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Sample records for midgut ph regulation

  1. Determination of pH in Regions of the Midguts of Acaridid Mites

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora. PMID:20572792

  2. Determination of pH in regions of the midguts of acaridid mites.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora.

  3. pH control in the midgut of Aedesaegypti under different nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Denise Barguil; Santos, Vânia Cristina; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2017-09-15

    Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors in the world. Because their gut is the first site of interaction with pathogens, it is important to understand A. aegypti gut physiology. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of pH control in the midgut of A. aegypti females under different nutritional conditions. We found that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH ∼6). The midgut of unfed insects is actively maintained at pH 6 regardless of the ingestion of either alkaline or acidic buffered solutions. V-ATPases are responsible for acidification after ingestion of alkaline solutions. In blood-fed females, the abdominal midgut becomes alkaline (pH 7.54), and the luminal pH decreases slightly throughout blood digestion. Only ingested proteins were able to trigger this abrupt increase in abdominal pH. The ingestion of amino acids, even at high concentrations, did not induce alkalinisation. During blood digestion, the thoracic midgut remains acidic, becoming a suitable compartment for carbohydrate digestion, which is in accordance with the higher alpha-glucolytic activity detected in this compartment. Ingestion of blood releases alkalising hormones in the haemolymph, which induce alkalinisation in ex vivo preparations. This study shows that adult A. aegypti females have a very similar gut physiology to that previously described for Lutzomyia longipalpis It is likely that all haematophagous Nematocera exhibit the same type of physiological behaviour. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Avoidance of antinutritive plant defense: Role of midgut pH in Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Felton, G W; Workman, J; Duffey, S S

    1992-04-01

    The fate of the tomato foliar phenolic, chlorogenic acid, in the digestive systems of Colorado potato beetleLeptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) andHelicoverpa tea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is compared. In larvalH. zea and other lepidopteran species previously examined, approximately 35-50% of the ingested chlorogenic acid was oxidized in the digestive system by foliar phenolic oxidases (i.e., polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) from the tomato plant. The oxidized form of chlorogenic acid, chlorogenoquinone, is a potent alkylator of dietary protein and can exert a strong antinutritive effect upon larvae through chemical degradation of essential amino acids. In contrast, inL. decemlineata less than 4% of the ingested dose of chlorogenic acid was bound to protein. In vitro experiments to determine the influence of pH on covalent binding of chlorogenic acid to protein showed that 30-45% less chlorogenic acid bound to protein at pHs representative of the beetle midgut (pH 5.5-6.5) than at a pH representing the lepidopteran midgut (pH 8.5). At an acidic pH, considerably more of the alkylatable functional groups of amino acids (-NH2, -SH) are in the nonreactive, protonated state. Hence, polyphenol oxidases are unlikely to have significant antinutritive effects against the Colorado potato beetle and may not be a useful biochemical source of resistance against this insect. The influence of feeding by larval Colorado potato beetle on foliar polyphenol oxidase activity in tomato foliage and its possible significance to interspecific competition is also considered.

  5. Mod(mdg4) participates in hormonally regulated midgut programmed cell death during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2012-12-01

    The insect midgut undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during metamorphosis, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon has not been demonstrated. We report a mod(mdg4) protein [designated as mod(mdg4)1A] that is involved in hormonally regulated insect midgut PCD, from the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. Mod(mdg4)1A is localized in the larval midgut and is highly expressed during metamorphosis. Knockdown of mod(mdg4)1a by feeding dsRNA to the larvae suppressed midgut PCD and delayed metamorphosis. The mechanism is that mod(mdg4)1a knockdown decreased the transcript levels of genes involved in PCD and metamorphosis, but increased the transcript level of inhibitor of apoptosis survivin. The transcript level of mod(mdg4)1a is independently upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene. Overlapped 20E and methoprene counteractively regulate the transcript level of mod(mdg4)1a. 20E upregulates the mod(mdg4)1a transcript level not through its nuclear receptor EcRB1. Methoprene upregulates the mod(mdg4)1a transcript level through the juvenile hormone candidate receptor Met. These findings indicate that mod(mdg4)1a participates in midgut PCD and metamorphosis by regulating the transcript levels of a network of genes via different pathways under 20E and JH regulation.

  6. Regulation of chitin synthesis in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zimoch, L; Hogenkamp, D G; Kramer, K J; Muthukrishnan, S; Merzendorfer, H

    2005-06-01

    In insects, chitin is not only synthesized by ectodermal cells that form chitinous cuticles, but also by endodermal cells of the midgut that secrete a chitinous peritrophic matrix. Using anti-chitin synthase (CHS) antibodies, we previously demonstrated that in the midgut of Manduca sexta, CHS is expressed by two cell types, tracheal cells forming a basal tracheal network and columnar cells forming the apical brush border [Zimoch and Merzendorfer, 2002, Cell Tissue Res. 308, 287-297]. Now, we show that two different genes, MsCHS1 and MsCHS2, encode CHSs of midgut tracheae and columnar cells, respectively. To investigate MsCHS2 expression and activity in the course of the larval development, we monitored chitin synthesis, enzyme levels as well as mRNA amounts. All of the tested parameters were significantly reduced during molting and in the wandering stage when compared to the values obtained from intermolt feeding larvae. By contrast, MsCHS1 appeared to be inversely regulated because its mRNA was detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut. To further examine midgut chitin synthesis, we measured enzyme activity in crude midgut extracts and different membrane fractions. When we analysed trypsin-mediated proteolytic activation, a phenomenon previously reported for insect and fungal systems, we recognized that midgut chitin synthesis was only activated in crude extracts, but not in the 12,000 g membrane fraction. However, proteolytic activation by trypsin in the 12,000 g membrane fraction could be reconstituted by re-adding a soluble fraction, indicating that limited proteolysis affects an unknown soluble factor, a process that in turn activates chitin synthesis.

  7. The physiology of the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912): pH in different physiological conditions and mechanisms involved in its control.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vânia C; Araujo, Ricardo N; Machado, Luciane A D; Pereira, Marcos H; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2008-09-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in infected phlebotomines. It was described previously that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH 6). In this study, the pH inside the midgut of blood-fed females was measured. The abdominal midgut (AM) pH varied from 8.15+/-0.31 in the first 10 h post-blood meal to 7.7+/-0.17 after 24 h. While the AM was alkaline during blood digestion, the pH in the thoracic midgut (TM) remained acidic (5.5-6.0). In agreement with these findings, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which has an optimum pH of 5.8, is mainly encountered in the acidic TM. The capacity of unfed females to maintain the acidic intestinal pH was also evaluated. Our results showed the presence of an efficient mechanism that maintains the pH almost constant at about 6 in the midgut, but not in the crop. This mechanism is promptly interrupted in the AM by blood ingestion. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in the midgut cells, which apparently is required to maintain the pH at 6 in the midgut of unfed females. Investigations on the phenomenon of alkalization observed after blood ingestion indicated that two mechanisms are involved: in addition to the alkalization promoted by CO2 volatilization there is a minor contribution from a second mechanism not yet characterized. Some inferences concerning Leishmania development and pH in the digestive tube are presented.

  8. Silencing of Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Activates Diverse Immune Pathways to Regulate the Growth of Midgut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Choudhury, Tania P.; Kakani, Parik; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Rini; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles mosquito midgut harbors a diverse group of endogenous bacteria that grow extensively after the blood feeding and help in food digestion and nutrition in many ways. Although, the growth of endogenous bacteria is regulated by various factors, however, the robust antibacterial immune reactions are generally suppressed in this body compartment by a heme peroxidase HPX15 crosslinked mucins barrier. This barrier is formed on the luminal side of the midgut and blocks the direct interactions and recognition of bacteria or their elicitors by the immune reactive midgut epithelium. We hypothesized that in the absence of HPX15, an increased load of exogenous bacteria will enormously induce the mosquito midgut immunity and this situation in turn, can easily regulate mosquito-pathogen interactions. In this study, we found that the blood feeding induced AsHPX15 gene in Anopheles stephensi midgut and promoted the growth of endogenous as well as exogenous fed bacteria. In addition, the mosquito midgut also efficiently regulated the number of these bacteria through the induction of classical Toll and Imd immune pathways. In case of AsHPX15 silenced midguts, the growth of midgut bacteria was largely reduced through the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene, a downstream effector molecule of the JAK/STAT pathway. Interestingly, no significant induction of the classical immune pathways was observed in these midguts. Importantly, the NOS is a well known negative regulator of Plasmodium development, thus, we proposed that the induction of diverged immune pathways in the absence of HPX15 mediated midgut barrier might be one of the strategies to manipulate the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27630620

  9. Ecdysone-Induced Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP52F Regulates Drosophila Midgut Histolysis by Enhancement of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Abirami; Peng, Wen-Hsin; Yu, Ya-Ting; Sang, Tzu-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The rapid removal of larval midgut is a critical developmental process directed by molting hormone ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. To date, it remains unclear how the stepwise events can link the onset of ecdysone signaling to the destruction of larval midgut. This study investigated whether ecdysone-induced expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP52F regulates this process. The mutation of the Ptp52F gene caused significant delay in larval midgut degradation. Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TER94), a regulator of ubiquitin proteasome system, was identified as a substrate and downstream effector of PTP52F in the ecdysone signaling. The inducible expression of PTP52F at the puparium formation stage resulted in dephosphorylation of TER94 on its Y800 residue, ensuring the rapid degradation of ubiquitylated proteins. One of the proteins targeted by dephosphorylated TER94 was found to be Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (DIAP1), which was rapidly proteolyzed in cells with significant expression of PTP52F. Importantly, the reduced level of DIAP1 in response to inducible PTP52F was essential not only for the onset of apoptosis but also for the initiation of autophagy. This study demonstrates a novel function of PTP52F in regulating ecdysone-directed metamorphosis via enhancement of autophagic and apoptotic cell death in doomed Drosophila midguts. PMID:24550005

  10. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  11. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Crava, Cristina M.; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity. PMID:25993013

  12. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Human IGF1 Regulates Midgut Oxidative Stress and Epithelial Homeostasis to Balance Lifespan and Plasmodium falciparum resistance in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Anna L.; Pietri, Jose E.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Hauck, Eric; Wang, Bo; Glennon, Elizabeth K. K.; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) regulates cell death, repair, autophagy, and renewal in response to stress, damage, and pathogen challenge. Therefore, IIS is fundamental to lifespan and disease resistance. Previously, we showed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) within a physiologically relevant range (0.013–0.13 µM) in human blood reduced development of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the Indian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Low IGF1 (0.013 µM) induced FOXO and p70S6K activation in the midgut and extended mosquito lifespan, whereas high IGF1 (0.13 µM) did not. In this study the physiological effects of low and high IGF1 were examined in detail to infer mechanisms for their dichotomous effects on mosquito resistance and lifespan. Following ingestion, low IGF1 induced phosphorylation of midgut c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis, but high IGF1 did not. Low and high IGF1 induced midgut mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and nitric oxide (NO) synthase gene expression, responses which were necessary and sufficient to mediate IGF1 inhibition of P. falciparum development. However, increased ROS and apoptosis-associated caspase-3 activity returned to baseline levels following low IGF1 treatment, but were sustained with high IGF1 treatment and accompanied by aberrant expression of biomarkers for mitophagy, stem cell division and proliferation. Low IGF1-induced ROS are likely moderated by JNK-induced epithelial cytoprotection as well as p70S6K-mediated growth and inhibition of apoptosis over the lifetime of A. stephensi to facilitate midgut homeostasis and enhanced survivorship. Hence, mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis in the midgut, a key signaling center for IIS, can be targeted to coordinately optimize mosquito fitness and anti-pathogen resistance for improved control strategies for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:24968248

  14. Cadmium Accumulation and Pathological Alterations in the Midgut Gland of Terrestrial Snail Helix pomatia L. from a Zinc Smelter Area: Role of Soil pH.

    PubMed

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Kozłowski, Paweł; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara; Oleńska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in the midgut gland of Helix pomatia snails living in a Cd-contaminated area were related to soil pH. Toxic responses in the midgut gland (i.e., increased vacuolization and lipid peroxidation) occurred in H. pomatia snails exhibiting the highest Cd levels in the gland (265-274 µg/g dry wt) and living on acidic soil (pH 5.3-5.5), while no toxicity was observed in snails accumulating less Cd (90 µg/g) and ranging on neutral soil (pH 7.0), despite the fact that total soil Cd was similar in the two cases. The accumulation of Cd in the gland was directly related to the water extractable Cd in soil, which in turn correlated inversely with soil pH, indicating that this factor had a significant effect on tissue Cd. It appeared further that the occurrence of Cd toxicity was associated with low levels of metallothionein in the gland of snails ranging on acidic soil.

  15. Roles and regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in the remodelling of the lepidopteran midgut epithelium during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Davide; Casartelli, Morena; Cappellozza, Silvia; de Eguileor, Magda; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2016-09-09

    We previously showed that autophagy and apoptosis occur in the removal of the lepidopteran larval midgut during metamorphosis. However, their roles in this context and the molecular pathways underlying their activation and regulation were only hypothesized. The results of the present study better clarify the timing of the activation of these two processes: autophagic and apoptotic genes are transcribed at the beginning of metamorphosis, but apoptosis intervenes after autophagy. To investigate the mechanisms that promote the activation of autophagy and apoptosis, we designed a set of experiments based on injections of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Our data demonstrate that autophagy is induced at the end of the last larval stage by the 20E commitment peak, while the onset of apoptosis occurs concomitantly with the 20E metamorphic peak. By impairing autophagic flux, the midgut epithelium degenerated faster, and higher caspase activity was observed compared to controls, whereas inhibiting caspase activation caused a severe delay in epithelial degeneration. Our data demonstrate that autophagy plays a pro-survival function in the silkworm midgut during metamorphosis, while apoptosis is the major process that drives the demise of the epithelium. The evidence collected in this study seems to exclude the occurrence of autophagic cell death in this setting.

  16. Roles and regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in the remodelling of the lepidopteran midgut epithelium during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Davide; Casartelli, Morena; Cappellozza, Silvia; de Eguileor, Magda; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that autophagy and apoptosis occur in the removal of the lepidopteran larval midgut during metamorphosis. However, their roles in this context and the molecular pathways underlying their activation and regulation were only hypothesized. The results of the present study better clarify the timing of the activation of these two processes: autophagic and apoptotic genes are transcribed at the beginning of metamorphosis, but apoptosis intervenes after autophagy. To investigate the mechanisms that promote the activation of autophagy and apoptosis, we designed a set of experiments based on injections of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Our data demonstrate that autophagy is induced at the end of the last larval stage by the 20E commitment peak, while the onset of apoptosis occurs concomitantly with the 20E metamorphic peak. By impairing autophagic flux, the midgut epithelium degenerated faster, and higher caspase activity was observed compared to controls, whereas inhibiting caspase activation caused a severe delay in epithelial degeneration. Our data demonstrate that autophagy plays a pro-survival function in the silkworm midgut during metamorphosis, while apoptosis is the major process that drives the demise of the epithelium. The evidence collected in this study seems to exclude the occurrence of autophagic cell death in this setting. PMID:27609527

  17. Ubx dynamically regulates Dpp signaling by repressing Dad expression during copper cell regeneration in the adult Drosophila midgut.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-11-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is lined by a series of regionally distinct epithelia. To maintain structure and function of the GI tract, regionally diversified differentiation of somatic stem cell (SC) lineages is critical. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an accessible model to study SC regulation and specification in a regionally defined manner. SCs of the posterior midgut (PM) have been studied extensively, but the control of SCs in the middle midgut (MM) is less well understood. The MM contains a stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) that is regenerated by gastric stem cells (GSSCs) and contains acid-secreting copper cells (CCs). Bmp-like Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling determines the identity of GSSCs, and is required for CC regeneration, yet the precise control of Dpp signaling activity in this lineage remains to be fully established. Here, we show that Dad, a negative feedback regulator of Dpp signaling, is dynamically regulated in the GSSC lineage to allow CC differentiation. Dad is highly expressed in GSSCs and their first daughter cells, the gastroblasts (GBs), but has to be repressed in differentiating CCs to allow Dpp-mediated differentiation into CCs. We find that the Hox gene ultrabithorax (Ubx) is required for this regulation. Loss of Ubx prevents Dad repression in the CCR, resulting in defective CC regeneration. Our study highlights the need for dynamic control of Dpp signaling activity in the differentiation of the GSSC lineage and identifies Ubx as a critical regulator of this process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B regulate intestinal homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueqin; Li, Zhouhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-11-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) tightly regulate stem cells for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Little is known about the regulation of tissue homeostasis by the ECM. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), important components of the ECM, are involved in a variety of biological events. Two heparin sulfate 3-O sulfotransferase (Hs3st) genes, Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B, encode the modification enzymes in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are required for adult midgut homeostasis. Depletion of Hs3st-A in enterocytes (ECs) results in increased intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Moreover, increased ISC proliferation is also observed in Hs3st-B null mutant alone, or in combination with Hs3st-A RNAi. Hs3st-A depletion-induced ISC proliferation is effectively suppressed by simultaneous inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that tissue homeostasis loss in Hs3st-A-deficient intestines is due to increased EGFR signaling. Furthermore, we find that Hs3st-A-depleted ECs are unhealthy and prone to death, while ectopic expression of the antiapoptotic p35 is able to greatly suppress tissue homeostasis loss in these intestines. Together, our data suggest that Drosophila Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation and midgut homeostasis maintenance.

