Science.gov

Sample records for middle-aged female serial

  1. A middle-aged female serial killer.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy; Vélez-García, Alicia; Santana-Vargas, Daniel; Pérez, Martha; Ardila, Alfredo

    2008-09-01

    The case of a 48-year-old woman accused of killing at least 12 elderly women and attempting to kill another one during the last 3 years is presented. Extensive neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuropsychiatric testing showed no evidence of a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis, but a decrease in executive functions and abnormalities in the processing of affective stimuli were found. Behavioral and psychophysiological studies revealed dissociation between knowing how to behave and actually behaving in socially acceptable ways. According to the woman, killing was just her response to "humiliating situations." Two potentially significant conditions in her past history are found: (i) childhood abuse; and (ii) multiple head injuries. It is conjectured that the nature of her crimes, paranoid and personality traits, a probable frontal brain dysfunction, as well as a specific demographic and social context represent unusual factors accounting for her violent behavior.

  2. Chronic Oral Estrogen Affects Memory and Neurochemistry in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stephanie M.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested whether chronic oral estrogen could improve memory and alter neural plasticity in the hippocampus and neocortex of middle-aged female mice. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were administered 1,000, 1,500, or 2,500 nM 17β-estradiol in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to and during spatial and object memory testing. Synaptophysin, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were then measured in hippocampus and neocortex. The medium dose impaired spatial reference memory in the radial-arm maze, whereas all doses improved object recognition. The high dose increased hippocampal synaptophysin and NGF levels, whereas the medium dose decreased these neocortical levels. The high dose decreased neocortical BDNF levels. These data suggest that chronic oral estrogen selectively affects memory and neural function in middle-aged female mice. PMID:15598143

  3. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C; Bartol, Sophinus J W; de Rond, Lia G H; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-05-31

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV- males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age.

  4. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  5. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  6. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (<150 min/week) group. Multiple linear regression models were performed with physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the

  7. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  8. Structural Composition of Myocardial Infarction Scar in Middle-aged Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogatyryov, Yevgen; Tomanek, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the structural composition of the scar in middle-aged post–myocardial infraction (MI) rats is affected by the biological sex of the animals. A large MI was induced in 12-month-old male (M-MI) and female (F-MI) Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after the MI, rats with transmural infarctions, greater than 50% of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, were evaluated. The extent of LV remodeling and fractional volumes of fibrillar collagen (FC), myofibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells, and surviving cardiac myocytes (CM) in the scars were compared between the two sexes. The left ventricle of post-MI male and female rats underwent a similar degree of remodeling as evidenced by the analogous scar thinning ratio (0.46 ± 0.02 vs. 0.42 ± 0.05) and infarct expansion index (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.12 ± 0.08), respectively. Most important, the contents of major structural components of the scar revealed no evident difference between M-MI and F-MI rats (interstitial FC, 80.74 ± 2.08 vs. 82.57 ± 4.53; myofibroblasts, 9.59 ± 1.68 vs.9.56 ± 1.15; vascular SM cells, 2.27 ± 0.51 vs. 3.38 ± 0.47; and surviving CM, 3.26 ± 0.39 vs. 3.05 ± 0.38, respectively). Our data are the first to demonstrate that biological sex does not influence the structural composition of a mature scar in middle-aged post-MI rats. PMID:23867842

  9. Training for improved neuro-muscular control of balance in middle aged females.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory S; Deluigi, Fabio; Belli, Guido; Tentoni, Claudio; Gaetz, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined improvements in static balance and muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity following a four week progressive training program in 16 middle aged females (mean age = 46.9 ± 8.7 yrs; height 161.1 ± 6.0 cm; weight 65.4 ± 11.2 kg). Participants trained 3 times per week for 4 weeks, for 50 min per session, progressing base of support, stability, vision, resistance and torque in each of six basic exercises. Pre and post training measures of balance included feet together standing, a tandem stance and a one-leg stand (unsupported leg in the saggital plane) performed with the eyes closed, and a Stork Stand (unsupported leg in the frontal plane) with both eyes open and closed. In each position postural deviations were tallied for each individual while muscle recruitment was determined using root mean squared (RMS) EMG activity for the soleus, biceps femoris, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles of the dominant foot side. Balance scores were significantly improved post training in both the Balance Error Score System (p < 0.05) and stork stand positions (p < 0.01). Muscle activity was reduced post-training in all muscles in each condition except the soleus in the tandem position, although not all significantly. Reduced biceps femoris activity suggest that improved core stability allowed participants to move from a hip to an ankle postural control strategy through improved coordination of muscles involved in balance and reduced body sway. The core muscles were able to control body position with less activity post training suggesting improved muscle coordination and efficiency. These results suggest that short term progressive floor to BOSU™ balance training can improve standing balance in middle aged women.

  10. Spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle induces anxiogenic-related behaviors in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rebecca A M; Asth, Laila; Engelberth, Rovena C; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that women during perimenopause and menopause have a higher incidence in the diagnoses of psychiatric problems compared with men. However, little literature information about the influence of spontaneous perimenopause on anxiety- and mood-related behaviors in mice is available. To this aim, we compared the behavioral responses of middle-aged and young adult female mice both in the diestrus phase in the elevated plus-maze, open field and forced swimming tests. In middle-aged mice, the duration of the estrous cycle was significantly prolonged compared to young adults, thus indicating that our middle-aged mice are in the perimenopausal period. In the elevated plus-maze test, middle-aged mice explored less the open arms when compared to young adults, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. No significant differences were observed in the estrogen plasma levels and emotional behavior in the forced swim and open field tests. In conclusion, the spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle increased anxiety in middle-aged females. These data suggest that the perimenopausal period has a significant influence on anxiety-related behaviors in female mice.

  11. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. PMID:26039033

  12. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual's overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  13. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  14. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain.

  15. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain. PMID:24764631

  16. Using Histopathologic Evidence to Differentiate Reproductive Senescence from Xenobiotic Effects in Middle-aged Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Norimitsu; Houle, Christopher; Mirsky, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    The female reproductive cycle is orchestrated by cyclical and coordinated hormonal changes under the direction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Any disruption of the HPG axis may lead to functional and structural alterations in the female reproductive system. Test article-related disturbances in the estrous cycle can be recognized in nonclinical toxicity studies by staging the cycle based on microscopic evaluation of female reproductive organs. In chronic rat toxicity studies, an additional complication is the development of reproductive senescence, which is associated with natural alterations in the reproductive cycle leading to changes in the female reproductive system that can potentially be confused with test article effects. The current article describes the features of persistent estrus, one stage of reproductive senescence, in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats and discusses elements to help differentiate senescence from induced effects.

  17. Oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1 reduce cell loss after global ischaemia in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Traub, M L; De Butte-Smith, M; Zukin, R S; Etgen, A M

    2009-12-01

    Whereas the ability of oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 to afford neuroprotection against ischaemia-induced neuronal death in young female and male rodents is well established, the impact of IGF-1 in middle-aged animals is largely unknown. The present study assessed the efficacy of oestradiol and IGF-1 with respect to reducing neuronal death after transient global ischaemia in middle-aged female rats after 8 weeks of hormone withdrawal. Rats were ovariohysterectomised and implanted 8 weeks later with an osmotic mini-pump delivering IGF-1 or saline into the lateral ventricle. Some rats also received physiological levels of oestradiol by subcutaneous pellet. Two weeks later, rats were subjected to global ischaemia or sham operation. Surviving hippocampal CA1 neurones were quantified. Ischaemia produced massive CA1 cell death compared to sham-operated animals, which was evident at 14 days. Significantly more neurones survived in animals treated with either oestradiol or IGF-1, but simultaneous treatment produced no additive effect. IGF-1, an endogenous growth factor, may be a clinically useful therapy in preventing human brain injury, with neuroprotective equivalence to oestradiol but without the harmful side-effects.

  18. Age-related lesions in the cerebrum in middle-aged female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Rinya; Yang, Xiuying; Saski, Yuji; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Tanigawa, Yohei; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Takaharu; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Horishi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans is a progressive neurogenic disease that can be linked with such characteristic pathological findings in the cerebrum as senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neuronal loss. In the present study, the authors investigated the age-related morphological changes in 12 middle-aged and 12 young cynomolgus monkeys. Low numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal region in cynomolgus monkeys accompanied ageing, and there was a high number of microglial cells; however, no clearly neurotoxic abnormalities due to beta-amyloid were noted before the age of 20 years. The onset of SPs and CAA in the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkeys can occur before the age of 20 years. SPs were almost all categorized as diffuse plaques (DPs); they did not have amyloid cores and were unaccompanied by neuritic degeneration. In cynomolgus monkeys, SPs (DPs) occur before the appearance of CAA. From the above, it was concluded that cynomolgus monkeys showed pathological changes due to ageing similar to those related to Alzheimer's disease in humans, even before they were 20 years old.

  19. Automated stride assistance device improved the gait parameters and energy cost during walking of healthy middle-aged females but not those of young controls

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Risa; Matsumoto, Hiromi; Ueki, Masaru; Uehara, Kazutake; Nozawa, Nobuko; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of an automated stride assistance device on gait parameters and energy cost during walking performed by healthy middle-aged and young females. [Subjects and Methods] Ten middle-aged females and 10 young females were recruited as case and control participants, respectively. The participants walked for 3 minutes continuously under two different experimental conditions: with the device and without the device. Walking distance, mean walking speed, mean step length, cadence, walk ratio and the physiological cost index during the 3-minutes walk were measured. [Results] When walking with the stride assistance device, the step length and walk ratio of the middle-aged group were significantly higher than without it. Also, during walking without assistance from the device, the physiological cost index of the middle-aged group significantly increased; whereas during walking with assistance, there was no change. The intergroup comparison in the middle-aged group showed the physiological cost index was lower under the experimental condition with assistance provided, as opposed to the condition without the provision of assistance. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that the stride assistance device improved the gait parameters of the middle-aged group but not those of young controls. PMID:28174452

  20. 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L; Gould, Thomas J; Frick, Karyn M

    2014-09-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance object recognition memory consolidation requires histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus. However, the extent to which histone acetylation is regulated by E2 in middle-aged females is unknown. The mnemonic benefits of E2 in aging females appear to be greatest in middle age, and so pinpointing the molecular mechanisms through which E2 enhances memory at this age could lead to the development of safer and more effective treatments for maintaining memory function without the side effects of current therapies. Here, we show that dorsal hippocampal infusion of E2 rapidly enhanced object recognition and spatial memory, and increased histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus, while also significantly reducing levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3) proteins. E2 specifically increased histone H3 acetylation at Bdnf promoters pII and pIV in the dorsal hippocampus of both young and middle-aged mice, despite age-related decreases in pI and pIV acetylation. Furthermore, levels of mature BDNF and pro-BDNF proteins in the dorsal hippocampus were increased by E2 in middle-aged females. Together, these data suggest that the middle-aged female dorsal hippocampus remains epigenetically responsive to E2, and that E2 may enhance memory in middle-aged females via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf.

  1. Detailed analysis of the behavior and memory performance of middle-aged male and female CD-1 mice in a 3D maze.

    PubMed

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2008-03-05

    Fifty percent of CD-1 mice from both sex die by the end of 2 years. The survival rate is higher in females than in males. This high mortality rate is associated to the high susceptibility of this strain of mice to some immuno-pathologies and the high incidence of systemic amyloidosis. It is therefore possible that premature cognitive deficits can be observed in CD-1 mice. In the present study, we describe a novel method for assessing emotional responses and memory performance of young (4 months) and middle-aged (12 months) CD-1 mice of both sexes in a 3D spatial navigation task. Animals are introduced to the maze without preliminary habituation and trained in a working memory test. As expected CD-1 mice have a low number of entries to arms on their first exposure to the maze which confirm our previous report on the anxious trait of this strain compared to C57/BL6 mice. The measure of arm/bridge ratio suggests that anxiety induced by exposure to the maze persists much longer in middle-aged male mice compared to middle-aged female mice and compared to both young male and female mice. The measure of memory revealed that young female mice made significantly less arm repeats and more unique arm visits before first arm repeat than middle-aged female and male mice. There are also significant differences between young female and young male mice with the former committing fewer errors than the latter.

  2. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  3. Iliac artery endofibrosis in a middle-aged female long-distance runner.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Dina Christina Janse; van Rensburg, Audrey Jansen; van Duuren, Elsa Margaretha; Grant, Catharina Cornelia

    2014-12-01

    Exercise-induced iliac artery endofibrosis is a recently described abnormality of the external iliac artery that typically affects younger, healthy endurance athletes. Characteristic of the initially termed cyclist's iliac syndrome is lower limb pain during exercise with rapid recovery after exercise. This clinically complicated case describes an older female long-distance runner in whom an incorrect diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia was originally made when she presented with claudication and thrombosis of the right external iliac artery. A thrombectomy and bilateral balloon angioplasty were performed; however, her symptoms persisted. Four months later, she unexpectedly complained of dual calf claudication, a diagnosis of exercise-induced iliac artery endofibrosis was made, and a bilateral prosthetic graft bypass procedure was performed, which resulted in a good outcome.

  4. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  5. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Caitlin S; Searcy, James L; Bridges, Michael T; Brewer, Lawrence D; Popović, Jelena; Blalock, Eric M; Landfield, Philip W; Thibault, Olivier; Porter, Nada M

    2011-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K.; Alaniz, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I–treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I–treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate–BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females. PMID:26556536

  7. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    consequences of chronic unpredictable stress, and may modulate the effects of fluoxetine on cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and PSA-NCAM in the middle-aged female.

  8. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  9. Reduced responsiveness of kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback associated with age-related disappearance of LH surge in middle-age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hisanori; Seki, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Chatani, Fumio; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Age-related disappearance of the LH surge is one of major biomarkers of reproductive aging in female rats. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are proposed as the critical regulator of the preovulatory LH surge in response to estrogenic positive feedback. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons in the disappearance of the LH surge in middle-age rats. Middle-age rats exhibiting persistent estrus (M-PE) did not show an LH surge although neither Kiss1 mRNA nor peptide in the AVPV was differentially expressed when compared to young rats exhibiting normal estrous cycles (YN). M-PE released LH in response to exogenous kisspeptin in a similar dose-dependent manner as YN, suggesting that their GnRH neurons still maintained responsiveness to kisspeptin. To investigate the estrogenic positive feedback effect on kisspeptin neurons in the AVPV, rats were ovariectomized and supplemented with estradiol (OVX+E2). We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Kiss1 mRNA and cFos, respectively, and found that M-PE exhibited a significantly lower percentage of Kiss1 mRNA positive neurons with cFos immunoreactivity, although the total number of kisspeptin neurons was not different from that in cyclic rats. Furthermore, OVX+E2 M-PE did not show the surge-like LH release under high estradiol administration while YN did. Thus our current study suggests that the reduced responsiveness of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback presumably results in the decrease in kisspeptin secretion from neurons and eventually causes the age-related disappearance of the LH surge in middle age female rats.

  10. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  11. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations.

  12. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  13. Estrogen modulates neural-immune interactions through intracellular signaling pathways and antioxidant enzyme activity in the spleen of middle-aged ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Kale, Prathamesh; Mohanty, Aparna; Patil, Anushree; Mishra, Miti; Pratap, Uday P; Priyanka, Hannah P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2014-02-15

    Modulation of neural-immune interactions by estrogen in the spleens of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged female rats was examined. Con A-induced lymphoproliferation, splenic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, levels of p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt, and activity of superoxide dismutase decreased in OVX rats while estrogen treatment enhanced their expression, levels, and activity. Also, estrogen treatment enhanced Con A-induced IFN-γ production and decreased Con A-induced IL-2 production compared to OVX animals. In contrast, estrogen increased the extent of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation while OVX induced a decline in protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that estrogen enhances neural-immune interactions while simultaneously affecting it through generation of free radicals as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation.

  14. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  15. 17β-estradiol replacement therapy protects myelin sheaths in the white matter of middle-aged female ovariectomized rats: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanmin; Xiao, Qian; Chao, Fenglei; He, Qi; Lv, Fulin; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Xuan; Huang, Chunxia; Li, Yongde; Wang, Sanrong; Jiang, Rong; Gu, Hengwei; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can improve cognitive function and affect the structure of the brain, including the white matter, in postmenopausal women. However, it is unclear whether ERT plays an important role in white matter remodeling in postmenopausal women. In the present study, middle-aged (9-12-month-old) female Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and randomly allocated to the vehicle treatment (OVX+Veh) group or the 17β-estradiol replacement (OVX+E) group. After 1 month of treatment, spatial learning and memory capacities were assessed using the Morris water maze task. Then, stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate white matter volume and myelinated fiber parameters of the white matter in the 2 groups of rats. The results revealed that the mean escape latency of the OVX+E rats in the Morris water maze task was significantly shorter than that of the OVX+Veh rats. The volume density of the myelinated fibers and the volume density and total volume of the myelin sheaths were significantly greater in the OVX+E rats than in the OVX+Veh rats. However, there were no significant differences in white matter volume or in the total length or volume of myelinated fibers in white matter between the 2 groups of rats. Our results showed that 1 month of ERT had significant beneficial effects on spatial learning capacity and on the myelin sheaths and myelinated fibers in the white matter of middle-aged OVX rats.

  16. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation.

  17. The impact of a weight reduction program with and without meal-replacement on health related quality of life in middle-aged obese females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    weight was reduced in both lifestyle intervention groups (LS: -6.6±6.6 vs. LSMR -7.6±7.9 kg), however, weight loss and HRQOL improvements were more pronounced in the LSMR sample (LSMR: seven of eight, LS: four of eight dimensions). Conclusions Our results show that HRQOL may improve among middle-aged obese females during a standardized lifestyle weight reduction program and may be enhanced by consuming a soy-based meal replacement product. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00356785 PMID:24618460

  18. Effect of a twelve week exercise programme on cardio-respiratory and body composition variables in non-obese young and middle-aged females

    PubMed Central

    White, Gail M.; Young, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week exercise programme consisting of jogging, calistnenics, and recreational activities on the cardiorespiratory function and body composition of 15 young and 15 middle-aged nonobese women 21-32 and 34-57 years, respectively. The exercise programme was 3 days per week for an average of 45 minutes each session. Pre- and post-programme data were obtained on: age, height, total body weight, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, vital capacity, submaximal heart rate, supra-iliac skinfold, thigh skinfold, waist girth, cup size, body density, and percent fat. The t-test was used to test the difference between the young and middle-aged groups before and after the exercise programme and to test the pre- and post-programme mean values of each group. No differences between the groups or changes due to the exercise programme were observed on total body weight. No significant cardiorespiratory differences were found between the two groups at either test period, however, the young group decreased significantly (p < .01) in submaximal HR and the middle-aged group decreased significantly in resting (p < .01) and submaximal (p < .001) HR illustrating the positive effect of the programme. No significant body composition differences were found between the two groups at the pre-test. At the post-test the middle-aged group had a significantly (p < .10) larger thigh skinfold thickness than the young group. The young group did not change significantly on body composition measures from pre- to post-test. In contrast, the middle-aged group increased significantly in body density (p < .01) and decreased in percent body fat (p < .01) due to a significant (p < .01) reduction in supra-iliac skinfold thickness from 21.67 ± 2.35 to 18.13 ± 2.08 mm. The data were compared with data from other studies using similar age groups. The pre-test percent fat of the young group (25.07 ± .74) was similar to values reported in other

  19. Female serial murderers: directions for future research on a hidden population.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2011-02-01

    This comprehensive overview on a sample of 65 cases (134 total offenders, including some partnered teams of more than 2 offenders) provides information on female serial murderers who either work in a mixed-sex offending group or alone. These female serial homicide offenders have a distinct set of offender-victim characteristics, including specific victim preferences, methods, and motivations: Partnered serial homicide offenders are more likely to target adult strangers and dispatch them using a combination of methods, whereas solo female serial murderers are most likely to target adult family members and murder them with poison. These patterns have the potential to add to our understanding of the possible similarities and differences of serial homicide cases by building on established offender characteristics. Convictions and sentences for the offenders are included and areas of future research and implications for treatment with this sample are also explored.

  20. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  1. Estrogen upregulates inflammatory signals through NF-κB, IFN-γ, and nitric oxide via Akt/mTOR pathway in the lymph node lymphocytes of middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Uday P; Sharma, Himanshu R; Mohanty, Aparna; Kale, Prathamesh; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Hima, Lalgi; Priyanka, Hannah P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2015-12-01

    The alterations in the secretion of sex steroids, especially estrogen, in females throughout reproductive life and its decline with age alters the functions of the neuroendocrine-immune network and renders them susceptible to age-related diseases and cancers. This study investigates the mechanisms of estrogen-induced alterations in cell-mediated immune and inflammatory responses in the lymphocytes from lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged female rats. Ovariectomized middle-aged (MA) Sprague-Dawley female rats (n=8) were implanted with 17β-estradiol (E2) 30-day release pellets (0.6 and 300μg). At the end of the treatment period, lymph nodes (axillary and inguinal) were isolated and examined for serum 17β-estradiol, lymphoproliferation, cytokine production, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-IκB-α and p-NF-κB (p50 and p65), extent of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytochrome c oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. There was an OVX-related decline in serum 17β-estradiol level, Con A-induced lymphoproliferation, p-Akt and p-mTOR expression, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. E2 supplementation increased serum 17β-estradiol level, lymphoproliferation, expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-IκB-α and p-NF-κB (p50 and p65), lipid peroxidation, IFN-γ, TNF-α, ROS and NO production, while it decreased IL-6 production. E2 mediates inflammatory responses by increasing the levels of NO and TNF-α by up regulating IFN-γ and simultaneously promotes aging through the generation of free radicals as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and ROS production in lymph nodes. These findings may have wide implications to immunity and inflammatory disorders including autoimmune diseases predominantly prevalent in females.

  2. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  3. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  4. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load.

  5. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  6. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S

    2010-05-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers' leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers' leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults' leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer.

  7. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  8. [Comparative ophthalmology in the Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Norn, M; Norn, O

    2001-01-01

    Descriptions of animal eyes in the Middle Ages in the learned work Physiologus from the 4th century, based on Aristoteles, Plutarc, the Bible etc. are commented on. The modern biologist is horrified, the historian understands the ethical - religious aspects behind the edifying stories concerning the lion, gazelle, eagle, snake, lizard, swallow etc. Medical science and theology were not separated in the Middle Ages.

  9. Approval of Spouse in Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    A strongly positive opinion of spouse in middle age tends to be associated with social conformity and family integration. Mutually approving couples were more often politically moderate, homogamous in religious background, and had more interpersonal power than their children. They also had more highly integrated family structures with low conflict…

  10. Death Attitudes Among Middle-Aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Michin; Hong, Seunghye; Adamek, Margaret E; Kim, Mee Hye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting death attitudes among middle-aged Koreans. In addition, the study explored the interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death of family or friends on death attitudes. The sample was obtained from a national survey with middle-aged adults in South Korea ( n = 2,026). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant main effects and an interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death on death attitudes. Greater knowledge of end-of-life care planning was associated with more positive attitudes toward death; however, the effect was stronger for those who had not experienced the death of family or friends. Being older and having greater life satisfaction were also associated with more positive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that end-of-life education can help middle-aged adults embrace the final stage of life and prepare for their own death.

  11. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-04-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

  12. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  13. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors.

  14. Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Gene

    2017-01-31

    Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.

  15. Attitudes about Aging and Gender among Young, Middle Age, and Older College-Based Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…

  16. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  17. Hypomania soon after shifting from paroxetine to agomelatine in a middle-aged woman with depression.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kun-Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Hypomania or mania has been reported to be induced by multiple classes of antidepressant agents. Agomelatine is a newly approved drug for treating major depression, and its antidepressant effect works through distinct pharmacodynamic mechanisms from most other commonly used antidepressants. Here, we report a middle-aged female patient who presented hypomanic symptoms shortly after shifting from paroxetine to agomelatine.

  18. The role of psychopathy and sexuality in a female serial killer.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Gooch, Erik; Meloy, J Reid

    2005-05-01

    The case of Aileen Wuornos, executed in Florida for the serial killing of seven men, is studied to determine her degree of psychopathy and the presence or absence of sexuality or sexual sadism as a motivation or gratification for her crimes. The authors, one of whom evaluated the subject shortly before her death, determined that she evidenced a psychopathic personality (PCL-R score 32). She also met DSM-IV-TR criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. While her killings ostensibly were carried out during routine acts of prostitution, there was ambiguous evidence that her crimes were sexually motivated or gratifying. Her articulated motivation was robbery and elimination of the witness/victim. After carefully considering all available data, the authors concluded there was no convincing evidence of sexual sadism in either her personal history or her method of committing serial murder, and it remains unclear whether sexual gratification was to some degree a motivating factor in her commission of these offenses. The confluence of early childhood attachment disruptions, severe psychopathy, other personality disorder pathology, and a traumagenic abuse history likely contributed to her having serially murdered seven victims.

  19. Exercise-induced changes of the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-X; Qiu, X; Wang, S; Wu, H; Xia, L; Li, C; Gao, Y; Zhang, L; Xiu, Y; Chao, F; Tang, Y

    2013-03-13

    Previous studies have shown that running exercise could increase regional cerebral blood flow. There have been previous studies investigating the effects of running exercise on capillary density in the brain and showing that running exercise could induce brain angiogenesis. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of running exercise on the total volume, total length and total surface area of the capillaries in the cortex. Moreover, sex differences in the effects of running exercise on the capillaries of the cortex have not previously been investigated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of running exercise on the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats using the new unbiased stereological methods. The present study found that the total length and total surface area of the capillaries in the cortex of running middle-aged female rats were significantly increased, compared to control rats. Our results also reveal that there are sex differences in the effects of running exercise on the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced increases of the capillaries in the female rat cortex might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced improvement in the spatial learning capacity of middle-aged female rats. These results provide a baseline for further studies that search for strategies to delay the deleterious effects of brain aging.

  20. Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The inaugural volume of this serial contains 12 articles that represent a diverse population of counselors: (1) "Issues in Counseling Immigrants" (Linda Sheppard); (2) "Family Support and Starting a Small Business" (Michael Cusack and Peter Emerson); (3) "Professional Disillusionment: Crisis or Catalyst" (Kay Miller, Susan Cooper-Shoup and…

  1. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight.

  2. Unexpected Regeneration in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lily I.; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5–11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight. PMID:19226206

  3. Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles are presented that focus on the family, sexuality, and developmental issues of young and middle aged adults. The "Articles" section includes: (1) "A Role/Career Development Model of Adult Development" (David Payne); (2) "Counseling the Middle-Aged: Misinformation, Myths and Implications for Counseling" (John D. Keshock); (3)…

  4. Middle Age and Marriage: Affiliative Men and Assertive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunebaum, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on psychological changes that occur in middle age in men and women which indicate that men tend to become more affiliated and women more assertive. A series of cases are presented to illustrate the impact of these changes on middle age and marriage. (Author)

  5. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2002-12-01

    The effects of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the orientation activities of the inbred, adult middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking, mounting), the environment (climbing, raring, exploration), themselves (nongenital grooming, genital grooming) and mobility (restricted, unrestricted) after treating these subjects twice daily for 10 days. Results showed that subjects treated with 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased orientation activities towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking and mounting), increased genital grooming towards themselves and restricted movements to a particular area of the cage but decreased interest in the external environment (climbing, raring, exploration) as compared with the controls during the investigation period. In conclusion, this study gives further evidences that different fractions of E. longifolia Jack modified the orientation activities of the middle-aged male rats.

  6. Effects of Two Years of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Cholinergic Neurons in Young and Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Carole; Tobin, Joseph R.; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    The effect of estrogen on the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain was examined in surgically menopausal young and middle-aged cynomolgus monkeys. Young and middle-aged female monkeys were ovariectomized and treated with conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) at doses that are equivalent to those currently prescribed to postmenopausal women. In the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB), no effect of treatment with Premarin was observed in the cholinergic neurons in either ovariectomized young or middle-aged monkeys. However, the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the MS/DB of middle-aged monkeys was greater than that in the young monkeys. In the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) of middle-aged monkeys, the number of cholinergic neurons in the intermediate region (Ch4i) was greater in Premarin-treated monkeys as compared to controls and numbers of neurons in this region were greater at higher levels of estrogen. No effects of estrogen were observed in other NBM regions in the middle-aged monkeys and the size of cholinergic neurons was unaffected by Premarin. These findings suggest that treatment with Premarin has selective beneficial effects on cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain but that these effects are both age and region specific. PMID:19401167

  7. Noncritical soft tissues of the female pelvis: Serial MR imaging before, during and after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blomlie, V.; Rofstad, E.K.; Tvera, K.; Lien, H.H.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the findings of the irradiated noncritical soft tissues of the female pelvis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 18 months after radiation therapy (RT). The soft tissues of the pelvis of 24 women with advanced cervical carcinoma were studied in 240 MR examinations scheduled before, three times during, and 7 weeks and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after RT. Two radiologists visually evaluated the signal intensity (SI) of the subcutaneous fat, muscles, and presacral space (PS) on T1- and T2-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery images. SI compatible with edema appeared in the PS, pelvic muscles, and subcutaneous fat within 3 months after the end of RT and was observed in 23 (96%) of the 24 patients. During the observation period, the edema subsided. Eighteen months after treatment, edema in the PS was seen in 12 (50%) of the 24 patients. The soft tissues of the female pelvis showed a characteristic pattern of varying edema after irradiation. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-11-01

    Young and middle-aged adults (ages ≤50 years) are increasingly prone to stroke, kidney disease, and worsening cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. An alarming increase in the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) may underlie the adverse trend. However, there is often uncertainty in BP management for young and middle-aged adults. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is one such example. Whether ISH in young and middle-aged adults represents "pseudo" or "spurious" hypertension is still being debated. ISH in young and middle-aged adults is a heterogeneous entity; some individuals appear to have increased stroke volume, whereas others have stiffened aortae, or both. One size does not seem to fit all in the clinical management of ISH in young and middle-aged adults. Rather than treating ISH as a monolithic condition, detailed phenotyping of ISH based on (patho)physiology and in the context of individual global cardiovascular risks would seem to be most useful to assess an individual expected net benefit from therapy. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of ISH in young and middle-aged adults, including the prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  9. Anomalous right coronary artery in a middle-aged patient

    PubMed Central

    Rosseel, Liesbeth; Bonnier, Hans; Sonck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva is a rare, but often incidental, finding in middle-aged to elderly people. Prevalence is difficult to define, as well as determining potential harmful hemodynamic consequences. Moreover, the optimal treatment remains debatable. Case summary: The authors present a case of a middle-aged patient diagnosed with an anomalous right coronary artery causing ischemia, who was treated surgically. Conclusion: By reviewing literature, the authors conclude that choice of treatment depends on age, symptoms, and certain anatomic features of this anomaly. However, there are no randomized trials available in this field. PMID:27930539

  10. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  11. Hearing Loss in Middle-Age Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, H. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study assessed the hearing function of 35 middle-aged adults with Down's syndrome by means of otoscopy, impedance audiometry, brainstem evoked response audiometry, and pure tone audiometry. The study found brainstem evoked response audiometry useful for routine audiological assessment, as it identified hearing losses of 20 to 90 decibels in…

  12. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  13. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  14. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  15. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  16. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  17. Impact of Elderly Mother's Death on Middle Age Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined middle aged daughters' (n=107) responses to death of their mother. In first six months of bereavement, many daughters experienced themes of holding on and letting go. Depression, grief, somatic reactions, impact on sense of self, acceptance of death, and ways in which ties with mother endure were differentially associated with…

  18. Emotional responses and memory performance of middle-aged CD1 mice in a 3D maze: effects of low infrared light.

    PubMed

    Michalikova, S; Ennaceur, A; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2008-05-01

    Non-thermal near infra-red (IR) has been shown to have many beneficial photobiological effects on a range of cell types, including neurons. In the present study, a pretreatment with a daily 6 min exposure to IR1072 for 10 days yielded a number of significant behavioral effects on middle-aged female CD-1 mice (12-months) tested in a 3D-maze. Middle-aged mice show significant deficits in a working memory test and IR treatment reversed this deficit. Interestingly, the IR treated middle-aged group despite making less memory errors than sham middle-aged group spent longer time in different parts of the maze than both the young group (3-months) and sham-middle-aged group (12-months). Young mice appeared more anxious than middle-aged mice in the first sessions of the test. Exposure to IR appeared to have no significant effects upon exploratory activity or anxiety responses. However, it elicited significant effects on working memory, with the IR middle-aged mice being more considerate in their decision making, which results in an overall improved cognitive performance which is comparable to that of young CD-1 mice. The present study describes a novel method for assessing emotional responses and memory performance in a 3D spatial navigation task and demonstrates the validity of our new all-in-one test and its sensitivity to ageing and non-invasive beneficial IR treatment.

