a fixed number of screens was to benchmark the effect of the screening interval. Result: We found that annual screening at ages 35-39 and biennial from 41-49 would achieve a mortality reduction of 27.9%, while annual screening from 38-42 and triennial from 43-58 would achieve a mortality reduction of 25.5%. Biennial screening from 40-60 years of age showed a mortality reduction of 23.6%, indicating inclusion of annual screening might be effective. We demonstrated a modelling framework that could be applied to the final data of randomized controlled trials, such as the ongoing Mumbai and Trivandrum trials in India, for assessing efficacy of annual screening in younger women. Conclusion: The framework could be useful to decide age groups that would yield maximal effectiveness in screening trials with selected screening intervals. Further, the framework could be adapted in other low to middle income countries for designing either screening trials or adaptive screening policies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Understanding caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children: evidence from 34 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M

    2011-12-01

    This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual and family levels correlate with the caregivers' beliefs in the need for violent discipline. The article also examines to what extent attitudes influence behaviors and compares groups of respondents to see how attitudes relate to disciplinary practices across caregivers of different socio-economic backgrounds. The analysis is based on nationally representative data from 33 MICS and 1 DHS surveys. Questions on child discipline were addressed to the mother (or primary caregiver) of one randomly selected child aged 2-14 years in each household. The questionnaire asked whether any member of the household had used various violent and non-violent disciplinary practices with that child during the past month. Additionally, the interviewers asked the respondent if she believed that, in order to bring up that child properly, physical punishment was necessary. The sample included 166,635 mothers/primary caregivers. The analysis shows that, in most countries, the majority of mothers/primary caregivers did not think there was a need for physical punishment. Overall, characteristics such as household wealth and size, educational level and age, as well as place of residence were significantly associated with caregivers' attitudes. The analysis confirms that beliefs influence disciplinary practices to a large degree: in all the countries but two, children were significantly more likely to experience physical punishment if their mothers/primary caregivers thought such punishment was needed. However, large proportions of children were found to be subject to physical punishment even if their mothers/primary caregivers did not consider this method

  12. Mental health research priorities in low- and middle-income countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Sharan, P; Gallo, C; Gureje, O; Lamberte, E; Mari, J J; Mazzotti, G; Patel, V; Swartz, L; Olifson, S; Levav, I; de Francisco, A; Saxena, S

    2009-10-01

    Studies suggest a paucity of and lack of prioritisation in mental health research from low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. To investigate research priorities in mental health among researchers and other stakeholders in LAMI countries. We used a two-stage design that included identification, through literature searches and snowball technique, of researchers and stakeholders in 114 countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean; and a mail survey on priorities in research. The study identified broad agreement between researchers and stakeholders and across regions regarding research priorities. Epidemiology (burden and risk factors), health systems and social science ranked highest for type of research. Depression/anxiety, substance use disorders and psychoses; and children and adolescents, women, and people exposed to violence/trauma were prioritised among the disorders and population groups respectively. Important criteria for prioritising research were burden of disease, social justice, and availability of funds. Stakeholder groups differed in the importance they gave to the personal interest of researchers as a criterion for prioritising research. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were consistent with burden of disease estimates, however suicide was underprioritised compared with its burden. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were also largely congruent with the researchers' projects. The results of this first ever conducted survey of researchers and stakeholders regarding research priorities in mental health suggest that it should be possible to develop consensus at regional and international levels regarding the research agenda that is necessary to support health system objectives in LAMI countries.

  13. The rural bite in population pyramids: what are the implications for responsiveness of health systems in middle income countries?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services can only be responsive if they are designed to service the needs of the population at hand. In many low and middle income countries, the rate of urbanisation can leave the profile of the rural population quite different from the urban population. As a consequence, the kinds of services required for an urban population may be quite different from that required for a rural population. This is examined using data from the South East Asia Community Observatory in rural Malaysia and contrasting it with the national Malaysia population profile. Methods Census data were collected from 10,373 household and the sex and age of household members was recorded. Approximate Malaysian national age and sex profiles were downloaded from the US Census Bureau. The population pyramids, and the dependency and support ratios for the whole population and the SEACO sub-district population are compared. Results Based on the population profiles and the dependency ratios, the rural sub-district shows need for health services in the under 14 age group similar to that required nationally. In the older age group, however, the rural sub-district shows twice the need for services as the national data indicate. Conclusion The health services needs of an older population will tend towards chronic conditions, rather than the typically acute conditions of childhood. The relatively greater number of older people in the rural population suggest a very different health services mix need. Community based population monitoring provides critical information to inform health systems. PMID:25081203