  19. Brn1/2/4, the predicted midgut regulator of the endo16 gene of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Dorman, Elizabeth R; Davidson, Eric H

    2005-05-15

    A specific prediction of our detailed cis-regulatory analysis of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp) endo16 gene was that the later expression of this gene would be driven by a midgut-specific transcriptional regulator. We have now identified this factor and determined some of its functions. The cDNA sequence reveals it to be a POU domain factor related closely to the mammalian factors Brain-1, -2, and -4. The factor was termed SpBrn1/2/4 (henceforth Brn1/2/4). Quantitative measurements of transcript prevalence show that the gene is first activated in the 20-h blastula, but there remain only about 100 molecules of brn1/2/4 mRNA per embryo (only a few per endoderm cell) until an abrupt 10-fold increase occurs as gastrulation begins. Measured in the same embryos, the late rise in prevalence of endo16 transcripts follows that of brn1/2/4 transcripts. As predicted by the endo16 model, brn1/2/4 expression is confined perfectly to the midgut, coincident with the domain of endo16 expression. The kinetics of accumulation of these transcripts indicates that the switch into the late phase of endo16 expression occurs when the brn1/2/4 transcript level nears its plateau (2000 molecules mRNA per embryo), after which each endo16 gene produces about 1 mRNA every 2 min (about 380 molecules mRNA per min in the whole embryo). Arrest of Brn1/2/4 translation by MASO treatment blocks the late phase of endo16 expression and specifically abolishes expression of cis-regulatory Module B of endo16, while not affecting Module A, also as predicted. The brn1/2/4 gene lies downstream of the regulatory genes executing post-gastrular specification of the midgut, as shown by further gene expression perturbation experiments which provide an initial glimpse of the underlying network architecture.

  20. THAP and ATF-2 Regulated Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Promoter Activities in the Larval Midgut of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong; Fu, Qiang; Hong, Huazhu; Schwaegler, Tyler; Lan, Que

    2012-01-01

    Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream −1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the −1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the −1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled −1.6/−1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP) and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between −1.6 to −1.3 kb 5′ upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression. PMID:23056538

  1. Genomic Regions Required for Morphogenesis of the Drosophila Embryonic Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, D.; Scott, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila midgut is an excellent system for studying the cell migration, cell-cell communication, and morphogenetic events that occur in organ formation. Genes representative of regulatory gene families common to all animals, including homeotic, TGFβ, and Wnt genes, play roles in midgut development. To find additional regulators of midgut morphogenesis, we screened a set of genomic deficiencies for midgut phenotypes. Fifteen genomic intervals necessary for proper midgut morphogenesis were identified; three contain genes already known to act in the midgut. Three other genomic regions are required for formation of the endoderm or visceral mesoderm components of the midgut. Nine regions are required for proper formation of the midgut constrictions. The E75 ecdysone-induced gene, which encodes a nuclear receptor superfamily member, is the relevant gene in one region and is essential for proper formation of midgut constrictions. E75 acts downstream of the previously known constriction regulators or in parallel. Temporal hormonal control may therefore work in conjunction with spatial regulation by the homeotic genes in midgut development. Another genomic region is required to activate transcription of the homeotic genes Antp and Scr specifically in visceral mesoderm. The genomic regions identified by this screen provide a map to novel midgut development regulators. PMID:8582615

  2. Amino acids trigger down-regulation of superoxide via TORC pathway in the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Oliveira, José Henrique M.; Nunes, Rodrigo D.; Goncalves, Renata L.S.; Dias, Felipe A.; Hecht, Fabio; Fernandes, Denise C.; Genta, Fernando A.; Laurindo, Francisco R.M.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2016-01-01

    Sensing incoming nutrients is an important and critical event for intestinal cells to sustain life of the whole organism. The TORC is a major protein complex involved in monitoring the nutritional status and is activated by elevated amino acid concentrations. An important feature of haematophagy is that huge amounts of blood are ingested in a single meal, which results in the release of large quantities of amino acids, together with the haemoglobin prosthetic group, haem, which decomposes hydroperoxides and propagates oxygen-derived free radicals. Our previous studies demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were diminished in the mitochondria and midgut of the Dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, immediately after a blood meal. We proposed that this mechanism serves to avoid oxidative damage that would otherwise be induced by haem following a blood meal. Studies also performed in mosquitoes have shown that blood or amino acids controls protein synthesis through TORC activation. It was already proposed, in different models, a link between ROS and TOR, however, little is known about TOR signalling in insect midgut nor about the involvement of ROS in this pathway. Here, we studied the effect of a blood meal on ROS production in the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that blood meal amino acids decreased ROS levels in the R. prolixus midgut immediately after feeding, via lowering mitochondrial superoxide production and involving the amino acid-sensing TORC pathway. PMID:26945025

  3. Injury-stimulated and self-restrained BMP signaling dynamically regulates stem cell pool size during Drosophila midgut regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Aiguo; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Jin

    2017-03-13

    Many adult organs rely on resident stem cells to maintain homeostasis. Upon injury, stem cells increase proliferation, followed by lineage differentiation to replenish damaged cells. Whether stem cells also change division mode to transiently increase their population size as part of a regenerative program and, if so, what the underlying mechanism is have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that injury stimulates the production of two bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands, Dpp and Gbb, which drive an expansion of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division in Drosophila adult midgut. We find that BMP production in enterocytes is inhibited by BMP signaling itself, and that BMP autoinhibition is required for resetting ISC pool size to the homeostatic level after tissue repair. Our study suggests that dynamic BMP signaling controls ISC population size during midgut regeneration and reveals mechanisms that precisely control stem cell number in response to tissue needs.

  4. Notes on midgut ultrastructure of cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    This work studied the ultrastructure of the midgut cells of Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). The midgut of adult insects was analyzed on different days after a bloodmeal, and three anatomical regions with different digestive functions were apparent. In the anterior midgut, the digestive cells had many spherocrystals, lipid inclusions, and glycogen deposits, suggesting a role in water absorption, ion regulation, digestion, and storage of lipids and sugars. The digestive cells in the middle midgut contained secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm, lysosomes, and large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that this midgut region was active in digestive processes. The posterior midgut contained digestive cells with secretory vesicles, lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and spherocrystals, suggesting digestion and ion/water absorption. Also, there was strong evidence that the posterior midgut may be the major site of nutrient absorption. The hematophagous heteropteran groups share many of these blood digestion mechanisms.

  5. The Role of pH Regulation in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

    Frequently observed phenotypes of tumours include high metabolic activity, hypoxia and poor perfusion; these act to produce an acidic microenvironment. Cellular function depends on pH homoeostasis, and thus, tumours become dependent on pH regulatory mechanisms. Many of the proteins involved in pH regulation are highly expressed in tumours, and their expression is often of prognostic significance. The more acidic tumour microenvironment also has important implications with regard to chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic interventions. In addition, we review pH-sensing mechanisms, the role of pH regulation in tumour phenotype and the use of pH regulatory mechanisms as therapeutic targets.

  6. Implications for the functions of the four known midgut differentiation factors: An immunohistologic study of Heliothis virescens midgut.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Marcia J; Coronel, Nicholas; Natsukawa, Dai; Takeda, Makio

    2004-05-01

    Antibodies to the peptides that induce differentiation of midgut larval stem cells, the midgut differentiating factors MDF-2, MDF-3, and MDF-4, bind to columnar cells in midgut cultures and in intact midgut of Heliothis virescens, in manners similar to the binding of anti- MDF-1 to those tissues. Antibodies to MDF-2 and MDF-3 also stained droplets in the midgut lumen, suggesting that columnar cells may also release MDF-2- and MDF-3-like cytokines to the lumen. Antibody to MDF-4 exhibited similar staining patterns but also recognized stem and differentiating cells, the presumed targets of peptides that regulate stem cell differentiation. Antibody to MDF-4 also bound to one type of endocrine cell in midgut cultures and in sections of midgut, as well as to the endocrine secretion released both to the midgut lumen and the hemolymph. Antibodies to the MDFs 1, 2, and 3, incubated with cultures of midgut cells, did not appear to prevent differentiation of the stem cells in the cultures but affected viability of mature cells, reflected in increased apoptosis and doubling of the number of differentiating cells compared to controls. Only antibody to MDF-4 induced temporary necrosis and inhibition of population recovery, indicating that MDF4 may be the true differentiation factor. The other MDFs may have additional functions beyond regulation of midgut stem cell differentiation in vivo.

  7. [Regulation effects of tourmaline on seawater pH value].

    PubMed

    Xia, Meisheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Hu, Caihong; Xu, Zirong

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were employed to examine the characteristics of tourmaline produced in east Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and batch experiments were conducted to study its regulation effects on seawater pH value. The factors affecting the regulation, such as the dosage of tourmaline and the salinity and initial pH value of seawater, were also studied. The results showed that tourmaline could regulate the seawater pH value from its initial 3 and 10 to 7.1 and 8.9, respectively, and the regulation effect was greater in the seawater with lower salinity, e.g., after 120 minutes treatment, the initial pH value (5.0) of the seawater with a salinity of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 35 was increased by 3.24, 3.16, 3.06, 2.99 and 2.85 unit, respectively. Tourmaline had little effect on seawater conductivity. This study would provide an experimental base for the application of tourmaline in aquaculture.

  8. Regulation of Vacuolar pH in Citrus limon

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln Taiz

    2005-06-22

    The primary objective of this grant was to characterize the vacuolar V-ATPase of lemon fruits. Lemon fruit vacuoles have an internal pH of about 2.5. Since a typical plant vacuole has a luminal pH of around 5.5, the lemon fruit V-APTase must have special properties which allow it to acidify the lumen to such a low pH: (1) it might have a different structure; (2) it might have a different H{sup +}/ATP stoichiometry; and (3) it might be regulated differently. During the course of the investigations (which began in 1996) they characterized these aspects of the V-ATPases of both lemon fruits and lime fruits. They examined lime fruits because of the availability of both acidic limes with a low vacuolar pH and sweet limes, which have a much higher vacuolar pH. The existence of two types of lime fruits allowed a comparison of the V-ATPases of the two varieties. In this report they are including two publications from 1996 and 1997 as background for the later publications. A review article with Heven Sze on V-ATPase nomenclature was also generated during the funding period. In addition to the studies on citrus fruit vacuoles, they also initiated studies in two new areas: polar auxin transport and the regulation of stomatal opening by UV-B irradiation. These studies were intended to serve as a basis of future separate grants, but the proposals they submitted on these topics were not funded.

  9. Virulence regulation of phytopathogenic fungi by pH.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Espeso, Eduardo A; Prusky, Dov

    2013-09-20

    Postharvest pathogens can start its attack process immediately after spores land on wounded tissue, whereas other pathogens can forcibly breach the unripe fruit cuticle and then remain quiescent for months until fruit ripens and then cause major losses. Postharvest fungal pathogens activate their development by secreting organic acids or ammonia that acidify or alkalinize the host ambient surroundings. These fungal pH modulations of host environment regulate an arsenal of enzymes to increase fungal pathogenicity. This arsenal includes genes and processes that compromise host defenses, contribute to intracellular signaling, produce cell wall-degrading enzymes, regulate specific transporters, induce redox protectant systems, and generate factors needed by the pathogen to effectively cope with the hostile environment found within the host. Further, evidence is accumulating that the secreted molecules (organic acids and ammonia) are multifunctional and together with effect of the ambient pH, they activate virulence factors and simultaneously hijack the plant defense response and induce program cell death to further enhance their necrotrophic attack. Global studies of the effect of secreted molecules on fruit pathogen interaction, will determine the importance of these molecules on quiescence release and the initiation of fungal colonization leading to fruit and vegetable losses.

  10. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase regulates mitochondrial matrix pH.

    PubMed

    Ghafourifar, P; Richter, C

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO) exerts a wide profile of its biological activities via regulation of respiration and respiration-dependent functions. The presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in mitochondria (mtNOS) was recently reported by us (Ghafourifar and Richter, FEBS Lett. 418, 291-296, 1997) and others (Giulivi et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11038-11043, 1998). Here we report that NO, provided by an NO donor as well as by mtNOS stimulation, regulates mitochondrial matrix pH, transmembrane potential and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Exogenously-added NO causes a dose-dependent matrix acidification. Also mtNOS stimulation, induced by loading mitochondria with Ca2+, causes mitochondrial matrix acidification and a drop in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Inhibition of mtNOS's basal activity causes mitochondrial matrix alkalinization and provides a resistance to the sudden drop of mitochondrial transmembrane potential induced by mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We conclude that mtNOS plays a critical role in regulating mitochondrial delta(pH).

  11. Cathepsin L participates in the remodeling of the midgut through dissociation of midgut cells and activation of apoptosis via caspase-1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Lin, Xian-Wu; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The larval midgut in holometabolous insects must undergo a remodeling process during metamorphosis to form the pupal-adult midgut. However, the molecular mechanism of larval midgut cell dissociation remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression and activity of Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CatL) are high in the midgut at the mid-late stage of the 6th-instar larvae and are responsive to the upstream hormone ecdysone. Immunocytochemistry shows that signals for Har-CatL-like are localized in midgut cells, and an inhibitor experiment demonstrates that Har-CatL functions in the dissociation of midgut epithelial cells. Mechanistically, Har-CatL can cleave pro-caspase-1 into the mature peptide, thereby increasing the activity of caspase-1, which plays a key role in apoptosis, indicating that Har-CatL is also involved in the apoptosis of midgut cells by activating caspase-1. We believe that this is the first report that Har-CatL regulates the dissociation and apoptosis of the larval midgut epithelium for midgut remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ventilatory regulation of arterial H(+) (pH) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Karlman; Cox, Timothy A; Sietsema, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that exercise ventilation and arterial H(+) ([H(+)]a) are mutually interactive, [H(+)]a stimulating V(E) and V(E) regulating [H(+)]a increase. Fifty-five patients were studied, 10 normal and 45 with cardio-respiratory disorders. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous serial arterial blood gas and pH measurements. Subsequently, they were classified into one of 7 clinical groups: (1) normal, (2) exercise-induced hypoxemia (PaO2<50mmHg), (3) exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, (4) heart failure, (5) COPD, (6) interstitial lung disease, and (7) pulmonary vasculopathy. The average resting pHa was 7.42 or 7.43 for each group. At anaerobic (lactic acidosis) threshold (AT), [H(+)]a increased due to PaCO2 increase (+2mmHg), primarily. At peak exercise, [H(+)]a increased further due to arterial HCO3(-) decrease. In summary, [H(+)]a appears to be closely regulated at rest to AT and further to peak exercise by CO2 elimination from the venous return. No evidence was observed for over-ventilation of CO2, causing the arterial blood to become more alkaline during exercise in the patient groups studied.

  13. Regulation of neuronal connexin-36 channels by pH.

    PubMed

    González-Nieto, Daniel; Gómez-Hernández, Juan M; Larrosa, Belén; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Muñoz, María D; Fasciani, Ilaria; O'Brien, John; Zappalà, Agata; Cicirata, Federico; Barrio, Luis C

    2008-11-04

    Neurotransmission through electrical synapses plays an important role in the spike synchrony among neurons and oscillation of neuronal networks. Indeed, electrical transmission has been implicated in the hypersynchronous electrical activity of epilepsy. We have investigated the influence of intracellular pH on the strength of electrical coupling mediated by connexin36 (Cx36), the principal gap junction protein in the electrical synapses of vertebrates. In striking contrast to other connexin isoforms, the activity of Cx36 channels decreases following alkalosis rather than acidosis when it is expressed in Xenopus oocytes and N2A cells. This uncoupling of Cx36 channels upon alkalinization occurred in the vertebrate orthologues analyzed (human, mouse, chicken, perch, and skate). While intracellular acidification caused a mild or moderate increase in the junctional conductance of virtually all these channels, the coupling of the skate Cx35 channel was partially blocked by acidosis. The mutational analysis suggests that the Cx36 channels may contain two gating mechanisms operating with opposing sensitivity to pH. One gate, the dominant mechanism, closes for alkalosis and it probably involves an interaction between the C- and N-terminal domains, while a secondary acid sensing gate only causes minor, albeit saturating, changes in coupling following acidosis and alkalosis. Thus, we conclude that neuronal Cx36 channels undergo unique regulation by pH(i) since their activity is inhibited by alkalosis rather than acidosis. These data provide a novel basis to define the relevance and consequences of the pH-dependent modulation of Cx36 synapses under physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-03-11

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  15. Arylphorin is a mitogen in the Heliothis virescens midgut cell secretome upon Cry1Ac intoxication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) target cells in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae. While the mode of action of Cry toxins has been extensively investigated, the midgut response to Cry intoxication and its regulation are not well ch...