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  20. Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

  1. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  2. Color vision deficiency in a middle-aged population: the Shahroud Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Hassan; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of color vision defects in the middle-age population of Shahroud, Iran. We selected 6,311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population through random cluster sampling. Color vision testing was performed with the Farnsworth D-15. Cases with similar and symmetric results in both eyes were classified as hereditary, and those with asymmetric results were considered acquired. Cases that did not conform to standard patterns were classified as unknown category. Of 5,190 respondents (response rate 82.2 %), 5,102 participants underwent the color vision test. Of these, 14.7 % (95 % confidence interval 13.7-15.6) had some type of color vision deficiency. Of the 2,157 male participants, 6.2 % were hereditary and 10.2 % were acquired and of the 2,945 female participants, 3.1 % were hereditary and 10 % were acquired. Hereditary color deficiencies were mostly of the deutan form (63.8 %), and acquired deficiencies were mostly tritan (66.1 %). The prevalence of hereditary and acquired color vision deficiency, as well as different types of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the pattern of color vision defects among the middle-aged population of Shahroud was significantly different from that seen in the younger population. This could be due to changes associated with age, gender, medical and ocular conditions, and differences in race and environment. Thus, results of previous examinations and the overall health status should be considered before making any judgment about the status of color vision in middle-aged people.

  3. Fetal microchimeric cells in a fetus-treats-its-mother paradigm do not contribute to dystrophin production in serially parous mdx females.

    PubMed

    Seppanen, Elke Jane; Hodgson, Samantha Susan; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Bou-Gharios, George; Fisk, Nicholas M

    2012-10-10

    Throughout every pregnancy, genetically distinct fetal microchimeric stem/progenitor cells (FMCs) engraft in the mother, persist long after delivery, and may home to damaged maternal tissues. Phenotypically normal fetal lymphoid progenitors have been described to develop in immunodeficient mothers in a fetus-treats-its-mother paradigm. Since stem cells contribute to muscle repair, we assessed this paradigm in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx females were bred serially to either ROSAeGFP males or mdx males to obtain postpartum microchimeras that received either wild-type FMCs or dystrophin-deficient FMCs through serial gestations. To enhance regeneration, notexin was injected into the tibialis anterior of postpartum mice. FMCs were detected by qPCR at a higher frequency in injected compared to noninjected side muscle (P=0.02). However, the number of dystrophin-positive fibers was similar in mothers delivering wild-type compared to mdx pups. In addition, there was no correlation between FMC detection and percentage dystrophin, and no GFP+ve FMCs were identified that expressed dystrophin. In 10/11 animals, GFP+ve FMCs were detected by immunohistochemistry, of which 60% expressed CD45 with 96% outside the basal lamina defining myofiber contours. Finally we confirmed lack of FMC contribution to statellite cells in postpartum mdx females mated with Myf5-LacZ males. We conclude that the FMC contribution to regenerating muscles is insufficient to have a functional impact.

  4. Chronic Ampakine Treatments Stimulate Dendritic Growth and Promote Learning in Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lauterborn, Julie C.; Palmer, Linda C.; Jia, Yousheng; Pham, Danielle T.; Hou, Bowen; Wang, Weisheng; Trieu, Brian H.; Cox, Conor D.; Kantorovich, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (ampakines) have been shown to rescue synaptic plasticity and reduce neuropathology in rodent models of cognitive disorders. Here we tested whether chronic ampakine treatment offsets age-related dendritic retraction in middle-aged (MA) rats. Starting at 10 months of age, rats were housed in an enriched environment and given daily treatment with a short half-life ampakine or vehicle for 3 months. Dendritic branching and spine measures were collected from 3D reconstructions of Lucifer yellow-filled CA1 pyramidal cells. There was a substantial loss of secondary branches, relative to enriched 2.5-month-old rats, in apical and basal dendritic fields of vehicle-treated, but not ampakine-treated, 13-month-old rats. Baseline synaptic responses in CA1 were only subtly different between the two MA groups, but long-term potentiation was greater in ampakine-treated rats. Unsupervised learning of a complex environment was used to assess treatment effects on behavior. Vehicle- and drug-treated rats behaved similarly during a first 30 min session in the novel environment but differed markedly on subsequent measures of long-term memory. Markov sequence analysis uncovered a clear increase in the predictability of serial movements between behavioral sessions 2 and 3 in the ampakine, but not vehicle, group. These results show that a surprising degree of dendritic retraction occurs by middle age and that this can be mostly offset by pharmacological treatments without evidence for unwanted side effects. The functional consequences of rescue were prominent with regard to memory but also extended to self-organization of behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain aging is characterized by a progressive loss of dendritic arbors and the emergence of impairments to learning-related synaptic plasticity. The present studies show that dendritic losses are evident by middle age despite housing in an enriched environment and can be

  5. Abdominal Migraine in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kunishi, Yosuke; Iwata, Yuri; Ota, Mitsuyasu; Kurakami, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Mao; Kanno, Masatomo; Kuboi, Yoriko; Yoshie, Koichiro; Kato, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with recurrent, severe abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and imaging were insignificant, and treatment for functional dyspepsia was ineffective. The poorly localized, dull, and severe abdominal pain, associated with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, was consistent with abdominal migraine. The symptoms were relieved by loxoprofen and lomerizine, which are used in the treatment of migraine. We herein report a case of abdominal migraine in a middle-aged woman. Abdominal migraine should be considered as a cause of abdominal pain as it might easily be relieved by appropriate treatment. PMID:27725538

  6. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  7. The Relationship Between Body Image and Sexual Function in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Poorandokht; Houshyar, Zeinab; Javadifar, Nahid; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh; Jorfi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An individual’s social and marital function, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life may, sometimes be affected by negative body image. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between body image and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 437 middle-aged women, who were referred to various public healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014–2015, were selected. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for data collection. Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman’s correlation test, and logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Results Approximately 58% of the participants expressed satisfaction with their body image, 35% were mildly dissatisfied, and 7% were moderately dissatisfied with their body image. Body image had a significant negative relationship with sexual satisfaction and sexual function (p=0.005). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between body image and sexual desire (p=0.022), pain (p=0.001), sexual arousal (p<0.0005), sexual orgasm (p=0.001), and sexual satisfaction (p<0.0005). Conclusion As the results indicated, body image is an important aspect of sexual health. In this study, women with a positive body image had higher sexual function valuation, compared to women with a negative body image. Also, body shape satisfaction was a predictor of sexual function. PMID:28070265

  8. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall—but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation—were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory. PMID:28210062

  9. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age.

    PubMed

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-04-02

    Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants' education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child's activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role.

  10. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D T; Wolfe-Simon, F; Pearson, A; Knoll, A H

    2009-10-06

    Molecular oxygen (O(2)) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580-550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O(2) production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O(2) budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(2+) rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms.

  11. Sin and mental illness in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1984-08-01

    The modern stereotype that in the Middle Ages there was a general belief that mental illness was caused by sin is reviewed. The authors examined 57 descriptions of mental illness (madness, possession, alcoholism, epilepsy, and combinations thereof) from pre-Crusade chronicles and saints' lives. In only 9 (16%) of these descriptions did the sources attribute the mental illness to sin or wrongdoing, and in these cases the medieval authors appeared to use this attribution for its propaganda value against an enemy of their patron saints, their monastery lands, or their religious values. The medieval sources indicate that the authors were well aware of the proximate causes of mental illness, such as humoral imbalance, intemperate diet and alcohol intake, overwork, and grief. The banality that, since God causes all things he also causes mental illness, was only used by medieval authors under special circumstances and in a minority of cases. It does not constitute evidence of superstitious and primitive notions about mental illness in the early Middle Ages.

  12. Death anxiety in Kuwaiti middle-aged personnel.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Kandari, Yagoub

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the level of death anxiety, the sex-related differences among a middle-aged Kuwaiti personnel sample, and to explore the replicability of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors. A sample of 236 volunteer Kuwaiti personnel took part in the study. The mean ages of men and women were 41.5 (SD = 7.5) and 40.9 (SD = 7.1), respectively. The alpha reliability of the ASDA was found to be high (.93). Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA as well as on 17 out of its 20 items. Middle-aged personnel had a significantly lower mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 22). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors: fear of dead people and tombs; fear of postmortem events; and fear of lethal disease. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a Kuwaiti college student sample. On the basis of the present findings, there are three general conclusions as follows: death anxiety is negatively associated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are salient in the Arab samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure.

  13. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  14. Sex Differences in Stress and Group Housing Effects on the Number of Newly Proliferated Cells and Neuroblasts in Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Wang, Ching-Yi; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yu, Lung; Cherng, Chianfang G

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress and coping responses have been frequently documented in aged people, while whether such differences in aged people may appear at the middle age are unknown. This study was undertaken to study the impact of acute stress and social interaction on early neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampus-related memory in two sexes of middle-aged mice. The number of newly proliferated cells, neuroblasts in DG, the object recognition and location memory in 9-month-old male and female C57BL/6N mice were assessed under baseline conditions as well as following an acute stressor regimen and group housing. Three conspecific companions, serving as "the housing group," were used to model the social interaction throughout the stressor regimen. Males had lower numbers of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts under baseline conditions as compared to females. The stressor regimen caused rapid decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG but no obvious changes were observed in male DG. Group housing, regardless of companions' age, prevented the stress-induced decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG. In contrast, the presence of young or age-matched companions potentiated the stress effect in males by decreasing the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts. Finally, neither the stressor regimen nor group housing affected mouse performances in the object recognition and location memory in either sex. These findings, taken together, provide evidence to support a notion that middle-aged females appear to demonstrate more stress susceptibility on early neurogenesis in DG as compared to middle-aged males, although the hippocampus-related memory performances are comparable and not affected by stress in these males and females. Experiencing stress, middle-aged females are more prone to benefit from social interaction as compared to middle-aged males in this regard. We

  15. Sex Differences in Stress and Group Housing Effects on the Number of Newly Proliferated Cells and Neuroblasts in Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Wang, Ching-Yi; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yu, Lung; Cherng, Chianfang G.

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences in stress and coping responses have been frequently documented in aged people, while whether such differences in aged people may appear at the middle age are unknown. This study was undertaken to study the impact of acute stress and social interaction on early neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampus-related memory in two sexes of middle-aged mice. The number of newly proliferated cells, neuroblasts in DG, the object recognition and location memory in 9-month-old male and female C57BL/6N mice were assessed under baseline conditions as well as following an acute stressor regimen and group housing. Three conspecific companions, serving as “the housing group,” were used to model the social interaction throughout the stressor regimen. Males had lower numbers of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts under baseline conditions as compared to females. The stressor regimen caused rapid decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG but no obvious changes were observed in male DG. Group housing, regardless of companions' age, prevented the stress-induced decreases in the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts in female DG. In contrast, the presence of young or age-matched companions potentiated the stress effect in males by decreasing the number of newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts. Finally, neither the stressor regimen nor group housing affected mouse performances in the object recognition and location memory in either sex. These findings, taken together, provide evidence to support a notion that middle-aged females appear to demonstrate more stress susceptibility on early neurogenesis in DG as compared to middle-aged males, although the hippocampus-related memory performances are comparable and not affected by stress in these males and females. Experiencing stress, middle-aged females are more prone to benefit from social interaction as compared to middle-aged males in this regard. We

  16. Sudden death of a middle-aged man with an artificial vagina in situ

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG

    2016-01-01

    Artificial vaginas are designed to imitate the female sex organ. This is the first reported case in the forensic literature of a man being pronounced dead with an artificial vagina in situ. A middle-aged man was found unconscious in a bathroom when the door was forced open and was pronounced dead on admission. Autopsy revealed that the penis was inside an artificial vagina. There were no injuries, but there were left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and narrow coronaries. The cause of death was ascertained as ischemic heart disease due to coronary atherosclerosis and the comments included were no evidence of violence, and ischemic heart disease could have been precipitated due to abnormal sexual activity. If removal of artificial vagina was done before the admission, this circumstance could not have ascertained. Removal of such devices before admission to hospitals could be the reason why such incidents do not come to light. PMID:27857900

  17. Prevalence of microalbuminuria among middle-aged population of China: a multiple center cardiovascular epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang; Wang, ZengWu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and the relationships with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among a middle-aged Chinese population. Data from 10 313 participants were included in our cross-sectional survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as the urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 30:300 mg/g from a single-spot morning urine sample. Microalbuminuria was found to be common in males and females (15.04% vs 10.09%) aged 35 to 64 years in this Chinese general population, especially in those with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Multivariate analysis found that body mass index, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and diabetes were independently associated with MAU. Microalbuminuria may be a useful indicator for risk of CV disease in general populations.

  18. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.

  19. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection.

  20. Sternal stress fracture in a middle-aged woman.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin; Fields, Karl Bertrand

    2017-02-07

    A middle-aged premenopausal woman presented with 3 months of right chest wall pain after beginning a new weight training programme. Examination was significant only for mild-to-moderate tenderness to palpation over the right pectoral muscle and sternoclavicular joint. In-office musculoskeletal ultrasound scan, chest X-ray and shoulder X-rays were unremarkable. Subsequent MRI of the chest wall showed oedema in the sternum at the level of the sternoclavicular joint consistent with a sternal stress fracture. She was started on calcium and vitamin D supplementation and told to rest for 6 weeks. After this she began to gradually increase her activity and was pain free after 4 months.

  1. Vision impairment and dual sensory problems in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Dickinson, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Bishop, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Norman, Paul; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40 to 69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. Methods This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource, with subsets of UK Biobank data analysed with respect to self-report of eye problems and glasses use. Better-eye visual acuity with habitually worn refractive correction was assessed with a logMAR chart (n = 116,682). Better-ear speech reception threshold was measured with an adaptive speech in noise test, the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Prevalence estimates were weighted with respect to UK 2001 Census data. Results Prevalence of mild visual impairment and low vision was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 14.9–15.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.8–1.0%), respectively. Use of glasses was 88.0% (95% CI 87.9–88.1%). The prevalence of dual sensory impairment was 3.1% (95% CI 3.0–3.2%) and there was a nine-fold increase in the prevalence of dual sensory problems between the youngest and oldest age groups. Older adults, those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds were most at risk for vision problems. Conclusions Mild vision impairment is common in middle aged UK adults, despite widespread use of spectacles. Possible barriers to optometric care for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds may require attention. A higher than expected prevalence of dual impairment suggests that hearing and vision problems share common causes. Optometrists should consider screening for hearing problems, particularly among older adults. PMID:24888710

  2. Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Goiter in Middle-Aged Euthyroid Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Vainikonyte-Kristapone, Jelena; Seibokaite, Audrone; Ceponis, Jonas; Sidlauskas, Vygantas; Daugintyte-Petrusiene, Laura; Norkus, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine associations of thyroid hormone levels and different metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with volume of nodular and nonnodular thyroid as well as with prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in middle-aged euthyroid subjects. Methods. The study consisted of 317 euthyroid subjects aged 48-49 from the Kaunas Cardiovascular Risk Cohort study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO) levels, as well as anthropometric and metabolic parameters and smoking information, were evaluated. Results. In subjects with and without thyroid nodules, thyroid volume correlated with components of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and TSH levels. In the nonnodular thyroid group, thyroid volume was also positively related to serum insulin and HOMA-IR, whereas a negative correlation between thyroid volume and leptin was identified in the nodular thyroid group. The goiter was identified in 12.3% of subjects. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and levels of TSH were independent predictors for goiter. Thyroid nodules were found in 31.2% of participants. Female gender, higher TSH levels, and thyroid volume were independent risk factors for thyroid nodules. Conclusions. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and TSH levels were identified as potential predictors of goiter. Female gender, TSH levels, and thyroid volume predicted the presence of thyroid nodules. PMID:28356911

  3. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  4. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health.

  5. Voluntary Exercise Impairs Initial Delayed Spatial Alternation Performance in Estradiol Treated Ovariectomized Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance. OVX 12-month old Long- Evans rats were implanted with a Silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol (10% in cholesterol: low physiological range) or with a blank capsule. A subset of the 17β-estradiol and OVX untreated rats were given free access to a running wheel in their home cage. All rats were tested for 40 sessions on the DSA task. Surprisingly, we found running wheel access to impair initial acquisition of the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated rats, an effect not seen in OVX untreated rats given running wheel access. This deficit was driven by an increase in perseverative responding on a lever no longer associated with reinforcement. We also report for the first time a 17β-estradiol induced impairment on the DSA task following a long intertrial delay (18-sec), an effect revealed following more extended testing than in our previous studies (15 additional sessions). Overall, running wheel access increased initial error rate on the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated middle-aged OVX rats, and failed to prevent the 17β-estradiol induced deficits in performance of the operant DSA task in later testing sessions. PMID:24013039

  6. The hazards of death by smoking in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Gram, Inger T; Sandin, Sven; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have found that the risk of death continues to increase among female smokers, as compared with women who have never smoked. We wanted to examine the effect of smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality and calculate the corresponding population attributable fraction (PAF) of mortality in the Norwegian women and cancer study; a nationally representative prospective cohort study. We followed 85,320 women, aged 31–70 years, who completed a questionnaire in 1991–1997, through linkages to national registries through December 2008. Questionnaire data included information on lifestyle factors, including lifetime history of smoking. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, birth cohort, education, postmenopausal status, alcohol consumption and body mass index, all at enrollment. During a mean follow-up time of 14 years 2,842 deaths occurred. Compared with that of never smokers, current smokers had a mortality rate that was double (RR = 2.34; 95 % CI 2.13–2.62) from deaths overall, triple (RR = 3.30; 95 % CI 2.21–4.82) from cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction (RR = 3.65; 95 % CI 2.18–6.15), 12 times (RR = 12.16; 95 % CI 7.80–19.00) from lung cancer and seventeen times (RR = 17.00; 95 % CI 5.90–48.78) from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The PAF of mortality due to smoking was 34 % (CI 30–39). In summary, one in three deaths among middle aged women in Norway could have been prevented if the women did not smoke. More middle-aged women, than ever before, are dying prematurely due to smoking in Norway.

  7. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  8. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  9. Glycemia, diabetes status, and cognition in middle aged Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José A.; Cabral, Rafi; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Teresi, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognition among 600 Hispanics aged 55 to 64 years from Northern Manhattan. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by history or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and pre-diabetes were ascertained with HbA1c. Memory was assessed with the Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Executive abilities were assessed using the Color trails 1 and 2, and verbal fluency test. The cross-sectional association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognitive performance was examined using linear regression. Results Participants were a mean age of 59.2 ± 2.9 years old, 76.7% were women, and more than 65% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. HbA1C (β = − 0.97; p <0.001) and diabetes (β = − 2.06; p = 0.001) were related with lower SRT total recall after adjustment for demographics, education, and vascular risk factors. Pre-diabetes was associated with worse performance in color trails 2 (β = − 6.45 p = 0.022) after full adjustment. Conclusions Higher glycemia and diabetes are related to worse memory and executive abilities in late middle age, while pre-diabetes is related only to worse executive abilities. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the order and progression of these deficits. PMID:26163818

  10. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent

  11. Nociceptive and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Reproductively Competent and Reproductively Senescent Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Paris, Jason J.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in levels of estradiol and progesterone that occur with the transition to reproductive senescence may influence nociception or affect. Objective To ascertain whether nociceptive and affective processes change with reproductive senescence, this study examined pain and anxiety-like behaviors in middle-aged female rats that were reproductively competent, transitioning to reproductive senescence, or reproductively senescent. Methods Middle-aged (12–14 months old) female rats (N = 46) were tested in the following tasks to assess pain and anxiety-like behavior: tail flick, elevated plus maze, elevated zero maze, mirror maze, Vogel punished drinking, and defensive burying. For the tail-flick task, the latency for rats to move their tail from a heat source, as an indication of pain sensitivity, was determined. In the elevated plus and elevated zero mazes, the time spent on the open arms or quadrants, respectively, were determined as measures of reduced anxiety behavior. In the mirror maze, the time spent in the mirrored portion of the chamber was used as an indicator of anxiety-like responding. In the Vogel task, the number of punished licks made was determined as a measure of reduced anxiety-like behavior. In the defensive burying task, the duration spent by rats burying an electrified prod postfootshock was utilized as an index of anxiety-like responding. All rats were experimentally naive, retired breeders from our colony and had not had a litter or been lactating for 1 to 4 weeks before behavioral testing. Results Although tail-flick latencies were not significantly different among rats that were reproductively competent or senescent, reproductively competent rats had less anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (more time spent on the open arms: F2,43 = 5.93; P < 0.01), elevated zero maze (more time spent on the open quadrants: F2,43 = 4.62; P = 0.01), and Vogel punished drinking task (more punished licks made: F2,43 = 3.76; P = 0

  12. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  13. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…

  14. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  15. Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

  16. Clinically Relevant Cognitive Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults With Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Jennings, J. Richard; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Costacou, Tina; Boudreau, Robert M.; Miller, Rachel; Orchard, Trevor J.; Saxton, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and correlates of clinically relevant cognitive impairment in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During 2010–2013, 97 adults diagnosed with T1D and aged <18 years (age and duration 49 ± 7 and 41 ± 6 years, respectively; 51% female) and 138 similarly aged adults without T1D (age 49 ± 7 years; 55% female) completed extensive neuropsychological testing. Biomedical data on participants with T1D were collected periodically since 1986–1988. Cognitive impairment status was based on the number of test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than demographically appropriate published norms: none, mild (only one test), or clinically relevant (two or more tests). RESULTS The prevalence of clinically relevant cognitive impairment was five times higher among participants with than without T1D (28% vs. 5%; P < 0.0001), independent of education, age, or blood pressure. Effect sizes were large (Cohen d 0.6–0.9; P < 0.0001) for psychomotor speed and visuoconstruction tasks and were modest (d 0.3–0.6; P < 0.05) for measures of executive function. Among participants with T1D, prevalent cognitive impairment was related to 14-year average A1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol) (odds ratio [OR] 3.0; P = 0.009), proliferative retinopathy (OR 2.8; P = 0.01), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (OR 2.6; P = 0.03) measured 5 years earlier; higher BMI (OR 1.1; P = 0.03); and ankle-brachial index ≥1.3 (OR 4.2; P = 0.01) measured 20 years earlier, independent of education. CONCLUSIONS Clinically relevant cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among these middle-aged adults with childhood-onset T1D. In this aging cohort, chronic hyperglycemia and prevalent microvascular disease were associated with cognitive impairment, relationships shown previously in younger populations with T1D. Two additional potentially modifiable risk factors for T1D-related cognitive impairment, vascular health and BMI

  17. Risk factors for premature death in middle aged men

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Bo; Trell, Erik; Henningsen, Nels-Christian; Hood, Bertil

    1984-01-01

    The causes of premature death and the associated risk factors were analysed in a cohort of 7935 middle aged men participating in a preventive population programme in Malmö. They were screened when aged 46-48 and then followed up for 3½-8 years. Two hundred and eighteen died, of whom 181 (83%) underwent necropsy. Three major causes of death were established: cancer in 61 (28%), deaths related to consumption of alcohol in 55 (25%), and coronary heart disease in 50 (23%). Distinctly different patterns of risk factors were found to be associated with each of the three main causes of premature death. In death due to coronary heart disease smoking (p=0·0062), serum cholesterol concentration (p=0·00014), serum triglyceride concentration (p=0·00013), systolic blood pressure (p=0·000012), and diastolic blood pressure (p=0·0021) were the strongest single determinants but diastolic blood pressure ceased to be a predictive factor in a multivariate analysis whereas all the other variables could be combined in a highly predictive logistic model. In death related to consumption of alcohol equal or even stronger associations were found for serum γ glutamyltransferase activity (p<0·0001), points scored in a questionnaire screening for alcoholism (p<0·0001), and, inversely, serum cholesterol (p=0·0046) and serum creatinine (p<0·0001) concentrations both when applied independently and when combined in a logistic model. In death due to cancer significant associations were found for serum urate concentration (p=0·023) and, inversely, serum cholesterol concentration (p=0·056-0·031). Malignant diseases and diseases related to consumption of alcohol were at least as prominent as cardiovascular disorders in causing premature death in the cohort of men studied. All three types of conditions are potentially avoidable and seem to be associated with significant and distinctive patterns of risk factors. These patterns should be used, as blood pressure and serum lipid

  18. Prior Parity Positively Regulates Learning and Memory in Young and Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zimberknopf, Erica; Xavier, Gilberto F; Kinsley, Craig H; Felicio, Luciano F

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated) and primiparous (PRIM; one pregnancy and lactation) female rats were tested 15 d after the litter's weaning. In addition, corresponding middle-aged (AGD) PRIM (mated in young adulthood so that pregnancy, parturition, and lactation occurred at the same age as in YNG PRIM) and NULL female rats were tested at 18 mo of age. Behavioral evaluation included: 1) acquisition of reference memory (platform location was fixed for 14 to 19 d of testing); 2) retrieval of this information associated with extinction of the acquired response (probe test involving removal of the platform 24 h after the last training session); and 3) performance in a working memory version of the task (platform presented in a novel location every day for 13 d, and maintained in a fixed location within each day). YNG PRIM outperformed NULL rats and showed different behavioral strategies. These results may be related to changes in locomotor, mnemonic, and cognitive processes. In addition, YNG PRIM exhibited less anxiety-like behavior. Compared with YNG rats, AGD rats showed less behavioral flexibility but stronger memory consolidation. These data, which were obtained by using a well-documented spatial task, demonstrate long lasting modifications of behavioral strategies in both YNG and AGD rats associated with a single reproductive experience. PMID:22330253

  19. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  20. [Late middle-aged schizophrenic patient in the family (social-psychological problems)].

    PubMed

    Druz', V F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and sociopsychological studies of 28 families have shown that the familial status and role of elderly schizophrenics are usually higher than in young patients which depends not only on the clinical course, the age at the onset of the disease and its duration but also on the structure of the family and on how well the relatives understand the nature and manifestations of disease. On reaching middle age schizophrenic males become more adaptive in the family due to the fact that in the course of the disease their psychopathlike and asocial behaviour becomes less marked. Females both young and elderly usually have a higher status although in the course of disease it tends to show a gradual lowering. The field of communication becomes more definite and is typically restricted to the spouse or daughter. Depending on the dominant factors of relations, three types of families have been identified: integrated, partially integrated and disintegrated. Disintegrated families are less common as compared with integrated ones.

  1. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16351.001 PMID:27549339

  2. Modafinil improves attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time in healthy, middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Russell E; Crowley, Jaime M; Smith, Roland H; LaRoche, Ronee B; Dopheide, Marsha M

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effect of the novel psychostimulant modafinil (Provigil) on a variety of cognitive and behavioral measures including associative learning, sustained attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time. Middle-aged female rats (18-20 months old) were administered oral doses of modafinil (0, 8, 32, and 64 mg/kg) and tested in a 3-choice visual discrimination and sustained attention task. Modafinil produced a dose-dependent pattern of improved response accuracy and impulse control (fewer premature responses) and shorter response latencies, without affecting omission errors, motivation or motor control. Although the biochemical mechanism of modafinil is unknown, these results suggest a profile differing from typical psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine). The implications of these findings for treatment of narcolepsy, ADHD, and various arousal-related disorders are considered. Further research is needed to examine the relative safety, effectiveness, and addictive potential of modafinil, as well as, its effects in comparison with other performance-enhancing drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, and amphetamines).

  3. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  4. A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later Dementia expert says take up heart-healthy ... 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy aging of the brain relies on the health of your heart and ...

  5. Capabilities of Middle-aged And Older Workers: A Survey of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Elizabeth L.; Kerr, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of literature including a summary of pertinent studies on middle-aged and older workers in five broad categories: physical capacity, learning ability, job performance, performance in training, and worker attitudes. (ABM)

  6. The influence of female age on male mating preference and reproductive success in cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Ping; He, Hai-Min; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-08-01

    The influence of female age on male mating preference and reproductive success has been studied using a promiscuous cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In a simultaneous choice test, middle-aged females had significantly greater mating success than young and old females. In single pair trials, when paired with middle-aged virgin males, middle-aged females mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and fertility than young or old females, while the longevity of males was not significantly affected by female age. This study on C. bowringi suggests that middle-aged females are more receptive to mating, which can result in the highest male reproductive success.

  7. Cumulative systolic blood pressure exposure in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP exposure and cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly adults. The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006–2007) up to the fourth examination (2012–2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function. Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, aged 40–94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative exposure to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults aged ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults aged 40 to 60 years. Greater exposure to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-aged and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults. PMID:27902618

  8. The effects of exercise capacity and sedentary lifestyle on haemostasis among middle-aged women with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Edit; Janszky, Imre; Eriksson-Berg, Margita; Al-Khalili, Faris; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have established a link/relationship between haemostatic factors and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, physical conditioning is associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between physical exercise and haemostatic factors among middle-aged women surviving an acute coronary event. The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study included 292 women aged < 65 years, resident in the greater Stockholm area, who were hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome. Extensive clinical screening including exercise testing, and blood tests were performed 3-6 months after the coronary event. Self-reported physical activity was assessed by a WHO questionnaire. Patients on warfarin treatment were excluded from our analyses. Haemostatic factors were generally higher among physically inactive patients when compared to physically active women in our univariate models. Exercise capacity had a statistically significant relationship with factor VII antigen (p = 0.039) and vWFag (p = 0.038) even in our multiadjusted analyses. Physical inactivity and poor physical fitness are associated with a potentially prothrombotic blood profile in middle aged women with coronary heart disease.

  9. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  10. Multiparity-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory depends on ovarian hormone status in middle age.

    PubMed

    Barha, Cindy K; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-08-01

    Menopause is associated with cognitive decline, and previous parity can increase or delay the trajectory of cognitive aging. Furthermore, parity enables the hippocampus to respond to estrogens in middle age. The present study investigated how previous parity and estrogens influence cognition, neurogenesis, and neuronal activation in response to memory retrieval in the hippocampus of middle-aged females. Multiparous and nulliparous rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or received sham surgery and were treated with vehicle, 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, or estrone. Rats were trained on the spatial working and reference memory versions of the Morris water maze. Multiparous rats had a significantly greater density of immature neurons in the hippocampus, enhanced acquisition of working memory, but poorer reference memory compared with nulliparous rats. Furthermore, OVX increased, while treatment with estrogens reduced, the density of immature neurons, regardless of parity. OVX improved reference memory only in nulliparous rats. Thus, motherhood has long-lasting effects on the neuroplasticity and function of the hippocampus. These findings have wide-ranging implications for the treatment of age-associated decline in women.