  14. The rural bite in population pyramids: what are the implications for responsiveness of health systems in middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Jahan, Nowrozy; Allotey, Pascale; Arunachalam, Dharma; Yasin, Shajahan; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Davey, Tamzyn M; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Health services can only be responsive if they are designed to service the needs of the population at hand. In many low and middle income countries, the rate of urbanisation can leave the profile of the rural population quite different from the urban population. As a consequence, the kinds of services required for an urban population may be quite different from that required for a rural population. This is examined using data from the South East Asia Community Observatory in rural Malaysia and contrasting it with the national Malaysia population profile. Census data were collected from 10,373 household and the sex and age of household members was recorded. Approximate Malaysian national age and sex profiles were downloaded from the US Census Bureau. The population pyramids, and the dependency and support ratios for the whole population and the SEACO sub-district population are compared. Based on the population profiles and the dependency ratios, the rural sub-district shows need for health services in the under 14 age group similar to that required nationally. In the older age group, however, the rural sub-district shows twice the need for services as the national data indicate. The health services needs of an older population will tend towards chronic conditions, rather than the typically acute conditions of childhood. The relatively greater number of older people in the rural population suggest a very different health services mix need. Community based population monitoring provides critical information to inform health systems.

  15. Factors that affect the uptake of community-based health insurance in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic protocol.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Esther F; Ataguba, John E; Uthman, Olalekan A; Okwundu, Charles I; Lamont, Kim T; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2014-02-14

    Many people residing in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are regularly exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditure. It is therefore pertinent that LMICs should finance their health systems in ways that ensure that their citizens can use needed healthcare services and are protected from potential impoverishment arising from having to pay for services. Ways of financing health systems include government funding, health insurance schemes and out-of-pocket payment. A health insurance scheme refers to pooling of prepaid funds in a way that allows for risks to be shared. The health insurance scheme particularly suitable for the rural poor and the informal sector in LMICs is community-based health insurance (CBHI), that is, insurance schemes operated by organisations other than governments or private for-profit companies. We plan to search for and summarise currently available evidence on factors associated with the uptake of CBHI, as we are not aware of previous systematic reviews that have looked at this important topic. This is a protocol for a systematic review of the literature. We will include both quantitative and qualitative studies in this review. Eligible quantitative studies include intervention and observational studies. Qualitative studies to be included are focus group discussions, direct observations, interviews, case studies and ethnography. We will search EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, PsycInfo, Africa-Wide Information, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, WHOLIS, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies available by 31 October 2013, regardless of publication status or language of publication. We will also check reference lists of included studies and proceedings of relevant conferences and contact researchers for eligible studies. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data, resolving discrepancies by consensus and discussion. Qualitative data will be extracted using

  16. Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Callinan, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin

    2017-03-01

    To delineate what type and how much alcohol is purchased from different types of off-licence premises and how this varies across demographic sub-groups, as a basis for public debate and decisions on pricing and planning policies to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia. The data on alcohol purchasing from off-licence premises are taken from the Australian Alcohol Consumption and Purchasing survey-a nationally representative landline and mobile telephone survey in 2013 on the experiences with alcohol consumption and purchasing of 2020 Australians aged 16+. The present analysis uses data from 1730 respondents who purchased alcohol from off-licence premises in the previous 6 months. The majority (54%) of alcohol purchased from off-licence premises was sold from liquor barns (large warehouse-style alcohol stores), with bottle shops (31%) the second most common outlet. Cask wine was the cheapest alcohol available at off-licence premises in Australia. Respondents in higher alcohol purchasing quintiles and with those with lower income purchased a higher percentage of cheaper alcohol in their total volume of purchasing than lower purchasing quintiles and those with middle and higher income, and younger respondents purchased more expensive alcohol than older age groups. A minimum unit price or increasing alcohol taxes may effectively reduce alcohol purchasing for lower income heavy alcohol purchasers and older age groups from off-licence premise sources, and may be less effective on younger age groups. [Jiang H, Callinan S, Livingston M, Room R. Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:210-219]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Frequency of surgery and hospital admissions for communicable diseases in a high- and middle-income setting.