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Midgut Immunity Response and Degeneration in the Wandering Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guohua; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xuquan; Guan, Jingmin; Shao, Qimiao; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengshu; Ling, Erjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. Principal Findings We used the silkworm as a model and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the midgut between the feeding stage and the wandering stage. Many genes concerned with metabolism, digestion, and ion and small molecule transportation were down-regulated during the wandering stage, indicating that the wandering stage midgut loses its normal functions. Microarray profiling, qRT-PCR and western blot proved the production of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) in the midgut during the wandering stage. Different genes of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway were up-regulated during the wandering stage. However, some key genes belonging to the Toll pathway showed no change in their transcription levels. Unlike butterfly (Pachliopta aristolochiae), the midgut of silkworm moth has a layer of cells, indicating that the development of midgut since the wandering stage is not usual. Cell division in the midgut was observed only for a short time during the wandering stage. However, there was extensive cell apoptosis before pupation. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis probably drives the continuous degeneration of the midgut in the silkworm since the wandering stage. Conclusions This study provided an insight into the mechanism of the degeneration of the silkworm midgut and the production of innate immunity-related proteins during the wandering stage. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis induces irreversible

  17. pH regulation in glycosomes of procyclic form Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Voyton, Charles; Morris, Meredith T; Ackroyd, P Christine; Morris, James C; Christensen, Kenneth A

    2017-05-12

    Here we report the use of a fluorescein-tagged peroxisomal targeting sequence peptide (F-PTS1, acetyl-C{K(FITC)}GGAKL) for investigating pH regulation of glycosomes in live procyclic form Trypanosoma brucei When added to cells, this fluorescent peptide is internalized within vesicular structures, including glycosomes, and can be visualized after 30-60 min. Using F-PTS1 we are able to observe the pH conditions inside glycosomes in response to starvation conditions. Previous studies have shown that in the absence of glucose, the glycosome exhibits mild acidification from pH 7.4 ± 0.2 to 6.8 ± 0.2. Our results suggest that this response occurs under proline starvation as well. This pH regulation is found to be independent from cytosolic pH and requires a source of Na(+) ions. Glycosomes were also observed to be more resistant to external pH changes than the cytosol; placement of cells in acidic buffers (pH 5) reduced the pH of the cytosol by 0.8 ± 0.1 pH units, whereas glycosomal pH decreases by 0.5 ± 0.1 pH units. This observation suggests that regulation of glycosomal pH is different and independent from cytosolic pH regulation. Furthermore, pH regulation is likely to work by an active process, because cells depleted of ATP with 2-deoxyglucose and sodium azide were unable to properly regulate pH. Finally, inhibitor studies with bafilomycin and EIPA suggest that both V-ATPases and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are required for glycosomal pH regulation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Regulation of cellular pH: From molecules to membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabe, Michael David

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a universal class of proton pumps responsible for creating and maintaining acidic milieus in both intracellular and extracellular spaces. In the first chapter, I develop a mechanochemical model of this enzyme based upon the counter-rotation of adjacent subunits. The mathematical approach details a general integrated method for describing the mechanical and chemical reactions that occur in motor systems. A novel escapement is proposed for how the protons cross the protein-bilayer interface, and it is shown how this movement couples to ATP hydrolysis. This model reproduces a variety of experimental data while providing a framework for understanding the function of the enzyme's subunits. Specifically, it explains how ATP hydrolysis can uncouple from proton movement, which has important consequences for cellular energetics and pH regulation. Until now only an equilibrium theory of organelle acidification has been proposed; however, recent experiments show that large proton leaks prevent many cellular compartments from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium. The characterization of the V-ATPase is used in the second chapter in order to develop a unified model of organelle acidification based on the interplay of ion pumps and channels and the physical characteristics of the organelle. This model successfully describes the time dependent acidification of many different organelle systems. It accurately predicts both the electrical and concentration dependent terms of the chemical potential. In conjunction with fluorescence experiments, I determined the first measurements of the proton permeability of organelles along the secretory pathway. These measurements allowed me to make the first estimates of the number of V-ATPases in each compartment by analyzing the resting pH's of the respective organelles. I found a decrease in permeability from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (51 x 10-4 cm/s) to the Golgi (21 x 10-4 cm/s) to the mature secretory

  19. Regulation of Intracellular pH in Lungs and Other Tissues During Hypercapnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-10

    was observed in terms of "percent pH regula- sumed to equal venous Pco 2. tion." As shown in Fig. 1, the pH of kidney, lung, and Intracellular pH was...buffering. The value, "percent pH 80 Z70regulation" (19), calculated as (Alog HCO3/log Pco 2) - x 100 is also used to quantitate pH regulation. This...42: 2080-2093, 1964. 6. FENN, W. 0. Carbon dioxide and intracellular homeostasis . 19. SCHAEFER, K. E., M. HASSON, AND H. NIEMOELLER. Effect of Ann. NY

  20. Intracellular pH regulation during spreading of human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of the intracelluar pH (pHi) during spreading of human neutrophils was studied by a combination of fluorescence imaging and video microscopy. Spreading on adhesive substrates caused a rapid and sustained cytosolic alkalinization. This pHi increase was prevented by the omission of external Na+, suggesting that it results from the activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Spreading-induced alkalinization was also precluded by the compound HOE 694 at concentrations that selectively block the NHE-1 isoform of the Na+H+ antiporter. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange by either procedure unmasked a sizable cytosolic acidification upon spreading, indicative of intracellular acid production. The excess acid generation was caused, at least in part, by the activation of the respiratory burst, since the acidification closely correlated with superoxide production, measured in single spreading neutrophils with dihydrorhodamine-123, and little acid production was observed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, a blocker of the NADPH oxidase. Moreover, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, which do not produce superoxide, failed to acidify. Comparable pHi changes were observed when beta 2 integrins were selectively activated during spreading on surfaces coated with anti-CD18 antibodies. When integrin engagement was precluded by pretreatment with soluble anti-CD18 antibody, the pHi changes associated with spreading on fibrinogen were markedly reduced. Inhibition of microfilament assembly with cytochalasin D precluded spreading and concomitantly abolished superoxide production and the associated pHi changes, indicating that cytoskeletal reorganization and/or an increase in the number of adherence receptors engaged are required for the responses. Neutrophils spread normally when the oxidase was blocked or when pHi was clamped near physiological values with nigericin. Spreading, however, was strongly inhibited when pHi was clamped at acidic values. Our results

  1. Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Timothy R

    2008-02-01

    The skeletons of land vertebrates contain a massive reserve of alkaline mineral (hydroxyapatite), which is ultimately available to buffer metabolic H+ if acid-base balance is not maintained within narrow limits. The negative impact of acidosis on the skeleton has long been known but was thought to result from passive, physicochemical dissolution of bone mineral. This brief, selective review summarizes what is now known of the direct functional responses of bone cells to extracellular pH. We discovered that bone resorption by cultured osteoclasts is stimulated directly by acid. The stimulatory effect is near-maximal at pH 7.0, whereas above pH 7.4, resorption is switched off. In bone organ cultures, H+-stimulated bone mineral release is almost entirely osteoclast-mediated, with a negligible physicochemical component. Acidification is the key requirement for osteoclasts to excavate resorption pits in all species studied to date, and extracellular H+ may thus be regarded as the long-sought osteoclast activation factor. Acid-activated osteoclasts can be stimulated further by agents such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand. Osteoclasts may respond to pH changes via H+-sensing ion channels such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a nociceptor that is also activated by capsaicin. Acidosis also exerts a powerful, reciprocal inhibitory effect on the mineralization of bone matrix by cultured osteoblasts. This is caused by increased hydroxyapatite solubility at low pH, together with selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase, which is required for mineralization. Diets or drugs that shift acid-base balance in the alkaline direction may provide useful treatments for bone loss disorders.

  2. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-01-04

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  3. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R.; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R.; Batstone, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations. PMID:27681895

  4. Regulation of spblimp1/krox1a, an alternatively transcribed isoform expressed in midgut and hindgut of the sea urchin gastrula.

    PubMed

    Livi, Carolina B; Davidson, Eric H

    2007-01-01

    The sea urchin regulatory gene Spblimp1/krox produces alternatively transcribed and spliced isoforms, 1a and 1b, which have different temporal and spatial patterns of expression. Here we describe a cis-regulatory module that controls the expression of the 1a splice form in the midgut and hindgut at the beginning of gastrulation. Conserved sequence patches revealed by a comparison of the blimp1/krox locus in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus genomes were tested by gene transfer, in association with GFP or CAT reporter genes. An expression construct containing a conserved sequence patch immediately 5' of exon 1a included the transcription initiation site for blimp1/krox1a. This construct displays specific mid and hindgut expression, indicating that these are the locations of endogenous blimp1/krox1a transcription during the gastrula stage. Its sequence contains binding sites for Brn1/2/4, Otx, and Blimp1/Krox itself, as predicted in a prior regulatory network analysis.

  5. Role of cathepsins D in the midgut of Dysdercus peruvianus.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, André C; Fuzita, Felipe J; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-02-01

    Hemipteran ancestors probably lost their digestive serine peptidases on adapting to a plant sap diet. On returning to protein ingestion, these insects start using cathepsin (lysosomal) peptidases as digestive enzymes, from which the less known is cathepsin D. Nine of the ten cathepsin D transcribing genes found in Dysdercus peruvianus midgut are expressed exclusively in this tissue and only DpCatD10 is also expressed in other tissues. The main action of cathepsins D is in the first (V1) (from three, V1-3) midgut regions, where 40% of the total proteolytic activity was assigned to aspartic peptidases with an optimum pH of 3.5. The most expressed cathepsins D were identified in the midgut luminal contents by proteomics. The data indicate that D. peruvianus have kept a lysosomal gene expressed in all tissues and evolved another set of genes with a digestive function restricted to midgut. Digestive cathepsins D apparently complement the action of digestive cathepsin L and they are arguably responsible for the hydrolysis of cysteine peptidase inhibitors known to be present in the cotton seeds eaten by the insect, before they meet cathepsin L.

  6. A regulatory network controls nephrocan expression and midgut patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Wei, Wei; Saund, Ranajeet S.; Xiang, Ping; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Yi, Yuyin; Alder, Olivia; Lu, Daphne Y. D.; Savory, Joanne G. A.; Krentz, Nicole A. J.; Montpetit, Rachel; Cullum, Rebecca; Hofs, Nicole; Lohnes, David; Humphries, R. Keith; Yamanaka, Yojiro; Duester, Gregg; Saijoh, Yukio; Hoodless, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Although many regulatory networks involved in defining definitive endoderm have been identified, the mechanisms through which these networks interact to pattern the endoderm are less well understood. To explore the mechanisms involved in midgut patterning, we dissected the transcriptional regulatory elements of nephrocan (Nepn), the earliest known midgut specific gene in mice. We observed that Nepn expression is dramatically reduced in Sox17−/− and Raldh2−/− embryos compared with wild-type embryos. We further show that Nepn is directly regulated by Sox17 and the retinoic acid (RA) receptor via two enhancer elements located upstream of the gene. Moreover, Nepn expression is modulated by Activin signaling, with high levels inhibiting and low levels enhancing RA-dependent expression. In Foxh1−/− embryos in which Nodal signaling is reduced, the Nepn expression domain is expanded into the anterior gut region, confirming that Nodal signaling can modulate its expression in vivo. Together, Sox17 is required for Nepn expression in the definitive endoderm, while RA signaling restricts expression to the midgut region. A balance of Nodal/Activin signaling regulates the anterior boundary of the midgut expression domain. PMID:25209250

  7. Learning to Write a Research Article: Ph.D. Students' Transitions toward Disciplinary Writing Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castello, Montserrat; Inesta, Anna; Corcelles, Mariona

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study designed from a socially situated and activity theory perspective aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of how Ph.D. students regulate their academic writing activity. Writing regulation is a complex activity of a highly situated and social nature, involving cyclical thought-action-emotion dynamics and the…

  8. Molecular Basis of pH and Ca2+ Regulation of Aquaporin Water Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L.; Kalman, Katalin; Hall, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of water across cell membranes. We previously showed that acid pH or low Ca2+ increase the water permeability of bovine AQP0 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We now show that external histidines in loops A and C mediate the pH dependence. Furthermore, the position of histidines in different members of the aquaporin family can “tune” the pH sensitivity toward alkaline or acid pH ranges. In bovine AQP0, replacement of His40 in loop A by Cys, while keeping His122 in loop C, shifted the pH sensitivity from acid to alkaline. In the killifish AQP0 homologue, MIPfun, with His at position 39 in loop A, alkaline rather than acid pH increased water permeability. Moving His39 to His40 in MIPfun, to mimic bovine AQP0 loop A, shifted the pH sensitivity back to the acid range. pH regulation was also found in two other members of the aquaporin family. Alkaline pH increased the water permeability of AQP4 that contains His at position 129 in loop C. Acid and alkaline pH sensitivity was induced in AQP1 by adding histidines 48 (in loop A) and 130 (in loop C). We conclude that external histidines in loops A and C that span the outer vestibule contribute to pH sensitivity. In addition, we show that when AQP0 (bovine or killifish) and a crippled calmodulin mutant were coexpressed, Ca2+ sensitivity was lost but pH sensitivity was maintained. These results demonstrate that Ca2+ and pH modulation are separable and arise from processes on opposite sides of the membrane. PMID:15078916

  9. pCO(2) and pH regulation of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seonghun; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    CO(2) serves as one of the fundamental regulators of cerebral blood flow (CBF). It is widely considered that this regulation occurs through pCO(2)-driven changes in pH of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), with elevated and lowered pH causing direct relaxation and contraction of the smooth muscle, respectively. However, some findings also suggest that pCO(2) acts independently of and/or in conjunction with altered pH. This action may be due to a direct effect of CSF pCO(2) on the smooth muscle as well as on the endothelium, nerves, and astrocytes. Findings may also point to an action of arterial pCO(2) on the endothelium to regulate smooth muscle contractility. Thus, the effects of pH and pCO(2) may be influenced by the absence/presence of different cell types in the various experimental preparations. Results may also be influenced by experimental parameters including myogenic tone as well as solutions containing significantly altered HCO(3) (-) concentrations, i.e., solutions routinely employed to differentiate the effects of pH from pCO(2). In sum, it appears that pCO(2), independently and in conjunction with pH, may regulate CBF.

  10. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue-skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  11. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-18

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue-skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H(+) could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue.

  12. An aposymbiotic primary coral polyp counteracts acidification by active pH regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Corals build their skeletons using extracellular calcifying fluid located in the tissue–skeleton interface. However, the mechanism by which corals control the transport of calcium and other ions from seawater and the mechanism of constant alkalization of calcifying fluid are largely unknown. To address these questions, we performed direct pH imaging at calcification sites (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM) to visualize active pH upregulation in live aposymbiotic primary coral polyps treated with HCl-acidified seawater. Active alkalization was observed in all individuals using vital staining method while the movement of HPTS and Alexa Fluor to SCM suggests that certain ions such as H+ could diffuse via a paracellular pathway to SCM. Among them, we discovered acid-induced oscillations in the pH of SCM (pHSCM), observed in 24% of polyps examined. In addition, we discovered acid-induced pH up-regulation waves in 21% of polyps examined, which propagated among SCMs after exposure to acidified seawater. Our results showed that corals can regulate pHSCM more dynamically than was previously believed. These observations will have important implications for determining how corals regulate pHSCM during calcification. We propose that corals can sense ambient seawater pH via their innate pH-sensitive systems and regulate pHSCM using several unknown pH-regulating ion transporters that coordinate with multicellular signaling occurring in coral tissue. PMID:28098180

  13. pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclase (sAC)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nawreen; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO−3) ions. In living cells, HCO−3 ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO−3, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role. PMID:24324443

  14. Biochemical and cellular characterization of lipophorin-midgut interaction in the hematophagous Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Fruttero, Leonardo L; Rubiolo, Edilberto R; Canavoso, Lilián E

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the metabolism of dietary lipids in hematophagous insects, we have performed a biochemical and cellular characterization of lipophorin (Lp)-midgut interaction in Panstrongylus megistus, a vector of Chagas' disease. The study was accomplished by solid-phase binding assays or with iodinated Lp ((125)I-Lp), using midgut membranes from fifth instar nymphs after ecdysis and after insects received a blood meal. Results obtained from both physiological conditions indicated that Lp interacted specifically with the midgut, implying the participation of receptors. Binding capacity of lipophorin to membranes was dependent on the amount of membranes added in the system, reaching saturation at 0.1 microg/ml. However, membranes obtained after a blood meal exhibited higher binding activity. Saturation kinetics results using (125)I-Lp suggested a single binding site with high affinity for Lp in the midgut membranes (K(d) = 5.1 +/- 3.6 x 10(-8) M). The unrelated lipoprotein, human LDL, did not compete with Lp for its binding site in the midgut. The binding was dependent on pH and the treatment of membranes with trypsin or heat causes a significant inhibition of the binding. Midgut-Lp interaction was affected by changes in ionic strength and by suramin, but showed no requirement of calcium. Ligand blotting assays revealed two membrane proteins that specifically bound Lp (61 and 45 kDa). At cellular level, Lp binding sites were located mainly at the basal plasma membrane of isolated enterocytes. Labeled Lp with fluorescent probes directed to its proteins or its phospholipids fraction co-localized mainly at the basement membrane of the midgut. In addition, no intracellular Lp was observed at any condition. The lack of an endocytic pathway for Lp in the midgut of P. megistus is analyzed in the context of insect physiology.

  15. Comparison of midgut bacterial diversity in tropical caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) fed on different diets.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Sittenfeld, Ana; Uribe-Lorío, Lorena; Chavarría, Felipe; Mora, Marielos; Janzen, Daniel H; Goodman, Robert M; Simon, Holly M

    2011-10-01

    As primary consumers of foliage, caterpillars play essential roles in shaping the trophic structure of tropical forests. The caterpillar midgut is specialized in plant tissue processing; its pH is exceptionally alkaline and contains high concentrations of toxic compounds derived from the ingested plant material (secondary compounds or allelochemicals) and from the insect itself. The midgut, therefore, represents an extreme environment for microbial life. Isolates from different bacterial taxa have been recovered from caterpillar midguts, but little is known about the impact of these microorganisms on caterpillar biology. Our long-term goals are to identify midgut symbionts and to investigate their functions. As a first step, different diet formulations were evaluated for rearing two species of tropical saturniid caterpillars. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers hybridizing broadly to sequences from the bacterial domain, 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed with midgut DNA extracted from caterpillars reared on different diets. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis indicated that bacterial sequences recovered from the midguts of caterpillars fed on foliage were more diverse than those from caterpillars fed on artificial diet. Sequences related to Methylobacterium sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., and Propionibacterium sp. were detected in all caterpillar libraries regardless of diet, but were not detected in a library constructed from the diet itself. Furthermore, libraries constructed with DNA recovered from surface-sterilized eggs indicated potential for vertical transmission of midgut symbionts. Taken together, these results suggest that microorganisms associated with the tropical caterpillar midgut may engage in symbiotic interactions with these ecologically important insects.

  16. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  17. Interfering with pH regulation in tumours as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Neri, Dario; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-09-16

    The high metabolic rate of tumours often leads to acidosis and hypoxia in poorly perfused regions. Tumour cells have thus evolved the ability to function in a more acidic environment than normal cells. Key pH regulators in tumour cells include: isoforms 2, 9 and 12 of carbonic anhydrase, isoforms of anion exchangers, Na+/HCO3- co-transporters, Na+/H+ exchangers, monocarboxylate transporters and the vacuolar ATPase. Both small molecules and antibodies targeting these pH regulators are currently at various stages of clinical development. These antitumour mechanisms are not exploited by the classical cancer drugs and therefore represent a new anticancer drug discovery strategy.