  11. An inherited mild middle-aged adiposity in wild mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, M. E.; MacSwiney, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    In a warfarin-resistant population of wild mice reared in the laboratory, a dominant gene for adiposity, Ad, was found to segregate. The onset of obesity is at 4--6 months, and adipose mice suffer from hyperinsulinaemia; the sexes differ in penetrance, males having greater penetrance then females. Linkage backcrosses show the gene to be situated on chromosome 7 with about 25% recombination with the closely linked warfarin-resistance genes War, and frizzy, fr. The finding of adipose in two other wild populations also carrying War is discussed as an ecological and physiological problem. PMID:429792

  12. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  13. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  14. Use of Hearing Aids and Functional Capacity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Carioli, Juliana; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is among the sensory changes strongly associated with loss of functional capacity. Objective It aims to determine whether the use of hearing aid contributes to the improvement of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) for middle aged and elderly hearing-impaired individuals. Methods This is a descriptive, longitudinal, and interventional study. We evaluated 17 subjects, 13 (76.5%) female, aged between 58 and 96 years old (mean 77.1 ± 10.4 years). All were new users of hearing aids. Evaluation included social history, pure tone audiometry, and scale of IADL developed by Lawton and Brody. The subjects were presented daily life situations and were expected to respond if they could do them without assistance (3 points), partially assisted (2 points) or if they were unable to perform them (1 point). IADL was applied before the use of hearing aids adaptation and after a three- and six-month period of use. Results Data analysis revealed that before the use of hearing aids the average score obtained by the subjects was 22.94 ± 4.04 points. Three months after beginning the use the average score was 23.29 ± 4.12 and after six months the average score was 23.71 ± 3.69 points. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between scores obtained before the use of hearing aids and six months post-fitting (p = 0.015*) Conclusion The use of hearing aids among the subjects evaluated promoted positive changes in performing IADL, especially to using the telephone. PMID:25992101

  15. Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances sexual motivation in middle-aged male mice.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2003-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack was investigated for sexual motivation activity in adult, middle-aged male mice and in retired breeders, using the modified open field and the modified runway choice methods. Each mouse received 500 mg/kg of one of 4 fractions of E. longifolia Jack, viz. chloroform, methanol, butanol, and water, whereas the mice in the control and yohimbine groups received 3 ml/kg of normal saline and 30 mg/kg of yohimbine daily respectively for 10 d. The results show a transient increase in the percentage of male mice responding to the right choice after chronic consumption of the fractions with 50 percent of the adult middle-aged male mice treated with E. longifolia Jack and yohimbine scoring the right choice after 8 and 5 days post-treatment respectively. In conclusion, this study has shown that E. longifolia Jack continues to enhance sexual motivation in adult, middle-aged male mice and in retired breeders.

  16. [Reliability and validity of marital love scale in middle- aged and elderly couples].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2012-08-01

    A marital love scale was created to study the marital quality of middle-aged and elderly couples, and the scale's reliability and validity were examined. In this study, 888 middle-aged and elderly married participants completed the marital love scale questionnaire as well as answering questions regarding marriage satisfaction and husband-wife communication. In all age groups, men scored higher than women on the marital love scale. The marital love score gradually increased from the middle-aged to the senior period, and like the marriage satisfaction score, the marital love score showed a U-shaped curve in the whole married life. The results also showed that the scale was highly correlated with marriage satisfaction and spousal self-disclosure. Thus, the validity and internal consistency of the marital love scale were confirmed.

  17. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  18. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  19. Assessment of Alveolar Bone Status in Middle Aged Chinese (40-59 Years) with Chronic Periodontitis — Using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haijiao; Li, Chen; Lin, Li; Pan, Yaping; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Jian; Tan, Lisi; Pan, Chunling; Song, Jia; Zhang, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study used con-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss in middle-aged (40–59 years) Chinese with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods The study group comprised 145 dentate individuals aged 40 to 59 years residing in China who suffered from chronic periodontitis. CBCT and the application of NNT software were used to examine the level and location of alveolar bone loss. Results The study revealed that 40–59 year old patients with chronic periodontitis had severe bone loss. At 5,286 sites (34.7%), alveolar bone loss was mild; severe alveolar bone loss was found at 5,978 sites (39.2%). A comparison of bone loss in different jaws revealed that the area with the highest degree of bone loss was on the lingual side of the maxillary molar (56.3 ± 7.2%), and that the area with the lowest degree was primarily on the lingual side of the mandibular canine (27.5 ± 6.3%). There was a lower degree of alveolar bone loss in males than females. Differences were observed when comparing the incidence of bone loss between males and females (P < 0.05). Menopause in females and smoking in both genders may affect the level of bone loss. Male smokers experienced a greater degree of bone loss (41.67 ± 5.76%) than male non-smokers (32.95 ± 4.31%). A 42.23 ± 6.34% bone loss was found in menopausal females versus 31.35 ± 3.62% in non-menopausal females. Conclusions The study revealed that different sites and teeth exhibited a diverse degree of bone loss. In middle-aged patients with chronic periodontitis, the highest degrees of bone loss in the incisors, premolars, and molars were on the lingual side, mesial side and lingual side, respectively. Menopause in females and smoking may affect the level of bone loss. PMID:26431206

  20. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  1. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  2. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

  3. [Healing of a mental patient in the late Middle Ages. Community therapy by Hildegard of Bingen].

    PubMed

    Schipperges, H

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the case history of a woman afflicted with mental disease and its course of healing, as described in the works of St. Hildegard of Bingen. The therapy may be considered as an early attempt of "team work" in health care. For better understanding of this rather casuistic contribution to the medicine of the High Middle Ages some principles of mediaeval medicine are explained. The key figure of "melancolia" is thereby given a position of central importance for the understanding of psychic disturbances in the Middle Ages.

  4. Hereditary Spherocytosis in a Middle-aged Man Complicated with Common Bile Duct Stones.

    PubMed

    Sawahara, Hiroaki; Iwamuro, Masaya; Harada, Ryo; Yoshioka, Masao; Niguma, Takefumi; Mimura, Tetsushige; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common form of hemolytic anemia and is characterized by spherical, osmotically fragile erythrocytes that are selectively trapped by the spleen. Hereditary spherocytosis is typically diagnosed in childhood. We herein experienced a rare case of hereditary spherocytosis diagnosed in middle age. The patient presented with cholelithiasis and hyperbilirubinemia. He had no anemia and was asymptomatic with mild splenomegaly. In the differential diagnosis of these symptoms, the possibility of hereditary spherocytosis should be considered, even in patients who are middle-aged and lack anemia.

  5. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  6. Recurrent Sleep Fragmentation Induces Insulin and Neuroprotective Mechanisms in Middle-Aged Flies

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Perland, Emelie; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Carlsson, Josef; Erlandsson, Daniel; Laan, Loora; Mahebali, Tabusi; Potter, Ella; Frediksson, Robert; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of quality sleep increases central nervous system oxidative stress and impairs removal of neurotoxic soluble metabolites from brain parenchyma. During aging poor sleep quality, caused by sleep fragmentation, increases central nervous system cellular stress. Currently, it is not known how organisms offset age-related cytotoxic metabolite increases in order to safeguard neuronal survival. Furthermore, it is not understood how age and sleep fragmentation interact to affect oxidative stress protection pathways. We demonstrate sleep fragmentation increases systems that protect against oxidative damage and neuroprotective endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones, as well as neuronal insulin and dopaminergic expression in middle-aged Drosophila males. Interestingly, even after sleep recovery the expression of these genes was still upregulated in middle-aged flies. Finally, sleep fragmentation generates higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in middle-aged flies and after sleep recovery these levels remain significantly higher than in young flies. The fact that neuroprotective pathways remain upregulated in middle-aged flies beyond sleep fragmentation suggests it might represent a strong stressor for the brain during later life. PMID:27531979

  7. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  8. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  9. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  10. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  11. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  12. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved.

  13. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  14. Of Monks and Men: Sacred and Secular Education in the Middle Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Susan

    The medieval school came into existence after the fifth century to satisfy ecclesiastical demands for a minimum amount of literacy and scientific knowledge whereby young priests could learn to carry out priestly functions in the Church. During the course of the Middle Ages, the medieval school gradually changed its structure and function until the…

  15. Learning the Faith in England in the Later Middle Ages: Contributions of the Franciscan Friars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    In popular understanding, the late Middle Ages has been viewed as a time of relative religious ignorance for both laity and clergy. Recent scholarship is indicating a more knowledgeable and vigorous faith experience in this time period. This article examines the major educational ministry renewal of the church in England following the Fourth…

  16. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  17. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  18. A Twin Study of Spatial and Non-Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, William S.; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Blankfeld, Howard M.; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic…

  19. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  20. Correlates of War-Induced Stress Responses among Later Middle-Aged and Elderly Israelis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Edward; Solomon, Zahava

    1995-01-01

    Interviews 164 late middle-aged and elderly Israelis with respect to their emotional and behavioral reactions to Scud missile attacks in Israel during the Gulf War. Discusses findings in light of the uniquely subjective, interpretive context of stress phenomena, and the need to identify those variables that explain individual differences among…

  1. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  2. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  3. β-Cell dedifferentiation, reduced duct cell plasticity, and impaired β-cell mass regeneration in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Noèlia; Vilaseca, Marina; Martí, Yasmina; Pla, Arturo; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    Limitations in β-cell regeneration potential in middle-aged animals could contribute to the increased risk to develop diabetes associated with aging. We investigated β-cell regeneration of middle-aged Wistar rats in response to two different regenerative stimuli: partial pancreatectomy (Px + V) and gastrin administration (Px + G). Pancreatic remnants were analyzed 3 and 14 days after surgery. β-Cell mass increased in young animals after Px and was further increased after gastrin treatment. In contrast, β-cell mass did not change after Px or after gastrin treatment in middle-aged rats. β-Cell replication and individual β-cell size were similarly increased after Px in young and middle-aged animals, and β-cell apoptosis was not modified. Nuclear immunolocalization of neurog3 or nkx6.1 in regenerative duct cells, markers of duct cell plasticity, was increased in young but not in middle-aged Px rats. The pancreatic progenitor-associated transcription factors neurog3 and sox9 were upregulated in islet β-cells of middle-aged rats and further increased after Px. The percentage of chromogranin A+/hormone islet cells was significantly increased in the pancreases of middle-aged Px rats. In summary, the potential for compensatory β-cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy was retained in middle-aged rats, but β-cell dedifferentiation and impaired duct cell plasticity limited β-cell regeneration.

  4. The effects of short-term enriched environment on capillaries of the middle-aged rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuan; Li, Chen; Jiang, Rong; Chen, Lin; Huang, Chunxia; Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Shi, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyu; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Guohua; Tang, Yong

    2011-11-14

    There has been no study investigating the effects of enriched environment on the capillaries of cortex with new stereological methods. In the present study, both 14 month female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into enriched environment (EE) rats and standard environment (SE) rats. EE rats were reared in enriched environment and SE rats were reared in standard environment for 4 months. The effects of short-term enriched environment on the cortex volume and on the total volume, total length, total surface area and mean diameter of the capillaries in the cortex of mid-aged Sprague-Dawley rats were quantitatively investigated with immunohistochemistry technique and unbiased stereological methods. There were no significant differences in the cortex volume, the total length and total surface area of the capillaries in the cortex between EE rats and SE rats. The total volume of the capillaries in the cortex of female EE rats and male EE rats was significantly increased when compared to female SE rats and male SE rats. The mean diameter of the capillaries in the cortex of female EE rats was significantly decreased when compared to that in female SE rats, but there was no significant difference in the mean diameter of the capillaries in the cortex between male EE rats and male SE rats. The present results indicate that enriched environment had a positive effect on the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats. The present study might provide an important morphological basis for searching the ethology strategy to delay the progress of brain aging in the future.

  5. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  6. Low income, unemployment, and suicide mortality rates for middle-age persons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Sakai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-04-01

    The relationships between age-specific suicide mortality rates and social life factors for all 47 Japanese prefectures in 1980, 1985, and 1990 were assessed by multiple regression analysis after factor analysis on 20 social life indicators. During this period, Japan experienced a secondary oil crisis in 1980-1983 and a bubble economy in 1986-1990. It was concluded that (1) low income was the major determinant which positively affected suicide mortality rate in middle-aged men during a previous 20-yr. period (1970-1990), (2) urbanization was negatively associated with male suicide mortality rates in most of the age classes in the 1980s, (3) unemployment was one of the major determinants of increased suicide mortality rate in middle-age men in the 1980s, and (4) unemployment was the major factor which was inversely associated with suicide mortality rate for elderly women from 1980 to 1990 in Japan.

  7. Predictors of stress and depressive mood in Portuguese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Leitão, Mafalda; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the predictors of psychological symptoms-stress and depressive mood-in a sample of middle-aged women. A community sample of 1,003 women filled in the questionnaires and instruments, which included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Life Events Survey; sociodemographic, health, and menopause-related and lifestyle information was also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to build the model that had stress and depressive mood as dependent variables. Health status (both physical and psychological), recent life events, income and menopausal phase were significantly associated with the frequency of stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, educational level and parity were also significant predictors of depressive mood. This study emphasizes that psychological symptoms occurrence in midlife depends not only on personal variables (such as health and menopausal status) but also on contextual ones (including recent stressful events) that can be a strong influence on how middle-aged women feel.

  8. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  10. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J

    2014-03-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4-1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment.

  11. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; de Looze, Michiel P

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-65 years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six components but which had to be assembled in a partly different order. Assembly accuracy and movement time during tests, which were performed before and after the practice sessions, were compared to determine proactive and retroactive transfer. The results showed proactive facilitation (i.e., benefits from having learned the first product on learning the second one) in terms of an overall shortening of movement time in both age-groups. In addition, only the middle-aged adults were found to show sequence-specific proactive facilitation, in which the shortening of movement time was limited to components that had the same the order in the two products. Most likely, however, the sequence-specific transfer was an epiphenomenon of the comparatively low rate of learning among the middle-aged adults. The results, however, did reveal genuine differences between the groups for retroactive transfer (i.e., effects from learning the second product on performance of the first). Middle-aged adults tended to show more pronounced retroactive interference in terms of a general decrease in accuracy, while younger adults showed sequence-specific retroactive facilitation (i.e., shortening of movement times for components that had the same order in the two products), but only when they were fully accurate. Together this suggests that in the learning of sequential motor tasks the effects of age are more marked for retroactive transfer than for proactive transfer.

  12. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Ngai, T H; Tan, T H

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual qualities of middle aged male rats after dosing them with 0.5 g/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia whilst the control group received 3 ml/kg of normal saline daily for 12 weeks. Results showed than E. longifolia Jack enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats by decreasing their hesitation time as compared to controls with various fractions of E. longifolia Jack produced 865-916 (91-96), 860-914 (92-98), 850-904 (93-99), 854-890 (95-99), 844-880 (94-98), 840-875 (94-98), 830-870 (94-98), 825-860 (94-98), 820-850 (96-99), 800-840 (93-98), 750-795 (94-99) and 650-754 sec (82-95%) in contrast to controls which produced 950 (100), 934 (100), 910 (100), 900 (100), 895 (100), 890 (100), 885 (100), 880 (100), 855 (100), 860 (100), 800 (100) and 790 sec (100%) throughout the investigation period. Besides these, there was a transient increase in the % of the male rats responding to the right choice after chronic administration of 0.5 g/kg E. longifolia Jack, with more than 50% of the male rats scored right choice after 2 weeks post-treatment and the effect was more prominent at the dose of the observation period. However, there was no sexual enhancement of the middle aged male rats which consumed normal saline since only 45-55% of the male rats responded to right choice throughout the investigation period. Hence, this study shows that E. longifolia Jack enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats, further supports the folkuse of E. longifolia Jack as an aphrodisiac.

  13. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  14. Foot problems in middle-aged patients: keeping active people up to speed.

    PubMed

    Coady, C M; Gow, N; Stanish, W

    1998-05-01

    Most of the common foot problems that bother active middle-aged people are self-limiting and easily treated if detected early. Reviewed here are the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of hallux valgus and rigidus, lesser-toe deformities, corns, Morton's neuroma, metatarsal stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, posterior tibialis tenosynovitis and rupture, acquired pes planus, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and foot problems related to rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. In most cases, conservative treatment will enable patients to return to activity relatively quickly.

  15. Enhanced Impulsive Action Selection in Middle-Aged Adults—Insights From an Oculomotor Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Argaud, Soizic; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the age-related impact in cognitive action control. However, to our knowledge, none of the studies have focused on the effect of moderate age on the strength of automatic activation according to the activation-suppression model. We therefore investigated the effect of moderate age on cognitive action control using an oculomotor version of the Simon task and distributional analyses. A group of middle-aged (n = 39; 57 ± 9 years) healthy adults were compared to a group of young healthy participants (n = 43; 24 ± 3 years). We first analyzed the overall impact of age on the congruence effect and then used conditional accuracy functions (CAFs) and delta plots to assess the strength of automatic activation and selective inhibition, respectively. Compared to young participants, middle-aged participants showed a greater congruence effect as well as higher rates of fast errors in conflict situations indicating an enhanced impulsive action selection. Furthermore, the overall downward slope of the congruence effect’s evolution was significantly steeper in older participants and the last slope tended to be significantly steeper. This may indicate that the middle-aged participants exerted a stronger selective inhibition. Our results suggest that middle-aged adults are more prone to impulsive action selection than young adults. Recent theories postulate that older adults might implement compensatory mechanisms to supply cognitive difficulties. This is in line with our results suggesting a potential greater selective inhibition. Overall, this study proposes that moderate aging impacts both processes of impulsive response selection and suppression underlying cognitive action control. PMID:27826239

  16. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  17. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  18. Estradiol impairs response inhibition in young and middle-aged, but not old rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Victor C.; Neese, Steven L.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have a strong influence on such cognitive domains as spatial memory, response learning, and several tasks of executive function, including both working memory and attention. However, the effects of estrogens on inhibitory control and timing behavior, both important aspects of executive function, have received relatively little attention. We examined the effects of estradiol on inhibitory control and timing using a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. Ovariectomized young (3 month), middle-aged (12 month), and old (18 month) Long-Evans rats received 5% or 10% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol vehicle or cholesterol vehicle alone via Silastic implants and were tested on a DRL task requiring them to wait 15 seconds between lever presses to receive a food reinforcer. The ratio of reinforced to non-reinforced lever presses did not differ across age in the cholesterol vehicle group. Conversely, 17β-estradiol impaired learning of the DRL task in young and middle-aged rats, but the learning of old rats was not impaired relative to vehicle controls following either 5% or 10% 17β-estradiol treatment. Overall, old rats also made fewer lever presses than both the young and middle-aged rats. These results provide new evidence that estrogens impair inhibitory control, an important aspect of self regulation, and add to existing evidence that estrogens differentially affect cognition at different ages. PMID:21281713

  19. Origin of the cannula for tracheotomy during the middle ages and Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to trace the historical origin of the inserted cannula during tracheotomy. Tracheotomy is mentioned in most ancient medical texts, but the origin of cannula insertion into the windpipe is unclear. We reviewed the incunabula and Renaissance texts reporting the utilization of surgical cannulas and tracheotomy. The incunabula disclosed extended use of surgical cannulas during the middle ages and Renaissance. Although tracheotomy was advocated in acutely suffocating patients for a disease of the throat termed squinantia or angina, the first report of the procedure was found only at the end of the middle ages and a second during the middle Renaissance. The introduction of cannula use in tracheotomy was supported by a semantic misinterpretation by Antonio Musa Brasavola. The historical origin for tracheotomy in the middle ages and Renaissance is conflicting. Antonio Brasavola wrongly interpreted Avicenna's oral cannula introduced into the windpipe for angina. This misinterpretation allowed Giulio Casserio to draw the first curved cannula introduced for used during tracheotomy.

  20. ["Historia animalium" compared to "Gynaecia" in the literature of the Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Thomasen, A L

    1980-12-01

    In her essay the author pictures the dominating role of Aristotle's doctrines as compared with the more progressive scientific achievements of the Alexandrian school of medicine during the Middle Ages. One of the consequences of this dominance was an almost total neglect of the special health problems of women who were-in contrast with men and according to the Aristotelian tradition of the Middle Ages-considered to be defective human beings: a nearly uneradicable opinion far into later centuries. In addition it was not only in accordance with Christian doctrines but with religious and social conceptions and habits of the Arabic tradition as well. The progressive efforts of some reasonable medieval physicians to improve the deplorable position of women were incapable to break through the bulwark of cooperating misjudgments and prejudices. It took a lot of time-from Hippocrates to Galen and the Arabs-and many errors were made till the teachings of Soranos of Ephesos, the first great gynaecologist, began to gain ground since the late Middle Ages, when his treatment of women's diseases and obstetrical instructions slowly prevailed the speculative perceptions of Aristotle and his epigones.

  1. Help With “Strings Attached”: Offspring Perceptions That Middle-Aged Parents Offer Conflicted Support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide beneficial support to grown children. Yet, in some relationships, grown children may feel beholden or intruded upon when they receive parental help. The purpose of this study was to examine such conflicted support in relationships between middle-aged parents and young adults. Methods. Middle-aged parents (aged 40–60, n = 399) and their grown children (n = 592) participated. Parents rated perceptions of providing support and relationship quality with each child. Grown children indicated whether their mothers and fathers provided conflicted support and rated their perceptions of parental support, relationship quality, and other factors. Results. Multilevel models revealed that offspring’s perceptions of conflicted support were associated with (a) parents’ evaluations about providing support (e.g., greater stress and beliefs that grown children should be autonomous), (b) poorer quality relationships, and (c) offspring having more problems. Discussion. Findings suggest that perceptions of conflicted support are embedded in a larger constellation of relationship problems and underlying distress for parents and children. These patterns may reflect lifelong difficulties in the tie or that arise in adulthood. Researchers might seek to understand how dyads experiencing such conflicted support differ from more normative relationships characterized by warmth and well-received support. PMID:23707999

  2. Near-fatal Anorexia Nervosa in a Middle-aged Woman.

    PubMed

    Foppiani, Luca; Massobrio, Bruno; Cascio, Christian; Antonucci, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder which typically occurs in young women; however, more and more cases in middle-aged women are being reported. The management of this complex disease requires a team approach, and full recovery occurs only in 50% of patients. Endocrine and metabolic complications are commonly observed, the latter of which may even be life-threatening, and require prompt and proper management. Infections, albeit reported, are not usually a major clinical problem in these patients. We herein report the case of a severely malnourished middle-aged woman with long-standing AN who was hospitalized with marked hypokalaemia (1.5 mEq/L) and rhabdomyolysis; during hospitalization she developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which required urgent admission to the intensive care unit. She underwent sedation and tracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and was managed with combined therapies, which eventually led to a successful outcome. Life-threatening medical complications can occur not only in young women but in middle-aged women with AN as well and require a combined multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on libido in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng

    2002-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts on libido was examined in middle-aged male rats. The results showed that a high dose (800 mg/kg) of all E. longifolia Jack extracts significantly increased mount frequency (MF) (P < 0.05) over that of untreated controls, but had no effect on the frequency of intromission or ejaculation. Methanol, chloroform, water, and butanol fractions exhibited MF of 2.5 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.3, 2.5 +/- 0.1 and 2.6 +/- 0.2, respectively, in adult, middle-aged male rats, and retired breeders versus 2.3 +/- 0.1 in untreated controls. This translated to a minor increase in MF of 8.7%, 13.0%, 8.7%, and 13.0% for these fractions, respectively, during the 20-minute observation period. The results of this study show that E. longifolia Jack extracts can increase libido in middle-aged male rats.

  4. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  5. Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bensalem, Julien; Servant, Laure; Alfos, Serge; Gaudout, David; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Lafenetre, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline. PMID:26903826

  6. Near-fatal Anorexia Nervosa in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Foppiani, Luca; Massobrio, Bruno; Cascio, Christian; Antonucci, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder which typically occurs in young women; however, more and more cases in middle-aged women are being reported. The management of this complex disease requires a team approach, and full recovery occurs only in 50% of patients. Endocrine and metabolic complications are commonly observed, the latter of which may even be life-threatening, and require prompt and proper management. Infections, albeit reported, are not usually a major clinical problem in these patients. We herein report the case of a severely malnourished middle-aged woman with long-standing AN who was hospitalized with marked hypokalaemia (1.5 mEq/L) and rhabdomyolysis; during hospitalization she developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which required urgent admission to the intensive care unit. She underwent sedation and tracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and was managed with combined therapies, which eventually led to a successful outcome. Life-threatening medical complications can occur not only in young women but in middle-aged women with AN as well and require a combined multidisciplinary approach. PMID:28154278

  7. Brain activation changes during locomotion in middle-aged to older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Holtzer, Roee; Chaparro, Gioella; Jean, Kharine; Balto, Julia M; Sandroff, Brian M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Motl, Robert W

    2016-11-15

    Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks. Eight middle-aged to older adults with MS and eight healthy controls underwent fNIRS recording while performing the NW and WWT tasks with an fNIRS cap consisting of 16 optodes positioned over the forehead. The MS group had greater elevations in PFC oxygenation levels during WWT compared to NW than healthy controls. There was no walking performance difference between groups during locomotion. These findings suggest that middle-aged to older individuals with MS might be able to achieve similar levels of performance through the use of increased brain activation. This study is the first to investigate brain activation changes during the performance of simple and divided-attention locomotion tasks in MS using fNIRS.

  8. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p < 0.05). After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male exercise groups (p < 0.05); however, the male exercise groups increased TB-FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  9. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S.; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21–29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51–64 years old; and (3) Old: 65–84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups—an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of

  10. Bone mineral density obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Niino, N; Ando, F; Shimokata, H

    2000-04-01

    To clarify age-related changes in bone mineral density (BMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), 1,124 Japanese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling people were examined. The BMD of the trabecular bone was assessed at the distal part of the radius (D50), and the BMD of the cortical bone was assessed at the diaphysis of the radius (P100). P100 during age 40 to 49 was significantly higher in females (1359.6 +/- 10.7 mg/cm3, mean +/- SE) than in males (1253.5 +/- 9.5 mg/cm3), while there was no difference in D50, 245.3 +/- 5.1 mg/cm3 in females and 293.0 +/- 5.5 mg/cm3 in males. Females and males aged 50 to 59 lost 8.09 +/- 2.08 (mean +/- SE) mg/cm3 and 3.80 +/- 1.77 mg/cm3 of D50 every year, respectively. As for P100, females lost 25.1 +/- 4.48 mg/cm3, and males lost 6.37 +/- 3.89 mg/cm3 every year. Because of these gender differences, both D50 and P100 were significantly higher in males than in females aged 50 and over. Assuming that the average BMD between ages 40 and 44 was the maximum bone mineral density (BMD max), the percentage change from the BMD max with age was examined. Females aged 60 to 69 whose BMD were under 70% of the BMD max made up 73.9% in D50 and 23.2% in P100. Only 21.1% of males aged 60 to 69 showed less than 70% of the BMD max in D50 and only 3.8% in P100. The percentage decrease in BMD by age was larger in D50 than in P100 in both males and females. The individual difference in BMD was larger in D50 than in P100. These results suggest that pQCT may be useful to independently assess aging effects on cortical and trabecular bone density.

  11. Recent trends of cancer mortality in Romanian adults: mortality is still increasing, although young adults do better than the middle-aged and elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tereanu, Carmen; Baili, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Micheli, Andrea; Furtunescu, Florentina L; Minca, Dana G; Sant, Milena

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the mortality trends (1986-2009) for all cancers combined and selected cancers in adult Romanians by three age groups (15-49, 50-69 and older than 70 years of age) in comparison with 11 other European countries. We extracted mortality data from the WHO database and grouped the countries into four regions: central and eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary), Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands and Finland), and southern Europe (Croatia and Slovenia). Mortality rates were age-standardized against the standard European population. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified by Joinpoint regression and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated for periods with uniform trends. Cancer mortality in Romania was among the lowest in Europe in 1986, but was higher than most countries by 2009. Despite the declining mortality (APC) in younger Romanians for all cancers combined (men-1.5% from 1997, women-1.2% 1997-2004 and -3.8% 2004-2009), male lung cancer (-2.8% from 1997), female breast (-3.5% from 1999) and cervical (-5.4% from 2004) cancers, mortality has increased in middle-aged and elderly patients for most cancers analysed. The exception was declining stomach cancer mortality in most Romanians, except elderly men. For most cancers analysed, mortality declined in the Baltic countries in young and middle-aged patients, and in western and northern countries for all ages. Lung cancer mortality in women increased in all countries except Latvia. We urge immediate steps to reverse the alarming increase in cancer mortality among middle-aged and elderly Romanians.

  12. Reliability of 1-Repetition Maximum Estimation for Upper and Lower Body Muscular Strength Measurement in Untrained Middle Aged Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hameed, Unaise; Rangra, Prateek; Shareef, Mohd. Yakub; Hussain, Mohd. Ejaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) test is the gold standard test for evaluating maximal dynamic strength of groups of muscles. However, safety of actual 1-RM testing is questionable in clinical situations such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), where an estimated 1-RM test is preferred. It is unclear if acceptable test retest reliability exists for the estimated 1-RM test in middle aged T2D patients. This study examined the reliability of the estimated 1-RM strength test in untrained middle aged T2D subjects. Methods Twenty five untrained diabetic males (n=19) and females (n=6) aged 40.7+0.4 years participated in the study. Participants undertook the first estimated 1-RM test for five exercises namely supine bench press, leg press, lateral pull, leg extension and seated biceps curls. A familiarisation session was provided three to five days before the first test. 1-RM was estimated for all participants by Brzycki 1-RM prediction equation. Another identical 1-RM estimation procedure occurred one week after first test. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-test, standard error of measurement (SEM), Bland-Altman plots, and estimation of 95% CI were used to assess reliability. Results Test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC2,1=0.98-0.99) for all measurements with the highest for leg extension (ICC2,1=0.99). The SEM was lowest for lateral pull and leg extension exercises. Paired t-tests showed non-significant differences between the means of 2 sessions across three of five exercises. Conclusions The study findings suggest that estimation of 1-RM is reliable for upper and lower body muscular strength measurement in untrained middle aged T2D patients. PMID:23342225

  13. Hemispheric processing of differently valenced and self-relevant attachment words in middle-aged married and separated individuals.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Nicola J; Rowe, Angela C; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The reliance in experimental psychology on testing undergraduate populations with relatively little life experience, and/or ambiguously valenced stimuli with varying degrees of self-relevance, may have contributed to inconsistent findings in the literature on the valence hypothesis. To control for these potential limitations, the current study assessed lateralised lexical decisions for positive and negative attachment words in 40 middle-aged male and female participants. Self-relevance was manipulated in two ways: by testing currently married compared with previously married individuals and by assessing self-relevance ratings individually for each word. Results replicated a left hemisphere advantage for lexical decisions and a processing advantage of emotional over neutral words but did not support the valence hypothesis. Positive attachment words yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the right hemisphere, while emotional words (irrespective of valence) yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the left hemisphere. Both self-relevance manipulations were unrelated to lateralised performance. The role of participant sex and age in emotion processing are discussed as potential modulators of the present findings.

  14. Factor structure of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Forgays, D K; Spielberger, C D; Ottaway, S A; Forgays, D G

    1998-06-01

    Recently, Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger (in press) reported the first exploratory factor analysis of the total 44-item State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) by gender. The analyses were based on a sample of over 700 male and female university students and identified quite well six of the original STAXI scales and subscales. In addition, a seventh factor, "Feel-Like-Expressing-Anger," emerged for women. In the present study, we examined the STAXI responses from a middle-aged adult population. Exploratory factor analyses replicated the majority of the original structure of the STAXI measure including a Feel-Like-Expressing-Anger factor for men and women. In addition, we employed confirmatory factor analyses and cross-validation procedures to test the validity of Spielberger's (1988) AHA! model. Based on these procedures, we found (a) that a seven-factor model provided a better fit than a six-factor solution for each gender and (b) evidence of robust gender differences for two factors: Feel-Like-Expressing-Anger and State Anger. These gender differences are consistent with the social costs for anger expression in women and the social benefits for men.