    PubMed

    Jarnheimer, A; Kantor, G; Bickler, S; Farmer, P; Hagander, L

    2015-08-01

    In high-income countries, non-communicable diseases drive the demand for surgical healthcare. Middle-income countries face a double disease burden, of both communicable and non-communicable disease. The aim of this study was to describe the role of surgery for the in-hospital care of infectious conditions in the high-income country Sweden and the middle-income country South Africa. A retrospective cohort study was performed of 1.4 million infectious disease admissions. The study populations were the entire population of Sweden, and a cohort of 3.5 million South Africans with private healthcare insurance, during a 7-year interval. The outcome measures were frequency of surgical procedures across a spectrum of diseases, and sex and age during the medical care event. Some 8.1 per cent of Swedish and 15.7 per cent of South African hospital admissions were because of infectious disease. The proportion of infectious disease admissions that were associated with surgery was constant over time: 8.0 (95 per cent c.i. 7.9 to 8.1) per cent in Sweden and 21.1 (21.0 to 21.2) per cent in South Africa. The frequency of surgery was 2.6 (2.6 to 2.7) times greater in South Africa, and 2.2 (2.2 to 2.3) times higher after standardization for age, sex and disease category. The study suggests that surgical care is required to manage patients with communicable diseases, even in high-income settings with efficient prevention and functional primary care. These results further stress the importance of scaling up functional surgical health systems in low- and middle-income countries, where the disease burden is distinguished by infectious disease. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  19. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  20. Religiosity and Health Risk Behaviour Among University Students in 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Amuleru-Marshall, Omowale; Mufune, Pempelani; Zeid, Alaa Abou

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess religiosity and health risk behaviours among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2. 8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Among all students, 41.1 % engaged at least once a week in organized religious activity, 35.8 % practised a non-organized religious activity daily or more than once daily, and more or less two-thirds of the students agreed to the three different statements on intrinsic of subjective religiosity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with addictive, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while lower reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour. Lower reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with addictive, nutrition risk, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while higher reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity. Finally, lower reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with addictive and sexual risk behaviour, while higher reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with nutrition risk behaviour, physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour.

  1. Birth Status, Child Growth, and Adult Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries☆

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Hao, Wei; Horta, Bernardo L.; Lee, Nanette; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramji, Siddarth; Stein, Alan; Richter, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of being born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) on several adult outcomes. Study design We analyzed data for 4518 adult participants in 5 birth cohorts from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results In the study population, 12.8% of males and 11.9% of females were born preterm, and 26.8% of males and 22.4% of females were born term but SGA. Adults born preterm were 1.11 cm shorter (95% CI, 0.57-1.65 cm), and those born term but SGA were 2.35 cm shorter (95% CI, 1.93-2.77 cm) compared with those born at term and appropriate size for gestational age. Blood pressure and blood glucose level did not differ by birth category. Compared with those born term and at appropriate size for gestational age, schooling attainment was 0.44 years lower (95% CI, 0.17-0.71 years) in those born preterm and 0.41 years lower (95% CI, 0.20-0.62 years) in those born term but SGA. Conclusion Being born preterm or term but SGA is associated with persistent deficits in adult height and schooling, but is not related to blood pressure or blood glucose level in low- and middle-income settings. Increased postnatal growth is associated with gains in height and schooling regardless of birth status, but not with increases in blood pressure or blood glucose level. PMID:24064150

  2. Mobile health for cancer in low to middle income countries: priorities for research and development.

    PubMed

    Holeman, I; Evans, J; Kane, D; Grant, L; Pagliari, C; Weller, D

    2014-11-01

    Many current global health opportunities have less to do with new biomedical knowledge than with the coordination and delivery of care. While basic research remains vital, the growing cancer epidemic in countries of low and middle income warrants urgent action - focusing on both research and service delivery innovation. Mobile technology can reduce costs, improve access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the interrelated challenges of cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. Experience has shown that even very poor and remote communities that only have basic primary health care can benefit from mobile health (or 'mHealth') interventions. We argue that cancer researchers and practitioners have an opportunity to leverage mHealth technologies that have successfully targeted other health conditions, rather than reinventing these tools. We call for particular attention to human centred design approaches for adapting existing technologies to suit distinctive aspects of cancer care and to align delivery with local context - and we make a number of recommendations for integrating mHealth delivery research with the work of designers, engineers and implementers in large-scale delivery programmes.