  18. Targeting pH regulating proteins for cancer therapy-Progress and limitations.

    PubMed

    Parks, Scott K; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2017-01-27

    Tumour acidity induced by metabolic alterations and incomplete vascularisation sets cancer cells apart from normal cellular physiology. This distinguishing tumour characteristic has been an area of intense study, as cellular pH (pHi) disturbances disrupt protein function and therefore multiple cellular processes. Tumour cells effectively utilise pHi regulating machinery present in normal cells with enhancements provided by additional oncogenic or hypoxia induced protein modifications. This overall improvement of pH regulation enables maintenance of an alkaline pHi in the continued presence of external acidification (pHe). Considerable experimentation has revealed targets that successfully disrupt tumour pHi regulation in efforts to develop novel means to weaken or kill tumour cells. However, redundancy in these pH-regulating proteins, which include Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), carbonic anhydrases (CAs), Na(+)/HCO3(-) co-transporters (NBCs) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) has prevented effective disruption of tumour pHi when individual protein targeting is performed. Here we synthesise recent advances in understanding both normoxic and hypoxic pH regulating mechanisms in tumour cells with an ultimate focus on the disruption of tumour growth, survival and metastasis. Interactions between tumour acidity and other cell types are also proving to be important in understanding therapeutic applications such as immune therapy. Promising therapeutic developments regarding pH manipulation along with current limitations are highlighted to provide a framework for future research directives.

  19. Effects of local pH on the formation and regulation of cristae morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong Hoon; Park, Jonghyun; Philbert, Martin A.; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Cristae, folded subcompartments of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), have complex and dynamic morphologies. Since cristae are the major site of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, morphological changes of cristae have been studied in relation to functional states of mitochondria. In this sense, investigating the functional and structural significance of cristae may be critical for understanding progressive mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms of the formation and regulation of these cristae structures have not been fully elucidated. Among the hypotheses concerning the regulation of cristae morphologies, we exclusively investigate the effects of the local pH gradient on the cristae morphologies by using a numerical model. An area-difference induced curvature of the membrane is modeled as a function of local pH. This curvature is then applied to the finite element model of a closed lipid bilayer in order to find the energetically favorable membrane configuration. From this study, we substantiate the hypothesis that a tubular crista structure can be formed and regulated by the local pH gradient. Through the simulations with various initial conditions, we further demonstrate that the diameter of a crista is mainly determined by the local pH gradient, and the energetically favorable direction of crista growth is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a mitochondrion. Finally, the simulation results at the mitochondrial scale suggest that the cristae membrane may have a lower local pH value and/or a higher cardiolipin composition than the other parts of the IMM.

  20. Compartmentalization of proteinases and amylases in Nauphoeta cinerea midgut.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Gromenko, V A; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P

    2001-12-01

    Compartmentalization of proteinases, amylases, and pH in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera:Blaberidae) was studied in order to understand the organization of protein and starch digestion. Total proteolytic activity measured with azocasein was maximal at pH 11.5 both in anterior (AM) and posterior (PM) halves of the midgut, but the bulk of activity (67%) was found in PM. Total AM and PM preparations were fractionated on a Sephadex G-50 column and further analysed by means of activity electrophoresis and specific inhibitors and activators. The major activity in PM was classified as an unusual SH-dependent proteinase with M(r) 24,000 and pH optimum with synthetic substrate BApNA at 10.0. The enzyme was 43-fold activated in the presence of 1 mM DTT, insensitive to synthetic inhibitors of serine (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK) and cysteine (IAA, E-64) proteinases, strongly inhibited by STI, and displayed four active bands on zymograms. In PM, activities of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, subtilisin-like, and cysteine proteinases were observed. Aspartic and metalloproteinases were not detected. In AM, activity of unusual SH-dependent proteinase also dominated and activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinase was observed, but their levels were much lower than in PM. Distribution of amylase activity, exhibiting an optimum at pH 6.0, was quite the opposite. The major part of it (67%) was located in AM. Treatment of amylase preparation with proteinases from AM and PM reduced amylase activity twofold. pH of the midgut contents was 6.0-7.2 in AM, 6.4-7.6 in the first and 8.8-9.3 in the second halves of PM. Thus, pH in AM is in good agreement with the optimal pH of amylase, located in this compartment, but the activity of proteinases, including the ability to degrade amylase, in such an environment is low. Active proteolysis takes place in the second half of PM, where pH of the gut is close to the optimal pH of proteinases. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Positive regulation of Itk PH domain function by soluble IP4.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yina H; Grasis, Juris A; Miller, Andrew T; Xu, Ruo; Soonthornvacharin, Stephen; Andreotti, Amy H; Tsoukas, Constantine D; Cooke, Michael P; Sauer, Karsten

    2007-05-11

    Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-mediated protein recruitment to cellular membranes is of paramount importance for signal transduction. The recruitment of many PH domains is controlled through production and turnover of their membrane ligand, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). We show that phosphorylation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4) establishes another mode of PH domain regulation through a soluble ligand. At physiological concentrations, IP4 promoted PH domain binding to PIP3. In primary mouse CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, this was required for full activation of the protein tyrosine kinase Itk after T cell receptor engagement. Our data suggest that IP4 establishes a feedback loop of phospholipase C-gamma1 activation through Itk that is essential for T cell development.

  2. Preferential intracellular pH regulation represents a general pattern of pH homeostasis during acid-base disturbances in the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis.

    PubMed

    Harter, T S; Shartau, R B; Baker, D W; Jackson, D C; Val, A L; Brauner, C J

    2014-08-01

    Preferential intracellular pH (pHi) regulation, where pHi is tightly regulated in the face of a blood acidosis, has been observed in a few species of fish, but only during elevated blood PCO2. To determine whether preferential pHi regulation may represent a general pattern for acid-base regulation during other pH disturbances we challenged the armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis, with anoxia and exhaustive exercise, to induce a metabolic acidosis, and bicarbonate injections to induce a metabolic alkalosis. Fish were terminally sampled 2-3 h following the respective treatments and extracellular blood pH, pHi of red blood cells (RBC), brain, heart, liver and white muscle, and plasma lactate and total CO2 were measured. All treatments resulted in significant changes in extracellular pH and RBC pHi that likely cover a large portion of the pH tolerance limits of this species (pH 7.15-7.86). In all tissues other than RBC, pHi remained tightly regulated and did not differ significantly from control values, with the exception of a decrease in white muscle pHi after anoxia and an increase in liver pHi following a metabolic alkalosis. Thus preferential pHi regulation appears to be a general pattern for acid-base homeostasis in the armoured catfish and may be a common response in Amazonian fishes.

  3. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited.

  4. Molecular Components of the Neurospora crassa pH Signaling Pathway and Their Regulation by pH and the PAC-3 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Bernardes, Natália Elisa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Takeda, Agnes Alessandra Sekijima; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pH induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. Neurospora crassa shares all six components of the Aspergillus nidulans pH signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline pH stress response. We show that the N. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of Δpal-9, which is the A. nidulans palI homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline pH. Moreover, they accumulate the pigment melanin, most likely via regulation of the tyrosinase gene by the pH signaling components. The PAC-3 transcription factor binds to the tyrosinase promoter and negatively regulates its gene expression. PAC-3 also binds to all pal gene promoters, regulating their expression at normal growth pH and/or alkaline pH, which indicates a feedback regulation of PAC-3 in the pal gene expression. In addition, PAC-3 binds to the pac-3 promoter only at alkaline pH, most likely influencing the pac-3 expression at this pH suggesting that the activation of PAC-3 in N. crassa results from proteolytic processing and gene expression regulation by the pH signaling components. In N. crassa, PAC-3 is proteolytically processed in a single cleavage step predominately at alkaline pH; however, low levels of the processed protein can be observed at normal growth pH. We also demonstrate that PAC-3 preferentially localizes in the nucleus at alkaline pH stress and that the translocation may require the N. crassa importin-α since the PAC-3 nuclear localization signal (NLS) has a strong in vitro affinity with importin-α. The data presented here show that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa shares all the components with the A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae pathways; however, it exhibits some properties not previously described in either organism.

  5. Molecular Components of the Neurospora crassa pH Signaling Pathway and Their Regulation by pH and the PAC-3 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Bernardes, Natália Elisa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Takeda, Agnes Alessandra Sekijima; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pH induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. Neurospora crassa shares all six components of the Aspergillus nidulans pH signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline pH stress response. We show that the N. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of Δpal-9, which is the A. nidulans palI homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline pH. Moreover, they accumulate the pigment melanin, most likely via regulation of the tyrosinase gene by the pH signaling components. The PAC-3 transcription factor binds to the tyrosinase promoter and negatively regulates its gene expression. PAC-3 also binds to all pal gene promoters, regulating their expression at normal growth pH and/or alkaline pH, which indicates a feedback regulation of PAC-3 in the pal gene expression. In addition, PAC-3 binds to the pac-3 promoter only at alkaline pH, most likely influencing the pac-3 expression at this pH suggesting that the activation of PAC-3 in N. crassa results from proteolytic processing and gene expression regulation by the pH signaling components. In N. crassa, PAC-3 is proteolytically processed in a single cleavage step predominately at alkaline pH; however, low levels of the processed protein can be observed at normal growth pH. We also demonstrate that PAC-3 preferentially localizes in the nucleus at alkaline pH stress and that the translocation may require the N. crassa importin-α since the PAC-3 nuclear localization signal (NLS) has a strong in vitro affinity with importin-α. The data presented here show that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa shares all the components with the A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae pathways; however, it exhibits some properties not previously described in either organism. PMID:27557053

  6. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts…

  7. Regulating Emotions and Aiming for a Ph.D.: Excerpts from "Anthropology Matters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Ingie

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will present a range of experiences of graduate socialisation that have been discussed in past articles in the journal "Anthropology Matters". These are the experiences of social anthropology Ph.D. students in the United Kingdom. The overarching theme for the article is "regulating emotions", and the excerpts…

  8. Regulating Glucose and pH, and Monitoring Oxygen in a Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melody M.; Pellis, Neat R.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Xu, Yuanhang; Gao, Frank

    2006-01-01

    A system that automatically regulates the concentration of glucose or pH in a liquid culture medium that is circulated through a rotating-wall perfused bioreactor is described. Another system monitors the concentration of oxygen in the culture medium.

  9. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  10. Stage-specific distribution of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the midgut of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor; Turanli, Ferit; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2007-01-01

    The titers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represented by superoxide anion and general peroxides, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), are regulated in the midgut of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) relative to the gut compartment, developmental stage, and food intake. ROS concentration is low in the potato leaves but it is very high in their digest in insect's anterior midgut. It is proposed that intensive ROS production in this gut region is linked to the processing of allelochemicals. SOD and CAT activities, low oxygen tension, and unidentified redox systems that maintain a slightly reducing milieu in the midgut lumen (pe+pH=6.95 declining to 5.36), obviously contribute to the decrease of ROS concentration along the gut length to a minimum in the wall of posterior midgut region. SOD and CAT activities are higher in the potato leaves than in the midgut tissues but the role of plant enzymes in ROS elimination within the gut lumen remains to be shown. A lower level of ROS and a higher antioxidant potential in the adult than in the larval midgut indicate stage specificity in the management of oxidative stress. The antioxidant defense is high in the diapausing adults that contain no detectable superoxide and about ten times less peroxides than the reproducing adults.

  11. Oxygen and pH regulation of protein synthesis in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kwast, K E; Hand, S C

    1996-01-01

    To identify factors responsible for the down-regulation of mitochondrial biosynthetic processes during anoxia in encysted Artemia franciscana embryos, the effects of oxygen limitation and pH on protein synthesis were investigated in isolated mitochondria. At the optimal pH of 7.5, exposure of mitochondria to anoxia decreases the protein synthesis rate by 79%. Rates were suppressed by a further 10% at pH 6.8, the intracellular pH (pHi) measured under anoxia in vivo. Matrix pH, measured under identical conditions, was 8.43 +/- 0.01 at an extra-mitochondrial pH of 7.9 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), 8.05 +/- 0.01 at pH 7.5, and 7.10 +/- 0.01 at pH 6.8. The matrix pH did not vary (P > or = 0.20) as a function of oxygen availability during the 1 h assays. Intramitochondrial purine nucleotides varied little as a function of pH. In contrast, after 1 h of protein synthesis under anoxia, ATP levels decreased by up to 40%, whereas AMP, ADP and GDP concentrations increased, and GTP and GMP concentrations remained relatively constant. The addition of 1 mM ATP at the onset of anoxia maintained the ATP/ADP ratio at the aerobic value, but did not stabilized the GTP/GDP ratio or rescue rates of protein synthesis. Thus, at present, we cannot eliminate the possibility that the decrease in the GTP/GDP ratio during anoxia may contribute to the suppression of protein synthesis. The effect of anoxia was reversible; the rate of protein synthesis upon reoxygenation after a 30 min bout of anoxia was comparable (P = 0.14) with the pre-anoxic rate (193 +/- 17 and 174 +/- 6 pmol of leucine per mg of protein respectively, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3). The array of mitochondrial translation products did not differ qualitatively as a function of either oxygen availability or pH. Finally, similar pH profiles for protein synthesis were obtained with either [3H]leucine or [3H]histidine (known to use different transporters). Consequently, it is improbable that the pH-sensitivity of protein synthesis can be

  12. Human microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 is stable at extremes of pH.

    PubMed

    Naz, Farha; Singh, Parvesh; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Imtaiyaz Hassan, Md

    2016-06-01

    MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) is a member of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinases, directly associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we have cloned, expressed, and purified two variants of MARK4 [the kinase domain (MARK4-F2), and kinase domain along with 59 N-terminal residues (MARK4-F1)] and compared their stability at varying pH range. Structural and functional changes were observed by incubating both forms of MARK4 in buffers of different pH. We measured the secondary structure of MARK4 using circular dichroism and tertiary structure by measuring intrinsic fluorescence and absorbance properties along with the size of proteins by dynamic light scattering. We observed that at extremes of pH (below pH 3.5 and above pH 9.0), MARK4 is quite stable. However, a remarkable aggregate formation was observed at intermediate pH (between pH 3.5 and 9.0). To further validate this result, we have modeled both forms of MARK4 and performed molecular dynamics simulation for 15 ns. The spectroscopic observations are in excellent agreement with the findings of molecular dynamics simulation. We also performed ATPase activity at varying pH and found a significant correlation of structure of MARK4 with its enzyme activity. It is interesting to note that both forms of MARK4 are showing a similar pattern of structure changes with reference to pH.

  13. Propeptides of eukaryotic proteases encode histidines to exploit organelle pH for regulation.

    PubMed

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; Krishnamoorthy, Bala; Shinde, Ujwal

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells maintain strict control over protein secretion, in part by using the pH gradient maintained within their secretory pathway. How eukaryotic proteins evolved from prokaryotic orthologs to exploit the pH gradient for biological functions remains a fundamental question in cell biology. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that protein domains located within precursor proteins, propeptides, encode histidine-driven pH sensors to regulate organelle-specific activation of the eukaryotic proteases furin and proprotein convertase-1/3. Similar findings have been reported in other unrelated protease families. By analyzing >10,000 unique proteases within evolutionarily unrelated families, we show that eukaryotic propeptides are enriched in histidines compared with prokaryotic orthologs. On this basis, we hypothesize that eukaryotic proteins evolved to enrich histidines within their propeptides to exploit the tightly controlled pH gradient of the secretory pathway, thereby regulating activation within specific organelles. Enrichment of histidines in propeptides may therefore be used to predict the presence of pH sensors in other proteases or even protease substrates.

  14. On enzymatic pH oscillations in CSTR with outlet regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Takao; Yu, Weifang; Yamamoto, Takuji; Endo, Akira; Nakaiwa, Masaru; Amemiya, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2005-05-01

    The possibility of enzymatic pH oscillations is investigated for a CSTR with an outlet regulator. A linear stability analysis shows that no oscillation is possible in a CSTR without the regulator, using a proton-producing pH-dependent enzymatic reaction. However, self-sustained oscillations are found to occur in a CSTR, where the discharge of substrate is regulated at the outlet. The regions of oscillations in the parameter space are determined using a hydrolysis of N-α-benzoyl- L-arginine ethyl ester with papain. It is found that the region is quite large only when the substrate concentration in the outflow is kept at zero.

  15. Both mosquito-derived xanthurenic acid and a host blood-derived factor regulate gametogenesis of Plasmodium in the midgut of the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Arai, M; Billker, O; Morris, H R; Panico, M; Delcroix, M; Dixon, D; Ley, S V; Sinden, R E

    2001-08-01

    Gametogenesis of Plasmodium in vitro can be induced by the combined stimulus of a 5 degrees C fall in temperature and the presence of xanthurenic acid (XA). In-vitro experiments showed that P. gallinaceum (EC(50)=80 nM) is much more sensitive to XA than P. berghei (9 microM), P. yoelii (8 microM), and P. falciparum (2 microM). However, in the mosquito vector, we do not know whether the temperature shift and XA are the only gametocyte-activating factors (GAF), nor do we know with certainty the true source(s) of XA in the mosquito blood meal. Previous studies indicate that XA is the only source of GAF in the mosquito. By defining, and then contrasting, the ability of an XA-deficient mutant of Aedes aegypti, with the wild-type mosquito to support exflagellation and ookinete formation in vivo, we determined the roles of parasite-, mosquito- and host blood-derived GAF in the regulation of gametogenesis of P. gallinaceum. Removal of both host and vector sources of GAF totally inhibited both exflagellation and ookinete production, whilst the lack of either single source resulted in only a partial reduction of exflagellation and ookinete formation in the mosquito gut. Both sources can be effectively replaced/substituted by synthetic XA. This suggests (1) both mosquito- and vertebrate-derived factors act as GAF in the mosquito gut in vivo; (2) the parasite itself is unable to produce any significant GAF activity. Studies are underway to determine whether vertebrate-derived GAF is XA. These data may form the basis of further studies of the development of new methods of interrupting malarial transmission.

  16. An automated system for monitoring and regulating the pH of bicarbonate buffers.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Grzegorz; Kołodziej, Bartosz; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner; Klein, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    The bicarbonate buffer is considered as the most biorelevant buffer system for the simulation of intestinal conditions. However, its use in dissolution testing of solid oral dosage forms is very limited. The reason for this is the thermodynamic instability of the solution containing hydrogen carbonate ions and carbonic acid. The spontaneous loss of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from the solution results in an uncontrolled increase of the pH. In order to maintain the pH on the desired level, either a CO(2) loss must be completely avoided or the escaped CO(2) has to be replaced by quantitative substitution, i.e. feeding the solution with the respective amount of gas, which re-acidifies the buffer after dissociation. The present work aimed at the development of a device enabling an automatic pH monitoring and regulation of hydrogen carbonate buffers during dissolution tests.