  15. Developments in Serials: 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  16. [Correlation between body fat percentage and general obesity indexes in middle aged and old people in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Jiang, C Q; Zhang, W S; Cheng, J J; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Rao, S L; Zheng, H Q; Lam, D Q

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To examine the correlation between body fat percentage (BFP) and general obesity indexes, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) and calculate the corresponding BFP cutoff values in the middle aged and old people in Guangzhou. The corresponding cut-point of optimal body fat percentage for Guangzhou older population. Methods: Based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), 3 490 relatively healthy Guangzhou residents aged ≥50 years were selected and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The equations between BFP and BMI, WC, WHR were set up with Curve fitting analysis in one group. The multiple regression analysis was undertaken to establish predictive equations between BFP and BMI, WC, WHR with stepwise model for adding gender, age, physical activity, drinking and smoking. Then, the optimal cut-points of BFP corresponding to BMI, WC and WHR to reflect the degree of obesity were calculated. The equations were then validated with another group. Results: BFP increased with the increase of WHR, WC and BMI. BMI was a better predictor of body fat percentage than WC and WHR. The final regression equation was BFP=(-23.47 -8.87×sex) +2.94× (BMI) - 0.024 × (BMI)(2),the coefficient of determination was 0.805. Based on the equation, the BFP corresponding to overweight/obesity (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2)) were 24.3% ≤BFP<31.1% in men and 33.2%≤BFP<40.0% in women, respectively. BMI had a better consistency with BFP in identify obesity compared with WC and WHR, obtained the area of ROC 0.909 in men and 0.919 in women respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 70.3% and 85.5% in men; and 75.2% and 93.0% in women respectively. Conclusion: BFP has a better correlation with BMI. The study results indicated that BFP for middle aged and old males and females in Guangzhou corresponding to overweight/obesity (BMI≥24 kg/m(2)) were <24.0% and <33.0% respectively.

  17. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. Results: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China. PMID:27377948

  18. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  19. Glucose tolerance and lipid-lipoprotein levels in middle-aged powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Hurley, B F; Hagberg, J M; Seals, D R; Ehsani, A A; Goldberg, A P; Holloszy, J O

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of a form of strength training (powerlifting) on certain coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in middle-aged men. The risk factors studied were the plasma lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels, all of which have been shown to be favourably influenced by endurance training in middle-aged and older men. Five elite powerlifters (52 +/- 9 years) were compared to distance runners and sedentary controls of similar age with whom they were matched in terms of body fatness as estimated from skin-fold thickness measurements. The powerlifters had a significantly (P less than 0.01) lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level (34 +/- 4 mg/100 ml) than the sedentary controls (48 +/- 12 mg/100 ml) and runners (54 +/- 8 mg/100 ml). The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, a good indicator of CAD risk, was 41% higher in the powerlifters than in the controls, and 57% higher than in the runners (both P less than 0.01). The total area under the glucose tolerance curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the powerlifters was 74% higher than for the sedentary controls (P less than 0.05) and 229% higher than for runners (P less than 0.01). Similarly, the total area under the OGTT insulin curve for the powerlifters was 68% higher than for sedentary controls and 332% higher than for the runners (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that middle-aged powerlifters, in marked contrast to endurance athletes, have an increased risk of developing CAD.

  20. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  1. Gamma ray emission from middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2016-06-01

    Gamma ray emission from several middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) has been detected in space-based GeV observations and ground-based TeV observations. The characteristic pion-decay signature identified in spectra of the remnants IC443 and W44 provides strong evidence for cosmic ray (CR) proton acceleration in SNRs. Multi-wavelength observations further reveal a spatial correlation between the molecular cloud (MC) interaction region and the gamma ray emitting region. Radio emission, however, was found not to be well-correlated with the high energy emission. Based on observed MC associations, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission from these middle aged SNRs. In one, accelerated CR particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and molecular clumps. Here I present a new model of the direct interaction type that involves the collision between MC clumps and a radiative SNR. The model can explain the discrepancy between radio and gamma ray emission morphology. The gamma ray spectra from these middle aged SNRs show steeping from GeV to TeV energies that is believed to be due to the limited acceleration time of CR particles. However, the spectral shape cannot be fitted by a simple exponential profile. We derive a time dependent solution for diffusive shock acceleration in the test particle limit and show that it is capable of explaining the observed spectral steepening at high energy.

  2. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Grønbæk, Morten; O’Reilly, Eilis; Bälter, Katarina; Goldbourt, Uri; Hallmans, Göran; Knekt, Paul; Liu, Simin; Pereira, Mark; Pietinen, Pirjo; Spiegelman, Donna; Stevens, June; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. CHD Incidence is low in men younger than 40 and in women younger than 50 years and for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate effects of alcohol on CHD risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD depends on age. Methods and results A pooled analysis of eight prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline. Average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups: hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0–29.9 g/day) aged 39–50, 50–59, and 60+ years were 0.58 (95% C.I. 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.60–0.86), and 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference (IRD) between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (IRD=45 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 8 to 84), than in middle-aged (IRD=64 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 24 to 102) and older adults (IRD=89 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 44 to 140). Similar results were observed in women. Conclusions Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of CHD in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. PMID:20351238

  3. Soil carbon stock increases in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Mäkipää, R.

    2011-02-01

    Changes in the soil carbon stock can potentially have a large influence on global carbon balance between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Since carbon sequestration of forest soils is influenced by human activities, reporting of the soil carbon pool is a compulsory part of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Various soil carbon models are applied in GHG inventories, however, the verification of model-based estimates is lacking. In general, the soil carbon models predict accumulation of soil carbon in the middle-aged stands, which is in good agreement with chronosequence studies and flux measurements of eddy sites, but they have not been widely tested with repeated measurements of permanent plots. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon changes in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged forest stands. Soil carbon changes on re-measured sites were analyzed by using soil survey data that was based on composite samples as a first measurement and by taking into account spatial variation on the basis of the second measurement. By utilizing earlier soil surveys, a long sampling interval, which helps detection of slow changes, could be readily available. The range of measured change in the soil organic layer varied from -260 to 1260 g m-2 over the study period of 16-19 years and 23 ± 2 g m-2 per year, on average. The increase was significant in 6 out of the 38 plots from which data were available. Although the soil carbon change was difficult to detect at the plot scale, the overall increase measured across the middle-aged stands agrees with predictions of the commonly applied soil models. Further verification of the soil models is needed with larger datasets that cover wider geographical area and represent all age classes, especially young stands with potentially large soil carbon source.

  4. Soil carbon stock increases in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Mäkipää, R.

    2011-05-01

    Changes in the soil carbon stock can potentially have a large influence on global carbon balance between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Since carbon sequestration of forest soils is influenced by human activities, reporting of the soil carbon pool is a compulsory part of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Various soil carbon models are applied in GHG inventories, however, the verification of model-based estimates is lacking. In general, the soil carbon models predict accumulation of soil carbon in the middle-aged stands, which is in good agreement with chronosequence studies and flux measurements of eddy sites, but they have not been widely tested with repeated measurements of permanent plots. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon changes in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged forest stands. Soil carbon changes on re-measured sites were analyzed by using soil survey data that was based on composite samples as a first measurement and by taking into account spatial variation on the basis of the second measurement. By utilizing earlier soil surveys, a long sampling interval, which helps detection of slow changes, could be readily available. The range of measured change in the soil organic layer varied from -260 to 1260 g m-2 over the study period of 16-19 years and 23 ± 2 g m-2 per year, on average. The increase was significant in 6 out of the 38 plots from which data were available. Although the soil carbon change was difficult to detect at the plot scale, the overall increase measured across the middle-aged stands agrees with predictions of the commonly applied soil models. Further verification of the soil models is needed with larger datasets that cover wider geographical area and represent all age classes, especially young stands with potentially large soil carbon source.

  5. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  6. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  7. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood.

  8. Effects of a 4 month enriched environment on the hippocampus and the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Lin; Xiu, Yun; Yang, Jun-Qing; Tang, Yong

    2012-07-17

    An enriched environment has been shown to enhance learning and memory and to induce morphological changes in the hippocampus. In the present study, 14-month (middle-aged) female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into enriched environment (EE) rats and standard environment (SE) rats. EE rats were reared in an enriched environment and SE rats were reared in a standard environment for 4 months. The spatial learning capacity was assessed with Morris water maze. The hippocampus and the myelinated fibers in the rat hippocampus were quantitatively investigated with a transmission electronic microscope technique and stereological methods. The female rats housed in an enriched environment showed improved performance in the Morris water maze. There was no significant difference in the total volume of hippocampus between SE rats and EE rats. The total length and total volume of the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of the female and male EE rats were significantly increased, respectively, when compared to the female and male SE rats. The increase of the total length of the myelinated nerve fibers in the hippocampus was mainly due to the increase of the myelinated fibers with diameters from 0.5 to 0.9 μm. Our results showed that a 4 month enriched environment had significant effects on the spatial learning capacity and the myelinated fibers in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. The present study might provide an important theoretical basis for searching for an ethological strategy to delay the progress of brain aging in the future.

  9. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  10. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  11. Plenty of action left in northern Europe's middle-aged offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.J.

    1994-08-15

    Northern Europe's offshore oil industry this year has begun to reveal several symptoms generally associated with middle age. Though in its prime in terms of oil production, North Sea industry has begun a dramatic slimming program. It has started a search for fresh experiences, and it has begun to revisit the big successes of its youth. The paper cites examples demonstrating these trends. The paper then discusses production, outlook for exploration, trends in the United Kingdom, development advances in the natural gas industry, exploration activities, and redevelopment projects.

  12. Exploring the dynamics of middle-aged and older adult residents' perceptions of neighborhood safety.

    PubMed

    Pitner, Ronald O; Yu, Mansoo; Brown, Edna

    2011-07-01

    This study examined what variables best predict concerns about neighborhood safety among middle-aged and older adults. Eighty-five participants were selected from a Midwestern urban area. Participants completed a 22-item questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of neighborhood safety and vigilance. These items were clustered as: (a) community care and vigilance, (b) safety concerns, (c) physical incivilities, and (d) social incivilities. Police crime data were also used in the analyses. Our findings suggest that aspects of the broken window theory, collective efficacy, and place attachments play a role in affecting residents' perceptions of neighborhood safety.

  13. Cumulative systolic blood pressure exposure in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly adults: A prospective, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zhijun; Cao, Yibin; Li, Haitao; Song, Lu; Li, Chunhui; Zhao, Hualing; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling

    2016-11-01

    The association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cognitive function is controversial in elderly adults. In addition, few studies focused on the cumulative effect of SBP. We aimed to investigate the association between cumulative SBP exposure and cognitive function among middle-aged and elderly adults.The analysis was based on the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study. The primary predictor was the cumulative SBP calculated by consecutive SBP values measured through baseline (2006-2007) up to the fourth examination (2012-2013). The cognitive function was estimated by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in the fourth examination. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between cumulative SBP and cognitive function.Among 2211 participants (41.4% female, aged 40-94 years), 167 (7.55%) were diagnosed with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24). Higher cumulative exposure to SBP (per SD increment) was independently associated with poor cognitive performance after controlling for multiple factors (P < 0.001). We observed nondifferential association between men and women. However, higher cumulative SBP in the adults aged ≥60 years had a stronger association with poor cognitive performance compared with that in adults aged 40 to 60 years.Greater exposure to cumulative SBP is associated with worse cognitive performance among middle-aged and elderly adults. This association is similar between men and women, but stronger in elderly adults.

  14. Height and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies reported that height was inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the association between height and hypertension was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between height and blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. A total of 33,197 participants aged 37 to 94 years were recruited from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study in Hubei province, China. All participants completed baseline questionnaires, medical examinations and provided blood samples. Hypertension was define as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 140 mmHg or/and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 90 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication, or participants with self-reported physician diagnosis of hypertension. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of hypertension was 69.1% for men and 58.0% for women. Pulse pressure (PP) and SBP, but not DBP decreased linearly with increasing height among men and women. Comparing the highest with the shortest quartile of height, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.71, 0.91) for men and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for women. In conclusion, height was associated with reduced SBP, PP and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. PMID:28000763

  15. Health promotion behavior in middle-aged Koreans: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Baek, Sunsook; Kim, Heejeong

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to verify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support as characteristics of health promotion behavior in middle-aged Koreans, and the influence of social support on self-efficacy and self-esteem with respect to health promotion behavior. Data were collected from 310 subjects in South Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. We found a significant finding that self-efficacy positively influences health promotion behavior, focusing on the moderating effect of social support. Self-efficacy affected health promotion behavior (P < 0.01) as did social support. Mean self-efficacy, self-esteem, health promotion behavior, and social support scores were 50.27, 29.35, 124.39, and 76.51, respectively. This finding provides strong evidence that social support can be used as a model to understand health promotion behavior. Individualized nursing interventions based on social support and self-efficacy theory should be utilized in high-risk middle-aged patients so as to assist and improve health promotion behavior. Also, in community practice settings, nurses should consider that increased social support and self-efficacy are required to improve health promotion behaviors.

  16. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth.

  17. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  18. Enhanced Dopamine Transporter Activity in Middle-Aged Gdnf Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Littrell, Ofelia M.; Pomerleau, Francois; Huettl, Peter; Surgener, Stewart; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Boger, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) supports the viability of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Middle aged, 12-month-old, Gdnf heterozygous (Gdnf+/−) mice have diminished spontaneous locomotor activity and enhanced synaptosomal DA uptake compared to wildtype mice. In this study, dopamine transporter (DAT) function in middle-aged, 12-month-old Gdnf+/− mice was more thoroughly investigated using in vivo electrochemistry. Gdnf+/− mice injected with the DAT inhibitor, nomifensine, exhibited significantly more locomotor activity than wildtype mice. In vivo electrochemistry with carbon fiber microelectrodes demonstrated enhanced clearance of DA in the striatum of Gdnf+/− mice, suggesting greater surface expression of DAT than in wildtype littermates. Additionally, 12 month old Gdnf+/− mice expressed greater D2 receptor mRNA and protein in the striatum than wildtype mice. Neurochemical analyses of striatal tissue samples indicated significant reductions in DA and a faster DA metabolic rate in Gdnf+/− mice than in wildtype mice. Altogether, these data support an important role for GDNF in the regulation of uptake, synthesis, and metabolism of DA during aging. PMID:21144620

  19. Insomnia is Associated with Suicide Attempt in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Szanto, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia increases in prevalence with age, is strongly associated with depression, and has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether insomnia severity varies between those who have attempted suicide (n = 72), those who only contemplate suicide (n = 28), and those who are depressed but have no suicidal ideation or attempt history (n = 35). Methods Participants were middle-aged and older adults (Age 44–87, M = 66 years) with depression. Insomnia severity was measured as the sum of the early, middle, and late insomnia items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. General linear models examined relations between group status as the independent variable and insomnia severity as the dependent variable. Results The suicide attempt group suffered from more severe insomnia than the suicidal ideation and non-suicidal depressed groups (p < .05). Differences remained after adjusting for potential confounders including demographics, cognitive ability, alcohol dependence in the past month, severity of depressed mood, anxiety, and physical health burden. Moreover, greater insomnia severity in the suicide attempt group could not be explained by interpersonal difficulties, executive functioning, benzodiazepine use, or by the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion Our results suggest that insomnia may be more strongly associated with suicidal behavior than with the presence of suicidal thoughts alone. Accordingly, insomnia is a potential treatment target for reducing suicide risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26552935

  20. Short communication: dairy consumption among middle-aged and elderly adults in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Magali; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Schmid, Alexandra; Stoffers, Helena; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Walther, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Different studies have shown that people are aware of the benefits of dairy products, but a sizeable part of the world's population still does not consume the recommended amount of dairy produce. The aims of the present research were to determine which dairy products are consumed by the middle-aged and elderly (50-81yr old) living in Switzerland and to explore why some of this population segment are actually reducing their consumption of dairy products. On average, older Swiss adults consumed 2.6 portions of dairy products per day, which is slightly less than the recommended 3 to 4 portions a day. Additionally, about one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they have reduced their milk or dairy consumption. The main reasons given for this decision were to reduce fat or cholesterol. A reported difficulty in digesting some dairy products may be a further reason for limiting dairy intake, particularly cheese. It follows that a need for the propagation of appropriate nutritional information about dairy products to the middle-aged and elderly exists.

  1. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A; McGue, M; Mors, O; Børglum, A D; Christensen, K; Nyegaard, M; Christiansen, L

    2017-02-01

    The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals. In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation was confirmed in unpaired analyses, where DNAmAge initially correlated with cognitive abilities, until adjusting for chronological age. Overall, our study shows that for middle-aged individuals DNAmAge calculated in blood does not correlate with cognitive abilities.

  2. Cynical hostility, anger expression style, and acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Eto, Yumi; Yamada, Kosuke C; Nakano, Masako; Yamada, Haruyo; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Takenori; Nomura, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    Studies using American and European populations have demonstrated that high levels of anger/ hostility are predictive of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. However, Japanese studies did not show consistent relationship between anger/hostility and CHD. This study examines the association of cynical hostility and anger expression style with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in middle-aged Japanese men through a case-control study. The patients with acute myocardial infarction (N = 96, mean age = 50.8 years) and the healthy participants in a health check-up program (N = 77, mean age = 50.3 years) were studied. Both groups completed the Cynicism Questionnaire (CQ) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). The patients exhibited higher scores on CQ than the healthy controls. Logistic regression analyses controlling for biological risk factors revealed that the CQ score was associated with increased risk of AMI (OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.00-1.22]). In addition, the score of Anger-control, a subscale of STAXI, was associated with decreased risk of AMI (OR = 0.75 [95% CI 0.62-0.92]). These results indicated that higher levels of cynical hostility increased the risk of AMI and that anger-control strategies could have some benefit in reducing the risk of AMI in middle-aged Japanese men.

  3. Correlates of cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, J R; Folsom, A R; Mortimer, J A; Shahar, E; Knopman, D S; McGovern, P G; Hays, M A; Crum, L D; Heiss, G

    1998-01-01

    The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990-1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women than in men, and better in managers/professionals compared with other occupations. After controlling for these factors, race and community, the findings most consistent for both sexes were that Delayed Word Recall was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, diabetes, and fibrinogen level; the Digit Symbol Subtest was associated with marital status, negatively associated with depressive symptoms, smoking status, fibrinogen level, and carotid intima-media thickness, and positively associated with alcohol drinking and FEV1; and the Word Fluency test was positively associated with marital status, alcohol drinking, sports participation, and FEV1. Most of these cross-sectional results were in the predicted direction and have biologic plausibility, but mean differences between extreme categories were small (generally on the order of 0.1 to 0.2 of a standard deviation). Longitudinal study is warranted to evaluate whether small differences in middle-age lead to larger, clinically meaningful deficits with aging.

  4. Joint dysfunction and functional decline in middle age myostatin null mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Miller, Andrew D; Pencina, Karol; Wong, Siu; Lee, Amanda; Yee, Michael; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jasuja, Ravi; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-02-01

    Since its discovery as a potent inhibitor for muscle development, myostatin has been actively pursued as a drug target for age- and disease-related muscle loss. However, potential adverse effects of long-term myostatin deficiency have not been thoroughly investigated. We report herein that male myostatin null mice (mstn(-/-)), in spite of their greater muscle mass compared to wild-type (wt) mice, displayed more significant functional decline from young (3-6months) to middle age (12-15months) than age-matched wt mice, measured as gripping strength and treadmill endurance. Mstn(-/-) mice displayed markedly restricted ankle mobility and degenerative changes of the ankle joints, including disorganization of bone, tendon and peri-articular connective tissue, as well as synovial thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Messenger RNA expression of several pro-osteogenic genes was higher in the Achilles tendon-bone insertion in mstn(-/-) mice than wt mice, even at the neonatal age. At middle age, higher plasma concentrations of growth factors characteristic of excessive bone remodeling were found in mstn(-/-) mice than wt controls. These data collectively indicate that myostatin may play an important role in maintaining ankle and wrist joint health, possibly through negative regulation of the pro-osteogenic WNT/BMP pathway.

  5. Hypertension-related alterations in white matter microstructure detectable in middle age.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Because hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age, it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (n=316; mean, 61.8 years; range, 56.7-65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in 9 tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with long-standing hypertension (>5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than among noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for 2 tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention-rather than management-of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging.

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  7. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katyoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. The relationship between FMD and task-related brain activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using hierarchical linear regression. Brachial FMD, was significantly related to reduced working memory-related activation in the right superior parietal lobule (β=0.338, p=0.027), independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and full scale IQ (F(5,36)=2.66, p=0.038). These data provide preliminary support for the association between a preclinical marker of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic alterations in healthy middle-aged adults. Considering the modifiable nature of endothelial function, additional investigations on the prognostic significance of FMD on future cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:20493622

  8. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  9. fMRI subsequent source memory effects in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to remember the spatial context in which our experiences occur declines linearly across the adult lifespan. However, little is known about whether this source memory decline is associated with neural activity changes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were recorded in young, middle-aged and old adults to investigate brain activity variations across the adult lifespan during encoding of subsequent spatial source memory retrieval. Twelve healthy individuals of both sexes were enrolled in each age group. During encoding, participants performed natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. During retrieval, the images presented at encoding were randomly mixed with new ones and displayed at the center of the screen. Participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if an image was old, they were instructed to indicate in which quadrant the image was presented in the encoding session. The contrast between study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment with those whose sources were subsequently forgotten revealed that positive subsequent memory effects disappear by middle age in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and appear in the left superior occipital gyrus. This under-recruitment and over-recruitment brain activity was also present in old adults. The results allowed us to identify the specific brain regions that first fail to encode spatial information into an episodic representation during the adult lifespan.

  10. Influence of amyloid and APOE on cognitive performance in a late middle-aged cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Machulda, Mary M.; Hagen, Clinton E.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J.; Kremers, Walter K.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Few studies have examined the effects of amyloid and APOE genotype on cognition among middle-aged individuals. METHODS We included 464 cognitively normal, test-naïve, participants with PiB-PET amyloid imaging, mean age of 62.7 (range 51–71 years), enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Participants completed multiple cognitive assessments, including a standard neuropsychological battery and the CogState computerized battery, over 30 months of follow-up. Linear mixed models were used to examine the effects of amyloid and APOE genotype on baseline cognition and cognitive decline. RESULTS Elevated amyloid was not associated with tests of episodic memory, but did predict declines on tests of executive function. APOE genotype was not associated with cognition. Among APOE ε4 non-carriers, higher amyloid was predictive of decline on tests of executive function and on one episodic memory test. DISCUSSION Elevated amyloidosis and APOE genotype does not appear to exert a dramatic influence on cognition in middle-age. PMID:26602629

  11. Thermal properties of the middle-aged pulsar J1741–2054

    SciTech Connect

    Karpova, A.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.; Shternin, P.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-10

    We present results of the spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the middle-aged Fermi pulsar J1741–2054 using all Chandra archival data collected in 2010 and 2013. We confirm early findings by Romani et al. in 2010 that the pulsar spectrum contains a thermal emission component. The component is best described by the blackbody model with temperature ≈60 eV and emitting area radius ≈17 D{sub kpc} km. The thermal emission likely originates from the entire surface of the cooling neutron star if the distance to the pulsar is ≈0.8 kpc. The latter is supported by a large absorbing column density inferred from the X-ray fit and empirical optical extinction-distance relations along the pulsar line of sight. The neutron star surface temperature and characteristic age make it similar to the well studied middle-aged pulsar B1055–52. Like this pulsar, PSR J1741–2054 is hotter than predicted by the standard cooling scenario.

  12. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  13. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  14. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  15. Association Between Hemodiafiltration and Hypoalbuminemia in Middle-Age Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of hemodiafiltration (HDF) is well known. One of the disadvantages of HDF is loss of serum albumin, but this issue is still obscure. Some risk factors associated with mortality were age dependent. Studies on serum albumin/hypoalbuminemia and HDF in different age stratification were limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of HDF and other clinical variables on serum albumin values in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of different age groups. We recruited a total of 1216 patients on MHD. Patients were divided into 4 groups by age stratification of youth (<30 years old), young-middle age (30–44 years old), middle age (45–64 years old), and old age (≥65  years old). Biochemical, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory parameters, and receiving HDF or not were recorded. The associations between age groups, HDF, and variables mentioned above were analyzed. Only in middle-age group, patients with HDF was significantly (P = 0.013) associated with serum albumin <4 g/dL. In middle-age group, a multivariate-forward logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (2.169 [1.029, 4.574], P = 0.042), inflammation (4.167 [2.043, 8.498], P < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (2.92 [1.019, 8.402], P = 0.046), serum creatinine level (0.639 [0.538, 0.758], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.984 [0.975, 0.993], P = 0.001) were associated with serum albumin level <3.6 g/dL. Hepatitis C virus infection (1.911 [1.186, 3.077], P = 0.008), HDF (2.143 [1.298, 3.540], P = 0.003), inflammation (2.309 [1.549, 3.440], P < 0.001), use of arterio-venous fistula (0.518 [0.327, 0.820], P = 0.005), Kt/V (0.395 [0.193, 0.809], P = 0.011), nonanuria (0.542 [0.337, 0.870], P = 0.011), serum creatinine level (0.744 [0.669, 0.828], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.993 [0.987, 0.998], P = 0.013) were associated with serum albumin level <4 g/dL. HDF can predict serum

  16. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Chan, Jessie S.M.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Ma, Ada W.W.; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners. Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively. VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P < 0.001), a 60.8% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of knee flexors (P < 0.001), and a 31.4% shorter time to reach peak torque in the knee flexors (P = 0.001) than the active controls. No significant differences were found in any of the other musculoskeletal outcomes between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults. PMID:28121945

  17. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  18. Carotenoid consumption is related to lower lipid oxidation and DNA damage in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, P G; Natali, A J; Alfenas, R C G; de Oliveira, A; dos Santos, E C; Hermsdorff, H H M

    2015-07-01

    The present cross-sectional study assessed the potential relationships of carotenoid intake with lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men. A total of 296 apparently healthy middle-aged men (mean age 50.5 (SD 5.0) years, BMI 25.8 (SD 3.5) kg/m(2)) were recruited to participate in the study. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, blood and urine biomarkers were assessed using validated procedures. The lipid markers included NEFA, Castelli index, and TAG:HDL ratio; oxidative stress markers included urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-PGF2α and plasma oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL). We observed a significant inverse association (P < 0.05) between NEFA concentrations and consumption of lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene, α-carotene and total carotenoid, while Castelli index was negatively associated with daily intake of lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids. Regarding oxidative stress biomarkers, urinary 8-OHdG and ox-LDL concentrations were also inversely associated (P < 0.05) with consumption of lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene, α-carotene and total carotenoids, regardless of confounding variables. Moreover, there was a negative association of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with dietary lutein plus zeaxanthin (β - 0.135, 95% CI - 0.268, - 0.001), β-carotene (β - 0.156, 95% CI - 0.277, - 0.034) and with the sum of all carotenoids (β - 0.189, 95% CI - 0.333, - 0.046). In conclusion, total daily carotenoid intake based on five investigated carotenoid types (β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-carotene) was inversely associated with relevant lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with emphasis on β-carotene that was negatively associated with five of the six lipid and oxidative stress markers evaluated in the present study.

  19. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  20. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  1. Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r′ was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI

  2. Effect of long-term administration of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris on testicular function in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Su-Chan; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, Il-Woung; Ye, Michael B; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out to examine the potential beneficial effect of cordycepin on the decline of testicular function induced with age. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats (twenty-four 12-month-olds and six 2-month-olds) were divided into five groups. The young control (YC) and middle-aged control (MC) groups received vehicle only. Cordycepin-treated groups were administered daily doses of oral cordycepin at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 months. As a result, the MC group exhibited epididymal weight loss, decreased sperm motility, and reduced spermatogenesis compared to the young control group. Interestingly, the epididymal weights of middle-aged rats were dose-dependently increased by treatment with cordycepin. Cordycepin also improved calcium levels and decreased urea and nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine in the blood of middle-aged rats. In addition, cordycepin significantly increased sperm motility and the progressiveness of sperm movement. All cordycepin-treated groups showed well-arranged spermatogonia, densely packed cellular material, and increased numbers of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous lumen compared to the middle-aged control group. These results indicate that long-term administration of cordycepin can counteract the decline of testicular function in middle-aged rats.

  3. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  4. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition. PMID:26156334

  5. [European paintings entitled "Jesus Christ as Pharmacist" in the Middle Ages and later].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-eight pictures painted in the Middle Ages and later entitled "Christ as Pharmacist" are shown in a little German book (W. H. Hein, Christus als Apotheker, Govi-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1974). In the three paintings shown here, Christ appears as a pharmacist standing behind a pharmacy table used to compound medicine, and he has a medicinal balance in his left hand. The Christian terms, such as faith, love, and hope, and the drug's name are written on each of the drug vase labels. It seems that the purpose of displaying these paintings in a pharmacy was both to propagate Christianity to the poor who bought medicine at their family pharmacy and to win their respect for the pharmacist.

  6. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  7. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  8. [Effect of alcohol intake on dietary habits and obesity in Japanese middle-aged men].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Hirai, Y; Fujiura, Y; Imaizumi, T

    2000-10-01

    The amount of alcohol intake has been increasing in Japan. We investigated whether this might affect dietary habits in middle-aged men. In 1989, we conducted a health examination of 809 Japanese males aged 40-69. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. Mean values of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were evaluated according to alcohol intake. Consumption of total calories and proteins, especially animal proteins, increased and carbohydrate intake decreased proportionately with the amount of alcohol intake. Meat, fish, and soybean intake were increased in heavy drinker, along with niacin, sodium, and phosphorus intake. Despite their higher caloric intake, moderate and heavy drinkers were not more obese than non- or light-drinkers. Japanese heavy drinkers took more animal protein and sodium instead of carbohydrate compared to non- and light- drinkers. In our series, heavy drinking was not related to obesity.

  9. Physical therapy management of knee osteoarthritis in the middle-aged athlete.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas; Band-Entrup, Debra; Kuhn, Scott; Legere, Lucas; Mace, Kimberly; Paggi, Adam; Penney, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent in today's population, including the athletic and recreationally active "middle-aged" population. OA is a degenerative condition of the articular/hyaline cartilage of synovial joints and commonly affects the knee joint. In general, athletic participation does not specifically influence a higher incidence of knee OA in this population; however, traumatic injury to the knee joint poses a definitive risk in developing early-onset OA. The purpose of this article is to review evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions for the conservative management of knee OA. Manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, patient education, and weight management are strongly supported in the literature for conservative treatment of knee OA. Modalities [thermal, electrical stimulation (ES), and low-level laser therapy (LLLT)] and orthotic intervention are moderately supported in the literature as indicated management strategies for knee OA. While many strongly supported conservative interventions have been published, additional research is needed to determine the most effective approach in treating knee OA.