  3. Control of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Drakesmith, Hal; Black, James; Hipgrave, David; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-04-04

    Despite worldwide economic and scientific development, more than a quarter of the world's population remains anemic, and about half of this burden is a result of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). IDA is most prevalent among preschool children and women. Among women, iron supplementation improves physical and cognitive performance, work productivity, and well-being, and iron during pregnancy improves maternal, neonatal, infant, and even long-term child outcomes. Among children, iron may improve cognitive, psychomotor, and physical development, but the evidence for this is more limited. Strategies to control IDA include daily and intermittent iron supplementation, home fortification with micronutrient powders, fortification of staple foods and condiments, and activities to improve food security and dietary diversity. The safety of routine iron supplementation in settings where infectious diseases, particularly malaria, are endemic remains uncertain. The World Health Organization is revising global guidelines for controlling IDA. Implementation of anemia control programs in developing countries requires careful baseline epidemiologic evaluation, selection of appropriate interventions that suit the population, and ongoing monitoring to ensure safety and effectiveness. This review provides an overview and an approach for the implementation of public health interventions for controlling IDA in low- and middle-income countries, with an emphasis on current evidence-based recommendations.

  4. An Essential Pathology Package for Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth A; Naidoo, Mahendra; Wilson, Michael; Flanigan, John; Horton, Susan; Kuti, Modupe; Looi, Lai Meng; Price, Chris; Ru, Kun; Ghafur, Abdul; Wang, Jianxiang; Lago, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    We review the current status of pathology services in low- and middle-income countries and propose an “essential pathology package” along with estimated costs. The purpose is to provide guidance to policy makers as countries move toward universal health care systems. Five key themes were reviewed using existing literature (role of leadership; education, training, and continuing professional development; technology; accreditation, management, and quality standards; and reimbursement systems). A tiered system is described, building on existing proposals. The economic analysis draws on the very limited published studies, combined with expert opinion. Countries have underinvested in pathology services, with detrimental effects on health care. The equipment needs for a tier 1 laboratory in a primary health facility are modest ($2-$5,000), compared with $150,000 to $200,000 in a district hospital, and higher in a referral hospital (depending on tests undertaken). Access to a national (or regional) specialized laboratory undertaking disease surveillance and registry is important. Recurrent costs of appropriate laboratories in district and referral hospitals are around 6% of the hospital budget in midsized hospitals and likely decline in the largest hospitals. Primary health facilities rely largely on single-use tests. Pathology is an essential component of good universal health care.

  5. Health technology assessment in middle-income countries: recommendations for a balanced assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Dankó, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    Because of significant differences in institutional contexts, health technology assessment (HTA) systems that are in place in core pharmaceutical markets may not be suitable, fully or in part, for middle-income countries (MICs) and for other noncore markets. Particular challenges may arise when systems based on the economic evaluation paradigm are conceptualized and implemented in MICs, sometimes with an insufficient level of awareness of the local institutional factors that influence pricing and reimbursement decision making. Focusing on pharmaceuticals, this article investigates possible development directions for HTA systems in MICs and noncore markets bearing similar institutional characteristics, and it provides recommendations for a balanced assessment system (BAS). For this, the main paradigms of HTA have also been reviewed briefly and factors influencing HTA and pricing and reimbursement decisions in MICs and in similar noncore countries have been summarized. The proposed BAS framework takes into account available resources and capabilities and is supposed to facilitate access to new pharmaceuticals while ensuring the transparency of decision-making processes and the stability of the pharmaceutical budget. PMID:27226832

  6. Reinterpreting Responsiveness for Health Systems Research in Low and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-07-01