  17. Anopheles Midgut FREP1 Mediates Plasmodium Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genwei; Niu, Guodong; Franca, Caio M.; Dong, Yuemei; Wang, Xiaohong; Butler, Noah S.; Dimopoulos, George; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Malaria transmission depends on sexual stage Plasmodium parasites successfully invading Anopheline mosquito midguts following a blood meal. However, the molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1) gene are significantly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles gambiae, and FREP1 is important for Plasmodium berghei infection of mosquitoes. Here we identify that the FREP1 protein is secreted from the mosquito midgut epithelium and integrated as tetramers into the peritrophic matrix, a chitinous matrix formed inside the midgut lumen after a blood meal feeding. Moreover, we show that the FREP1 can directly bind Plasmodia sexual stage gametocytes and ookinetes. Notably, ablating FREP1 expression or targeting FREP1 with antibodies significantly decreases P. falciparum infection in mosquito midguts. Our data support that the mosquito-expressed FREP1 mediates mosquito midgut invasion by multiple species of Plasmodium parasites via anchoring ookinetes to the peritrophic matrix and enabling parasites to penetrate the peritrophic matrix and the epithelium. Thus, targeting FREP1 can limit malaria transmission. PMID:25991725

  18. The midgut of Cephalotes ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae): ultrastructure of the epithelium and symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bution, Murillo L; Caetano, F H

    2010-07-01

    The ultrastructural analysis of the midgut of Cephalotes atratus, C. clypeatus, and C. pusillus reveled that the midgut epithelium lays on a basal lamina and is composed basically of three cell types: digestive cells, regenerative cells, and goblet cells. In these ants, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, in addition to producing digestive enzymes, is involved in the formation of concretions and ion storage in specialized vacuoles present in the midgut. These concretions are spherocrystals and may contribute to stabilize the pH and to maintain symbiotic bacteria found between microvilli. The ultrastructure analysis of these bacteria revealed the presence of a double envelope typical of gram-negative bacteria. For the three species examined, the ultrastructure similarities are conspicuous, suggesting that this may be the pattern for the genus Cephalotes. Details of the relationship between bacteria and microvilli were examined. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. pH Regulates White-Opaque Switching and Sexual Mating in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Jia, Wei; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo

    2015-01-01

    As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating. The Rim101-mediated pH-sensing pathway is involved in the control of pH-regulated white-opaque switching and the mating response. Phr2 and Rim101 could play a major role in acidic pH-induced opaque cell formation. Despite the fact that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway does not play a major role in pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating, white and opaque cells of the cyr1/cyr1 mutant, which is defective in the production of cAMP, showed distinct growth defects under acidic and alkaline conditions. We further discovered that acidic pH conditions repressed sexual mating due to the failure of activation of the Ste2-mediated α-pheromone response pathway in opaque a cells. The effects of pH changes on phenotypic switching and sexual mating could involve a balance of host adaptation and sexual reproduction in C. albicans. PMID:26342021

  20. pH Regulates White-Opaque Switching and Sexual Mating in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Cao, Chengjun; Jia, Wei; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-11-01

    As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating. The Rim101-mediated pH-sensing pathway is involved in the control of pH-regulated white-opaque switching and the mating response. Phr2 and Rim101 could play a major role in acidic pH-induced opaque cell formation. Despite the fact that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway does not play a major role in pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating, white and opaque cells of the cyr1/cyr1 mutant, which is defective in the production of cAMP, showed distinct growth defects under acidic and alkaline conditions. We further discovered that acidic pH conditions repressed sexual mating due to the failure of activation of the Ste2-mediated α-pheromone response pathway in opaque A: cells. The effects of pH changes on phenotypic switching and sexual mating could involve a balance of host adaptation and sexual reproduction in C. albicans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Yang, Seung Ha; Shin, Misun; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ai-Young; Hwang, Daehee; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH. PMID:26057890

  2. Histochemical analysis of the goblet cell matrix in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Lozano, G.; Cajina-Quezada, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental analyses were made to histochemically determine the composition of the goblet cell matrix material in the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Techniques employed following fixation in Carnoy fluid were the periodic acid-Schiff reaction and the alcian blue stain at pH 1.0 and pH 2.5 and following methylation and subsequent saponification. The cumulative evidence suggests that the plug material is an acid mucosubstance.

  3. Regulation of H+ Extrusion and Cytoplasmic pH in Maize Root Tips Acclimated to a Low-Oxygen Environment.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, J. H.; Roberts, JKM.

    1996-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that H+ extrusion contributes to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia in maize (Zea mays) root tips. We studied root tips of whole seedlings that were acclimated to a low-oxygen environment by pretreatment in 3% (v/v) O2. Acclimated root tips characteristically regulate cytoplasmic pH near neutrality and survive prolonged anoxia, whereas nonacclimated tips undergo severe cytoplasmic acidosis and die much more quickly. We show that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase can operate under anoxia and that net H+ extrusion increases when cytoplasmic pH falls. However, at an external pH near 6.0, H+ extrusion contributes little to cytoplasmic pH regulation. At more acidic external pH values, net H+ flux into root tips increases dramatically, leading to a decrease in cytoplasmic pH and reduced tolerance of anoxia. We present evidence that, under these conditions, H+ pumps are activated to partly offset acidosis due to H+ influx and, thereby, contribute to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia. The regulation of H+ extrusion under anoxia is discussed with respect to the acclimation response and mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation in aerobic plant cells. PMID:12226288

  4. Regulation of H+ Extrusion and Cytoplasmic pH in Maize Root Tips Acclimated to a Low-Oxygen Environment.

    PubMed

    Xia, J. H.; Roberts, JKM.

    1996-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that H+ extrusion contributes to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia in maize (Zea mays) root tips. We studied root tips of whole seedlings that were acclimated to a low-oxygen environment by pretreatment in 3% (v/v) O2. Acclimated root tips characteristically regulate cytoplasmic pH near neutrality and survive prolonged anoxia, whereas nonacclimated tips undergo severe cytoplasmic acidosis and die much more quickly. We show that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase can operate under anoxia and that net H+ extrusion increases when cytoplasmic pH falls. However, at an external pH near 6.0, H+ extrusion contributes little to cytoplasmic pH regulation. At more acidic external pH values, net H+ flux into root tips increases dramatically, leading to a decrease in cytoplasmic pH and reduced tolerance of anoxia. We present evidence that, under these conditions, H+ pumps are activated to partly offset acidosis due to H+ influx and, thereby, contribute to cytoplasmic pH regulation and tolerance of anoxia. The regulation of H+ extrusion under anoxia is discussed with respect to the acclimation response and mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation in aerobic plant cells.

  5. Appendiceal mucocoele with midgut malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Hassall, J; Williams, GL; McKain, ES

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malrotation of the midgut and appendiceal mucocoele are both extremely rare pathological conditions in adults. To our knowledge, there are only two reported cases in the English literature with a combination of both conditions. Case History A 65-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of upper abdominal pain associated with abdominal bloating and weight loss. He was otherwise fit and healthy with no significant past medical history. On examination, his abdomen was soft with tenderness and palpable fullness over the left upper quadrant. The initial blood test, chest x-ray and abdominal x-ray demonstrated no significant abnormality. Computed tomography showed a 17cm x 8cm x 6cm elongated cystic mass with possible malrotation of the intestines. Histopathology showed a low grade mucinous tumour of the appendix. At 12 months following surgery, there was no evidence of recurrence or postoperative complications and the patient was discharged from the care of the colorectal team. Conclusions We report a patient with a combination of two rare conditions. This case illustrates how a combination of pathologies can present a challenge to the unwary general surgeon. PMID:27269433

  6. Regulation of internal pH by the coldwater coral Desmophyllum dianthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.; Schmidt, G. M.; Richter, C.; de Beer, D.

    2016-02-01

    In the Patagonian fjords of Chile, large aggregations of the coldwater coral Desmophyllum dianthus build the structural and functional basis for a highly diverse benthic ecosystem. Interestingly, D. dianthus growths in both, high-pH (aragonite-supersaturated) and low-pH (aragonite-undersaturated) waters in near-surface and deep waters, respectively. This indicates a high adaptability of these corals to regulate and control calcification. Measurements of the skeletal boron isotopic composition (d11B) in D. dianthus indicate an upregulation of the internal calcifying pH (pHcf) in response to external pH (pHsw) in culturing experiments simulating ocean acidification. A physiological underpinning of pHcf upregulation in corals under different pHsw is, however, so far lacking. Direct measurements at the site of calcification in corals are limited to a few studies on tropical corals. Comparable studies for coldwater corals are wanting. We used microsensors for pH, calcium and oxygen to assess pHcf in D. dianthus in relation to calcium dynamics and respiration along the coral polyp under different pHsw. We found pHcf to be linked to pHsw but no upregulation of pHcf compared to pHsw as well as a strong spatial heterogeneity in pHcf. This suggests a highly complex pH regulation inconsistent with the hitherto upregulation models and suggests that rather the internal carbon pool and not pH is upregulated to enable calcification in D. dianthus.

  7. Regulation of gas exchange and haemolymph pH in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2011-09-15

    Ventilatory control of internal CO(2) plays an important role in regulating extracellular acid-base balance in terrestrial animals. While this phenomenon is well understood among vertebrates, the role that respiration plays in the acid-base balance of insects is in need of much further study. To measure changes in insect haemolymph pH, we implanted micro pH optodes into the haemocoel of cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). They were then exposed to normoxic, hypoxic, hyperoxic and hypercapnic atmospheres while their haemolymph pH, VCO(2) and abdominal ventilation frequency were measured simultaneously. Intratracheal O(2) levels were also measured in separate experiments. It was found that cockroaches breathing continuously control their ventilation to defend a haemolymph pH of 7.3, except under conditions where hypoxia (<10% O(2)) induces hyperventilation, or where ambient hypercapnia is in excess of haemolymph (>1% CO(2)). In contrast, intratracheal O(2) levels fluctuated widely, but on average remained above 15% in normoxic (21% O(2)) atmospheres. Decapitation caused the cockroaches to display discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). The alternating periods of ventilation and apnoea during DGCs caused haemolymph pH to fluctuate by 0.11 units. Exposure to hypoxia caused haemolymph pH to increase and initiated brief bouts of spiracular opening prior to the active ventilation phase. The spontaneous occurrence of DGCs in decapitated cockroaches indicates that central pattern generators in the thoracic and abdominal ganglia generate the periodic gas exchange pattern in the absence of control from the cephalic ganglion. This pattern continues to maintain gas exchange, but with less precision.

  8. Evaluation the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste by pH regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaya; Zang, Bing; Li, Guoxue; Liu, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the composition and characteristic of kitchen waste (KW) from closed cleaning station of Chaoyang District, Beijing. It was featured by high vegetables and peels contents. This study investigated effect of pH regulation and uncontrolled pH (CK) on the lab-scale anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of KW. The optimal adjusting mode by NaOH (including dosage and frequency) was evaluated according to indexes of pH, VFAs, NH4(+)-N, TS, VS, TS/VS, TS and VS removal rate. The treatment 4 as first two days adjusting per 16h and then one time per day at pH 7 was chosen as the optimal mode with high VFAs content(47.31g/L), TS and VS removal rate (42.95% and 54.01%, respectively), low adjusting frequency, fewer dosage and practical operability. Thus, adjusting mode of treatment 4 could be considered using in anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage on engineering.

  9. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Barbez, Elke; Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas; Busch, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response.

  10. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response. PMID:28559333

  11. Role of metal oxide nanostructures in extracellular pH regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.

    2016-08-01

    A research area of great promise is the cancer treatment by regulating microenvironmental parameters of tumor cells using MgO and AlOOH. Magnesium hydroxide and aluminum oxyhydroxide (boehmite) are in the form of nanoplates and nanosheets. The morphology, structure, phases and electrokinetic properties of synthesized samples are analyzed using complex physical and chemical methods. We study how the pH of the culture medium—different when in contact with synthesized nanoplates—affects the viability of tumor cells. It is shown that MgO is more efficient in decreasing the tumor cell viability than AlOOH. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the pH of the culture medium increases to 10.1; in the case of boehmite, to 7.7.

  12. pH and monovalent cations regulate cytosolic free Ca(2+) in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Riffat; Holland, I Barry; Jacq, Annick; Wann, Kenneth T; Campbell, Anthony K

    2008-06-01

    The results here show for the first time that pH and monovalent cations can regulate cytosolic free Ca(2+) in E. coli through Ca(2+) influx and efflux, monitored using aequorin. At pH 7.5 the resting cytosolic free Ca(2+) was 0.2-0.5 microM. In the presence of external Ca(2+) (1 mM) at alkaline pH this rose to 4 microM, being reduced to 0.9 microM at acid pH. Removal of external Ca(2+) caused an immediate decrease in cytosolic free Ca(2+) at 50-100 nM s(-1). Efflux rates were the same at pH 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5. Thus, ChaA, a putative Ca(2+)/H(+)exchanger, appeared not to be a major Ca(2+)-efflux pathway. In the absence of added Na(+), but with 1 mM external Ca(2+), cytosolic free Ca(2+) rose to approximately 10 microM. The addition of Na(+)(half maximum 60 mM) largely blocked this increase and immediately stimulated Ca(2+) efflux. However, this effect was not specific, since K(+) also stimulated efflux. In contrast, an increase in osmotic pressure by addition of sucrose did not significantly stimulate Ca(2+) efflux. The results were consistent with H(+) and monovalent cations competing with Ca(2+) for a non-selective ion influx channel. Ca(2+) entry and efflux in chaA and yrbG knockouts were not significantly different from wild type, confirming that neither ChaA nor YrbG appear to play a major role in regulating cytosolic Ca(2+) in Escherichia coli. The number of Ca(2+) ions calculated to move per cell per second ranged from <1 to 100, depending on conditions. Yet a single eukaryote Ca(2+) channel, conductance 100 pS, should conduct >6 million ions per second. This raises fundamental questions about the nature and regulation of Ca(2+) transport in bacteria, and other small living systems such as mitochondria, requiring a new mathematical approach to describe such ion movements. The results have important significance in the adaptation of E. coli to different ionic environments such as the gut, fresh water and in sea water near sewage effluents.

  13. Prey digestion in the midgut of the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Fialho, Maria C Q; Moreira, Nathalia R; Zanuncio, José C; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Terra, Walter R; Serrão, José E

    2012-06-01

    Pre-oral digestion is described as the liquefaction of the solid tissues of the prey by secretions of the predator. It is uncertain if pre-oral digestion means pre-oral dispersion of food or true digestion in the sense of the stepwise bond breaking of food polymers to release monomers to be absorbed. Collagenase is the only salivary proteinase, which activity is significant (10%) in relation to Podisus nigrispinus midgut activities. This suggests that pre-oral digestion in P. nigrispinus consists in prey tissue dispersion. This was confirmed by the finding of prey muscles fibers inside P. nigrispinus midguts. Soluble midgut hydrolases from P. nigrispinus were partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration. Two cathepsin L-like proteinases (CAL1 and CAL2) were isolated with the properties: CAL1 (14.7 kDa, pH optimum (pHo) 5.5, km with carbobenzoxy-Phe-Arg-methylcoumarin, Z-FR-MCA, 32 μM); CAL2 (17 kDa, pHo 5.5, km 11 μM Z-FR-MCA). Only a single molecular species was found for the other enzymes with the following properties are: amylase (43 kDa, pHo 5.5, km 0.1% starch), aminopeptidase (125 kDa, pHo 5.5, km 0.11 mM l-Leucine-p-nitroanilide), α-glucosidase (90 kDa, pHo 5.0, km 5mM with p-nitrophenyl α-d-glucoside). CAL molecular masses are probably underestimated due to interaction with the column. Taking into account the distribution of hydrolases along P. nigrispinus midguts, carbohydrate digestion takes place mainly at the anterior midgut, whereas protein digestion occurs mostly in middle and posterior midgut, as previously described in seed- sucker and blood-feeder hemipterans.

  14. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  15. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  16. Ambient pH controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in Neurospora crassa. New insights into the pH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; de Paula, Renato Magalhães; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. Its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. These enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. The existence of a DNA motif for the Aspergillus nidulans pH responsive transcription factor PacC in the promoter of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn) in Neurospora crassa prompted us to investigate whether this transcription factor regulates glycogen accumulation. Transcription factors such as PacC in A. nidulans and Rim101p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae play a role in the signaling pathway that mediates adaptation to ambient pH by inducing the expression of alkaline genes and repressing acidic genes. We showed here that at pH 7.8 pacC was over-expressed and gsn was down-regulated in wild-type N. crassa coinciding with low glycogen accumulation. In the pacC(KO) strain the glycogen levels and gsn expression at alkaline pH were, respectively, similar to and higher than the wild-type strain at normal pH (5.8). These results characterize gsn as an acidic gene and suggest a regulatory role for PACC in gsn expression. The truncated recombinant protein, containing the DNA-binding domain specifically bound to a gsn DNA fragment containing the PacC motif. DNA-protein complexes were observed with extracts from cells grown at normal and alkaline pH and confirmed by ChIP-PCR analysis. The PACC present in these extracts showed equal molecular mass, indicating that the protein is already processed at normal pH, in contrast to A. nidulans. Together, these results show that the pH signaling pathway controls glycogen accumulation by regulating gsn expression and suggest the existence of a different mechanism for PACC activation in N. crassa.

  17. Requirements for Ion and Solute Transport, and pH Regulation During Enamel Maturation

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, RODRIGO S.; SMITH, CHARLES E.; MOFFATT, PIERRE; CHANG, EUGENE H.; BROMAGE, TIMOTHY G.; BRINGAS, PABLO; NANCI, ANTONIO; BANIWAL, SANJEEV K.; ZABNER, JOSEPH; WELSH, MICHAEL J.; KURTZ, IRA; PAINE, MICHAEL L.