  10. Visceral predictors of cardiovascular deconditioning in late middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; De Roshia, C.; Natelson, B. H.; Levin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of visceral and behavioral factors connected with cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated, in order to identify a method for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance to spaceflight in several late-middle-aged men (55-65 years). Preliminary measurements were made of: mean arterial blood pressure plasma cortisol levels; and norepinephrine levels. Measurements of core temperature; plasma epinephrine level and subjective arousal from sleep were also obtained. Pairwise correlations were found for each of the variables and the time-to-blackout due centrifugal acceleration of up to +3 Gz. It is shown that the men with relatively low resting blood pressure were at greater risk of developing the clinical signs of cardiovascular deconditioning than were the men with higher basal blood pressure. Some applications of the experimental results to the development of selection criteria for Shuttle crews are discussed.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cortisol Regulation Across Days and Contexts in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is an indicator of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responsivity to stress, but few twin studies have examined the heritability of cortisol concentrations in adults across the diurnal cycle and in different contexts. Saliva samples were provided by 783 middle-aged male twins on one laboratory and two home days as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Significant cortisol heritability estimates were found for laboratory measures only: awakening (.56); 30 min after awakening (.48); 1000 h (.42); mean output across the day (.43); and mean cortisol awakening response (.64). Twin correlations at home were low. In the laboratory, they were unchanged for fraternal twins, but increased for identical twins. Greater measurement error at home did not appear to account for home-laboratory differences. The results suggest that genetic factors influence cortisol responses to specific environmental stressors. Thus, cortisol levels are correlated in identical twins only when they undergo similar experiences. PMID:20238238

  12. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Riby, Leigh M; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah M; Graham, Cheryl

    2008-11-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addition, risk factors associated with the development of poor glucose regulation in middle-aged adults were considered. In a repeated measures design, thirty-three middle-aged adults (aged 35-55 years) performed a battery of memory and non-memory tasks after either 25 g or 50 g glucose or a sweetness matched placebo drink. To assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken on four occasions during testing. A lifestyle and diet questionnaire was also administered. Consistent with previous research, episodic memory ability benefited from glucose ingestion when task demands were high. Blood glucose concentration was also found to predict performance across a number of cognitive domains. Interestingly, the risk factors associated with poor glucose regulation were linked to dietary impacts traditionally associated with poor health, e.g. the consumption of high-sugar sweets and drinks. The research replicates earlier work suggesting that task demands are critical to the glucose facilitation effect. Importantly, the data demonstrate clear associations between elevated glycaemia and relatively poor cognitive performance, which may be partly due to the effect of dietary and lifestyle factors.

  13. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  14. Childhood immunization and atopic disease into middle-age--a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Melanie C; Haydn Walters, E; Burgess, John A; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2010-03-01

    The association between childhood immunizations and risk of atopic diseases is unclear. No study has examined possible associations between childhood immunizations and such diseases in middle age. The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) is a population based cohort study of respiratory disease. The TAHS participants were followed from 7 to 44 yrs of age. Immunizations during childhood were examined for any association with asthma and atopic disease at age 44 yrs. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate relative risks while adjusting for confounders. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between childhood immunizations and asthma developing after the age of 7 yrs. We found no association between any childhood immunization (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Smallpox) and asthma (ORs ranged from 0.87 to 1.17 p > 0.05), eczema (ORs ranged from 0.99 to 1.07 p > 0.05), food allergy (ORs ranged from 0.97 to 1.11 p > 0.05), or hay fever (ORs ranged from 1.02 to 1.05 p > 0.05) at age 44. Nor did we find any association between childhood immunizations and an increased risk of incident asthma after the age of 7 yrs (Diphtheria HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.82, 1.36; Tetanus HR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.88, 1.44; Pertussis HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81, 1.30; Polio HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.86, 1.54; Smallpox HR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.99, 1.48; DTP HR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.85, 1.30). Our analysis does not support any association between common childhood immunizations and risk of asthma and atopic disease in middle-age. Our findings should provide reassurance that in terms of life time risk of asthma and atopic disease, childhood immunization is safe.

  15. Epidemiology of Kienböck's disease in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Maeda, Junichiro; Abe, Yasuyo; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Kaida, Eiji; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been done on the prevalence of Kienböck's disease, and there is no consensus on the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Kienböck's disease in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women and to clarify the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The authors analyzed plain radiographs of both hands in women 40 years and older residing in the community to investigate the prevalence of Kienböck's disease and the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. Kienböck's disease was seen in 7 of the 572 participants. In the group with Kienböck's disease, ulnar variance did not differ significantly between affected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.5) and unaffected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.0; P=.285) sides. No significant difference was seen in ulnar variance values between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (P=.118). The number or proportion of participants with negative ulnar variance did not differ significantly between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (3 of 7) and the unaffected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (1 of 7; P=.237) and between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (111 of 504; P=.189) by chi-square test. The prevalence of Kienböck's disease was 1.2% in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Negative ulnar variance is not a contributing factor to Kienböck's disease.

  16. Overweight and obesity in young and middle age and early retirement: the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between weight status in young and middle age and early retirement in African-American and white men and women. Data were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Analyses were restricted to participants aged 45-55 years at baseline (n = 6,483). Associations between weight status at age 25 and ages 45-55 and age at early retirement (prior to age 65) over 9 years of follow-up were examined using proportional hazard regression analyses in models stratified by race and gender. Models were adjusted for education, household income, health insurance status, occupation, occupational physical activity, marital status, smoking, and field center. Between 18.7 and 21.6% of African-American and white men and women reported retiring prior to age 65. Although not always statistically significant, overweight and obesity were associated with early retirement in all but white women. Overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) at age 25 was significantly associated with early retirement in African-American women (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.62 (1.17-2.23)) and white men (1.32 (1.12-1.57)). There was also a trend between overweight at age 25 and early retirement in African-American men (1.43 (0.99-2.07)). Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) in middle age was significantly associated with early retirement in white men only (1.32 (1.03-1.69)). Furthermore, overweight at age 25 and obesity at ages 45-55 were associated with early retirement for health reasons among African-American and white men and women. In conclusion, analyses of the economic impact of obesity may need to consider its effects on early retirement.

  17. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    SciTech Connect

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-03-05

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO/sub 2/ max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O/sub 2//kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from /sup 15/N in urea after oral /sup 15/N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 ..mu..mol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 ..mu..mol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass.

  18. Differentiating selves: middle-aged gay men in Manchester's less visible 'homospaces'.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Scholarship on gay bars/'villages' has overshadowed study of 'homospaces' (gay fields of existence) less available/inaccessible to a wider public - websites, saunas and social/support groups. Based on interviews with 27 men aged 39-61 living in Manchester, this article addresses what middle-aged gay men's accounts of these particular homospaces say about their experiences of age/ageing and how relations of ageism work within them. Specifically, I focus on how study participants use 'ageing capital' in these fields to differentiate themselves from their younger counterparts in three ways. First, ageing capital is implicated in capitulation to gay ageism and a reverse ageism - visible in accounts of differentiation from the 'superficial,' reckless ways of sexualized space that participants associated with younger gay men. Second, it was visible in accounts of resistance to/questioning of gay ageism - strategies that could make sexualized homospaces more habitable. Third, ageing capital was implicated in negotiation with ageing/gay ageism - visible in ambivalent stances hovering between compliance and resistance - towards ageing and ageism, which could reinforce constraints on uses/display of the body. The first and third accounts indicate the multidirectional character of gay ageism, limits on the deployment on ageing capital and show how middle-aged men can undermine their generational claims to represent a more authentic form of gay male embodiment. En route, I also complicate stereotypical thinking that gay social/support groups represent more inclusive, empowering space whilst overtly sexualized spaces of the 'gay scene' represent the opposite.

  19. The middle aged SNRs W44: most likely reacceleration without any break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, Martina; Amato, Elena; Blasi, Pasquale

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the primary sources of Cosmic Rays (CRs) in the Galaxy. In the last few years, the wealth of γ-ray data from GeV and TeV instruments has provided important information about the high energy particles' content of these objects, allowing us to make progress in assessing their role as CR accelerators. In particular, the spectrum of the γ-ray emission below E=200 MeV, detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT in the two middle aged Supernova Remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443, has been taken as a proof of CR acceleration in these sources. In fact, the only firm conclusion that one can derive from the low energy spectrum of these sources is that CRs are present in the environment of these remnants. Assessing whether the emitting particles are freshly accelerated or rather reaccelerated from the galactic pool is not as straightforward. Making this discrimination in the case of SNR W44 is the purpose of this work. Using the latest Voyager 1 data to estimate the galactic electrons', protons' and Helium distributions, we compute the radio and γ-ray emission from pre-existing CRs after reacceleration and compression at the SNR blast wave. We show that this component can explain alone the radio and γ-ray data and that the source spectrum can be very well reproduced by the galactic CR distribution derived from Voyager 1, without any additional spectral feature, except for a high energy cut-off related to the finite time for particle reacceleration. Our study provides an upper limit on the efficiency of W44 as a source of fresh CRs. This upper limit turns out to be very low, as one would expect for a middle aged source with a slow blast wave.

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Smoking in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Daniel A.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Marti, C. Nathan; Ockene, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking research and intervention efforts have neglected older women. Depressive symptoms, which are common in middle-aged and older women, are related to the maintenance of adult smoking. Methods: This study investigated the relation of a composite measure of current depressive symptoms, derived from a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and history of depressive symptoms, derived from two items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, to smoking outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (N = 90,627). Participants were postmenopausal with an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Participants were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural areas surrounding 40 clinical centers in the United States. Analyses controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Results: In multinomial logistic regression analyses, depressive symptoms were related cross-sectionally to current light (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14–1.23) and heavier (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.23–1.32) smoking at baseline compared with nonsmokers. In prospective multiple logistic regression analyses, baseline depressive symptoms were negatively predictive of smoking cessation at a 1-year follow-up (OR = .85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.93) and at participants’ final assessments in the study (OR = .92, 95% CI = 0.85–0.98). Light smokers had more than 2 times higher odds of smoking cessation than did heavier smokers. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate a consistent link between depressive symptoms and negative smoking-related behaviors among middle-aged and older women at both light and heavier smoking levels. PMID:21504881

  1. Sexuality Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Tang, Hui; Gomero, Ada; Vable, Anusha; Huang, Elbert S.; Drum, Melinda L.; Qato, Dima M.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe sexual activity, behavior, and problems among middle-age and older adults by diabetes status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a substudy of 1,993 community-residing adults, aged 57–85 years, from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample (N = 3,005). In-home interviews, observed medications, and A1C were used to stratify by diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, or no diabetes. Logistic regression was used to model associations between diabetes conditions and sexual characteristics, separately by gender. RESULTS The survey response rate was 75.5%. More than 60% of partnered individuals with diagnosed diabetes were sexually active. Women with diagnosed diabetes were less likely than men with diagnosed diabetes (adjusted odds ratio 0.28 [95% CI 0.16–0.49]) and other women (0.63 [0.45–0.87]) to be sexually active. Partnered sexual behaviors did not differ by gender or diabetes status. The prevalence of orgasm problems was similarly elevated among men with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes compared with that for other men, but erectile difficulties were elevated only among men with diagnosed diabetes (2.51 [1.53 to 4.14]). Women with undiagnosed diabetes were less likely to have discussed sex with a physician (11%) than women with diagnosed diabetes (19%) and men with undiagnosed (28%) or diagnosed (47%) diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Many middle-age and older adults with diabetes are sexually active and engage in sexual behaviors similarly to individuals without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely than men to cease all sexual activity. Older women with diabetes are as likely to have sexual problems but are significantly less likely than men to discuss them. PMID:20802158

  2. Prediction of endurance running performance for middle-aged and older runners.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, N; Tanaka, K

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations that would sufficiently predict the endurance running performance (ERP) of middle-aged and older runners (n = 55, 43-79 years). Among many independent variables which were selected as possible predictors of the ERP, oxygen uptake corresponding to the lactate threshold (VO2@LT), or age was found to be the single best predictor. Some variables representing training habits correlated significantly but only moderately with the ERP. Linear multiple regression equations developed in this study were: V5km = 4.203 + 0.054X1 - 0.028X2 (r = 0.87) V5km = 4.436 + 0.045X1 - 0.033X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.89) V10km = 4.252 + 0.042X1 - 0.026X2 (r = 0.79) V10km = 4.371 + 0.037X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.82) VM = 3.207 + 0.048X1 - 0.022X2 (r = 0.91) VM = 3.707 + 0.038X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.93) where V5km, V10km and VM are the mean running velocity at 5 km, 10 km and marathon races, respectively, and X1 = VO2@LT (ml kg-1 min-1), X2 = age (year), and X3 = average running duration per workout (min). We suggest that the ERP of middle-aged and older runners can be predicted from a linear combination of VO2@LT and age or a combination of these variables plus average running duration per workout.

  3. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  4. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding.

  5. Relation of perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in middle-aged women. 99 middle-aged Spanish women, who studied in two adult schools, volunteered to participate. 49 were premenopausal and 45 were postmenopausal. These women completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and Health Survey SF-36. Scores were analyzed according to social, physical, and mental health, menopausal status, and scores on perceived emotional intelligence. Then, the data regarding the mental and physical health of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women were compared after controlling for age. No associations between menopausal status and health-related quality of life were found. Perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middle-aged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms.

  6. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  7. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  8. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septo-temporal axis in adulthood and middle age

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septo-temporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  9. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic, and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septotemporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septotemporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  10. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  11. HIPPI/Serial-HIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E. ); Halvorson, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) is a simple high-performance, point-to-point channel for transmitting digital data at peak data rates of 800 or 1600 Mbit/S. The transmission distance between data processing equipment using copper cabling can be up to 25 meters. This distance may be increased by using a Serial-HIPPI extender. This paper describes the HIPPI channel, the choices considered for a serial extender, and the resulting agreement for the Serial-HIPPI specification. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Soy isoflavones interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in orchidectomized middle-aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Živanović, Jasmina; Radulović, Niko; Janković, Snežana; Milošević, Verica; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-07-15

    We previously reported that genistein (G) and daidzein (D) administered subcutaneously (10 mg/kg) induce changes in the angio-follicular units of the thyroid gland, reduce concentration of total thyroid hormones (TH) and increase thyrotropin (TSH) in serum of orchidectomized middle-aged (16-month-old) rats. To further investigate these effects, we now examined expression levels of the thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (Tpo), vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and deiodinase type 1 (Dio 1) genes in the thyroid; in the pituitary, genes involved in TH feedback control (Tsh β, Dio 1, Dio 2, Trh receptor); and in the liver and kidney, expression of T{sub 3}-activated genes Dio 1 and Spot 14, as well as transthyretin (Ttr), by quantitative real-time PCR. We also analyzed TPO-immunopositivity and immunofluorescence of T{sub 4} bound to Tg, determined thyroid T{sub 4} levels and measured deiodinase enzyme activities in examined organs. Decreased expression of Tg and Tpo genes (p < 0.05) correlated with immunohistochemical staining results, and together with decreased serum total T{sub 4} levels, indicates decreased Tg and TH synthesis following treatments with both isoflavones. However, expression of Spot 14 (p < 0.05) gene in liver and kidney was up-regulated, and liver Dio 1 expression and activity (p < 0.05) increased. At the level of pituitary, no significant change in gene expression levels, or Dio 1 and 2 enzyme activities was observed. In conclusion, both G and D impaired Tg and TH synthesis, but at the same time increased tissue availability of TH in peripheral tissues of Orx middle-aged rats. - Highlights: • We tested how genistein and daidzein interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. • Thyroid: decreased expression of Tg and TPO genes correlated with IHC results. • Serum: total T{sub 4} reduced and TSH increased. • Liver and kidney: expression of Spot 14 and liver Dio 1 activity increased. • Pituitary: expression of T{sub 3}-regulated

  13. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. Methods A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. Results A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = −5) and career goals (median IR = −6) were observed; both ratings were worse (P<0.001) for depressed versus nondepressed subjects. Older age at diagnosis corresponded to higher depression prevalence and increased incidence of negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids (P=0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist

  14. Cerebral/Peripheral Vascular Reactivity and Neurocognition in Middle-Age Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tarumi, Takashi; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Fallow, Bennett; Nualnim, Nantinee; Lee, Jeongseok; Pyron, Martha; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Midlife vascular disease risk is associated with higher incidence of cognitive impairment in late life. Regular aerobic exercise improves vascular function, which in turn may translate into better cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, cerebral and peripheral vascular reactivity, and cognitive function in the sedentary and endurance-trained middle-aged adults. Methods Thirty-two endurance-trained and 27 healthy sedentary participants aged 43–65 years underwent measurements of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), neurocognitive assessment, cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 (CVR), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results There were no group differences in age, sex, education level, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure. Compared with sedentary subjects, endurance-trained athletes demonstrated better cognitive performance on memory (z-score: −0.36±1.11 vs. 0.30±0.76, P<0.01), attention-executive function (z-score: −0.21±0.53 vs. 0.18±0.72, P=0.02), and total cognitive composite scores (z-score: −0.27±0.63 vs. 0.23±0.57, P<0.01). Furthermore, brachial FMD (4.70±2.50 % vs. 7.13±3.09 %, P<0.01) and CVR (4.19±0.71 %/mmHg vs. 4.69±1.06 %/mmHg, P=0.052) were greater in endurance-trained individuals than in the sedentary subjects. Total cognitive composite scores showed a significant positive association with brachial FMD (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) and CVR (r = 0.30, P = 0.03). Finally, when brachial FMD and CVR were entered as covariates, fitness-related group differences in total cognitive composite score were significantly attenuated (all P>0.05). Conclusion Endurance-trained middle-aged adults demonstrated better cognitive performance which may, at least in part, be mediated by their enhanced vascular function, including cerebral and endothelial-dependent vascular reactivity. PMID:26083772

  15. Different Predictors of Right and Left Ventricular Metabolism in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, Marja A.; Leskinen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P.; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV) metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU) and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) and (2) to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40–55 years) men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF). The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake), resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat metabolism

  16. Body mass index and risk of liver cirrhosis in middle aged UK women: prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and liver cirrhosis and the contribution that BMI and alcohol consumption make to the incidence of liver cirrhosis in middle aged women in the UK. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Women recruited from 1996 to 2001 in NHS breast screening centres and followed by record linkage to routinely collected information on hospital admissions and deaths. Participants 1 230 662 women (mean age 56 years at recruitment) followed for an average of 6.2 years. Main outcome measures Relative risk and absolute risk of first hospital admission with or death from liver cirrhosis adjusted for age, recruitment region, alcohol consumption, smoking, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. Results 1811 women had a first hospital admission with or died from liver cirrhosis during follow-up. Among women with a BMI of 22.5 or above, increasing BMI was associated with an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis: the adjusted relative risk of cirrhosis increased by 28% (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.38; P<0.001) for every 5 unit increase in BMI. Although the relative increase in the risk of liver cirrhosis per 5 unit increase in BMI did not differ significantly according to the amount of alcohol consumed, the absolute risk did. Among women who reported drinking less than 70 g alcohol per week, the absolute risk of liver cirrhosis per 1000 women over five years was 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) for those with a BMI between 22.5 and 25 and 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) for those with a BMI of 30 or more. Among women who reported drinking 150 g alcohol or more per week, the corresponding figures were 2.7 (2.1 to 3.4) and 5.0 (3.8 to 6.6). Conclusions Excess body weight increases the incidence of liver cirrhosis. In middle aged women in the UK, an estimated 17% of incident or fatal liver cirrhosis is attributable to excess body weight. This compares with an estimated 42% attributable to alcohol

  17. What Helps Middle-Aged Widows with Their Psychological and Social Adaptation Several Years after Their Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; Florian, Victor

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to middle-aged widows' adaptation to their husbands' death due to physical illness, 1 to 5 years after the initial loss. Ninety-three widows and 93 married women, who served as controls, filled out questionnaires assessing their experience of stress and strain, their Sense of Coherence level, the social…

  18. Effects of Social Networks on the Quality of Life in an Elder and Middle-Aged Deaf Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerich, Joachim; Fellinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This article endeavors to investigate the role of social networks in contributing to the quality of life of an elder and middle-aged Deaf population. In particular, it poses the question of whether a certain network composition (deaf and hearing network persons) provides positive resources to improve quality of life and attempts to identify…

  19. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  20. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  1. Gender differences in circulating endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming capacity and migratory activity in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoetzer, Greta L; MacEneaney, Owen J; Irmiger, Heather M; Keith, Rebecca; Van Guilder, Gary P; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Middle-aged women have a lower prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular events compared with men. The mechanisms responsible for this gender-specific difference are unclear. Numeric and functional impairments of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. It is currently unknown whether there are gender-related differences in EPC number and function in middle-aged adults. We tested the hypothesis that EPCs isolated from middle-aged women demonstrate greater colony-forming capacity and migratory activity compared with men of similar age. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 sedentary adults, 25 men (59 +/- 1 years of age) and 25 women (58 +/- 1 years of age). Mononuclear cells were isolated and preplated for 2 days, and nonadherent cells were further cultured for 7 days to determine EPC colony-forming units. Migratory activity of EPCs was determined using a modified Boyden chamber. The number of EPC colony-forming units was significantly higher (approximately 150%) in samples collected from women (16 +/- 3) compared with that collected from men (7 +/- 1). In addition, EPC migration (relative fluorescent units) was approximately 40% greater in women (729 +/- 74) than in men (530 +/- 67). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EPC colony-forming capacity and migratory activity are higher in middle-aged women than in men.

  2. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  3. Age-Related Differences in Vehicle Control and Eye Movement Patterns at Intersections: Older and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Fisher, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections. In a driving simulator, older (M = 76 yrs) and middle-aged (M = 58 yrs) drivers completed different driving tasks: (1) travelling straight on a highway while scanning for peripheral information (a visual search task) and (2) navigating intersections with areas potential hazard. The results replicate that the older drivers did not execute glances for potential threats to the sides when turning at intersections as frequently as the middle-aged drivers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate costs of performing two concurrent tasks, highway driving and visual search task on the side displays: the older drivers performed more poorly on the visual search task and needed to correct their steering positions more compared to the middle-aged counterparts. The findings are consistent with the predictions and discussed in terms of a decoupling hypothesis, providing an account for the effects of the active training program. PMID:27736887

  4. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  5. Giant Angiokeratoma of Fordyce over the Vulva in a Middle-Aged Woman: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; Hulmani, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    Angiokeratoma of Fordyce occurring over vulva is rare. Angiokeratoma of Fordyce commonly occurs in males over scrotum or penile shaft and presents as multiple verrucous reddish papules. They are usually asymptomatic and noticed accidentally. In the present article, we present and review the literature of giant angiokeratoma of Fordyce in middle-aged women due to its rarity. PMID:23723496

  6. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture...

  7. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-02-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women.

  8. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife.

  9. Distinct epigenomes in CD4+ T cells of newborns, middle-ages and centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Qin, Jian; Yin, Hanqi; Tan, Yixin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Qian; Luo, Shuangyan; He, Min; Liang, Gongping; Shi, Yajing; Zhang, Qing; Cai, Wenjun; Yin, Guangliang; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Jing; Li, Mengying; Huang, Yi; Liu, Aiyun; Wu, Haijing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Age-related variations in genes and microRNAs expression and DNA methylation have been reported respectively; however, their interactions during aging are unclear. We therefore investigated alterations in the transcriptomes, miRNAomes and DNA methylomes in the same CD4+T cells from newborn (NB), middle-aged (MA) and long-lived (LL) individuals to elucidate the molecular changes and their interactions. A total 659 genes showed significantly expression changes across NB, MA and LL individuals, in which we identified four age-related co-expression modules with three hub networks of co-expressed genes and non-coding RNAs. Moreover, we identified 9835 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) including 7015 hypermethylated and 2820 hypomethylated DMRs in the NB compared with the MA, and 12,362 DMRs including 4809 hypermethylated and 7553 hypomethylated DMRs in the MA compared with the LL. The integrated analysis revealed a potential relationship between genes transcription and DNA methylation for many age- or immune-related genes, suggesting that DNA methylation-dependent transcription regulation is involved in development and functions of T cells during aging. Our results reveals age-related transcription and methylation changes and their interactions in human T cells from the cradle to the grave. Longitudinal work is required to establish the relationship between identified age-associated genes/DNA methylation and T cells aging phenotypes. PMID:27917918

  10. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Exploring stress-induced cognitive impairment in middle aged, centrally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lasikiewicz, N; Hendrickx, H; Talbot, D; Dye, L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that psychosocial stress can induce cognitive impairment. However, few studies have explored impairment following acute stress exposure in individuals with central obesity. Central obesity co-occurs with glucocorticoid excess and can lead to elevated cortisol responses to stress. It is not clear whether centrally obese individuals exhibit greater cognitive impairment following acute stress. Cortisol responses to stress versus no-stress control were compared in 66 high- and low waist to hip ratio (WHR) middle-aged adults (mean age of 46 ± 7.17 years). Cognitive performance post exposure was assessed using Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery. It was hypothesised that high WHR would exhibit greater cortisol in response to stress exposure and would show poorer cognitive performance. Males, particularly of high WHR, tended to secrete greater cortisol during stress exposure. Exposure to stress and increasing WHR were specifically associated with poorer performance on declarative memory tasks (spatial recognition memory and paired associates learning). These data tentatively suggest a reduction in cognitive performance in those with central obesity following exposure to acute stress. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of stress on cognition in this population.

  12. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  13. A Candidate Optical Counterpart to the Middle Aged γ-RAY Pulsar PSRJ1741-2054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Testa, V.; Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A.; Pierbattista, M.; Razzano, M.; Shearer, A.; Moran, P.

    2016-07-01

    We carried out deep optical observations of the middle aged γ-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes m v = 23.10 ± 0.05 and m v = 25.32 ± 0.08, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054. The nebula is displaced by ˜0.″9 (at the 3σ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra, down to a surface brightness limit of ˜28.1 mag arcsec-2. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of PSR J1741-2054 and characterize the spectrum of its counterpart. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 095.D-0328(B).

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  15. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  16. Can balneotherapy improve the bowel motility in chronically constipated middle-aged and elderly patients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandinoglu, Taner; Dandin, Ozgur; Ergin, Tuncer; Tihan, Deniz; Akpak, Yasam Kemal; Aydın, Oguz Ugur; Teomete, Uygar

    2016-12-01

    Balneotherapy or spa therapy is usually known for different application forms of medicinal waters and its effects on the human body. Our purpose is to demonstrate the effect of balneotherapy on gastrointestinal motility. A total of 35 patients who were treated for osteoarthritis with balneotherapy from November 2013 through March 2015 at our hospital had a consultation at the general surgery for constipation and defecation disorders. Patients followed by constipation scores, short-form health survey (SF-12), and a colonic transit time (CTT) study before and after balneotherapy were included in this study, and the data of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. The constipation score, SF-12 score, and CTT were found statistically significant after balneotherapy (p < 0.05). The results of our study confirm the clinical finding that a 15-day course of balneotherapy with mineral water from a thermal spring (Bursa, Turkey) improves gastrointestinal motility and reduces laxative consumption in the management of constipation in middle-aged and elderly patients, and it is our belief that treatment with thermal mineral water could considerably improve the quality of life of these patients.

  17. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  18. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  19. Prehypertension and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Chang Kwan; Cho, Eun Jeong; Cho, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is known to be a marker of myocardial damage, in particular myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension (HT). However, few studies have shown an association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and blood pressure classification. We investigated the association between diastolic dysfunction and prehypertension (preHT) in apparently healthy adults who underwent routine health examinations. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 4261 Koreans, 45 to 64 years of age with no previous history of HT, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or valvular heart disease based on echocardiography, who underwent routine health examinations including echocardiography. The subjects were classified into three groups based on resting blood pressure: prehypertensive, hypertensive, and normotensive. Results The prevalence of preHT in our study was 42.1%. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile, and body mass index, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grades 1 and 2 were significantly more frequent in subjects with preHT (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.40-1.96] and 1.37 [95% CI 0.95-1.97], respectively). When analyzed according to gender, the increased OR was especially notable in males. Conclusion Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction appears to be significantly associated with preHT in Korean middle-aged males. PMID:27482263

  20. The relationship between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot

    2015-11-01

    A large literature demonstrates the direct and indirect influence of health on socioeconomic attainment, and reveals the ways in which health and socioeconomic background simultaneously and dynamically affect opportunities for attainment and mobility. Despite an increasing understanding of the effects of health on social processes, research to date remains limited in its conceptualization and measurement of the temporal dimensions of health, especially in the presence of socioeconomic circumstances that covary with health over time. Guided by life course theory, we use data from the British National Child Development Study, an ongoing panel study of a cohort born in 1958, to examine the association between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age. We apply finite mixture modeling to identify distinct trajectories of health that simultaneously account for timing, duration and stability. Moreover, we employ propensity score weighting models to account for the presence of time-varying socioeconomic factors in estimating the impact of health trajectories. We find that, when poor health is limited to the childhood years, the disadvantage in socioeconomic attainment relative to being continuously healthy is either insignificant or largely explained by time-varying socioeconomic confounders. The socioeconomic impact of continuously deteriorating health over the life course is more persistent, however. Our results suggest that accounting for the timing, duration and stability of poor health throughout both childhood and adulthood is important for understanding how health works to produce social stratification. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between confounding and mediating effects of time-varying socioeconomic circumstances.

  1. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  2. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-11-26

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women.

  3. Association of alcohol use and loneliness frequency among middle-aged and older adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.; Mauro, Pia M.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between alcohol use, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking, and loneliness in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods We studied participants aged 50+ years from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study who reported alcohol use. We ran separate multinomial logistic regressions to assess the association of three alcohol use outcomes (i.e., weekly alcohol consumption, at-risk drinking, and binge drinking) and loneliness. Results After adjusting for covariates, being lonely was associated with reduced odds of weekly alcohol consumption 4–7 days per week, but not 1–3 days per week, compared to average alcohol consumption 0 days per week in the last 3 months. No association was found between at-risk drinking or binge drinking and loneliness. Discussion Results suggest that among a sample of community-based adults aged 50+, loneliness was associated with reduced alcohol use frequency, but not with at-risk or binge drinking. PMID:26082130

  4. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults.

  5. Heterogeneous Depression Responses to Chronic Pain Onset among Middle-Aged Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514

  6. Stigma and Family Relationships of Middle-Aged Gay Men in Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mignon R.; Dacus, Jagadisa-devasri; McCuller, William J.; Fernandez, Lawrence; Moore, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore how middle-aged gay men in recovery cope with stigma and family relationships. For gay men, perceptions of acceptance of their sexual orientation and degree of social connectedness can play a role in their recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders. Yet gay men may have a more difficult time accessing certain family-level health resources because their families of origin may stigmatize, reject or silence them on account of their sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how participants in recovery constructed and coped with their experiences of stigma, family relationships, and alcohol and substance use. Participants (30 gay men aged 50–64) completed a questionnaire and interview. We used constructivist Grounded Theory method and Minority Stress Theory as a theoretical framework to interpret the data. We identified the following themes: Internalization of Stigma, Changes in Coping Strategies, and Ongoing Stigma. Future research should explore how to incorporate familial support into gay men’s recovery, address ongoing internalized stigma, and develop a social response to stigma, rather than leaving it to individuals to confront on their own. PMID:27092028

  7. Heritability of word recognition in middle-aged men varies as a function of parental education.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Waterman, Brian; Toomey, Rosemary; Neale, Michael C; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Although it is of lifelong importance, reading ability is studied primarily in children and adolescents. We examined variation in word recognition in 347 middle-aged male twin pairs. Overall heritability (a2) was 0.45, and shared environmental influences (c2) were 0.28. However, parental education moderated heritability such that a2 was 0.21 at the lowest parental education level and 0.69 at the highest level; c2 was 0.52 and 0.00, respectively. This constitutes a parental education x environment interaction. The higher heritability was due to a decrease in the magnitude of shared environmental factors, rather than an increase in the magnitude of genetic factors. Other cognitive studies have reported gene x environment interactions, but patterns may differ as a function of age or specific cognitive abilities. Our results suggest that shared environmental factors in families with low parental education have long-lasting effects on word recognition ability, well beyond any critical period for developing reading proficiency.