    The ethical concept of responsiveness has largely been interpreted in the context of international clinical research. In light of the increasing conduct of externally funded health systems research (HSR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), this article examines how responsiveness might be understood for such research and how it can be applied. It contends that four features (amongst others) set HSR in LMICs apart from international clinical research: a focus on systems; being context-driven; being policy-driven; and being closely linked to development objectives. These features support reinterpreting responsiveness for HSR in LMICs as responsiveness to systems needs, where health system performance assessments can be relied upon to identify systems needs, and/or responsiveness to systems priorities, which entails aligning research with HSR priorities set through country-owned processes involving national and sub-national policymakers from host countries. Both concepts may be difficult to achieve in practice. Country ownership is not an established fact for many countries and alignment to their priorities may be meaningless without it. It is argued that more work is, therefore, needed to identify strategies for how the responsiveness requirement can be ethically fulfilled for HSR in LMICs under non-ideal conditions such as where host countries have not set HSR priorities via country-owned processes. Embeddedness is proposed as one approach that could be the focus of further development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Martin; Okoye, Ifeoma; Ejiogu, Kenneth; George, Saby; Dy, Grace; Jimoh, Mutiu; Salako, Omolola; Ilegbune, Oge; Chugani, Bindiya; Ezeome, Emmanuel; Popoola, Abiodun O.; Michalek, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs) where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO) to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change. PMID:28070189

  8. Access to cancer medications in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gilberto de Lima; de Souza, Jonas A; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Major breakthroughs have been realized in controlling cancer in the past five decades. However, for patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of these advances are nothing but an aspiration and hope for the future. Indeed, the greatest challenge we face in oncology today is how to reconcile small, incremental and significant improvements in the management of cancer with the exponentially increasing costs of new treatments. Emerging economies are attempting to address this important issue of access to cancer medications. In this Review, we examine how LMICs are using generic and biosimilar drugs, expanding participation in clinical trials, implementing universal health-care schemes to pool resources, and using compulsory licensing schemes as well as increasing multiple-stakeholder public-private partnerships to increase access to cancer medications for their citizens. Any truly effective programme will require multiple stakeholder involvement-including governments, industry and civil society-to address the issue of access to medication. Only with the creation of a global entity to fight cancer that is supported by a global fund-for example, in the mould of the GAVI alliance and the International Finance Facility for Immunization-will we truly be able to improve cancer care in LMICs and drive down the high mortality rates in these regions.

  9. Promoting child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Flisher, Alan J; Nikapota, Anula; Malhotra, Savita

    2008-03-01

    Children and adolescents in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) constitute 35-50% of the population. Although the population in many such countries is predominantly rural, rapid urbanisation and social change is under way, with an increase in urban poverty and unemployment, which are risk factors for poor child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). There is a vast gap between CAMH needs (as measured through burden of disease estimates) and the availability of CAMH resources. The role of CAMH promotion and prevention can thus not be overestimated. However, the evidence base for affordable and effective interventions for promotion and prevention in LAMIC is limited. In this review, we briefly review the public health importance of CAM disorders in LAMIC and the specific issues related to risk and protective factors for these disorders. We describe a number of potential strategies for CAMH promotion which focus on building capacity in children and adolescents, in parents and families, in the school and health systems, and in the wider community, including structural interventions. Building capacity in CAMH must also focus on the detection and treatment of disorders for which the evidence base is somewhat stronger, and on wider public health strategies for prevention and promotion. In particular, capacity needs to be built across the health system, with particular foci on low-cost, universally available and accessible resources, and on empowerment of families and children. We also consider the role of formal teaching and training programmes, and the role for specialists in CAMH promotion.

  10. Highlighting the need for more infection control practitioners in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lipke, V; Emerson, C; McCarthy, C; Briggs-Hagen, M; Farley, J; Verani, A R; Riley, P L

    2016-09-01

    Background: Many low- and middle-income countries struggle to implement, monitor and evaluate the efficacy of infection control (IC) measures within health care facilities. This hampers their ability to prevent nosocomial infections, identify emerging pathogens and rapidly alert officials to possible outbreaks. The lack of dedicated and trained IC practitioners (ICPs) is a serious deficit in the health care workforce, and is worsened by the lack of institutions that offer IC training. Discussion: While no single individual can entirely eliminate the risk of nosocomial transmission, there is literature to support the value of designated IC persons. Recommendations from the World Health Organization in 2008 and 2009 describe the need for this specialized cadre of workers, but many countries lack the national regulations to authorize, train and manage such professionals at the national or local level. This article provides an overview of how ICPs are trained and credentialed in several countries, and discusses approaches countries can use to train ICPs. Conclusion: Trained ICPs can help prevent future outbreaks and control nosocomial transmission of diseases in health care facilities. For this to occur, supportive national policies, availability of training institutions and local administrative support will be required.