    2012-01-01

    Transcellular bicarbonate transport is suspected to be an important pathway used by ameloblasts to regulate extracellular pH and support crystal growth during enamel maturation. Proteins that play a role in amelogenesis include members of the ABC transporters (SLC gene family and CFTR). A number of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have also been identified. The defined functions of these genes are likely interlinked during enamel mineralization. The purpose of this study is to quantify relative mRNA levels of individual SLC, Cftr, and CAs in enamel cells obtained from secretory and maturation stages on rat incisors. We also present novel data on the enamel phenotypes for two animal models, amutant porcine(CFTR-ΔF508) and the NBCe1-null mouse.Our data show that two SLCs(AE2 and NBCe1),Cftr,and Car2, Car3,Car6,and Car12 are all significantly up-regulated at the onset of the maturation stage of amelogenesis when compared to the secretory stage. The remaining SLCs and CA gene transcripts showed negligible expression or no significant change in expression from secretory to maturation stages. The enamel of Cftr-ΔF508 adult pigs was hypomineralized and showed abnormal crystal growth. NBCe1-null mice enamel was structurally defective and had a marked decrease in mineral content relative to wild-type. These data demonstrate the importance of many non-matrix proteins to amelogenesis and that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating extracellular pH are modulated during enamel maturation in response to an increased need for pH buffering during hydroxyapatite crystal growth. PMID:21732355

  18. TPC2 controls pigmentation by regulating melanosome pH and size

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Boyle, Judith A.; Aradi, Al E.; Christian, Keith A.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin is responsible for pigmentation of skin and hair and is synthesized in a specialized organelle, the melanosome, in melanocytes. A genome-wide association study revealed that the two pore segment channel 2 (TPCN2) gene is strongly linked to pigmentation variations. TPCN2 encodes the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) protein, a cation channel. Nevertheless, how TPC2 regulates pigmentation remains unknown. Here, we show that TPC2 is expressed in melanocytes and localizes to the melanosome-limiting membrane and, to a lesser extent, to endolysosomal compartments by confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Immunomagnetic isolation of TPC2-containing organelles confirmed its coresidence with melanosomal markers. TPCN2 knockout by means of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated 9 gene editing elicited a dramatic increase in pigment content in MNT-1 melanocytic cells. This effect was rescued by transient expression of TPC2-GFP. Consistently, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TPC2 also caused a substantial increase in melanin content in both MNT-1 cells and primary human melanocytes. Using a newly developed genetically encoded pH sensor targeted to melanosomes, we determined that the melanosome lumen in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells and primary melanocytes subjected to TPC2 knockdown is less acidic than in control cells. Fluorescence and electron microscopy analysis revealed that TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells have significantly larger melanosomes than control cells, but the number of organelles is unchanged. TPC2 likely regulates melanosomes pH and size by mediating Ca2+ release from the organelle, which is decreased in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells, as determined with the Ca2+ sensor tyrosinase-GCaMP6. Thus, our data show that TPC2 regulates pigmentation through two fundamental determinants of melanosome function: pH and size. PMID:27140606

  19. TPC2 controls pigmentation by regulating melanosome pH and size.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Boyle, Judith A; Aradi, Al E; Christian, Keith A; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2016-05-17

    Melanin is responsible for pigmentation of skin and hair and is synthesized in a specialized organelle, the melanosome, in melanocytes. A genome-wide association study revealed that the two pore segment channel 2 (TPCN2) gene is strongly linked to pigmentation variations. TPCN2 encodes the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) protein, a cation channel. Nevertheless, how TPC2 regulates pigmentation remains unknown. Here, we show that TPC2 is expressed in melanocytes and localizes to the melanosome-limiting membrane and, to a lesser extent, to endolysosomal compartments by confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Immunomagnetic isolation of TPC2-containing organelles confirmed its coresidence with melanosomal markers. TPCN2 knockout by means of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated 9 gene editing elicited a dramatic increase in pigment content in MNT-1 melanocytic cells. This effect was rescued by transient expression of TPC2-GFP. Consistently, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TPC2 also caused a substantial increase in melanin content in both MNT-1 cells and primary human melanocytes. Using a newly developed genetically encoded pH sensor targeted to melanosomes, we determined that the melanosome lumen in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells and primary melanocytes subjected to TPC2 knockdown is less acidic than in control cells. Fluorescence and electron microscopy analysis revealed that TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells have significantly larger melanosomes than control cells, but the number of organelles is unchanged. TPC2 likely regulates melanosomes pH and size by mediating Ca(2+) release from the organelle, which is decreased in TPC2-KO MNT-1 cells, as determined with the Ca(2+) sensor tyrosinase-GCaMP6. Thus, our data show that TPC2 regulates pigmentation through two fundamental determinants of melanosome function: pH and size.

  20. Intestinal obstruction from midgut volvulus after laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, S A; Khalife, M E; Char, D J; Wax, M R; Halpern, D

    2002-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old man who developed a small bowel obstruction from an acute midgut volvulus 8 days after undergoing a laparoscopic appendectomy. There was no evidence of congenital malrotation or midgut volvulus on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan or at laparoscopy. Subsequently, a midgut volvulus developed in the absence of congenital malrotation.

  1. Intracellular pH regulation in detubulated frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Putnam, R W

    1996-10-01

    Intracellular pH regulation was studied in semitendinosus muscle fibers from frog (Rana pipiens). Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured with recessed-tip glass microelectrodes and membrane potential with conventional microelectrodes. Fibers had their connections between the surface and transverse tubular membrane disrupted (detubulation) with the formamide shock technique. Fibers were approximately 80% detubulated as determined by the decrease in membrane capacitance and the loss of contractile capability. The initial rate of pHi recovery from acidification to approximately 6.8 (no CO2) was dependent on external buffering power, reaching a maximum of approximately 0.6 pH/h at 50 mM HEPES, indicating that the rate of pHi recovery in frog muscle is limited by the diffusion of buffer through an external "unstirred layer". In detubulated fibers, pHi recovery from acidification due to both the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ and the 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS)-sensitive (Na+ + HCO3-)/Cl- exchangers was nearly identical to recovery in fully tubulated fibers. This is consistent with these two pH recovery transporters being localized to the surface, and not the transverse tubular, membrane domain in frog skeletal muscle fibers.

  2. Plasticity of Listeriolysin O Pores and its Regulation by pH and Unique Histidine

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Marchioretto, Marta; Zanetti, Manuela; Bavdek, Andrej; Kisovec, Matic; Cajnko, Miša Mojca; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Serra, Mauro Dalla; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation of cellular membranes is an ancient mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis that allows efficient damaging of target cells. Several mechanisms have been described, however, relatively little is known about the assembly and properties of pores. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pH-regulated cholesterol-dependent cytolysin from the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which forms transmembrane β-barrel pores. Here we report that the assembly of LLO pores is rapid and efficient irrespective of pH. While pore diameters at the membrane surface are comparable at either pH 5.5 or 7.4, the distribution of pore conductances is significantly pH-dependent. This is directed by the unique residue H311, which is also important for the conformational stability of the LLO monomer and the rate of pore formation. The functional pores exhibit variations in height profiles and can reconfigure significantly by merging to other full pores or arcs. Our results indicate significant plasticity of large β-barrel pores, controlled by environmental cues like pH. PMID:25854672

  3. Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-06-01

    The high metabolic rate required for tumor growth often leads to hypoxia in poorly-perfused regions. Hypoxia activates a complex gene expression program, mediated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1alpha). One of the consequences of HIF1alpha activation is up-regulation of glycolysis and hence the production of lactic acid. In addition to the lactic acid-output, intracellular titration of acid with bicarbonate and the engagement of the pentose phosphate shunt release CO(2) from cells. Expression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 on the tumor cell surface catalyses the extracellular trapping of acid by hydrating cell-generated CO(2) into [see text] and H(+). These mechanisms contribute towards an acidic extracellular milieu favoring tumor growth, invasion and development. The lactic acid released by tumor cells is further metabolized by the tumor stroma. Low extracellular pH may adversely affect the intracellular milieu, possibly triggering apoptosis. Therefore, primary and secondary active transporters operate in the tumor cell membrane to protect the cytosol from acidosis. We review mechanisms regulating tumor intracellular and extracellular pH, with a focus on carbonic anhydrase 9. We also review recent evidence that may suggest a role for CA9 in coordinating pH(i) among cells of large, unvascularized cell-clusters.

  4. Voltage dependence and pH regulation of human polycystin-2-mediated cation channel activity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perrett, Silvia; Batelli, Marisa; Kim, Keetae; Essafi, Makram; Timpanaro, Gustavo; Moltabetti, Nicolas; Reisin, Ignacio L; Arnaout, M Amin; Cantiello, Horacio F

    2002-07-12

    Polycystin-2, the product of the human PKD2 gene, whose mutations cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, is a large conductance, Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel. Polycystin-2 is functionally expressed in the apical membrane of the human syncytiotrophoblast, where it may play a role in the control of fetal electrolyte homeostasis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that regulate polycystin-2 channel function. In this study, the role of pH in the regulation of polycystin-2 was assessed by ion channel reconstitution of both apical membranes of human syncytiotrophoblast and the purified FLAG-tagged protein from in vitro transcribed/translated material. A kinetic analysis of single channel currents, including dwell time histograms, confirmed two open and two close states for spontaneous channel behavior and a strong voltage dependence of the open probability of the channel (P(o)). A reduction of cis pH (pH(cis)) decreased P(o) and shifted the voltage dependence of channel function but had no effect on the single channel conductance. An increase in pH(cis), in contrast, increased NP(o) (channel number times P(o)). Elimination of the H(+) chemical gradient did not reverse the low pH(cis) inhibition of polycystin-2. Similar findings confirmed the pH effect on the in vitro translated, FLAG-tagged purified polycystin-2. The data indicate the presence of an H(+) ion regulatory site in the channel protein, which is accessible from the cytoplasmic side of the protein. This protonation site controls polycystin-2 cation-selective channel activity.

  5. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase regulates protective surface microclimate pH in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Misa; Ham, Maggie; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2009-07-15

    Regulation of localized extracellular pH (pH(o)) maintains normal organ function. An alkaline microclimate overlying the duodenal enterocyte brush border protects the mucosa from luminal acid. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates pH(o) due to pH-sensitive ATP hydrolysis as part of an ecto-purinergic pH regulatory system, comprised of cell-surface P2Y receptors and ATP-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). To test this hypothesis, we measured DBS in a perfused rat duodenal loop, examining the effect of the competitive alkaline phosphatase inhibitor glycerol phosphate (GP), the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor ARL67156, and exogenous nucleotides or P2 receptor agonists on DBS. Furthermore, we measured perfusate ATP concentration with a luciferin-luciferase bioassay. IAP inhibition increased DBS and luminal ATP output. Increased luminal ATP output was partially CFTR dependent, but was not due to cellular injury. Immunofluorescence localized the P2Y(1) receptor to the brush border membrane of duodenal villi. The P2Y(1) agonist 2-methylthio-ADP increased DBS, whereas the P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2179 reduced ATP- or GP-induced DBS. Acid perfusion augmented DBS and ATP release, further enhanced by the IAP inhibitor l-cysteine, and reduced by the exogenous ATPase apyrase. Furthermore, MRS2179 or the highly selective P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2500 co-perfused with acid induced epithelial injury, suggesting that IAP/ATP/P2Y signalling protects the mucosa from acid injury. Increased DBS augments IAP activity presumably by raising pH(o), increasing the rate of ATP degradation, decreasing ATP-mediated DBS, forming a negative feedback loop. The duodenal epithelial brush border IAP-P2Y-HCO(3-) surface microclimate pH regulatory system effectively protects the mucosa from acid injury.

  6. Structural basis of dual Ca(2+)/pH regulation of the endolysosomal TRPML1 channel.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Zhang, Wei K; Benvin, Nicole M; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Su, Deyuan; Li, Huan; Wang, Shu; Michailidis, Ioannis E; Tong, Liang; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-23

    The activities of organellar ion channels are often regulated by Ca(2+) and H(+), which are present in high concentrations in many organelles. Here we report a structural element critical for dual Ca(2+)/pH regulation of TRPML1, a Ca(2+)-release channel crucial for endolysosomal function. TRPML1 mutations cause mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a severe lysosomal storage disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mental retardation and blindness. We obtained crystal structures of the 213-residue luminal domain of human TRPML1 containing three missense MLIV-causing mutations. This domain forms a tetramer with a highly electronegative central pore formed by a novel luminal pore loop. Cysteine cross-linking and cryo-EM analyses confirmed that this architecture occurs in the full-length channel. Structure-function studies demonstrated that Ca(2+) and H(+) interact with the luminal pore and exert physiologically important regulation. The MLIV-causing mutations disrupt the luminal-domain structure and cause TRPML1 mislocalization. Our study reveals the structural underpinnings of TRPML1's regulation, assembly and pathogenesis.

  7. The effects of extracellular pH and of the transcriptional regulator PACI on the transcriptome of Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Mari; Sivasiddarthan, Dhinakaran; Aro, Nina; Saloheimo, Markku; Pakula, Tiina M

    2015-04-30

    Extracellular pH is one of the several environmental factors affecting protein production by filamentous fungi. Regulatory mechanisms ensure that extracellular enzymes are produced under pH-conditions in which the enzymes are active. In filamentous fungi, the transcriptional regulation in different ambient pH has been studied especially in Aspergilli, whereas the effects of pH in the industrial producer of hydrolytic enzymes, Trichoderma reesei, have mainly been studied at the protein level. In this study, the pH-dependent expression of T. reesei genes was investigated by genome-wide transcriptional profiling and by analysing the effects of deletion of the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator pac1, the orthologue of Aspergillus nidulans pacC gene. Transcriptional analysis revealed the pH-responsive genes of T. reesei, and functional classification of the genes identified the activities most affected by changing pH. A large number of genes encoding especially transporters, signalling-related proteins, extracellular enzymes and proteins involved in different metabolism-related functions were found to be pH-responsive. Several cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes were found among the pH-responsive genes. Especially, genes encoding hemicellulases with the similar type of activity were shown to include both genes up-regulated at low pH and genes up-regulated at high pH. However, relatively few of the cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes showed direct PACI-mediated regulation, indicating the importance of other regulatory mechanisms affecting expression in different pH conditions. New information was gained on the effects of pH on the genes involved in ambient pH-signalling and on the known and candidate regulatory genes involved in regulation of cellulase and hemicellulase encoding genes. In addition, co-regulated genomic clusters responding to change of ambient pH were identified. Ambient pH was shown to be an important determinant of T. reesei

  8. Multiple pathways for Plasmodium ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Ghosh, Anil K.; Kanzok, Stefan M.; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Wang, Sibao; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Kalume, Dario E.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is a crucial step of the parasite life cycle but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Previously, a phage display peptide library screen identified SM1, a peptide that binds to the mosquito midgut epithelium and inhibits ookinete invasion. SM1 was characterized as a mimotope of an ookinete surface enolase and SM1 presumably competes with enolase, the presumed ligand, for binding to a putative midgut receptor. Here we identify a mosquito midgut receptor that binds both SM1 and ookinete surface enolase, termed “enolase-binding protein” (EBP). Moreover, we determined that Plasmodium berghei parasites are heterogeneous for midgut invasion, as some parasite clones are strongly inhibited by SM1 whereas others are not. The SM1-sensitive parasites required the mosquito EBP receptor for midgut invasion whereas the SM1-resistant parasites invaded the mosquito midgut independently of EBP. These experiments provide evidence that Plasmodium ookinetes can invade the mosquito midgut by alternate pathways. Furthermore, another peptide from the original phage display screen, midgut peptide 2 (MP2), strongly inhibited midgut invasion by P. berghei (SM1-sensitive and SM1-resistant) and Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes, suggesting that MP2 binds to a separate, universal receptor for midgut invasion. PMID:24474798

  9. Trpac1, a pH response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    He, Ronglin; Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Jia, Wendi; Li, Demao; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2014-12-01

    Fungi grow over a relatively wide pH range and adapt to extracellular pH through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component PacC, which is a pH transcription regulator. The cellulase production of the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient pH. To investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient pH, an ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans pacC, Trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. Deleting Trpac1 dramatically increased the cellulase production and the transcription levels of the major cellulase genes at neutral pH, which suggested Trpac1 is involved in the regulation of cellulase production. It was further observed that the expression levels of transcription factors xyr1 and ace2 also increased in the ΔTrpac1 mutant at neutral pH. In addition, the ΔTrpac1 mutant exhibited conidiation defects under neutral and alkaline pH. These results implied that Trpac1 in involved in growth and development process and cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crz1p regulates pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata by altering membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongni; Lin, Xiaobao; Qi, Yanli; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-23

    The asexual facultative aerobic haploid yeast Candida glabrata is widely used in the industrial production of various organic acids. To elucidate the physiological function of the transcription factor CgCrz1p and its role in tolerance to acid stress we deleted or overexpressed the corresponding gene CgCRZ1 Deletion of CgCRZ1 resulted in a 60% decrease in dry cell weight (DCW) and a 50% drop in cell viability compared to the wild type at pH 2.0. Expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes was also significantly down-regulated. Consequently, the proportion of C18:1 fatty acids, ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and ergosterol content decreased by 30%, 46%, and 30%, respectively. Additionally, membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity were reduced by 45%, 9%, and 50%, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of CgCrz1p increased C18:1 and ergosterol content by 16% and 40%, respectively. Overexpression also enhanced membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity by 31%, 6%, and 20%, respectively. Moreover, in the absence of pH buffering, DCW and pyruvate titer increased by 48% and 60%, respectively, compared to the wild type. Together, these results suggest that CgCrz1p regulates tolerance to acidic conditions by altering membrane lipid composition in C. glabrata IMPORTANCE: The present study provides an insight into the metabolism of Candida glabrata under acidic conditions, such as those encountered during industrial production of organic acids. We found that overexpression of the transcription factor CgCrz1p improved viability, biomass, and pyruvate yields at low pH. Analysis of plasma membrane lipid composition indicated that CgCrz1p might play an important role in its integrity and fluidity, and enhanced the pumping of protons in acidic environments. We propose that altering the structure of the cell membrane may provide a successful strategy for increasing C glabrata productivity at low pH.