  8. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  9. X-ray jets from B2224+65: A Middle-aged Pulsar's New Trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Johnson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars, though typically not aged ones, are believed to be an important source of energetic cosmic rays. Therefore, it may not be too surprising to detect an X-ray jet associated with the middle-aged radio/X-ray pulsar B2224+65, which is well known for its very high proper motion and its trailing ``Guitar Nebula''. Most unexpected, however, is that this jet is offset from its proper motion direction by 118 degree. Furthermore, an X-ray counter jet and a faint X-ray trail associated with the ``Guitar Nebula'' are now identified in the combined data set of three epoch Chandra observations with a total exposure of 200 ks. We are carrying out a detailed measurements of the X-ray spectral variation with time and across the jets and are critically testing scenarios proposed to explain this enigmatic phenomenon. The study should have strong implications for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, as well as similar linear nonthermal X-ray-emitting features that are associated with more distant pulsars, especially pulsar wind nebula candidates in the central 100 pc region of the Galaxy.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Diurnal Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Concentrations in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C.; York, Timothy P.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hellhammer, Dirk; Maninger, Nicole; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is important for its association with immune system function and health outcomes. The characterization of the genetic and environmental contributions to daily DHEAS concentrations is thus important for understanding the genetics of health and aging. Methods Saliva was collected from 783 middle-aged men (389 complete pairs and 5 unpaired twins) as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Samples were taken at multiple specified time points across two non-consecutive days in the home and one day at the study sites. A twin modeling approach was used to estimate genetic and environmental contributions for time-specific and average DHEAS concentrations. Results There was a consistent diurnal pattern for DHEAS concentrations in both at-home and day-of-testing (DOT) measures, which was highest at awakening and decreased slightly throughout the day. Heritability estimates were significant for measures at 10am, 3pm and bedtime for the in-home days and at 10am and 3pm on the DOT, ranging between 0.37 and 0.46. Conclusions The significant heritability estimates later in the day reflect time-specific genetic effects for DHEAS, compared with prior twin and family designs studies which frequently used averaged morning-only measures. Additive genetic influences on DHEAS concentrations were consistent between at-home and DOT measures. PMID:21570195

  11. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts.

  12. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior: Differences in Middle Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Jennifer R; Randall, Brandy A

    2016-10-01

    Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors. Given this, it was expected that community cohesion would predict prosocial behavior despite age, and that grit would provide motivation for older adults, so the current study examined whether age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior. Data were used from 188 upper-Midwest adults (aged 37-89). Multiple regression analyses showed that age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior such that grit predicted prosocial behavior in older adults but not middle age adults. A sense of community cohesion was predictive of prosocial behavior despite age. While grit may promote generative acts in different ways depending on age, a sense of community cohesion may foster community contributions despite age. The discussion focuses on future directions and ways to promote generativity using this research.

  13. Safe Driving and Executive Functions in Healthy Middle-Aged Drivers.

    PubMed

    León-Domínguez, Umberto; Solís-Marcos, Ignacio; Barrio-Álvarez, Elena; Barroso Y Martín, Juan Manuel; León-Carrión, José

    2016-04-18

    The introduction of the point system driver's license in several European countries could offer a valid framework for evaluating driving skills. This is the first study to use this framework to assess the functional integrity of executive functions in middle-aged drivers with full points, partial points or no points on their driver's license (N = 270). The purpose of this study is to find differences in executive functions that could be determinants in safe driving. Cognitive tests were used to assess attention processes, processing speed, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control. Analyses for covariance (ANCOVAS) were used for group comparisons while adjusting for education level. The Bonferroni method was used for correcting for multiple comparisons. Overall, drivers with the full points on their license showed better scores than the other two groups. In particular, significant differences were found in reaction times on Simple and Conditioned Attention tasks (both p-values < 0.001) and in number of type-III errors on the Tower of Hanoi task (p = 0.026). Differences in reaction time on attention tasks could serve as neuropsychological markers for safe driving. Further analysis should be conducted in order to determine the behavioral impact of impaired executive functioning on driving ability.

  14. Middle-aged rats orally supplemented with gel-encapsulated catechin favorably increases blood cytosolic NADPH levels.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-15

    Green tea catechins are primarily known to function as free radical scavengers and have several beneficial uses. Orally supplemented catechin (OSC) was previously shown to increase mitochondrial heme and catalase levels in rat heart blood, however, its effect in the cytosol has not been elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of OSC in the rat heart blood cytosol. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We isolated blood cytosol, verified its purity, and determined heme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, catalase (CAT) activities, gp91(phox) amounts, NADP and NAD pools, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and free fatty acids (FFA). We established that OSC is associated with decreased heme-dependent H2O2 amounts while increasing heme-independent CAT activity. Moreover, we found that OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among middle-aged rats is associated to increased NADPH levels and SIRT1 activity. In contrast, we associated OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among young rats to decreased NADPH levels and increased SIRT1 activity. This highlights a major difference between catechin-treated middle-aged and young rats. Furthermore, we observed that cytosolic FFA and GR levels were significantly increased only among OSC-treated middle-aged rats which we hypothesize are related to increased NADPH levels. This insinuates that OSC treatment allows higher catechin amounts to enter the bloodstream of middle-aged rats. We propose that this would favorably increase NADPH amounts and lead to the simultaneous decrease in NADPH-related pro-oxidant activity and increase in NADPH-related biomolecules and anti-oxidant activities.

  15. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with

  16. Red Cell Distribution Width and the Risk of Death in Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ershler, William B.; Longo, Dan L.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Red cell distribution width (RDW), a component of an electronic complete blood count, is a measure of heterogeneity in the size of circulating erythrocytes. In patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease (CVD), RDW is associated with mortality. However, it has not been demonstrated that RDW is a predictor of mortality independent of nutritional deficiencies or in the general population. Methods RDW was measured in a national sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 45 and older who participated in the 1988–1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; mortality follow-up occurred through December 31, 2000. Deaths from all causes, CVD, cancer, and other causes were examined as a function of RDW. Results Higher RDW values were strongly associated with an increased risk of death. Compared to the lowest quintile of RDW, the following were adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality (and 95 percent confidence intervals): second quintile, 1.1 (0.9–1.3); third quintile, 1.2 (1.0–1.4); fourth quintile, 1.4 (1.2–1.8); fifth quintile, 2.1 (1.7–2.6). For every 1 percent increment in RDW, all-cause mortality risk increased by 22% [HR = 1.22 (1.15–1.30); p<0.001]. Even when analyses were restricted to non-anemic participants or to those in the normal range of RDW (11–15%) without iron, folate, or vitamin B12 deficiency, RDW remained strongly associated with mortality. The prognostic effect of RDW was observed in both middle-aged and older adults for multiple causes of death. Conclusions RDW is a widely-available test that is a strong predictor of mortality in the general population of adults aged 45 and older. PMID:19273783

  17. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  18. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, H.; Minnerop, M.; Pieperhoff, P.; Schleicher, A.; Zilles, K.; Altenmüller, E.; Amunts, K.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life. PMID

  19. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  20. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: regional and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-06-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital-frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial-temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEepsilon4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample.

  1. Influence of lifestyle factors on quantitative heel ultrasound measurements in middle-aged and elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R; Devakumar, Vinodh; Boonen, Steven; Borghs, Herman; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael EJ; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick CW; O’Neill, Terence W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the distribution of quantitative heel ultrasound (QUS) parameters in population samples of European men, and looked at the influence of lifestyle factors on the occurrence of these parameters. Men aged between 40 and 79 years were recruited from eight European centres and invited to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, assessment of physical performance and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus (Hologic - SAHARA). The relationships between QUS parameters and lifestyle variables were assessed using linear regression with adjustments for age, centre and weight. 3,258 men, mean age 60.0 years were included in the analysis. A higher PASE score (upper vs lower tertile) was associated with higher BUA (β coefficient = 2.44 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coefficient = 6.83 m/s) and QUI (β coefficient = 3.87). Compared to those who were inactive, those who walked or cycled more than an hour per day had a higher BUA (β coeff =3.71 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coeff = 6.97 m/s) and QUI (β coeff = 4.50). A longer time to walk 50 feet was linked with lower BUA (β coeff = −0.62 dB/Mhz), SOS (β coeff = −1.06 m/s) and QUI (β coeff = −0.69). Smoking was associated with a reduction in BUA, SOS and QUI. There was a U shaped association with frequency of alcohol consumption. Modification of lifestyle, including increasing physical activity and stopping smoking may help optimise bone strength and reduce the risk of fracture in middle aged and elderly European men. PMID:20205346

  2. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  3. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  4. Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Tverdal, A; Stensvold, I; Solvoll, K; Foss, O P; Lund-Larsen, P; Bjartveit, K

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the association between number of cups of coffee consumed per day and coronary death when taking other major coronary risk factors into account. DESIGN--Men and women attending screening and followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. SETTING--Cardiovascular survey performed by ambulatory teams from the National Health Screening Service in Norway. PARTICIPANTS--All middle aged people in three counties: 19,398 men and 19,166 women aged 35-54 years who reported neither cardiovascular disease or diabetes nor symptoms of angina pectoris or intermittent claudication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Predictive value of number of cups of coffee consumed per day. RESULTS--At initial screening total serum cholesterol concentration, high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, height, and weight were measured and self reported information about smoking history, physical activity, and coffee drinking habits was recorded. Altogether 168 men and 16 women died of coronary heart disease during follow up. Mean cholesterol concentrations for men and women were almost identical and increased from the lowest to highest coffee consumption group (13.1% and 10.9% respectively). With the proportional hazards model and adjustment for age, total serum and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, systolic blood pressure, and number of cigarettes per day the coefficient for coffee corresponded to a relative risk between nine or more cups of coffee and less than one cup of 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.5) for men and 5.1 (0.4 to 60.3) for women. For men the relative risk varied among the three counties. CONCLUSIONS--Coffee may affect mortality from coronary heart disease over and above its effect in raising cholesterol concentrations. PMID:2108750

  5. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  6. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

  7. Cigarette Smoking and the Association with Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Proteinuria in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Isseki; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2, which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick. Results During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner. Conclusions In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions. PMID:21885794

  8. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  9. Genetic Variation and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Raquel; Delahanty, Ryan; Williams, Scott; Li, Honglan; O'Brian, Richard; Shi, Jiajun; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the effect of variants in the first three genes in the insulin signaling pathway and genes identified from genome wide association studies (GWAS) of T2D quantitative traits with IR (fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of IR, HOMA-IR) and evaluated gene-environment interactions with IR traits among 1879 nondiabetic middle-aged men from a population-based study conducted in Shanghai, China. One candidate gene, IGF1, was associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. We observed four BMI-gene interactions (P < 0.05) with HOMA-IR (INRS rs7254060, INRS rs7254358, GLU4 rs2113050, and GLU4 rs7713127) and seven BMI-gene interactions with fasting insulin (INRS rs7254060, INRS rs7254358, INRS rs10417205, INRS rs1799817, GLU4 rs12054720 GLU4 rs2113050, and GLU4 rs7713127). There were four WHR-gene interactions with HOMA-IR (INRS rs10417205, INRS rs12971499, INRS rs7254060, and INRS rs7254358), five WHR-gene interactions with fasting insulin (INRS rs10417205, INRS rs7254060, INRS rs7254358, GLU4 rs2113050, and GLU4 rs7713127), eight physical activity-gene interactions with HOMA-IR (INRS rs10411676, INRS rs11671297, INRS rs2229431, INRS rs12461909, INRS rs6510950, INRS rs10420382, IRS2 rs913949, and IRS2 rs2241745) and five physical activity-gene interactions with fasting insulin (INRS rs2229431, INRS rs12461909, INRS rs10420382, IRS2 rs913949, and IRS2 rs2241745). Our results suggest that BMI, WHR and physical activity may modify IR-associated variants.

  10. Correlation of Cardiac Markers and Biomarkers With Blood Pressure of Middle-Aged Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Ahn, Jae Ki; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2015-11-01

    Runners with exercise-induced high blood pressure have recently been reported to exhibit higher levels of cardiac markers, vasoconstrictors, and inflammation. The authors attempted to identify correlations between exercise-related personal characteristics and the levels of biochemical/cardiac markers in marathon runners in this study. Forty healthy runners were enrolled. Blood samples were taken both before and after finishing a full marathon. The change in each cardiac/biochemical marker over the course of the marathon was determined. All markers were significantly (P<.001) increased immediately after the marathon (creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB]: 7.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL, cardiac troponin I (cTnI): 0.06 ± 0.10 ng/mL, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): 95.7 ± 76.4, endothelin-1: 2.7 ± 1.16, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]: 0.1 ± 0.09, creatine kinase [CK]: 315.7 ± 94.0, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]: 552.8 ± 130.3) compared with their premarathon values (CK-MB: 4.3 ± 1.3, cTnI: 0.01 ± 0.003, NT-proBNP: 27.6 ± 31.1, endothelin-1: 1.11 ± 0.5, hs-CRP: 0.06 ± 0.07, CK: 149.2 ± 66.0, LDH: 399 ± 75.1). In middle-aged marathon runners, factors related to increased blood pressure were correlated with marathon-induced increases in cTnI, NT-proBNP, endothelin-1, and hs-CRP. These correlations were observed independent of running history, records of finishing, and peak oxygen uptake.

  11. Footprints of Middle Ages Kingdoms Are Still Visible in the Contemporary Surname Structure of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface. PMID:25849152

  12. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  13. Salivary Cortisol and Prefrontal Cortical Thickness in Middle-Aged Men: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Kremen, William S.; O’Brien, Robert C.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Eisen, Seth A.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Hauger, Richard L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fischl, Bruce; Grant, Michael D.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jak, Amy J.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Lupien, Sonia J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Neale, Michael C.; Seidman, Larry J.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Franz, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Although glucocorticoid receptors are highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus remains the predominant focus in the literature examining relationships between cortisol and brain. We examined phenotypic and genetic associations of cortisol levels with the thickness of prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex regions, and with hippocampal volume in a sample of 388 middle-aged male twins who were 51–59 years old. Small but significant negative phenotypic associations were found between cortisol levels and the thickness of left dorsolateral (superior frontal gyrus, left rostral middle frontal gyrus) and ventrolateral (pars opercularis, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis) prefrontal regions, and right dorsolateral (superior frontal gyrus) and medial orbital frontal cortex. Most of the associations remained significant after adjusting for general cognitive ability, cardiovascular risk factors, and depression. Bivariate genetic analyses suggested that some of the associations were primarily accounted for by shared genetic influences; that is, some of the genes that tend to result in increased cortisol levels also tend to result in reduced prefrontal cortical thickness. Aging has been associated with reduced efficiency of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, with frontal lobe shrinkage, and with increases in health problems, but our present data do not allow us to determine the direction of effects. Moreover, the degree or the direction of the observed associations and the extent of their shared genetic underpinnings may well change as these individuals age. Longitudinal assessments are underway to elucidate the direction of the associations and the genetic underpinnings of longitudinal phenotypes for changes in cortisol and brain morphology. PMID:20156572

  14. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  15. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A

    1999-02-01

    The immune system is highly reliant on accurate cell-cell communication for optimal function, and any damage to the signalling systems involved will result in an impaired immune responsiveness. Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is a particular hazard to the immune system, since phagocytic cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body's defence against infection. Adequate amounts of neutralizing antioxidants are required, therefore, to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components (e.g. Se in the metalloenzyme glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9)). Numerous epidemiological studies have found strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that a boost to the body's immune system by antioxidants might, at least in part, account for this. Although more striking effects have been observed in the elderly, there is also evidence that antioxidant nutrients can modify cell-mediated immune responses in younger individuals. Indeed, it might be essential to have an adequate intake of antioxidant nutrients from an early age in order to help prevent the development of, or at least delay the onset of, several degenerative disorders. The present paper will review the effects of specific nutrients on immune function in young to middle-aged human subjects, focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and on Se. A further review, dealing more specifically with the effects of carotenoids on human immune function, will be presented at a forthcoming meeting of the Nutrition Society.

  16. Loss of Lung Health from Young Adulthood and Cardiac Phenotypes in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Laura A.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Lima, Joao; Kishi, Satoru; Arynchyn, Alexander; Jacobs, David R.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Liu, Kiang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Kalhan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic lung diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease. How these associations evolve from young adulthood forward is unknown. Understanding the preclinical history of these associations could inform prevention strategies for common heart-lung conditions. Objectives: To use the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to explore the development of heart-lung interactions. Methods: We analyzed cardiac structural and functional measurements determined by echocardiography at Year 25 of CARDIA and measures of pulmonary function over 20 years in 3,000 participants. Measurements and Main Results: Decline in FVC from peak was associated with larger left ventricular mass (β = 6.05 g per SD of FVC decline; P < 0.0001) and greater cardiac output (β = 0.109 L/min per SD of FVC decline; P = 0.001). Decline in FEV1/FVC ratio was associated with smaller left atrial internal dimension (β = −0.038 cm per SD FEV1/FVC decline; P < 0.0001) and lower cardiac output (β = −0.070 L/min per SD of FEV1/FVC decline; P = 0.03). Decline in FVC was associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.37–8.36; P = 0.006). Conclusions: Patterns of loss of lung health are associated with specific cardiovascular phenotypes in middle age. Decline in FEV1/FVC ratio is associated with underfilling of the left heart and low cardiac output. Decline in FVC with preserved FEV1/FVC ratio is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Cardiopulmonary interactions apparent with common complex heart and lung diseases evolve concurrently from early adulthood forward. PMID:25876160

  17. Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Patricia; Saremi, Mahnaz; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Rohmer, Odile; Muzet, Alain

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nocturnal railway noise on cardiovascular reactivity in young (25.8 +/- 2.6 years) and middle-aged (52.2 +/- 2.5 years) adults during sleep. Thirty-eight subjects slept three nights in the laboratory at 1-week interval. They were exposed to 48 randomized pass-bys of Freight, Passenger and Automotive trains either at an 8-h equivalent sound level of 40 dBA (Moderate) and 50 dBA (High) or at a silent Control night. Heart rate response (HRR), heart response amplitude (HRA), heart response latency (HRL) and finger pulse response (FPR), finger pulse amplitude (FPA) and finger pulse latency (FPL) were recorded to measure cardiovascular reactivity after each noise onset and for time-matched pseudo-noises in the control condition. Results show that Freight trains produced the highest cardiac response (increased HRR, HRA and HRL) compared to Passenger and Automotive. But the vascular response was similar whatever the type of train. Juniors exhibited an increased HRR and HRA as compared to seniors, but there was no age difference on vasoconstriction, except a shorter FPL in seniors. Noise level produced dose-dependent effects on all the cardiovascular indices. Sleep stage at noise occurrence was ineffective for cardiac response, but FPA was reduced when noise occurred during REM sleep. In conclusion, our study is in favor of an important impact of nocturnal railway noise on the cardiovascular system of sleeping subjects. In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time).

  18. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-07

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).

  19. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  20. Coping with chronic pain among younger, middle-aged, and older adults living with neurological injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Carter, Gregory T; Kraft, George; Cardemas, Diana D

    2008-01-01

    Objective. This article compares use of pain coping strategies among older, middle-aged, and younger adults living with chronic pain and seeks to determine whether the relationship between pain severity and coping is moderated by age. Method. Participants were 464 adults reporting chronic pain secondary to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or neuromuscular disease. Participants completed a survey including measures of pain severity and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. Results. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, older adults (older than 60) reported a wider range of frequently used strategies and significantly more frequent engagement in activity pacing, seeking social support, and use of coping self-statements than did younger or middle-aged adults. Moderation analyses suggest that, for younger adults, efforts at coping generally increased with greater pain severity, whereas this relationship did not exist for older adults. Discussion. These data suggest differences in the quantity and quality of pain coping among age groups.

  1. Examining predictors of physical activity among inactive middle-aged women: an application of the health action process approach.

    PubMed

    Barg, Carolyn J; Latimer, Amy E; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Rivers, Susan E; Rench, Tara A; Prapavessis, Harry; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study tested several relationships predicted by the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in a sample of 175 generally healthy, inactive, middle-aged women (40-65 yrs old) over a 12 week period. Participants' physical activity, risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, action self-efficacy and intention were measured at baseline. Planning and maintenance self-efficacy were measured 4 weeks later. Physical activity behaviour was measured 12 weeks after baseline. The HAPA relationships were examined using a structural equation model. The data fit the model well and revealed several significant relationships. Action self-efficacy was the best predictor of intention. Maintenance self-efficacy was the best predictor of planning and behaviour. Contrary to the tenets of HAPA and to past research, planning did not predict behaviour. Overall, HAPA provides a useful framework for identifying determinants of physical activity intentions and behaviour within a group of inactive, middle-aged women.

  2. The effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Jong-Won

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men. To achieve the goal of the study, a total of 23 subjects were selected. Among them, 14 subjects who exercised regularly were selected as the exercise group, while the remaining 9 subjects were selected as the control group. In terms of data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Regarding the verification of difference on the change of means between the groups, analysis of covariance was used for statistical process. As a result, significant differences were found in cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, flexibility, and triglyceride. These results indicate that the resistance exercise only had slight effect on hypertensive middle-aged men. PMID:28349040

  3. Mild eccentric exercise increases Hsp72 content in skeletal muscles from adult and late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Ramsook, Andrew H; Locke, Marius; Amara, Catherine E

    2013-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age or sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing muscle loss with age is important for maintaining health. Hsp72, the inducible member of the Hsp70 family, is known to provide protection to skeletal muscle and can be increased by exercise. However, ability to increase Hsp72 by exercise is intensity-dependent and appears to diminish with advanced age. Thus, other exercise modalities capable of increasing HSP content and potentially preventing the age related loss of muscle need to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if the stress from one bout of mild eccentric exercise was sufficient to elicit an increase in Hsp72 content in the vastus intermedius (VI) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles, and if the Hsp72 response differed between adult and late middle-aged rats. To do this, 30 adult (6 months) and late middle-aged (24 months) F344BN rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control (C), level exercise (16 m x min(-1)) and eccentric exercise (16 m x min(-1), 16 degree decline). Exercised animals were sacrificed immediately post-exercise or after 48 hours. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to assess muscle damage, while Western Blotting was used to measure muscle Hsp72 content. A nested ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was performed to determine significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups. Hsp72 content was increased in the VI for both adult and late middle-aged rats 48 hours after eccentric exercise when compared to level and control groups but no differences between age groups was observed. Hsp72 was not detected in the WG following any type of exercise. In conclusion, mild eccentric exercise can increase Hsp72 content in the rat VI muscle and this response is maintained into late middle-age.

  4. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  5. Impact of trace element changes on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in healthy and diabetic states among middle-age and elderly Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El Husseiny, Noha M; Said, Elham Sobhy; El Shahat Mohamed, Naglaa; Othman, Azza Ismail

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm if there is a link between the alteration in blood levels of trace elements (chromium, copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in healthy and diabetic states. This study is the first study to test these parameters in Egyptians. The study included 150 subjects divided into the following four groups: healthy middle-aged, healthy elderly, middle-aged diabetics, and elderly diabetics. Our results revealed a statistically significant decrease in the level of DHEAS in the elderly compared to middle-aged healthy and diabetic groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the middle-aged groups with respect to zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium levels. Zinc and copper were lower in the diabetic subjects while chromium and cadmium were higher in the same group in comparison to healthy subjects. In the elderly groups, there were significant increases in chromium and cadmium levels in diabetic subjects rather than healthy ones. There was a significant increase in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in the elderly healthy and diabetic groups and a significant decrease in the glutathione level in the elderly groups. There was no correlation between the levels of trace elements and DHEAS or between the levels of DHEAS, oxidants, and antioxidants in all of the tested groups. In conclusion, only the DHEAS level was correlated with age. There was no difference between the diabetic and healthy groups with respect to the levels of trace elements, with the exception of chromium and cadmium, which suggests the effect of pollution on the pathogenesis of diabetes in Egyptians. No correlation existed between the levels of DHEAS and trace elements, oxidants, and antioxidants. Finally, we believe that there is a large regional variation in the levels of trace elements due to different environmental exposure and nutritional factors which are responsible for contradictory results

  6. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  7. Progressive changes in cortical state before and after spontaneous arousals from sleep in elderly and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bruce, E N; Bruce, M C; Ramanand, P; Hayes, D

    2011-02-23

    Arousals are often considered to be events which have an abrupt onset and offset, indicating abrupt changes in the state of the cortex. We hypothesized that cortical state, as reflected in electroencephalograph (EEG) signals, exhibits progressive systematic changes before and after a spontaneous, isolated arousal and that the time courses of the spectral components of the EEG before and after an arousal would differ between healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects. We analyzed the power spectrum and Sample Entropy of the C3A2 EEG before and after isolated arousals from 20 middle-aged (47.2±2.0 years) and 20 elderly (78.4±3.8 years) women using polysomnograms from the Sleep Heart Health Study database. In middle-aged women, all EEG spectral band powers <16 Hz exhibited a significant increase relative to baseline at some time in the 21 s before an arousal, but only low- (0.2-2.0 Hz) and high-frequency (2.0-4.0 Hz) delta increased in elderly and only during the last 7 s pre-arousal. Post-arousal, all frequency bands below 12 Hz transiently fell below pre-arousal baseline in both age groups. Consistent with these findings, Sample Entropy decreased steadily before an arousal, increased markedly during the arousal, and remained above pre-arousal baseline levels for ∼30 s after the arousal. In middle-aged, but not in elderly, women the presence of early pre-arousal low delta power was associated with shorter arousals. We propose that this attenuation of the effect of the arousing stimulus may be related to the slow (<1 Hz) cortical state oscillation, and that prolonged alterations of cortical state due to arousals may contribute to the poor correlation between indices of arousals and indices of sleepiness or impaired cognitive function.

  8. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  9. The impact of a diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and aerobic exercise on memory of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Gai, Rafaela M; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-08-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and has received attention for its role as a nutrient. The combination of exercise and nutrients has been proposed to promote health. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise on memory of middle-aged rats. Male Wistar rats (12months) received standard diet chow supplemented with 1ppm of (PhSe)2 for 4weeks. Rats were submitted to swimming training (20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, memory was evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT) and in the object location test (OLT). The hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) were determined. The results of the present study demonstrated that the association of (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise improved short-term memory, long-term memory and spatial learning, and this effect was not related to the increase in hippocampal p-CREB levels in middle-age rats. This study also revealed that middle-aged rats in the swimming exercise group had the best performance in short- and long-term memory. In conclusion, we demonstrated that swimming exercise, (PhSe)2-supplemented diet or the association of these factors improved learning and memory functioning. The hippocampal levels of CREB were not directly related to the benefits of swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet association in memory of middle-aged rats.

  10. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  11. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks.

  12. Youth are more Vulnerable to False Memories than Middle-Aged Adults due to Liberal Response Bias

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Liesel-Ann C.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Jaswal, Gurpreet; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies show changes in vulnerability to false memory formation across development and into senescence. No study, however, has compared false memory formation in the critical transition period spanning late adolescence to middle adulthood. Method: Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we explored the effects of age and of emotion on false memory formation in youth (16 to 23 years of age) and in middle-aged adults (29 to 58 years of age). Results: We found that youth endorsed more false lure items than middle-aged adults. This increased vulnerability to false memory formation stemmed from a more liberal response bias in the younger group. Conclusions: Youth have a more liberal response criterion than middle-aged adults that contributes to an increased vulnerability to false memory formation. Subsequent age-related changes in response bias may reflect the maturation of frontal and temporal regions. In youth, a more liberal response bias may contribute to the heightened propensity for poor decision-making seen in this population. PMID:23133463

  13. Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by social isolation rearing in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Qi-Da; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD.

  14. Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Stress and Sleep Disturbance of Middle-Aged Women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Nam Hyun; Park, Yi Kyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    This study sought to examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on the stress and sleep status of middle-aged women in South Korea. A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. The study sample consisted of 67 middle-aged women (experimental: 35 samples; control: 32 samples) in Seoul, South Korea. Auricular acupressure therapy including the auricular acupressure needle on the skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 2 weeks, 2 times per week. The acupoints were Gyogam, Sinmun, Bushin, Naebunbi, and Pijilha. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without the auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures were a stress scale, cortisol level in blood, and a sleep status scale. The findings showed that there were significant differences on stress (physical: t = 2.170, P < .033; psychological: t = 2.117, P < .037), cortisol level in blood (t = 2.277, P < .025), and sleep status (t = -3.127, P < .004). Health care providers should consider providing auricular acupressure therapy as an alternative method for reducing physical and psychological stress, cortisol level in blood, and sleep disturbance of middle-aged women in South Korea.

  15. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Polo, C. M.; Moraes, T. M.; Pellizzon, C. H.; Marques, M. O.; Rocha, L. R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76%) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P < .05) the height of regenerated mucosa (59%) when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. PMID:23243451

  16. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  17. Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Yang, Zheng-Wei; Tang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

  18. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from five simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by FAA proficiency ratings). We developed a new STEP (Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice) model to: (1) model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the five flights, and (2) examine the effects of selected covariates (age, flight expertise, and three composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intra-individual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with either practice or interval. Results indicate that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real world tasks. PMID:26280383

  19. Relationship Quality with Parents: Implications for Own and Partner Well-Being in Middle-Aged Couples.

    PubMed

    Polenick, Courtney A; Fredman, Steffany J; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-12-22

    Relationships with parents have significant implications for well-being throughout the lifespan. At midlife, these ties are situated within both developmental and family contexts that often involve the adult offspring's spouse. Yet, it is not known how ties with aging parents are related to psychological well-being within middle-aged couples. This study examined how middle-aged wives' and husbands' views of the current quality of relationships with their own parents (positive and negative) are linked to their own and their partner's psychological well-being. Using a sample of 132 middle-aged couples from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we estimated actor-partner interdependence models to evaluate these dyadic associations while controlling for each spouse's marital satisfaction. Both actor and partner effects were observed. With respect to actor effects, wives who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had elevated depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction. Husbands who reported more negative relationship quality with their own parents had lower life satisfaction. In terms of partner effects, husbands had lower depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction when wives reported more positive relationship quality with their own parents. Finally, the link between wives' positive ties with parents and husbands' lower depressive symptoms was intensified when husbands had less positive relationships with their own parents. Findings suggest that relationship quality with wives' aging parents has implications for both spouses' well-being and may serve as a critical social resource for husbands.