  11. A quality improvement approach to capacity building in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bardfield, Joshua; Agins, Bruce; Akiyama, Matthew; Basenero, Apollo; Luphala, Patience; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Natanael, Salomo; Hamunime, Ndapewa

    2015-07-01

    To describe the HEALTHQUAL framework consisting of the following three components: performance measurement, quality improvement and the quality management program, representing an adaptive approach to building capacity in national quality management programs in low and middle-income countries. We present a case study from Namibia illustrating how this approach is adapted to country context. HEALTHQUAL partners with Ministries of Health to build knowledge and expertise in modern improvement methods, including data collection, analysis and reporting, process analysis and the use of data to implement quality improvement projects that aim to improve systems and processes of care. Clinical performance measures are selected in each country by the Ministry of Health on the basis of national guidelines. Patient records are sampled using a standardized statistical table to achieve a minimum confidence interval of 90%, with a spread of ±8% in participating facilities. Data are routinely reviewed to identify gaps in patient care, and aggregated to produce facility mean scores that are trended over time. A formal organizational assessment is conducted at facility and national levels to review the implementation progress. Aggregate mean rates of performance for 10 of 11 indicators of HIV care improved for adult HIV-positive patients between 2008 and 2013. Quality improvement is an approach to capacity building and health systems strengthening that offers adaptive methodology. Synergistic implementation of elements of a national quality program can lead to improvements in care, in parallel with systematic capacity development for measurement, improvement and quality management throughout the healthcare delivery system.

  12. Selecting measures for the neurodevelopmental assessment of children in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Romero, Regilda Anne A; Prado, Elizabeth L; Shapiro, Elsa G; Bangirana, Paul; John, Chandy C

    2016-09-09

    Diseases affecting millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency, malaria, and HIV, can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Thus, a key health outcome in children is neurodevelopmental status. In this paper, the neurodevelopmental screening and testing measures most commonly utilized in LMICs are reviewed, and a matrix is presented to help researchers and clinicians determine which measures may be most useful for various LMIC inquiries. The matrix is based on an Internet literature review of 114 publications for the period January 1998 to February 2016, reporting the psychometric properties of instruments tested in LMIC children. The measures are classified as screening tests or more detailed tests that include both comprehensive batteries of general development and tests of specific domains. For completeness, two experts have reviewed this paper, as well as the authors. An overview of the tests used to date is presented, including the benefits and drawbacks of each test, in order to provide researchers and developmental clinicians with a way to decide which tests may be best suited to their developmental assessment goals. Remarkable progress has been made in neurodevelopmental testing in children in LMICs over the past two decades but there remains a need for additional research in this area to develop new tests, better evaluate and adapt current tests, and assess test validity and reliability across cultures.

  13. Material wealth in 3D: Mapping multiple paths to prosperity in low- and middle- income countries.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Hadley, Craig; Hackman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Material wealth is a key factor shaping human development and well-being. Every year, hundreds of studies in social science and policy fields assess material wealth in low- and middle-income countries assuming that there is a single dimension by which households can move from poverty to prosperity. However, a one-dimensional model may miss important kinds of prosperity, particularly in countries where traditional subsistence-based livelihoods coexist with modern cash economies. Using multiple correspondence analysis to analyze representative household data from six countries-Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Guatemala-across three world regions, we identify a number of independent dimension of wealth, each with a clear link to locally relevant pathways to success in cash and agricultural economies. In all cases, the first dimension identified by this approach replicates standard one-dimensional estimates and captures success in cash economies. The novel dimensions we identify reflect success in different agricultural sectors and are independently associated with key benchmarks of food security and human growth, such as adult body mass index and child height. The multidimensional models of wealth we describe here provide new opportunities for examining the causes and consequences of wealth inequality that go beyond success in cash economies, for tracing the emergence of hybrid pathways to prosperity, and for assessing how these different pathways to economic success carry different health risks and social opportunities.