  11. Effects of agents which inhibit the regulation of intracellular pH on murine solid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, K.; Wood, P.; Stratford, I.; Tannock, I.

    1992-01-01

    Cell killing can be achieved in an acidic environment in tissue culture (medium pH less than 7.0) by agents (nigericin, carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)) which transport protons from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm. Cell killing is enhanced when these agents are used in combination with compounds (amiloride, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)) which inhibit the membrane-based exchangers responsible for the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi). We describe experiments which assess the ability of these agents to kill tumour cells in spheroids and in vivo. Both nigericin and CCCP were observed to penetrate tissue based on their ability to kill tumour cells in spheroids. The mean extracellular pH (pHe) of the KHT fibrosarcoma and the EMT-6 sarcoma were observed to be 0.21 and 0.32 pH units more acidic than the mean pHe in muscle tissue. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the vasodilator hydralazine (10 mg kg-1) caused a reduction of the mean pHe of the KHT but not the EMT-6 tumour. Nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) plus amiloride (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) followed 30 min later by hydralazine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) reduced the surviving fraction of cells in the KHT and EMT-6 tumours, but had minimal effects on growth delay. When KHT tumours were treated with 15 Gy X-rays followed immediately by nigericin plus amiloride and hydralazine a reduced surviving fraction as well as an increase in tumour growth delay was observed compared to radiation alone. The administration of nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) or the combination of nigericin (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) followed by hydralazine (10 mg kg-1, intravenous (i.v.)) resulted in reductions of tumour pHi of 0.27 and 0.29 pH units respectively as determined by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results show that the combination of nigericin and hydralazine (with or without amiloride) can kill cells in rodent solid tumours and that cell killing is associated with a reduction in the

  12. Two essential peritrophic matrix proteins mediate matrix barrier functions in the insect midgut.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sinu; Kelkenberg, Marco; Begum, Khurshida; Steinfeld, Lea; Williams, Clay E; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2014-06-01

    The peritrophic matrix (PM) in the midgut of insects consists primarily of chitin and proteins and is thought to support digestion and provide protection from abrasive food particles and enteric pathogens. We examined the physiological roles of 11 putative peritrophic matrix protein (PMP) genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcPMPs). TcPMP genes are differentially expressed along the length of the midgut epithelium of feeding larvae. RNAi of individual PMP genes revealed no abnormal developmental phenotypes for 9 of the 11 TcPMPs. However, RNAi for two PMP genes, TcPMP3 and TcPMP5-B, resulted in depletion of the fat body, growth arrest, molting defects and mortality. In situ permeability assays after oral administration of different-sized FITC-dextran beads demonstrated that the exclusion size of the larval peritrophic matrix (PM) decreases progressively from >2 MDa to <4 kDa from the anterior to the most posterior regions of the midgut. In the median midguts of control larvae, 2 MDa dextrans were completely retained within the PM lumen, whereas after RNAi for TcPMP3 and TcPMP5-B, these dextrans penetrated the epithelium of the median midgut, indicating loss of structural integrity and barrier function of the larval PM. In contrast, RNAi for TcPMP5-B, but not RNAi for TcPMP3, resulted in breakdown of impermeability to 4 and 40 kDa dextrans in the PM of the posterior midgut. These results suggest that specific PMPs are involved in the regulation of PM permeability, and that a gradient of barrier function is essential for survival and fat body maintenance.

  13. Brain-midgut short neuropeptide F mechanism that inhibits digestive activity of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana upon starvation.

    PubMed

    Mikani, Azam; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Takeda, Makio

    2012-03-01

    Immunohistochemical reactivity against short neuropeptide F (sNPF) was observed in the brain-corpus cardiacum and midgut paraneurons of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells in the midgut epithelium but the refeeding decreased the number in 3h. Dramatic rises in sNPF contents in the midgut epithelium and hemolymph of roaches starved for 4 weeks were confirmed by ELISA. Starvation for 4 weeks reduced α-amylase, protease and lipase activities in the midgut of P. americana but refeeding restored these to high levels. Co-incubation of dissected midgut with sNPF at physiological concentrations inhibited α-amylase, protease and lipase activities. sNPF injection into the hemocoel led to a decrease in α-amylase, protease and lipase activities, whereas PBS injection had no effects. The injection of d-(+)-trehalose and l-proline into the hemocoel of decapitated adult male cockroaches that had been starved for 4 weeks had no effect on these digestive enzymes. However, injection into the hemocoel of head-intact starved cockroaches stimulated digestive activity. Injection of d-(+)-trehalose and l-proline into the lumen of decapitated cockroaches that had been starved for 4 weeks increased enzymes activities and suppressed sNPF in the midgut. Our data indicate that sNPF from the midgut paraneurons suppresses α-amylase, protease and lipase activities during starvation. Injection of d-(+)-trehalose/l-proline into the hemocoel of head-intact starved cockroach decreased the hemolymph sNPF content, which suggests that sNPF could be one of the brain factors, demonstrating brain-midgut interplay in the regulation of digestive activities and possibly nutrition-associated behavioral modifications.

  14. Regulation of intracellular pH in Calu-3 human airway cells.

    PubMed

    Inglis, S K; Finlay, L; Ramminger, S J; Richard, K; Ward, M R; Wilson, S M; Olver, R E

    2002-01-15

    The Calu-3 human cell line exhibits features of submucosal gland serous cells and secretes HCO(3)(-). The aim of this study was to identify the HCO(3)(-) transporters present in these cells by studying their role in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)). Calu-3 cells were grown on coverslips, loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and their fluorescence intensity monitored as an indication of pH(i). Cells were acidified with NH(4)Cl (25 mM, 1 min) and pH(i) recovery recorded. In the absence of HCO(3)(-), initial recovery was 0.208 +/- 0.016 pH units min(-1) (n = 37). This was almost abolished by removal of extracellular Na(+) and by amiloride (1 mM), consistent with the activity of a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE). In the presence of HCO(3)(-) and CO(2), recovery (0.156 +/- 0.018 pH units min(-1)) was abolished (reduced by 91.8 +/- 6.7 %, n = 7) by removal of Na(+) but only attenuated (by 63.3 +/- 5.8 %, n = 9) by amiloride. 4,4-Dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DNDS) inhibited recovery by 45.8 +/- 5.0 % (n = 7). The amiloride-insensitive recovery was insensitive to changes in membrane potential, as confirmed by direct microelectrode measurements, brought about by changing extracellular [K(+)] in the presence of either valinomycin or the K(+) channel opener 1-EBIO. In addition, forskolin (10 microM), which activates the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) conductance in these cells and depolarises the cell membrane, had no effect on recovery. Removal of extracellular Cl(-) trebled pH(i) recovery rates, suggesting that an electroneutral, DNDS-sensitive, Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger together with a NHE may be involved in pH(i) regulation and HCO(3)(-) secretion in these cells. RT-PCR detected the expression of the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBC1 and the Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (AE2) but not the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCn1.

  15. Impaired regulation of pH homeostasis by oxidative stress in rat brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Hdikó; Törocsik, Beáta; Tretter, Laszlo; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2005-02-01

    (1) Endothelial cells are permanently challenged by altering pH in the blood, and oxidative damage could also influence the intracellular pH (pH(i)) of the endothelium. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and pH(i) regulation of brain capillary endothelial cells is important for the maintenance of BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to address the pH regulatory mechanisms and the effect of an acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the pH regulation in primary rat brain capillary endothelial (RBCE) cells The RBCE monolayers were loaded with the fluorescent pH indicator BCECF and pH(i) was monitored by detecting the fluorescent changes. (2) The steady-state pH(i) of RBCE cells in HEPES-buffer (6.83 +/- 0.1) did not differ significantly from that found in bicarbonate-buffered medium (6.90 +/- 0.08). Cells were exposed to NH4CI to induce intracellular acidification and then the recovery to resting pH was studied. Half-recovery time after NH4Cl prepulse-induced acid load was significantly less in the bicarbonate-buffered medium than in the HEPES-medium, suggesting that in addition to the Na+ / H+ exchanger, HCO3- / Cl- exchange mechanism is also involved in the restoration of pH(i) after an intracellular acid load in primary RBCE cells. We used RT-PCR-reactions to detect the isoforms of Na+ / H+ exchanger gene family (NHE). NHE-1 -2, -3 and -4 were equally present, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of the four transcripts in these cells. (3) No pH(i) recovery was detected when the washout after an intracellular acid load occurred in nominally Na+ -free HEPES-buffered medium or in the presence of 10 microM 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a specific inhibitor of Na+ / H+ exchanger. The new steady-state pH(i) were 6.37 +/- 0.02 and 6.60 +/- 0.02, respectively. (4) No detectable change was observed in the steady-state pH(i) in the presence of 100 microM H2O2; however, recovery from

  16. Carbon Cycling and pH regulation on the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth

    2015-04-01

    This presentation intends to describe the biogeochemical context for ocean acidification studies on the Scotian Shelf. The seasonality of the dominant processes, regulating surface ocean CO2 conditions, including pH, will be assessed as well as cross-shelf transports of CO2, acidity and nutrient, the latter ones exerting the "subsurface control" of CO2 air-sea fluxes and surface pH. Methods summary: The seasonal variability of inorganic carbon in the surface waters of the Scotian Shelf region of the Canadian northwestern Atlantic Ocean was assessed using hourly measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and hydrographic variables obtained by an autonomous moored instrument (44.3°N and 63.3°W). These measurements were complemented by seasonal shipboard sampling of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pCO2, at the mooring site, and over the larger spatial scale. The Scotian Shelf is a 700 km long section of the continental shelf off Nova Scotia. Bounded by the Laurentian Channel to the northeast, and by the Northeast Channel and the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, it varies in width from 120 to 240 km covering roughly 120,000 km2 with an average depth of 90 m . Convective mixin in winter time and coastal upwelling and the associated favorable wind conditions on the Scotian Shelf have long been recognized. Strong winds of speeds greater than 10 m s-1, blowing to the northeast, and persisting for several days force relatively cold, saline, water toward the surface, displacing the warmer, fresher water offshore. Upwelling events have frequently been observed in the region in winter, and modeling studies have reproduced these observed events. Furthermore, these events may play a role in initiating and sustaining the spring phytoplankton bloom by displacing nutrient-depleted surface water and bring nutrient-rich waters up to the surface. Biological processes were found to be the dominant control on mixed-layer DIC, with the delivery of

  17. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut in silkworm infected with Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Shang, Meng-Ke; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2017-01-30

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects the epithelial cells in the midgut of silkworm and causes them to death, which negatively affects the sericulture industry. In order to determine the midgut response at the protein levels to the virus infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm midgut responsive to BmCPV infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 193, 408, 189 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis in the midgut of BmCPV-infected and control larvae at 24, 48, 72h post infection (hpi) respectively. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that Oxidative phosphorylation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, steroid hormone biosynthesis were the significant pathways (Q value≤0.05) both at 24 and 48hpi. qRT-PCR was used to further verify gene transcription of 30 DEPs from iTRAQ, showing that the regulations of 24 genes at the transcript level were consistent with those at the proteomic level. Moreover, the cluster analysis of the three time groups showed that there were seven co-regulated DEPs including BGIBMGA002620-PA, which was a putative p62/sequestosome-1 protein in silkworm. It was upregulated at both the mRNA level and the proteomic level and may play an important role in regulating the autophagy and apoptosis (especially apoptosis) induced by BmCPV infection. This was the first report using an iTRAQ approach to analyze proteomes of the silkworm midgut against BmCPV infection, which contributes to understanding the defense mechanisms of silkworm midgut to virus infection. The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is renowned for silk production as well as being a traditional lepidopteron model insect served as a subject for morphological, genetic, physiological, and developmental studies. Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis

  18. Electrochemical biosensor with pH regulation of CNTs/HRP multilayer for phenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoming; Huang, Aihua; Jiang, Dan; Wei, Zhipeng; Zheng, Longzhen

    2011-01-01

    An amperometric horseradish peroxidase (HRP) biosensor based on multilayer films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and HRP was developed. With the pH regulation of the dispersion solution of CNTs, the sensitivity of the HRP multilayer film biosensor is tunable by the control of the dissociation of CNTs. The successful formation of multilayers was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The features of multilayers were characterized by SEM and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The performance of the HRP biosensor is reported for the amperometric detection of phenols. The biosensor presented a linear response for catechol from 9.1 × 10(-8) - 6.45 × 10(-5) mol/L, with a sensitivity of 0.00554 A · L/mol and a detection limit of 8.5 × 10(-8) mol/L. The study can provide a feasible simple approach for developing a new sensitivity tunable method for CNTs-based biosensors.

  19. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  20. Streptococcus pyogenes Malate Degradation Pathway Links pH Regulation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Paluscio, Elyse

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to infect different niches within its human host most likely relies on its ability to utilize alternative carbon sources. In examining this question, we discovered that all sequenced S. pyogenes strains possess the genes for the malic enzyme (ME) pathway, which allows malate to be used as a supplemental carbon source for growth. ME is comprised of four genes in two adjacent operons, with the regulatory two-component MaeKR required for expression of genes encoding a malate permease (maeP) and malic enzyme (maeE). Analysis of transcription indicated that expression of maeP and maeE is induced by both malate and low pH, and induction in response to both cues is dependent on the MaeK sensor kinase. Furthermore, both maePE and maeKR are repressed by glucose, which occurs via a CcpA-independent mechanism. Additionally, malate utilization requires the PTS transporter EI enzyme (PtsI), as a PtsI– mutant fails to express the ME genes and is unable to utilize malate. Virulence of selected ME mutants was assessed in a murine model of soft tissue infection. MaeP–, MaeK–, and MaeR– mutants were attenuated for virulence, whereas a MaeE– mutant showed enhanced virulence compared to that of the wild type. Taken together, these data show that ME contributes to S. pyogenes' carbon source repertory, that malate utilization is a highly regulated process, and that a single regulator controls ME expression in response to diverse signals. Furthermore, malate uptake and utilization contribute to the adaptive pH response, and ME can influence the outcome of infection. PMID:25583521

  1. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry. PMID:28107376

  2. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; Dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  3. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut. PMID:26154607

  4. Embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) preferentially regulate intracellular tissue pH during acid-base challenges.

    PubMed

    Shartau, Ryan B; Crossley, Dane A; Kohl, Zachary F; Brauner, Colin J

    2016-07-01

    The nests of embryonic turtles naturally experience elevated CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood PCO2  and a respiratory acidosis, resulting in reduced blood pH [extracellular pH (pHe)]. Some fishes preferentially regulate tissue pH [intracellular pH (pHi)] against changes in pHe; this has been proposed to be associated with exceptional CO2 tolerance and has never been identified in amniotes. As embryonic turtles may be CO2 tolerant based on nesting strategy, we hypothesized that they preferentially regulate pHi, conferring tolerance to severe acute acid-base challenges. This hypothesis was tested by investigating pH regulation in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) reared in normoxia then exposed to hypercarbia (13 kPa PCO2 ) for 1 h at three developmental ages: 70% and 90% of incubation, and yearlings. Hypercarbia reduced pHe but not pHi, at all developmental ages. At 70% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.324 pH units while pHi of brain, white muscle and lung increased; heart, liver and kidney pHi remained unchanged. At 90% of incubation, pHe was depressed by 0.352 pH units but heart pHi increased with no change in pHi of other tissues. Yearlings exhibited a pHe reduction of 0.235 pH units but had no changes in pHi of any tissues. The results indicate common snapping turtles preferentially regulate pHi during development, but the degree of response is reduced throughout development. This is the first time preferential pHi regulation has been identified in an amniote. These findings may provide insight into the evolution of acid-base homeostasis during development of amniotes, and vertebrates in general.

  5. Regulation of intracellular pH in rat lactotrophs: involvement of anionic exchangers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L; Boué-Grabot, E; Garret, M; Sartor, P

    1997-10-01

    Regulation of the intracellular pH (pHi) of normal rat lactotrophs was studied. As this cell type, cultured with 10% FCS, can achieve a relatively alkaline pHi (7.3-7.5), we investigated the presence of a mechanism based on Cl-/HCO3- exchange. Using the pHi-sensitive probe SNARF-1 (seminaphtorodafluor) in its permeant form, SNARF-1/AM, we studied pHi recovery after acidic loading in individual cells with a microspectrofluorometric approach. We showed the involvement of anionic exchange in lactotroph cell pHi regulation. Acute CO2-bicarbonate cell acidic loading combined with external Cl- depletion induces the activation of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid sensitive and corresponds to the type 3 anionic exchanger (AE3). However, after nigericin acidification, Na+/H+ exchange can also participate in recovery. In addition, incubation experiments strongly suggest that a 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid-insensitive anionic exchanger (type 2 anionic exchanger or AE2) is present in rat lactotrophs. The presence and involvement of carbonic anhydrase in pHi regulation have been demonstrated. Finally, using Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, messenger RNAs for both AE2 and AE3 were identified in anterior pituitary cell extracts. We concluded that in normal rat lactotrophs, pHi regulation is achieved by a complex system in which Cl-/HCO3- exchange has a pivotal role.