  20. The Influence of Pain Severity and Interference on Satisfaction with Pain Management among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L.; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Brooks, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health outcomes are often contingent on how effective the individual is able to manage existent illness-related symptoms. This is all the more relevant among chronic pain patients. Objective. This study aimed to identify indicators of pain treatment satisfaction among middle-aged and older adults (N = 150) receiving outpatient treatment from a comprehensive cancer center. Methods. Patients were surveyed on questions assessing pain treatment satisfaction, pain severity, and additional social characteristics. Results. Descriptive data showed that middle-aged adults reported more pain locations, greater pain severity, and less satisfaction with pain treatment. A multivariate model was specified, showing older adults being more satisfied with their pain treatment. For the middle-aged adults, treatment satisfaction was generally lower with greater pain severity. This counters that for the older adults, where treatment satisfaction remained consistent despite increased levels of pain severity. Conclusion. These findings address an important issue regarding how pain is experienced across the life course. This suggests that general assumptions cannot be made about the health outcomes of older adults. Beyond the descriptive definitions of pain, there remains the need to develop models that account for determinants that may account for the pain experience among a diverse adult population. PMID:28100956

  1. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  2. [Flemish psychiatry from the middle ages to the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

    1993-01-01

    Psychiatric care or the care of the mentally ill is very ancient. However, psychiatry is only getting a part of medicine from the end of the XVIIIth Century on. Flemish psychiatric care means care for mental disturbed people in our Flemish countries; also we attend to the influences between opinions from stranger and Flemish physicians, philosophers and humanists. In the Middle Ages popular medicine, "healers" and priests interfere with the practice of the rare contemporary physicians and surgeons. Pilgrimage was the meeting-place for popular medicine, medical and religious acting. In Antwerp, Brugge, Ghent, the first hospices, hospitals and asylums arose. Geel got very well known as a unique centre of family care for crazy people. Mental disease was known as phrenesis (madness), melancholia, mania, epilepsy, rabies. In this period the possibilities of healing remained extremely limited. The Renaissance period was one of Humanism and Reform. The humanists developed a new image of humans. More, Erasmus and Vives were most critical against medieval philosophy and charged the medieval irrational thinking. Vives influenced medical, psychological and psychiatric thinking of his Flemish contemporaries. Also we can talk about the rise of Flemish humanistic medicine. For the Renaissance doctor the concept of passions of the soul as constituting disease states, treatable by opposite passions, set the stage for the consideration of affective disorders themselves as species of madness, whereas previously, madness was seen as a disorder of reason. Halfway the XVIIth Century arose what can be seen as the first biological revolution. The discovery by Harvey of the circulation in a closed system meant a sudden revolution of the Galenic scheme and introduced new ways for the physiology. The Flemish doctor J. B. van Helmont spent a long time to the reform of the medical art. His system was a prefiguration of actual functional affections, symptomatic drug therapy and talk therapy

  3. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  4. Associations between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    The ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio) and lipid accumulation product (LAP: a continuous marker of lipid over-accumulation determined by waist circumference and triglycerides) have been proposed to be good predictors of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between heavy alcohol drinking and lipid-related indices including TG/HDL-C ratio, LAP, and ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio). The subjects were middle-aged male nondrinkers and heavy drinkers (ethanol intake: ≥66 g per drinking day, which is 2-3 times or more than the generally recommended border level of daily alcohol consumption of 20-30 g). The levels of each lipid-related index after adjustment for age, smoking, and regular exercise were compared among nondrinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (mean ± standard error: 0.445 ± 0.014) than in nondrinkers (0.388 ± 0.004) and regular heavy drinkers (0.359 ± 0.013), and was not significantly different in nondrinkers and regular heavy drinkers. Log-transformed LAP was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers (1.51 ± 0.02) and regular heavy drinkers (1.44 ± 0.02) than in nondrinkers (1.34 ± 0.01), and was significantly higher in occasional heavy drinkers than in regular heavy drinkers. LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in occasional heavy drinkers (2.41 ± 0.04) and regular heavy drinkers (1.72 ± 0.04) than in nondrinkers (2.62 ± 0.01) and was significantly lower in regular heavy drinkers than in occasional heavy drinkers. Results of logistic regression analysis, using odds ratios for high lipid indices of occasional or regular heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers, agreed with the above results of analysis of covariance. Occasional heavy drinkers showed more detrimental and less favorable levels of the lipid indices than did regular heavy

  5. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Yu, Zhijie; Pan, An; Hu, Frank B.; Franco, Oscar H.; Li, Huaixing; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Xilin; Chen, Yan; Lin, Xu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and metabolic syndrome in the Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma 25(OH)D was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 1,443 men and 1,819 women aged 50–70 years from Beijing and Shanghai. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, A1C, and inflammatory markers were measured. RESULTS The geometric mean of plasma 25(OH)D was 40.4 nmol/l, and percentages of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/l] and insufficiency [50 ≤ 25(OH)D <75 nmol/l] were 69.2 and 24.4%, respectively. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D quintile (≥57.7 nmol/l), the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in the lowest quintile (≤28.7 nmol/l) was 1.52 (95% CI 1.17–1.98, Ptrend = 0.0002) after multiple adjustment. Significant inverse associations also existed between 25(OH)D and individual metabolic syndrome components plus A1C. Moreover, we observed significant inverse associations of 25(OH)D with fasting insulin and the insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in overweight and obese individuals (BMI ≥24 kg/m2) but not in their normal-weight counterparts (test for interaction: P = 0.0363 and 0.0187 for insulin and HOMA-IR, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is common in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, and a low 25(OH)D level is significantly associated with an increased risk of having metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine the role of 25(OH)D in the development of metabolic syndrome and related metabolic diseases. PMID:19366976

  6. Microfluidic serial dilution circuit.

    PubMed

    Paegel, Brian M; Grover, William H; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Joyce, Gerald F

    2006-11-01

    In vitro evolution of RNA molecules requires a method for executing many consecutive serial dilutions. To solve this problem, a microfluidic circuit has been fabricated in a three-layer glass-PDMS-glass device. The 400-nL serial dilution circuit contains five integrated membrane valves: three two-way valves arranged in a loop to drive cyclic mixing of the diluent and carryover, and two bus valves to control fluidic access to the circuit through input and output channels. By varying the valve placement in the circuit, carryover fractions from 0.04 to 0.2 were obtained. Each dilution process, which is composed of a diluent flush cycle followed by a mixing cycle, is carried out with no pipeting, and a sample volume of 400 nL is sufficient for conducting an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. Mixing is precisely controlled by changing the cyclic pumping rate, with a minimum mixing time of 22 s. This microfluidic circuit is generally applicable for integrating automated serial dilution and sample preparation in almost any microfluidic architecture.

  7. Suicide in serial killers.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  8. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  9. Young and Middle-Aged Schoolteachers Differ in the Neural Correlates of Memory Encoding and Cognitive Fatigue: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Elissa B.; Plukaard, Sarah; Evers, Elisabeth A. T.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Backes, Walter H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was inspired by growing evidence that middle-aged persons in a cognitively demanding profession might be characterized by subtle cognitive fatigue. We studied young and middle-aged male schoolteachers. They were compared in a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate differences during successful memory encoding. The schoolteachers were additionally subjected to an induced fatigue condition involving the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks and to a control condition. Results showed age-related brain activation differences underlying behavioral performance including: (1) greater activation in middle-aged vs. young teachers in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas; and (2) differential fatigue effects in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) depending on age group. Middle-aged schoolteachers showed decreased ACC activation in the fatigue compared to the control condition, whereas no change in activation was found in young teachers. Findings demonstrate age effects in these middle-aged subjects that are typically found in older adults, specifically in PFC over-activation. Findings also indicate that already in middle age cognitive aging may be associated with greater resource depletion following sustained task performance. The findings underscore the notion that persons in a cognitively demanding profession can experience subtle age effects, which are evident on fMRI and which impact daily functioning. Possible practical implications for middle-aged schoolteachers are discussed. PMID:27092068

  10. Blunted growth hormone response to maximal exercise in middle-aged versus young subjects and no effect of endurance training.

    PubMed

    Zaccaria, M; Varnier, M; Piazza, P; Noventa, D; Ermolao, A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the GH response to exercise and the effects of endurance training on this response in early middle-aged men. Seven healthy middle-aged [M; 42.0+/-2.4 (+/-SD) yr old] and five young (Y; 21.2+/-1.1 yr old) competition cyclists were investigated before and after 4 months of intensive endurance training. Subjects performed an exhaustive incremental exercise test (50 watts for 3 min) with gas exchange measurement, and blood samples for lactate, glucose, and GH determinations were drawn before exercise, at the end of the exercise, and in the recovery phase (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min). Basal insulin-like growth factor I was also determined. At exhaustion no differences were found in relative maximal heart rate or blood lactate and glucose peaks. On the contrary, the two groups had markedly different GH responses; in fact, the peak GH response to exhaustive exercise was much lower in M than in Y (8.1+/-1.3 vs. 57.1+/-15.5 microg/L; P<0.01). The training, similar in subjects of the same group, increased progressively from 182 to 300 km/week (+64.8%) in M and from 350 to 600 km/week (+71.4%) in Y. After the training, the percent increase in maximal oxygen consumption was similar in the two groups (M, +15.2%; Y, +17.5%), confirming that the efficiency of the training performed was comparable. In neither group did training have any effect on the GH peak response to exercise, confirming the blunted GH response in M compared to Y (6.7+/-1.0 vs. 61.0+/-12.9 microg/L; P<0.01). Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I concentrations were not significantly affected by training. In conclusion, active middle-aged subjects, compared with the young, showed a blunted GH response to a physiological stimulus such as exercise, indicating that the age-related decline in GH secretion appears in early middle age. This response was not modified by training in either early middle-aged or young subjects.

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Rebecca S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Smith, Caroline J; Berkowitz, Dan E; Kenney, W Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A

    2012-06-01

    Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation but little is known about the middle aged, an age cohort used for comparison with clinical populations. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the primary isoform mediating NO production during local heating, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation would be reduced in middle-aged skin. Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) and during acetylcholine dose-response (ACh-DR: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0 mmol/l) protocols. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 24 men and women; age cohorts were 12 middle-aged (53 ± 1 yr) and 12 young (23 ± 1 yr). Sites served as control, nonselective NOS inhibited [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)], inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibited (1400W), and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibited (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine). After full expression of the local heating response, l-NAME was perfused at all sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured and normalized to maximum (%CVC(max): Nitropress). l-NAME reduced %CVCmax at baseline, all phases of the local heating response, and at all ACh concentrations compared with all other sites. iNOS inhibition reduced the initial peak (53 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2%CVC(max); P < 0.001); however, there were no other differences between control, nNOS-, and iNOS-inhibited sites during the phases of local heating or ACh-DR. When age cohorts were compared, NO-dependent vasodilation during local heating (52 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 4%CVC(max); P = 0.013) and ACh perfusion (50 mmol/l: 83 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 2%CVC(max); 100 mmol/l: 83 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 3%CVC(max); both P = 0.03) were reduced in middle-aged skin. There were no differences in NOS isoform expression obtained from skin biopsy samples between groups (all

  12. The Acquisition of Serial Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire survey of large research libraries on procedures and special problems in serials acquisitions. Cooperative programs are discussed, including the Latin American Cooperative Acquisitions Program and the National Serials Data Program. (JS)

  13. Effects of ovariectomy on indices of insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac energy metabolism in middle-aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    PubMed

    Swislocki, A; Burgie, E S; Rodnick, K J

    2002-09-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The protection of young women from coronary events is sharply reduced with menopause. To assess the impact of menopause on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, body weight gain, heart size, and cardiac energy metabolism, we studied 28-week-old female SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, who were either ovariectomized (SHR(OVX) and WKY(OVX)) or sham-operated (SHR(SHAM) and WKY(SHAM)). Animals underwent blood-pressure measurement and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Hearts were weighed and assayed for metabolic enzyme activities. Female SHR were 33 % lighter and hypertensive (+ 36 mmHg), with 33 % larger hearts (when corrected for body weight differences) compared to WKY. Although ovariectomized animals of both strains were heavier overall than their sham-operated counterparts, when heart weights were corrected for body weight, both OVX strains had lighter hearts than both SHAM strains. Glucose and insulin responses during OGTT were similar between the four groups; however, free fatty acid (FFA) responses were approximately 50 % greater in SHR than WKY, although less in SHR(OVX) than SHR(SHAM). WKY(OVX) demonstrated 8 % lower ventricular hexokinase activity than WKY(SHAM), which may reflect reduced cardiac glucose utilization. We also noted 16 % higher citrate synthase activity in WKY hearts. In conclusion, the insulin resistance characteristic of younger SHR is blunted in middle-aged female rats, although FFA responses remain elevated. Ovariectomy did not alter in vivo glucose tolerance in this group; however, sex hormones may be important in maintaining normal heart size and the potential for cardiac glucose metabolism.

  14. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism affects quality of life and cardiac morphology and function in young and middle-aged patients.

    PubMed

    Biondi, B; Palmieri, E A; Fazio, S; Cosco, C; Nocera, M; Saccà, L; Filetti, S; Lombardi, G; Perticone, F

    2000-12-01

    (P: = 0.036). The Doppler parameters of diastolic function were significantly impaired in the patients as documented by the reduced early to late ratio of the transmitral flow velocities (P: < 0.001) and the prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (P: = 0.006). These data indicate that endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has a relevant clinical impact and that it affects cardiac morphology and function. Moreover, they suggest that treatment of persistent endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism should be considered also in young and middle-aged patients to attenuate specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess, ameliorate the quality of life, and avoid the consequences to the heart of long exposure to a mild excess of thyroid hormone.

  15. Management of Serials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisonger, Thomas E.

    This volume reviews current options for handling serials problems and clarifies fundamental issues in one of the greatest challenges confronting today's library and information science professionals. Focusing on the management of serials in libraries and the role of serials in scholarly communications, this book combines descriptive and…

  16. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  17. Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-05-20

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in China. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

  18. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  19. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  20. Loss of myocardial protection against myocardial infarction in middle-aged transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac thioredoxin-1

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Tamara; Muñoz, Marina C.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Carreras, María C.; Poderoso, Juan José; Sadoshima, Junichi; Gelpi, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Given that the age at which the first episode of coronary disease takes place has considerably decreased, life at middle-aged (MA) emerges as a new field of study. The aim was determine whether infarct size, Trx1 expression and activity, Akt and GSK-3β were altered in young (Y) and MA mice overexpressing cardiac Trx1, and in a dominant negative (DN-Trx1) mutant of Trx1. Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion (R). We used 3 and 12 month-old male of wild type (WT), Trx1, and DN-Trx1. Trx1 overexpression reduced infarct size in young mice (WT-Y: 46.8±4.1% vs. Trx1-Y: 27.6±3.5%, p < 0.05). Trx1 activity was reduced by 52.3±3.2% (p < 0.05) in Trx1-MA, accompanied by an increase in nitration by 17.5±0.9%, although Trx1 expression in transgenic mice was similar between young and middle-aged. The expression of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β increased during reperfusion in Trx1-Y. DN-Trx1 mice showed neither reduction in infarct size nor Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Our data suggest that the lack of protection in Trx1 middle-aged mice even with normal Trx1 expression may be associated to decreased Trx1 activity, increased nitration and inhibition of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β. PMID:26933812

  1. The effect of physical exercise on bone density in middle-aged and older men: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; van Uffelen, J G Z; Taaffe, D R

    2013-11-01

    Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

  2. Blockade of hippocampal bradykinin B1 receptors improves spatial learning and memory deficits in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Rafael M; Guerra de Souza, Ana C; Bicca, Maíra A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; de Mello, Nelson; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Calixto, João B; Prediger, Rui D

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that targeting bradykinin receptors is a promising strategy to counteract the cognitive impairment related with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampus is critical for cognition, and abnormalities in this brain region are linked to the decline in mental ability. Nevertheless, the impact of bradykinin signaling on hippocampal function is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of hippocampal bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R on the cognitive decline of middle-aged rats. Twelve-month-old rats exhibited impaired ability to acquire and retrieve spatial information in the Morris water maze task. A single intra-hippocampal injection of the selective B1R antagonist des-Arg(9)-[Leu(8)]-bradykinin (DALBK, 3 nmol), but not the selective B2R antagonist D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),D-Tic(7),Oic(8)]-BK (Hoe 140, 3 nmol), reversed the spatial learning and memory deficits on these animals. However, both drugs did not affect the cognitive function in 3-month-old rats, suggesting absence of nootropic properties. Molecular biology analysis revealed an up-regulation of B1R expression in the hippocampal CA1 sub-region and in the pre-frontal cortex of 12-month-old rats, whereas no changes in the B2R expression were observed in middle-aged rats. These findings provide new evidence that inappropriate hippocampal B1R expression and activation exert a critical role on the spatial learning and memory deficits in middle-aged rats. Therefore, selective B1R antagonists, especially orally active non-peptide antagonists, may represent drugs of potential interest to counteract the age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  4. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  5. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  6. How family support affects physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and elderly people before and after they suffer from chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.

  7. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype’s trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. Design and outcomes The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004 = 5009, N2008 = 5301, N2013 = 4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype’s distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Results Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by −0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.352, −0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by −0.293 (CI: −0.403, −0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Conclusion Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. PMID:27105690

  8. Serially recurrent osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a relatively common, benign, painful tumor of bone. It is widely believed to run a course culminating in spontaneous regression. The tumor can usually be eliminated by excision or ablation, although it may recur locally. Although management has classically been surgical, thermocoagulation via percutaneously delivered radiofrequency energy has demonstrated excellent results, typically resulting in durable response following a single treatment. Here, we present an unusual case of serially recurrent pathologically proven pediatric osteoid osteoma, treated by radiofrequency ablation five times over the course of 11 years. Limitations of RF ablation of osteoid osteoma and possible factors predisposing to incomplete treatment or recurrence are discussed.

  9. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  10. Early life loss and trauma: eating disorder onset in a middle-aged male--a case study.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lynne; Lewis, Vivienne; Wells, Jonathan R

    2014-03-01

    The onset of an eating disorder in middle-age men is poorly researched as are eating disorders in men generally. Therefore, life events that influence eating disorders in men, including delayed onset of an eating disorder remains unknown. Given the limited understanding of males with eating disorders and limited access to large samples of men with eating disorders, an in-depth analysis of a single case of a male in middle age with an eating disorder was chosen to gain insight and understanding into this phenomenon. A Life History approach explored the case of Joseph (pseudonym), who was diagnosed at age 44 years with an Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Data were collected through (a) life course open-ended questioning through interviews, (b) written statements, and (c) comments on transcripts. Three themes emerged, loss and unworthiness, becoming bigger, and wanting to change reflecting eating behaviors associated with attachment disruption, loss and trauma, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect. Later in life, an emotional "tipping point" precipitated an eating disorder. Results indicate traumatic loss leading to early attachment disruption as influential in Joseph's delayed onset of an eating disorder. The value of thorough narrative life histories during therapy when eating disorders occur late in life is discussed as well as the significance for men.

  11. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). After 3 years of follow-up, the ⊿baPWV was significantly greater in subjects with persistent depression compared with those with no depression (36 ± 28 vs. 18 ± 10 cm s(-1), P = 0.02). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, persistent depression was significantly associated with ⊿baPWV by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.261, P < 0.01). To sum up, persistent depression was a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  12. Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Berman, Sara E; Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Krause, Rachel A; Oh, Jennifer M; Beeri, Michal S; Rowley, Howard A; Wieben, Oliver; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Schrage, William G; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with poor cerebrovascular health and increased risk for dementia. Little is known about the unique effect of IR on both micro- and macrovascular flow particularly in midlife when interventions against dementia may be most effective. We examined the effect of IR as indexed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) on cerebral blood flow in macro- and microvessels utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. We hypothesized that higher HOMA-IR would be associated with reduced flow in macrovessels and lower cortical perfusion. One hundred and twenty cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults (57 ± 5 yrs) underwent fasting blood draw, phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (PC VIPR) MRI, and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower arterial blood flow, particularly within the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), and lower cerebral perfusion in several brain regions including frontal and temporal lobe regions. Higher blood flow in bilateral ICAs predicted greater cortical perfusion in individuals with lower HOMA-IR, a relationship not observed among those with higher HOMA-IR. Findings provide novel evidence for an uncoupling of macrovascular blood flow and microvascular perfusion among individuals with higher IR in midlife.

  13. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  14. Assessment of the contribution of APOE gene variants to metabolic phenotypes associated with familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oudt, Charlotte H.; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of long-lived families are characterized by beneficial metabolic phenotypes in glucose and lipid metabolism and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although the genetic basis for human longevity remains largely unclear, the contribution of variation at the APOE locus has been repeatedly demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether ApoE isoforms mark the familial longevity status in middle age and subsequently to test to what extend this association is mediated by the metabolic characteristics marking this status. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), we included offspring from nonagenarian siblings and partners as controls. Using the metabolic phenotypes of familial longevity as mediators, we investigated how APOE gene variants associated with LLS offspring/control status (in 1,515 LLS offspring and 715 controls). Within the LLS (mean age = 59.2 years), ApoE ε4 was not associated with a lower likelihood of being an LLS offspring, whereas ApoE ɛ2 was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of being an LLS offspring (odds ratio = 1.43), but this difference was not mediated (p-values>0.05) by any of the investigated metabolic phenotypes (e.g., diabetes and glucose). Therefore, variation at the APOE locus may not influence familial longevity status in middle age significantly through any of the metabolic mechanisms investigated. PMID:27540764

  15. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Taue, Masao; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control). Course length (17-min walk), walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals. PMID:25739004

  16. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  17. Development of anatomic science in the late middle ages: the roles played by Mondino de Liuzzi and Guido da Vigevano.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Colen, Chaim; Dass, Kathleen; Guthikonda, Murali

    2009-10-01

    Medical historians generally consider anatomic science, as we know it today, to have been established through the pioneering work of Vesalius during the Renaissance. Although this is largely true, detailed assessment of the scientific advances made in the late Middle Ages, though not as spectacular as those made during the Renaissance period, did pave the way and form a foundation for subsequent progress. During the two centuries of AD 1300 to 1500, several worthwhile advances occurred. Many universities, centers of learning excellence, were established throughout Europe, most notably in Italy. King Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, established guidelines for medical education and practice that seem to parallel current regulations. Human cadaveric dissection was performed, after a hiatus of over 1700 years, as the foundation for the study of anatomy. Observation of human dissection became a requirement for medical students. A manual for anatomic dissection was written, printed, and published for the first time in history by Mondino de Liuzzi. His student, Guido da Vigevano, who also had an engineering background, established two "firsts" of his own: providing illustrations of anatomy and designing the first automobile in history. The authors believe that the contributions of these two key anatomists in the late Middle Ages should not be forgotten.

  18. Cerebroprotection by the neuronal PGE2 receptor EP2 after intracerebral hemorrhage in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, He; Wu, Tao; Han, Xiaoning; Wan, Jieru; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Wenwu; Lu, Hong; Yang, Qingwu; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by prostaglandins such as PGE2 may contribute to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the cell-specific signaling by PGE2 receptor EP2 differs depending on whether the neuropathic insult is acute or chronic. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we investigated the role of EP2 receptor in two mouse models of ICH induced by intrastriatal injection of collagenase or autologous arterial whole blood. We used middle-aged male mice to enhance the clinical relevance of the study. EP2 receptor was expressed in neurons but not in astrocytes or microglia after collagenase-induced ICH. Brain injury after collagenase-induced ICH was associated with enhanced cellular and molecular inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity. EP2 receptor deletion exacerbated brain injury, brain swelling/edema, neuronal death, and neurobehavioral deficits, whereas EP2 receptor activation by the highly selective agonist AE1-259-01 reversed these outcomes. EP2 receptor deletion also exacerbated brain edema and neurologic deficits in the blood ICH model. These findings support the premise that neuronal EP2 receptor activation by PGE2 protects brain against ICH injury in middle-aged mice through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects and anti-MMP-2/9 activity. PGE2/EP2 signaling warrants further investigation for potential use in ICH treatment.

  19. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  20. Environmental and individual correlates of various types of physical activity among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kobori, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-17

    Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40-69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form), and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  1. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  2. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  3. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  4. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Ott, Stefanie; Bukowski, Martin; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and gray matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI > 6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group), and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group). All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT) and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials. PMID:26052275

  5. Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

  6. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  7. Effect of belly dancing on urinary incontinence-related muscles and vaginal pressure in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    An, So-Young; Kim, Seung-Suk; Han, Gunsoo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of belly dancing on the urinary incontinence-related muscles and vaginal pressure in middle-aged women to provide fundamental data for establishing an effective training program focusing on mitigating and preventing urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 24 middle-aged women, who have been diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, viz. the experimental group (N=12) and control group (N=12). The experimental group underwent a belly dancing program focusing on pelvis moves. [Results] In the experimental group, the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure were increased, while the control group showed no significant change. [Conclusion] Belly dancing focusing on pelvis moves had a positive effect on the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure, suggesting that a recreational dance program focusing on pelvic exercise can be used to prevent and relieve the symptoms of urinary incontinence as a non-surgical treatment. PMID:28356615

  8. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A.; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3+ T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging. PMID:27976725

  9. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility.

  10. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement.

  11. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  12. Modulation of gut microbiota and delayed immunosenescence as a result of syringaresinol consumption in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Juewon; Lee, Ji Hae; Sim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Hyunbok; Seol, Min A; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Tae-Joo; Kim, Dae-Yong; Lee, Su-Hyung; Shin, Song Seok; Lm, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Hang-Rae

    2016-12-15

    Age-associated immunological dysfunction (immunosenescence) is closely linked to perturbation of the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated whether syringaresinol (SYR), a polyphenolic lignan, modulates immune aging and the gut microbiota associated with this effect in middle-aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, SYR treatment delayed immunosenescence by enhancing the numbers of total CD3(+) T cells and naïve T cells. SYR treatment induced the expression of Bim as well as activation of FOXO3 in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, SYR treatment significantly enhanced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with that in age-matched controls by increasing beneficial bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while reducing the opportunistic pathogenic genus, Akkermansia. In addition, SYR treatment reduced the serum level of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, an inflammatory marker, and enhanced humoral immunity against influenza vaccination to the level of young control mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that SYR may rejuvenate the immune system through modulation of gut integrity and microbiota diversity as well as composition in middle-aged mice, which may delay the immunosenescence associated with aging.

  13. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  14. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M.; El-Baiomy, Azza A.; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement. PMID:24616825

  15. Sex-Role Change, Anomie and Female Suicide: A Test of Alternative Durkheimian Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roy L; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used trend analysis of suicide rate and female/male suicide ratios from 1950 to 1984 and regression of ratio on educational attainment, labor force participation, fertility, and divorce rates to examine explanations for rate changes. General anomie explanation of female suicide trends was supported for middle-aged females; conjugal anomie…

  16. Risk factors for osteoporosis are common in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fractures regardless of trauma mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose There have been few prospective studies examining young and middle-aged patients with hip fracture. We therefore investigated background data, risk factors, and the trauma mechanism in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods 185 patients, 27 young (20–49 years old) and 158 middle-aged (50–69 years old) were prospectively included in a multicenter study lasting 3 years. Background data and risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were obtained, and the type of injury was classified as low-energy trauma, high-energy trauma, or sports injury. Results In the young age group, the fracture occurred because of low-energy trauma in two-fifths of patients and because of sport injury in two-fifths of patients. The rest occurred because of high-energy trauma. The corresponding proportions for the middle-aged group were four-fifths, one tenth, and one tenth (p < 0.001). There was a higher proportion of men (19/27) in the young group than in the middle-aged group (69/158) (p = 0.001). One fifth of the young patients were smokers as compared to two-fifths in the middle-age group (p = 0.04). One quarter of the patients reported high-volume alcohol drinking, with no difference between the two groups. Furthermore, three-quarters of the young patients and four-fifths of the middle-aged patients had one or more risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. Interpretation A minority of patients in each age group had high-energy trauma as the cause of their femoral neck fracture. Lifestyle factors and other non-trauma-related risk factors appear to have been important contributors to the occurrence of femoral neck fracture in both age groups. PMID:23343373

  17. Cold Water Swimming Beneficially Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Individuals.

    PubMed

    Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Chęcińska, Zuzanna; Korek, Emilia; Kupsz, Justyna; Sowińska, Anna; Krauss, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.

  18. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  19. Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults1,2

    PubMed Central

    English, Kirk L; Mettler, Joni A; Ellison, Jennifer B; Mamerow, Madonna M; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Pattarini, James M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity triggers a rapid loss of muscle mass and function in older adults. Middle-aged adults show few phenotypic signs of aging yet may be more susceptible to inactivity than younger adults. Objective: The aim was to determine whether leucine, a stimulator of translation initiation and skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), can protect skeletal muscle health during bed rest. Design: We used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess changes in skeletal MPS, cellular signaling, body composition, and skeletal muscle function in middle-aged adults (n = 19; age ± SEM: 52 ± 1 y) in response to leucine supplementation (LEU group: 0.06 g ∙ kg−1 ∙ meal−1) or an alanine control (CON group) during 14 d of bed rest. Results: Bed rest decreased postabsorptive MPS by 30% ± 9% (CON group) and by 10% ± 10% (LEU group) (main effect for time, P < 0.05), but no differences between groups with respect to pre-post changes (group × time interactions) were detected for MPS or cell signaling. Leucine protected knee extensor peak torque (CON compared with LEU group: −15% ± 2% and −7% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) and endurance (CON compared with LEU: −14% ± 3% and −2% ± 4%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05), prevented an increase in body fat percentage (group × time interaction, P < 0.05), and reduced whole-body lean mass loss after 7 d (CON compared with LEU: −1.5 ± 0.3 and −0.8 ± 0.3 kg; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) but not 14 d (CON compared with LEU: −1.5 ± 0.3 and −1.0 ± 0.3 kg) of bed rest. Leucine also maintained muscle quality (peak torque/kg leg lean mass) after 14 d of bed-rest inactivity (CON compared with LEU: −9% ± 2% and +1% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Bed rest has a profoundly negative effect on muscle metabolism, mass, and function in middle-aged adults. Leucine supplementation may partially protect muscle health during relatively

  20. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Franklin, Stanley S.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. METHODS CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). RESULTS During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH

  1. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  2. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chan, Jessie S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners.Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively.VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P < 0.001), a 60.8% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of knee flexors (P < 0.001), and a 31.4% shorter time to reach peak torque in the knee flexors (P = 0.001) than the active controls. No significant differences were found in any of the other musculoskeletal outcomes between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults.

  3. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  4. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  5. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, V.Z.; Guerra, R.L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females) performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2) was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and the WV at VT (WV-VT) was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h); the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84); the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96), and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87). The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h) and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36). HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23369974

  6. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  7. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Karen A; Desjardins, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual's cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants' aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person's performance on auditory working memory tests.

  8. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  9. Exposure to an enriched environment up to middle age allows preservation of spatial memory capabilities in old age.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Fanny; Cosquer, Brigitte; Penazzi, Lorène; Mathis, Chantal; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra

    2016-02-15

    In rats, some cognitive capabilities, like spatial learning and memory, are preserved from age-related decline by whole adult life enriched environment (EE) exposure. However, to which extent late EE contributes to such maintenance remains to be investigated. Here we assessed the impact of late housing condition (e.g., from the age of 18 months) on spatial learning and memory of aged rats (24 months) previously exposed or unexposed to EE from young adulthood. The results showed that late EE was not required for spatial memory maintenance in aged rats previously housed in EE. In contrast, late EE mitigates spatial memory deficit in aged rats previously unexposed to EE. These outcomes suggest that EE exposure up to middle age provides a "reserve"-like advantage which supports an enduring preservation of spatial capabilities in old age.

  10. Vascular function, cerebral cortical thickness, and cognitive performance in middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Evan P; Kaur, Sonya S; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Machin, Daniel R; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2015-04-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk for acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health with measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, sex, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized by β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (P=.04) with concurrently lower language (P=.02), memory (P=.03), and attention-executive functioning (P=.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics.

  11. [Effort-reward imbalance at work and depressive symptoms--a cross-sectional investigation of middle-aged employees].

    PubMed

    Larisch, Marianne; Joksimovic, Ljiljana; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Starke, Dagmar; Siegrist, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    This study explored associations of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged employees. Psychosocial stress at work was conceptualized in terms of the model of effort-reward imbalance. This model is measured by a psychometric scale containing 23 Likert-scaled items. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the German version of the CES-D scale. The sample consisted of 316 (44.6 +/- 7.5 years) men and women employed in an urban transport enterprise. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders indicated an odds ratio of 5.9 (95 % CI 2.4 - 14.3) for depressive symptoms among employees defined by imbalance of high effort and low reward at work. An association of similar strength was found among employees characterized by a high level of work-related over-commitment. Findings reported for the first time in Germany are in line with two international investigations.