  14. Production of antiretroviral drugs in middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eloan dos Santos; Brüning, Karin; Macedo, M Fernanda; Siani, Antonio C

    2014-01-01

    This review outlines the main issues concerning the production of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in middle- and low-income countries and the relevant political, legal and technical requirements for supporting such production. The requirements for efficient local production, including the manufacture of generic and branded products and public demand, have been considered from economic, market and socio-political perspectives. A steady and consistent government policy is crucial to success. Additional crucial factors in establishing local production are adequate infrastructure, qualified human resources in technical and managerial areas, and production-distribution logistics systems. The creation or strengthening of a national drug regulatory agency is a basic requirement. Production of ARVs relies on the structure of the international market for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which are highly monopolized for inclusion in branded or patented drugs, or are concentrated in a few Asian generic companies. Countries seeking to begin local production must develop strategies to overcome the various barriers. For instance, sub-Saharan African countries may benefit from developing multilateral health agreements with neighbouring countries. Such agreements are recommended and should be complemented by technology transfers, especially for the manufacture of APIs. Achieving a production level that is sustainable in the long term is crucial to maintaining patients' access to ARVs.

  15. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems.

  16. The impact of violence on development in low- to middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Brett; Matzopoulos, Richard; Butchart, Alexander; Mercy, James A

    2008-12-01

    Along with the numerous trauma-related impacts of violence and its effects on other health outcomes, the social toll of violence is further exacerbated by economic costs that represent formidable threats to fiscal growth and development. A companion piece to a review of the scientific literature describing the nature, magnitude and impact of violence on health (Matzopoulos, Bowman, Butchart & Mercy, 2008) in this issue, this paper reviews the current knowledge base on violence and development with a specific focus on low- to middle-income countries. It describes how violence impacts on all eight goals of the Millennium Development Plan and exerts a considerable economic burden on already stressed state systems and social spending. Violence will become an increasingly important threat to development and is receiving growing recognition among the global health community and within health ministries. The near absence of violence prevention within the global development agenda is, however, cause for concern. There is an urgent need to mobilise the international development community to provide financial and technical support for intersectoral collaboration, multilateral research cooperation and the development of research capacity towards addressing violence as a significant threat to development.

  17. The INDEPTH standard population for low- and middle-income countries, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sankoh, Osman; Sharrow, David; Herbst, Kobus; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson; Alam, Nurul; Kant, Shashi; Ravn, Henrik; Bhuiya, Abbas; Vui, Le Thi; Darikwa, Timotheus; Gyapong, Margaret; Jasseh, Momodou; Kim, Nguyen Chuc Thi; Abdullah, Salim; Crampin, Amelia; Ojal, John; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Odhiambo, Frank; Urassa, Mark; Streatfield, Kim; Shimada, Masaaki; Sacoor, Charfudin; Beguy, Donatien; Derra, Karim; Wak, George; Delaunay, Valerie; Sie, Ali; Soura, Abdramane; Diallo, Diadier; Wilopo, Siswanto; Masanja, Honorati; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Clark, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Crude rates such as the crude death rate are functions of both the age-specific rates and the age composition of a population. However, differences in the age structure between two populations or two time periods can result in specious differences in the corresponding crude rates making direct comparisons between populations or across time inappropriate. Therefore, when comparing crude rates between populations, it is desirable to eliminate or minimize the influence of age composition. This task is accomplished by using a standard age structure yielding an age-standardized rate. This paper proposes an updated International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) standard for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) based on newly available data from the health and demographic surveillance system site members of the INDEPTH network located throughout Africa and southern Asia. The updated INDEPTH standard should better reflect the age structure of LMICs and result in more accurate health indicators and demographic rates. We demonstrate use of the new INDEPTH standard along with several existing ‘world’ standards and show how resulting age-standardized crude deaths rates differ when using the various standard age compositions. PMID:24679543

  18. Next-generation community genetics for low- and middle-income countries