  12. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  13. A longitudinal study of back pain and radiological changes in the lumbar spines of middle aged women. II. Radiographic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, D P; van Hemert, A M; Vandenbroucke, J P; Valkenburg, H A

    1991-01-01

    The natural history of radiological changes in the lumbar spine was evaluated in two groups of middle aged Dutch women selected from the general population. One group (n = 236) had recurrent back pain and the other (n = 241) had never experienced back pain. At the beginning of the study disc degeneration was more common in the group with back pain. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were equally common in both groups. Nine years later both groups showed an increase in prevalence of disc degeneration and osteoporotic fractures. The strongest predictor for change in disc degeneration was the presence of degeneration at the beginning of the study. The development of disc degeneration for the first time was related to body mass index. PMID:1826598

  14. Developmental Study of Serial Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dolores J.; And Others

    This study examines serial habituation in a sample of 54 infants aged 2, 3, and 4 months to determine whether age changes are partially a function of different "strategies" rather than simply different rates of habituation. The serial habituation hypothesis proposes that attention and habituation of attention proceed in order of the relative…

  15. Current Issues in Serials Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Benita M., Ed.; Bearman, Toni Carbo, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The July 1975 issue of Drexel Library Quarterly is dedicated to current issues in serials librarianship. Two contributors present conflicting opinions on means of bibliographic control, specifically main entries and the International Standard Bibliographic Description (Serials) (ISBD(S). International issues are discussed, as are major national…

  16. Stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication in middle aged men: Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Osika, Walter; Bihagen, Erik; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant

  17. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakao, Rieko; Kawasaki, Ryokko; Nitta, Akiko; Hamada, Yukari; Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-06-18

    Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers' various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as "listeners", to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.

  18. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-02-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16-17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW-). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8-163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW- rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle.

  19. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults.

  20. Limited Effects of Endurance or Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua H. F.; Collins, Blake E. G.; Adams, David R.; Robergs, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether “active” or “passive” recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m2) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk−1 ET (n = 15; 50–60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4–10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14). Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body and visceral fat mass, and plasma systemic inflammation were examined. Results. Compared to CON, significant increases in interpolated power output (P-SIT, P < 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.041) and test duration (P-SIT, P = 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.046) occurred after training. Final VO2 consumption was increased after P-SIT only (P < 0.001). Despite >90% exercise compliance, there was no change in whole-body or visceral fat mass or plasma inflammation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In sedentary middle-aged men, SIT was a time-effective alternative to ET in facilitating conditioning responses yet was ineffective in altering body composition and plasma inflammation, and compared to passive recovery, evidenced diminished conditioning responses when employing active recovery. PMID:27777795

  1. Clustered drug and sexual HIV risk among a sample of middle-aged injection drug users, Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Noor, Syed W B; Ross, Michael W; Lai, Dejian; Risser, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a clustered pattern of high-risk drug using and sexual behaviors among younger injection drug users (IDUs), however, no studies have looked at this clustering pattern in relatively older IDUs. This analysis examines the interplay and overlap of drug and sexual HIV risk among a sample of middle-aged, long-term IDUs in Houston, Texas. Our study includes 452 eligible IDUs, recruited into the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project. Four separate multiple logistic regression models were built to examine the odds of reporting a given risk behavior. We constructed the most parsimonious multiple logistic regression model using a manual backward stepwise process. Participants were mostly male, older (mean age: 49.5±6.63), and nonHispanic Black. Prevalence of receptive needle sharing as well as having multiple sex partners and having unprotected sex with a partner in exchange for money, drugs, or other things at last sex were high. Unsafe injecting practices were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors. IDUs, who used a needle after someone else had injected with it had higher odds of having more than three sex partners (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.12) in last year and who shared drug preparation equipment had higher odds of having unprotected sex with an exchange partner (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.66-9.09) at last sex. Additionally, homelessness was associated with unsafe injecting practices but not with high-risk sexual behaviors. Our results show that a majority of the sample IDUs are practicing sexual as well as drug-using HIV risk behaviors. The observed clustering pattern of drug and sexual risk behavior among this middle-aged population is alarming and deserve attention of HIV policy-makers and planners.

  2. Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongye; Ma, Aiguo; Li, Yong; Han, Xiuxia; Wang, Qiuzhen; Liang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Elderly people are subject to higher levels of oxidative stress than are young people. Vitamin E, as a powerful antioxidant residing mainly in biomembranes, may provide effective protection against oxidative membrane damage and resultant age-related deterioration, especially in the elderly. We hypothesized that appropriate levels of vitamin E supplementation would protect erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress and thus improve membrane fluidity in healthy middle-aged and elderly people. To test this, we conducted a 4-month double-blind, randomized trial in which 180 healthy subjects (55-70 years old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), and 3 treatment groups in which daily doses of 100 mg (VE1), 200 mg (VE2), and 300 mg (VE3) dl-α-tocopheryl acetate were administered. We measured plasma α-tocopherol concentration, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, erythrocyte hemolysis, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the beginning and end of the trial. After 4 months supplementation, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in the 3 treatment groups had increased by 71%, 78%, and 95%, respectively (all P < .01), and significant decreases in plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were observed in these groups (all P < .05). Erythrocyte hemolysis was decreased by 20% to 38% after vitamin E supplementation (all P < .05), and in addition, groups VE2 and VE3 showed dramatic improvements in erythrocyte membrane fluidity (P < .01). Surprisingly, superoxide dismutase activity also decreased significantly in the treatment groups (all P < .05). In summary, vitamin E supplementation apparently alleviates oxidative stress in healthy middle-aged to elderly people, at least in part by improving erythrocyte membrane fluidity and reducing erythrocyte hemolysis.

  3. The Efficacy of Mirodenafil for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Do Hoon; Yun, Chang Jin; Park, Nam Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mirodenafil in middle-aged male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Materials and Methods Eighty-eight males with CP/CPPS were randomized to receive either levofloxacin (500 mg/d) (group L, 40 patients) or levofloxacin (500 mg/d) and mirodenafil (50 mg/d) (group ML, 48 patients) for six weeks. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire were used to grade symptoms at baseline and 6 weeks after treatment. Results The mean change in total IPSS from baseline was higher in group ML than that in group L (group L, -1.1 vs. group ML, -4.3; p<0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in the IPSS voiding subscore (group L, -0.7 vs. group ML, -3.0; p<0.05). Changes observed in the NIH-CPSI of group ML at six weeks were greater than those at baseline (group L, -3.2 vs. group ML, -7.2; p<0.05). Significant improvements were seen in the NIH-CPSI voiding (group L, -0.5 vs. group ML, -1.7; p<0.05) and quality of life domains (group L, -1.0 vs. group ML, -1.8; p<0.05). Group ML showed a significantly greater increase in the IIEF-EF score than did group ML (group L, +0.2 vs. group ML, +7.8; p<0.05). Conclusions Mirodenafil (50 mg once daily) was well tolerated and resulted in significant symptomatic improvement in middle-aged males with CP/CPPS. PMID:25606563

  4. Genistein-induced histomorphometric and hormone secreting changes in the adrenal cortex in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ajdzanović, Vladimir; Sosić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Sekulić, Milka; Milosević, Verica

    2009-02-01

    The soybean phytoestrogen, genistein, is increasingly consumed as an alternative therapeutic for age-related diseases, namely cardiovascular conditions, cancer and osteoporosis. Besides estrogenic/antiestrogenic action, this isoflavone exerts a prominent inhibitory effect on tyrosine kinase and the steroidogenic enzyme families, thus affecting hormonal homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genistein on: histomorphometric features of the adrenal cortex, blood concentrations of aldosterone, corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and adrenal tissue corticosterone content in orchidectomized middle-aged male rats. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated (SO), orchidectomized (Orx) and genistein-treated orchidectomized (Orx+G) groups. Genistein (30 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for three weeks, while the control groups received the vehicle alone. The adrenal cortex was analysed histologically and morphometrically. Circulating concentrations of aldosterone, corticosterone and DHEA, as well as adrenal tissue corticosterone levels, were determined by immunoassay. When compared to the SO group, orchidectomy decreased the ZG and ZR cell volume by 43% and 29%, respectively (P<0.05). Serum concentrations of aldosterone and DHEA were markedly lower [13% and 41%, respectively (P<0.05)], while serum and adrenal tissue levels of corticosterone did not change after orchidectomy. Orchidectomy followed by genistein treatment increased the ZG, ZF and ZR cell volume by 54%, 34% and 77%, respectively (P<0.05), compared to the untreated orchidectomized group. Histological analysis revealed noticeable vacuolization of the ZG and ZF cells in the Orx+G group. Serum aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations together with adrenal tissue corticosterone were 47%, 31% and 44% lower, respectively (P<0.05), whereas serum DHEA concentration was 342% higher (P<0.05) in this group in comparison with the Orx group. This study

  5. Loading dose of physical activity is related to muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Jaswinder; Lee, Raymond; Luo, Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between loading dose of physical activity, muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women. Thirty four healthy women (mean age=49.8±7.5years) were recruited. They were requested to wear an accelerometer for a period of 10h (from 9am to 7pm) on a day to record the acceleration. On a separate day their knee extension torque (KET) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at the heel by an ultrasound bone scanner. The loading dose of physical activity was calculated at four intensity categories - very light, light, moderate, and vigorous (intensities of <5BW/s, 5-10BW/s, 10-15BW/s and >15BW/s) and for three frequency bands - 0.1-2Hz, 2-4Hz, and 4-6Hz. Correlation analysis was used to examine the association between loading dose and age, KET, and BUA. With the increase of age, there tended to be a decrease in the loading dose of vigorous activity in 2-4 and 4-6Hz frequency bands (Kendall's tau=-.22, p<.1). The increase of loading dose in all three frequency bands in moderate or vigorous activity was associated with higher BUA (Kendall's tau=.27-.41, p<.05). The increase of loading dose in all frequency bands in light, moderate, or vigorous activity was associated with higher KET (Kendall's tau=.30-.45, p<.05). It is concluded that physical activity, especially that at high intensity level and high frequency range, may have beneficial effect on muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women.

  6. Interactions of hearing loss and Diabetes Mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Olga N.; Frisina, Susan T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broadband noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (~32g), but there was a significant (~5g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited ~10g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3 fold for T1DM, 1.3 fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus. PMID:19271313

  7. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  8. Effects of sodium nitrite supplementation on vascular function and related small metabolite signatures in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lawrence C.; Brooks, Forrest A.; Evans, Trent D.; Justice, Jamie N.; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Reisdorph, Nichole; Bryan, Nathan S.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Bassett, Candace J.; Sindler, Amy L.; Giordano, Tony; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening with aging. Supplementation with sodium nitrite, a precursor of NO, ameliorates age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in mice, but effects on humans, including the metabolic pathways altered, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of oral sodium nitrite supplementation for improving vascular function in middle-aged and older adults and to identify related circulating metabolites. Ten weeks of sodium nitrite (80 or 160 mg/day, capsules, TheraVasc; randomized, placebo control, double blind) increased plasma nitrite acutely (5- to 15-fold, P < 0.001 vs. placebo) and chronically (P < 0.10) and was well tolerated without symptomatic hypotension or clinically relevant elevations in blood methemoglobin. Endothelial function, measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, increased 45-60% vs. baseline (P < 0.10) without changes in body mass or blood lipids. Measures of carotid artery elasticity (ultrasound and applanation tonometry) improved (decreased β-stiffness index, increased cross-sectional compliance, P < 0.05) without changes in brachial or carotid artery blood pressure. Aortic pulse wave velocity was unchanged. Nitrite-induced changes in vascular measures were significantly related to 11 plasma metabolites identified by untargeted analysis. Baseline abundance of multiple metabolites, including glycerophospholipids and fatty acyls, predicted vascular changes with nitrite. This study provides evidence that sodium nitrite supplementation is well tolerated, increases plasma nitrite concentrations, improves endothelial function, and lessens carotid artery stiffening in middle-aged and older adults, perhaps by altering multiple metabolic pathways, thereby warranting a larger clinical trial. PMID:26607249

  9. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls.

  10. Smoking Status, Physical Health–Related Quality of Life, and Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Women who smoke, particularly older women, have been relatively neglected in smoking research. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the relation of level of smoking to quality of life and mortality among middle-aged and older women smokers. Methods: This study examined the relation of smoking status to physical health–related quality of life (PHRQL) and total mortality in women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were 90,849 postmenopausal women, who were an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple linear and Cox proportional hazards regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Never-smokers were the reference group. Results: We found that smoking status was significantly related to PHRQL cross-sectionally at baseline and prospectively at a 3-year follow-up, with those who smoked having lower PHRQL. Heavier smokers showed large, clinically meaningful associations with PHRQL and light smokers showed small associations. In addition, we found that the smoking status at baseline was significantly related to 10-year total mortality. Both light and heavier smoking at baseline significantly correlated with higher mortality risk; however, the relationship of smoking to mortality was dose dependent. Among former smokers, those who had smoked longer showed significantly lower PHRQL and significantly increased mortality risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the risks of smoking may not be evident to light smokers and that educational interventions targeted to middle-aged and older women stressing the consequences of light smoking may be particularly beneficial. PMID:22965789

  11. Second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram and cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Noriko; Kawakami, Hideshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Ito, Chikako; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sasaki, Hideo; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-02-01

    The second derivative of the digital photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The ratio of the height of the d wave to the a wave of the SDPTG (d/a) is associated with functional peripheral vascular tension and represents aortic-blood pressure (BP) augmented by reflection waves from the periphery. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the relationship between SDPTG and cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. From 1998 to 2008, we recruited 4373 women (50-79 years old at baseline) who underwent medical check-ups and SDPTG measurement. The SDPTG index (d/a) was calculated from the wave component height, and was divided into quartiles (Q) according to the d/a value. The median follow-up period was 9.0 years. The d/a value was negatively associated with age and BP, and positively associated with heart rate and body height. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality for Q2, Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher than that of Q1. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio was 2.30 for Q3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.99, P<0.05) and 2.60 for Q4 (95% CI: 1.21-5.60, P<0.05), after adjustment for age, height, body mass index, BP levels, heart rate and other atherosclerosis-related factors. The hazard ratios of cardiovascular mortality for Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher compared with the reference (Q1). Thus, the SDPTG d/a is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women.

  12. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans.

  13. Vascular effects and safety of supplementation with shark liver oil in middle-aged and elderly males

    PubMed Central

    HAMADATE, NAOBUMI; MATSUMOTO, YOSHIYUKI; SETO, KAYOKO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO; NAKAGAWA, TAKASHI; YAMAMOTO, ETSUSHI; FUKAGAWA, MITSUHIKO; YAZAWA, KAZUNAGA

    2015-01-01

    Shark liver oil (SLO) has long been used as a traditional health food, with a particular benefit for vascular health, in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with SLO on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function in otherwise healthy middle-aged and older males with slightly increased arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design was used to assign 41 healthy males with a mean age of 59.0±4.0 years (range, 45–69 years) to either SLO (n=21) or placebo (n=20) treatment for eight weeks. The effects on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function were assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and by measurement of hand blood flow to cutaneous tissues using a laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) technique, respectively. Although the magnitude of the changes in the CAVI value during the eight-week intervention for the SLO group did not significantly differ from that for the placebo group, the changes in the CAVI value for the former group were significantly associated (r=0.575, P<0.01) with age. It was also found that the LDPI values at week 8 were significantly lowered (P<0.05) compared with the baseline values in the placebo group, while no change was observed in the SLO group, resulting in a significant difference in the changes between the two groups (P=0.002). Neither SLO supplementation-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests, including lipid profiles and anthropometric and haemodynamic parameters, were observed throughout the intervention. SLO may have the potential to safely improve vascular health in middle-aged and elderly males. PMID:26622368

  14. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-01-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16–17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW−). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8–163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW− rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle. PMID:25716928

  15. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  16. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  17. Relative numerousness judgment and summation in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ursula S; Stoinski, Tara S; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2007-02-01

    The ability to select the larger of two quantities ranging from 1 to 5 (relative numerousness judgment [RNJ[) and the ability to select the larger of two pairs of quantities with each pair ranging from 1 to 8 (summation) were evaluated in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (7 Pongo pygmaeus abelii and 2 Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). Summation accuracy and RNJ were similar to those of previous reports in apes; however, the pattern of age-related differences with regard to these tasks was different from that previously reported in gorillas. Older orangutans were less accurate than the young and middle-aged for RNJ, and summation accuracy was equivalent among age groups. Evidence was found to suggest that the young and middle-aged based their selection of the largest quantity pair on both quantities within each pair during the summation task. These results show a relationship between subject age and the quantitative abilities of adult orangutans.

  18. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)1

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Welsh, David A.; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Silva, Jennifer L.; Erwin, Marla J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45–64 years), older (65–89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed. PMID:21461124

  19. Associations Between Fetal Inflammation and Cognitive Functions in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Straka, Nadine; Cherkerzian, Sara; Richards, Marcus; Liu, Xinhua; Sher, Arnold; Neils, Greg; Buka, Stephen; Susser, Ezra; Goldstein, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal inflammation, measured using proxies such as preterm birth, low birth weight and maternal preeclampsia, has been associated with decrements in scores on tests of intelligence in children and adolescents. We examined whether these decrements persist into middle adulthood and expand into other domains of cognitive functioning. Using data from the Early Determinants of Adult Health project and from the ancillary project, Fetal Antecedents of Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease, we selected term same sex sibling sets or singletons from these sets, from the New England Family Study (NEFS) and the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), discordant on either fetal growth or preeclampsia to test the hypotheses that prenatal exposure to inflammation was associated with decrements in attention, learning and executive function 40 years later. Exposure was defined as a continuous measure of percentile birth weight for gestational age, fetal growth restriction (< 20th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) or maternal preeclampsia. Given that the sample was comprised, in part, of sibling sets, the analyses were performed using mixed models to account for the inter-sibling correlations. Analyses were performed separately by study site (i.e. NEFS and CHDS). In the NEFS we found a small association between fetal growth restriction and working memory for males, such that the working memory score declined by 1.5 points (95% CI -2.4, -0.27). This association was significantly different from the estimated association in females. We discuss the possible reasons for this association which include the possible mediating effects of the postnatal environment. PMID:25140487

  20. INS VNTR class genotype and indexes of body size and obesity: population-based studies of 7,999 middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Manjinder S; Heude, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth H; Luben, Robert; Luan, Jian'an; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Todd, John; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    The relevance of the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism to indexes of body size and adult obesity is inconclusive. Given the equivocal reports on the association between the VNTR class genotype at the insulin gene locus and indexes of body size and obesity, we assessed these associations in a series of cohort studies based on 7,999 middle-aged men and women. We found no convincing evidence that INS VNTR class genotype was associated with indexes of body size and adult obesity. These data suggest that INS VNTR class is not an important determinant of size and body weight regulation in middle-aged men and women.

  1. There's a cream for that: A textual analysis of beauty and body-related advertisements aimed at middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Teri

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the magazine advertising strategies and tactics used by health and beauty products to target middle-aged women. Advertisements found in the April 2013 issues of Shape, Fitness, and Women's Health were analyzed using intersectionality to determine how these advertisements are presenting messages pertaining to age, gender, and sexuality and how these messages can "other" and marginalize certain identities. The findings suggest that advertisement strategies implement pseudoscience, heteronormativity, hegemonic beauty, and body ideals to establish an idealized version of middle-aged womanhood.

  2. Crutch art painting in the Middle Ages as orthopaedic heritage (part II: the peg leg, the bent-knee peg and the beggar).

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Little of historical value about crutches can be ascertained before the Middle Ages. In contrast, the Middle Ages offer many examples for the study of crutches. Even if no medical report can be found, the immense patronage of the Church, encouraging artists to portray the saints and their miracles, has left great masterpieces that drew people with crutches. Pictures and the history of medieval conceptions of disability appear to provide an interesting chronicle of surgery of the peg leg and the bent-knee peg among the representations of cripples and beggars.

  3. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  4. Adaptive Changes of Myosin Isoforms in Response to Long-Term Strength and Power Training in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Puhke, Raivo; Aunola, Sirkka; Ailanto, Pirjo; Alev, Karin; Venojärvi, Mika; Rusko, Heikki; Seene, Teet

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) and light chain (MLC) isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week) in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group). Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001) and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05) in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05). The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061) and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032). The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05). In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05) as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05), and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown. Key Points A long-term strength and power training program seemed to

  5. [Attempts to fight paludism and malaria in the middle ages. Role of Benedictine and Cistercian monks in the rise of monastic medicine and in land reclamation during the Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S

    2005-09-01

    The loss of low-lying farm-land to marshes and swamps was a striking phenomenon in Italy and other regions of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Throughout the Middle Ages extensive fertile agricultural lands were abandoned due to increased marshiness and the risk of the spread of malaria diffusion. In economic and social terms, this was a further source of decline. In this scenario of progressive abandonment which supported the spread of disease, Benedictine and Cistercian monks performed extensive land reclamation (relying on channels, dams and embankments), leading to a progressive control of seasonal flooding by rivers and basins. Inside the abbeys monastic medicine flourished, which in some regions often represented the main reference point for health care for all residents (whether the common people, nobles or clergy), in the "Dark Ages". Many monks paid with their own lives: malaria and malnutrition were the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality. Benedictine and Cistercian monks, who had embraced the Benedictine rule, today deserve high consideration, as the major supporters of Europe's recovery, which took place on the continent from the 13th century onward. Their motto, "Pray and work" (Ora et labora) and "That God may be glorified in all things" (Ut in omnibus glorificatur Deus) supported their daily life and action. For centuries inside abbeys and fortified farmsteads known as grancie monks added prayers to work, in their attempt to reclaim land. Nature often treated them badly, at despite such difficulties, the monks never shrank from danger.

  6. Optical-Ultraviolet Spectrum and Proper Motion of the Middle-aged Pulsar B1055-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Pavlov, G. G.; Kargaltsev, O.

    2010-09-01

    PSR B1055-52 is a middle-aged (τ = 535 kyr) radio, X-ray, and γ-ray pulsar showing X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star (NS) surface. A candidate optical counterpart to PSR B1055-52 was proposed by Mignani and coworkers based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations performed in 1996, in one spectral band only. We report on HST observations of this field carried out in 2008, in four spectral bands. The astrometric and photometric analyses of these data confirm the identification of the proposed candidate as the pulsar's optical counterpart. Similar to other middle-aged pulsars, its optical-UV spectrum can be described by the sum of a power-law (PLO) component (F_{ν} ∝ ν^{-α_O}), presumably emitted from the pulsar magnetosphere, and a Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) component emitted from the NS surface. The spectral index of the PLO component, αO = 1.05 ± 0.34, is larger than for other pulsars with optical counterparts. The RJ component, with a brightness temperature T O = (0.66 ± 0.10) d 2 350 R -2 O,13 MK (where d 350 and R O,13 are the distance to the pulsar in units of 350 pc and the radius of the emitting area in units of 13 km, respectively), shows a factor of 4 excess with respect to the extrapolation of the X-ray thermal component into the UV-optical. This hints that the RJ component is emitted from a larger, colder area, and suggests that the distance to the pulsar is smaller than previously thought. From absolute astrometry of the HST images, we measured the pulsar coordinates with a position accuracy of 0farcs15. From comparison with previous observations, we measured the pulsar proper motion, μ = 42 ± 5 mas yr-1, which corresponds to a transverse velocity Vt = (70 ± 8) d 350 km s-1. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under contract No. NAS 5-26555. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La

  7. Intima Media Thickness and Cognitive Function in Stroke-Free Middle-Aged Adults: Findings from the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hazzouri, Adina Zeki; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sidney, Stephen; Reis, Jared P.; Jacobs, David R.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The relationship between carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and cognitive function in midlife remains relatively unexplored. We examined the association between IMT and cognitive function in a middle-aged epidemiologic cohort of 2,747 stroke-free participants. Methods At the Year 20 visit (our study baseline), participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study had IMT measured by ultrasound at the common carotid artery. Five years later, participants completed a cognitive battery consisting of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test of verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test of processing speed, and the Stroop test of executive function. We transformed cognitive scores into standardized z-scores, with negative values indicating worse performance. Results Mean age at baseline was 45.3 years (SD=3.6). Greater IMT (per 1SD difference of 0.12mm) was significantly associated with worse performance on all cognitive tests (z-scores) in unadjusted linear regression models (Verbal Memory=−0.16, 95%CI=−0.20 to −0.13; Processing Speed=−0.23, 95%CI=−0.27 to −0.19; and Executive Function=−0.17, 95%CI= −0.20 to −0.13). In models adjusted for socio-demographics and vascular risk factors that lie earlier in the causal pathway, greater IMT remained negatively associated with processing speed (−0.06,95%CI=−0.09 to −0.02; p=0.003) and borderline associated with executive function (−0.03, 95%CI=−0.07 to 0.00; p=0.07) but not with verbal memory. Conclusions We observed an association between greater IMT and worse processing speed – a key component of cognitive functioning- at middle-age above and beyond traditional vascular risk factors. Efforts targeted at preventing early stages of atherosclerosis may modify the course of cognitive aging. PMID:26106116

  8. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of

  9. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Has a Modest Positive Association with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Middle-Aged US Adults.

    PubMed

    Beilfuss, Julia; Camargo, Carlos A; Kamycheva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to all-cause mortality and cancer. However, the biological plausibility of these associations is not well established. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with aging and is a hallmark of genomic instability and carcinogenesis.Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and LTL in the general US population.Methods: We analyzed data from the US NHANES 2001-2002. The study population comprised 1542 younger adults (aged 20-39 y), 1336 middle-aged adults (aged 40-59 y), and 1382 older adults (aged ≥60 y). LTL was measured by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L were considered optimal. Linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), total energy and sugar intakes, calcium intake, socioeconomic status, milk and dietary supplement consumption, and physical activity, was applied to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and LTL.Results: In the total population, age, sex, BMI, and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity were significant predictors of LTL. In the participants aged 40-59 y, an increment in serum 25(OH)D of 10 nmol/L was associated with a 0.03- ± 0.01-kbp longer LTL, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other factors (P = 0.001). In the same age group, 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L were associated with a 0.13- ± 0.04-kbp longer LTL than those for 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L (P = 0.01). The association was independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and other factors.Conclusions: In a nationally representative population of adults, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with LTL in middle-aged participants (aged 40-59 y), independently of other factors. These findings suggest that decreased 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with genomic instability, although the clinical impact of this observation remains

  10. Duration and magnitude of the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism in middle aged women: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sweetland, Siân; Green, Jane; Liu, Bette; Berrington de González, Amy; Canonico, Marianne; Reeves, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the duration and magnitude of increased risk of venous thromboembolism after different types of surgery. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Questionnaire data from the Million Women Study linked with hospital admission and death records. Participants 947 454 middle aged women in the United Kingdom recruited in 1996-2001 and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS data on hospital admissions and deaths. During follow-up 239 614 admissions were for surgery; 5419 women were admitted, and a further 270 died, from venous thromboembolism. Main outcome measures Adjusted relative risks and standardised incidence rates for hospital admission or death from venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis), by time since and type of surgery. Results Compared with not having surgery, women were 70 times more likely to be admitted with venous thromboembolism in the first six weeks after an inpatient operation (relative risk 69.1, 95% confidence interval 63.1 to 75.6) and 10 times more likely after a day case operation (9.6, 8.0 to 11.5). The risks were lower but still substantially increased 7-12 weeks after surgery (19.6, 16.6 to 23.1 and 5.5, 4.3 to 7.0, respectively). This pattern of risk was similar for pulmonary embolism (n=2487) and deep venous thrombosis (n=3529). The postoperative risks of venous thromboembolism varied considerably by surgery type, with highest relative risks after inpatient surgery for hip or knee replacement and for cancer—1-6 weeks after surgery the relative risks were, respectively, 220.6 (187.8 to 259.2) and 91.6 (73.9 to 113.4). Conclusion The risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after surgery is substantially increased in the first 12 postoperative weeks, and varies considerably by type of surgery. An estimated 1 in 140 middle aged women undergoing inpatient surgery in the UK will be admitted with venous thromboembolism during the 12 weeks after

  11. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  12. Orally supplemented catechin increases heme amounts and catalase activities in rat heart blood mitochondria: a comparison between middle-aged and young rats.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-11-01

    Orally-administered catechin has long been known to have several beneficial effects on the mammalian host, however, the effects of orally supplemented catechin on the host through gingival tissues have not yet been established. Here, we elucidated the effects of orally supplemented catechin in the rat heart blood mitochondria. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We indirectly verified blood serum catechin levels by measuring O-methyl catechin derivatives using HPLC. Interestingly, we observed higher blood serum O-methyl levels in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. Subsequently, we isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured heme, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase (CAT) levels. We found that catechin induces an increase in blood mitochondrial heme amounts and is associated with an increase in blood mitochondrial CAT activity which is surprisingly higher in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. This would imply that orally supplemented catechin induces heme increase that preferentially favours CAT activity and is more beneficial to the middle-aged rats.

  13. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  14. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  15. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  16. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  17. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-08-15

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States.

  18. Strategies Adopted by Late Middle-Age and Older Adults with HIV/AIDS to Explain their Physical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the attributions individuals make about what causes their physical symptoms are known to influence their care seeking and self-care behaviors, much less is known about the strategies they use to arrive at these attributions. The strategies employed to understand the causes of their symptoms were investigated using in-depth interviews with 100 late-middle-age and older adults with HIV/AIDS in New York City. The data revealed that most actively sought to explain their symptoms. The explanatory strategies identified included: relying upon illness or medication representations, lay beliefs about the body and aging, invoking pre-existing vulnerabilities, engaging in lay experimentation, social comparison processes, considering temporal ordering, and consulting authoritative sources. While most offered a single cause for their symptoms, some offered more complex multi-causal explanations. These findings provide understanding into the reasons why some older adults with HIV/AIDS misattribute symptoms resulting in delay in care or care over-utilization, suggesting the need for patient education. PMID:21337262

  19. Atypical breast adenosquamous carcinoma following acute myeloid leukemia in a middle-aged woman: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Mahmoudi Shan, Shokoufeh; Jahantigh, Mahdi; Allahyari, Abolghasem

    2017-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast is a rare cancer that develops as glands and tubules admixed with solid nests of squamous cells in a spindle cell background. Furthermore, its occurrence following AML is also rare. To the best of our knowledge, based on a review of the relevant literature, thus far there have not been any welldocumented cases. In the present case report, we report on a middle-aged woman with a 2year history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who was admitted to hospital due to a mass in the right breast, with concurrent cutaneous lesions on the breast. The clinical and pathological investigations resulted in the diagnosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast. The patient underwent a modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Subsequently, the patient received chemotherapy, involved-field radiation therapy and target therapy. At 9 months after the final cycle of chemotherapy, and while she was on targeted therapy with trastuzumab (6 mg administered every 3 weeks), the patient presented with extensive dermatomal skin lesions. A biopsy report revealed metastatic lesions of invasive ductal carcinoma in the abdomen, so chemotherapy resumed with a course lasting for 6 cycles, with the identical treatments, but lacking trastuzumab.

  20. Higher visceral fat is associated with lower cerebral N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sonya; Birdsill, Alex C; Steward, Kayla; Pasha, Evan; Kruzliak, Peter; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2017-01-31

    Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a central distribution, consists of visceral fat, which is metabolically active and could impinge upon central nervous system functioning. The aim of the current study was to examine levels of visceral adiposity in relation to key cerebral metabolite ratios localized in the occipitoparietal grey matter. Seventy-three adults, aged between 40 and 60 years, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and single voxel (1)H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Visceral fat was assessed using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Individuals with higher visceral fat mass and volume had significantly lower ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate to total creatine (phosphocreatine + creatine, PCr + Cr) (NAA/PCr + Cr) (β = -0.29, p = 0.03, β = -0.28, p = 0.04). They also had significantly higher ratios of myo-inositol to total creatine (mI/PCr + Cr ) (β = 0.36, p = 0.01, β = 0.36, p = 0.01). Visceral fat mass and volume were not significantly related to ratios of glutamate to total creatine (Glu/PCr + Cr). While future studies are necessary, these results indicate central adiposity is associated with metabolic changes that could impinge upon the central nervous system in middle age.

  1. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  2. Predictors of preventive health care use among mid