  6. SLC26A Gene Family Participate in pH Regulation during Enamel Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kaifeng; Lei, Yuejuan; Wen, Xin; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Soleimani, Manoocher; Kurtz, Ira; Snead, Malcolm L.; White, Shane N.; Paine, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate transport activities of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are essential to physiological processes in multiple organs. Although mutations of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 have not been linked to any human diseases, disruption of Slc26a1, Slc26a6 or Slc26a7 expression in animals causes severe dysregulation of acid-base balance and disorder of anion homeostasis. Amelogenesis, especially the enamel formation during maturation stage, requires complex pH regulation mechanisms based on ion transport. The disruption of stage-specific ion transporters frequently results in enamel pathosis in animals. Here we present evidence that Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are highly expressed in rodent incisor ameloblasts during maturation-stage tooth development. In maturation-stage ameloblasts, Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 show a similar cellular distribution as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) to the apical region of cytoplasmic membrane, and the distribution of Slc26a7 is also seen in the cytoplasmic/subapical region, presumably on the lysosomal membrane. We have also examined Slc26a1 and Slc26a7 null mice, and although no overt abnormal enamel phenotypes were observed in Slc26a1-/- or Slc26a7-/- animals, absence of Slc26a1 or Slc26a7 results in up-regulation of Cftr, Ca2, Slc4a4, Slc4a9 and Slc26a9, all of which are involved in pH homeostasis, indicating that this might be a compensatory mechanism used by ameloblasts cells in the absence of Slc26 genes. Together, our data show that Slc26a1, Slc26a6 and Slc26a7 are novel participants in the extracellular transport of bicarbonate during enamel maturation, and that their functional roles may be achieved by forming interaction units with Cftr. PMID:26671068

  7. pH Regulation of Pectate Lyase Secretion Modulates the Attack of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Avocado Fruits†

    PubMed Central

    Yakoby, Nir; Kobiler, Ilana; Dinoor, Amos; Prusky, Dov

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pectolytic enzyme-inducing medium (PEIM) increased the pH of the medium from 3.8 to 6.5. Pectate lyase (PL) secretion was detected when the pH reached 5.8, and the level of secretion increased up to pH 6.5. PL gene (pel) transcript production began at pH 5.0 and increased up to pH 5.7. PL secretion was never detected when the pH of the inducing medium was lower than 5.8 or when C. gloeosporioides hyphae were transferred from PL-secreting conditions at pH 6.5 to pH 3.8. This behavior differed from that of polygalacturonase (PG), where pg transcripts and protein secretion were detected at pH 5.0 and continued up to 5.7. Under in vivo conditions, the pH of unripe pericarp of freshly harvested avocado (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) fruits, resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, was 5.2, whereas in ripe fruits, when decay symptoms were expressed, the pericarp pH had increased to 6.3. Two avocado cultivars, Ardit and Ettinger, which are resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, had pericarp pHs of less than 5.5, which did not increase during ripening. The present results suggest that host pH regulates the secretion of PL and may affect C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity. The mechanism found in avocado may have equivalents in other postharvest pathosystems and suggests new approaches for breeding against and controlling postharvest diseases. PMID:10698767

  8. pH regulation of pectate lyase secretion modulates the attack of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on avocado fruits.

    PubMed

    Yakoby, N; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2000-03-01

    Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pectolytic enzyme-inducing medium (PEIM) increased the pH of the medium from 3. 8 to 6.5. Pectate lyase (PL) secretion was detected when the pH reached 5.8, and the level of secretion increased up to pH 6.5. PL gene (pel) transcript production began at pH 5.0 and increased up to pH 5.7. PL secretion was never detected when the pH of the inducing medium was lower than 5.8 or when C. gloeosporioides hyphae were transferred from PL-secreting conditions at pH 6.5 to pH 3.8. This behavior differed from that of polygalacturonase (PG), where pg transcripts and protein secretion were detected at pH 5.0 and continued up to 5.7. Under in vivo conditions, the pH of unripe pericarp of freshly harvested avocado (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) fruits, resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, was 5.2, whereas in ripe fruits, when decay symptoms were expressed, the pericarp pH had increased to 6.3. Two avocado cultivars, Ardit and Ettinger, which are resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, had pericarp pHs of less than 5.5, which did not increase during ripening. The present results suggest that host pH regulates the secretion of PL and may affect C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity. The mechanism found in avocado may have equivalents in other post-harvest pathosystems and suggests new approaches for breeding against and controlling post-harvest diseases.

  9. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  10. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  11. Cytosolic pH is a second messenger for glucose and regulates the PKA pathway through V-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Dechant, Reinhard; Binda, Matteo; Lee, Sung Sik; Pelet, Serge; Winderickx, Joris; Peter, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most cell types and a major determinant of cell growth. In yeast and certain mammalian cells, glucose activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), but the mechanisms of PKA activation remain unknown. Here, we identify cytosolic pH as a second messenger for glucose that mediates activation of the PKA pathway in yeast. We find that cytosolic pH is rapidly and reversibly regulated by glucose metabolism and identify the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a proton pump required for the acidification of vacuoles, as a sensor of cytosolic pH. V-ATPase assembly is regulated by cytosolic pH and is required for full activation of the PKA pathway in response to glucose, suggesting that it mediates, at least in part, the pH signal to PKA. Finally, V-ATPase is also regulated by glucose in the Min6 β-cell line and contributes to PKA activation and insulin secretion. Thus, these data suggest a novel and potentially conserved glucose-sensing pathway and identify a mechanism how cytosolic pH can act as a signal to promote cell growth. PMID:20581803

  12. Regulation of cytosolic pH and lactic acid release in mesangial cells overexpressing GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Lang, Karl S; Mueller, Matthias M; Tanneur, Valerie; Wallisch, Sabine; Fedorenko, Olga; Palmada, Monica; Lang, Florian; Bröer, Stefan; Heilig, Charles W; Schleicher, Erwin; Weigert, Cora

    2003-10-01

    Anaerobic glycolysis leads to the formation of lactate and H+ and thus imposes a significant challenge on cytosolic acid/base regulation. Cytosolic acidification, on the other hand, is known to inhibit flux through glycolysis and lactate formation. To explore the interplay of cytosolic pH and glycolysis, rat mesangial cells transfected with the glucose transporter GLUT1 (GLUT1 cells) were compared with those transfected with beta-galactosidase (LacZ cells). In the presence of extracellular glucose, the glycolytic rate was one order of magnitude higher in GLUT1 cells than in LacZ cells. Cytosolic pH (pHi) was significantly higher in GLUT1 than LacZ cells, an effect abolished in the presence of Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor ethylisopropylamiloride (1 micromol/L). Addition of 40 mmol/L lactate led to marked cytosolic acidification, which was in both cell types blunted by O-methyl-glucose (20 mmol/L) and completely abolished by 100 micromol/L phloretin and 1 mmol/L p-chloromercuribenzene-sulphonic acid (p-CMBS) and in LacZ cells only by glucose (20 mmol/L). The functional characterization points to the involvement of a lactic acid transporter from the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, particularly MCT1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indeed disclosed the expression of MCT1 and MCT2 in both GLUT1 and LacZ cells. Overexpression of GLUT1 leads to cytosolic alkalinization of mesangial cells depending on functional Na+/H+ exchanger but not on Na+ independent H+ transport.

  13. The Mechanism by Which a Propeptide-encoded pH Sensor Regulates Spatiotemporal Activation of Furin*

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Danielle M.; Elferich, Johannes; Ramakrishnan, Parvathy; Thomas, Gary; Shinde, Ujwal

    2013-01-01

    The proprotein convertase furin requires the pH gradient of the secretory pathway to regulate its multistep, compartment-specific autocatalytic activation. Although His-69 within the furin prodomain serves as the pH sensor that detects transport of the propeptide-enzyme complex to the trans-Golgi network, where it promotes cleavage and release of the inhibitory propeptide, a mechanistic understanding of how His-69 protonation mediates furin activation remains unclear. Here we employ biophysical, biochemical, and computational approaches to elucidate the mechanism underlying the pH-dependent activation of furin. Structural analyses and binding experiments comparing the wild-type furin propeptide with a nonprotonatable His-69 → Leu mutant that blocks furin activation in vivo revealed protonation of His-69 reduces both the thermodynamic stability of the propeptide as well as its affinity for furin at pH 6.0. Structural modeling combined with mathematical modeling and molecular dynamic simulations suggested that His-69 does not directly contribute to the propeptide-enzyme interface but, rather, triggers movement of a loop region in the propeptide that modulates access to the cleavage site and, thus, allows for the tight pH regulation of furin activation. Our work establishes a mechanism by which His-69 functions as a pH sensor that regulates compartment-specific furin activation and provides insights into how other convertases and proteases may regulate their precise spatiotemporal activation. PMID:23653353

  14. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  15. Role of lysosomal and cytosolic pH in the regulation of macrophage lysosomal enzyme secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Tapper, H; Sundler, R

    1990-01-01

    Rapid and parallel secretion of lysosomal beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and preloaded fluorescein-labelled dextran was initiated in macrophages by agents affecting intracellular pH (methylamine, chlorpromazine, and the ionophores monensin and nigericin). In order to evaluate the relative role of changes in lysosomal and cytosolic pH, these parameters were monitored by using pH-sensitive fluorescent probes [fluorescein-labelled dextran or 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein]. All agents except chlorpromazine caused large increases in lysosomal pH under conditions where they induced secretion. By varying extracellular pH and ion composition, the changes in lysosomal and cytosolic pH could be dissociated. Secretion was then found to be significantly modulated by changes in cytosolic pH, being enhanced by alkalinization and severely inhibited by cytosolic acidification. However, changes in cytosolic pH in the absence of stimulus were unable to initiate secretion. Dissociation of the effects on lysosomal and cytosolic pH was also achieved by combining stimuli with either nigericin or acetate. Further support for a role of intracellular pH in the control of lysosomal enzyme secretion was provided by experiments where bicarbonate was included in the medium. The present study demonstrates that an increase in lysosomal pH is sufficient to initiate lysosomal enzyme secretion in macrophages and provides evidence for a significant regulatory role of cytosolic pH. PMID:2268269

  16. pH regulating transporters in neurons from various chemosensitive brainstem regions in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Anna E.; Hartzler, Lynn K.; Havlin, Kevin; Hubbell, Brittany Belcastro; Nanagas, Vivian; Kalra, Avash; Chua, Jason; Whitesell, Ryan; Ritucci, Nick A.; Dean, Jay B.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the membrane transporters that mediate intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from acidification in brainstem neurons from chemosensitive regions of neonatal rats. Individual neurons within brainstem slices from the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), and the locus coeruleus (LC) were studied using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye and fluorescence imaging microscopy. The rate of pHi recovery from an NH4Cl-induced acidification was measured, and the effects of inhibitors of various pH-regulating transporters determined. Hypercapnia (15% CO2) resulted in a maintained acidification in neurons from all three regions. Recovery in RTN neurons was nearly entirely eliminated by amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange (NHE). Recovery in RTN neurons was blocked ∼50% by inhibitors of isoform 1 of NHE (NHE-1) but very little by an inhibitor of NHE-3 or by DIDS (an inhibitor of HCO3-dependent transport). In NTS neurons, amiloride blocked over 80% of the recovery, which was also blocked ∼65% by inhibitors of NHE-1 and 26% blocked by an inhibitor of NHE-3. Recovery in LC neurons, in contrast, was unaffected by amiloride or blockers of NHE isoforms but was dependent on Na+ and increased by external HCO3−. On the basis of these findings, pHi recovery from acidification appears to be largely mediated by NHE-1 in RTN neurons, by NHE-1 and NHE-3 in NTS neurons, and by a Na- and HCO3-dependent transporter in LC neurons. Thus, pHi recovery is mediated by different pH-regulating transporters in neurons from different chemosensitive regions, but recovery is suppressed by hypercapnia in all of the neurons. PMID:19710385

  17. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Vernon A; Salameh, Ahlam I; Boron, Walter F; Parker, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (J L) and extrusion (J E). The balance between J E and J L determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to J L (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and J E (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na(+)- coupled HCO3 (-) transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions.

  18. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  19. Mechanisms of coral pH regulation and calcification response to ocean acidification: Insights from a physicochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification, induced by anthropogenic CO2 emission, poses challenges for coral calcification and thus the health of coral reef ecosystems. The calcification responses of corals to this environmental change however appear to vary significantly among different species and reef systems, and are believed to be controlled by their up-regulation of the calcifying fluid pH. Here I present a physiochemical model of coral calcification to simulate the chemistry, especially pH, of the coral calcifying fluid and evaluate the coral calcification response to changing seawater chemistry. I show that, the extent of pH up-regulation in corals is controlled by the interplay between the enzymatic alkalinity pumping at the site of calcification (P) and the exchange of the calcifying fluid with external seawater (E). Corals with higher P/E ratios are predicted to elevate the pH of their calcifying fluid to higher extents, and thus should have higher calcifying fluid pH when exposed to the same seawater. Similarly, higher P/E ratios are also predicted to lead to higher saturation states of the calcifying fluid and therefore higher rates of coral calcification. This model quantitatively explains the variations of calcifying fluid pH and calcification responses observed among different coral species and laboratory manipulation experiments, and potentially enables predictions of coral calcification responses to future environmental changes.

  20. Variability in larval gut pH regulation defines sensitivity to ocean acidification in six species of the Ambulacraria superphylum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian; Tseng, Yung-Che; Su, Yi-Hsien; Lein, Etienne; Lee, Hae-Gyeong; Lee, Jay-Ron; Dupont, Sam; Stumpp, Meike

    2017-10-11

    The unusual rate and extent of environmental changes due to human activities may exceed the capacity of marine organisms to deal with this phenomenon. The identification of physiological systems that set the tolerance limits and their potential for phenotypic buffering in the most vulnerable ontogenetic stages become increasingly important to make large-scale projections. Here, we demonstrate that the differential sensitivity of non-calcifying Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) larvae towards simulated ocean acidification is dictated by the physiology of their digestive systems. Gastric pH regulation upon experimental ocean acidification was compared in six species of the superphylum Ambulacraria. We observed a strong correlation between sensitivity to ocean acidification and the ability to regulate gut pH. Surprisingly, species with tightly regulated gastric pH were more sensitive to ocean acidification. This study provides evidence that strict maintenance of highly alkaline conditions in the larval gut of Ambulacraria early life stages may dictate their sensitivity to decreases in seawater pH. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and understanding pH regulatory systems in marine larval stages that may contribute to substantial energetic challenges under near-future ocean acidification scenarios. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Extracellular pH regulation in microdomains of colonic crypts: effects of short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; the major anions in the colonic lumen) generate pH gradients across the colonic epithelium. Quantitative confocal microscopy was used to study extracellular pH in mouse distal colon with intact epithelial architecture, by superfusing tissue with carboxy SNARF-1 (a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye). Results demonstrate extracellular pH regulation in two separate microdomains surrounding colonic crypts: the crypt lumen and the subepithelial tissue adjacent to crypt colonocytes. Apical superfusion with (i) a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate), (ii) an avidly metabolized SCFA (n-butyrate), or (iii) a physiologic mixture of acetate/propionate/n-butyrate produced similar results: alkalinization of the crypt lumen and acidification of subepithelial tissue. Effects were (i) dependent on the presence and orientation of a transepithelial SCFA gradient, (ii) not observed with gluconate substitution, and (iii) required activation of sustained vectorial acid/base transport by SCFAs. Results suggest that the crypt lumen functions as a pH microdomain due to slow mixing with bulk superfusates and that crypts contribute significant buffering capacity to the lumen. In conclusion, physiologic SCFA gradients cause polarized extracellular pH regulation because epithelial architecture and vectorial transport synergize to establish regulated microenvironments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7724557

  2. Epithelial pH and ion transport regulation by proton pumps and exchangers.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B J; Ehrenfeld, J

    1988-01-01

    This study reports on the interaction between transepithelial Na+ transport and H+ secretory and intracellular pH (pHi) regulating mechanisms in the model 'tight' epithelium of frog skin. We have used 22Na isotope fluxes and fixed end-point titration to measure undirectional Na+ fluxes, net Na absorption (J(net)Na) and proton secretion (J(net)H), and electrophysiological techniques (double-barrelled ion-sensitive microelectrodes and cell membrane current--voltage relations) to determine intracellular activities of Na+, Cl- and H+ and the conductance of apical membranes to Na+ (gNa) and of basolateral membranes to K+ (gK). In dilute mucosal solutions or in the absence of a permeant anion (Cl-) or counter-current (open-circuit conditions) to accompany Na+ uptake, the J(net)Na is electrically coupled to J(net)H via an electrogenic apical H+-ATPase (located in mitochondria-rich cells). Both fluxes proceed via mitochondria-rich cells and are inhibited by blockers of carbonic anhydrase and H+-ATPase and stimulated by aldosterone and acid load. In high NaCl-containing mucosal solutions or in short-circuit conditions, the J(net)Na becomes uncoupled from J(net)H and proceeds mainly via the principal cells in the epithelium, in which pHi is regulated by basolateral Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers. Under these conditions, J(net)Na, gNa and gK vary directly and in parallel with pHi, when pHi is changed by permeable weak acids or bases. There is also co-variance between gNa and pHi accompanying spontaneous variations in J(net)Na and when Na+ transport is stimulated by aldosterone or inhibited with ouabain. We conclude that the level of intracellular H+, modulated by H+ pump and Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers provides an intrinsic regulation of epithelial Na+ transport.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum evades mosquito immunity by disrupting JNK-mediated apoptosis of invaded midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, must survive and develop in the mosquito vector to be successfully transmitted to a new host. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene is critical for malaria transmission. Parasites that express Pfs47 (NF54 WT) evade mosquito immunity and survive, whereas Pfs47 knockouts (KO) are efficiently eliminated by the complement-like system. Two alternative approaches were used to investigate the mechanism of action of Pfs47 on immune evasion. First, we examined whether Pfs47 affected signal transduction pathways mediating mosquito immune responses, and show that the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial responses to P. falciparum infection and that Pfs47 disrupts JNK signaling. Second, we used microarrays to compare the global transcriptional responses of A. gambiae midguts to infection with WT and KO parasites. The presence of Pfs47 results in broad and profound changes in gene expression in response to infection that are already evident 12 h postfeeding, but become most prominent at 26 h postfeeding, the time when ookinetes invade the mosquito midgut. Silencing of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes identified caspase-S2 as a key effector of Plasmodium elimination in parasites lacking Pfs47. We provide experimental evidence that JNK pathway regulates activation of caspases in Plasmodium-invaded midgut cells, and that caspase activation is required to trigger midgut epithelial nitration. Pfs47 alters the cell death pathway of invaded midgut cells by disrupting JNK signaling and prevents the activation of several caspases, resulting in an ineffective nitration response that makes the parasite undetectable by the mosquito complement-like system. PMID:25552553

  4. Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Navarro-Cerrillo, Gloria; Caccia, Silvia; de Maagd, Ruud A.; Moar, William J.; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A colony of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was selected for 15 years in the laboratory for resistance to Xentari™, a B. thuringiensis-based insecticide, reaching a final resistance level of greater than 1,000-fold. Around 600 midgut ESTs were analyzed by DNA-macroarray in order to find differences in midgut gene expression between susceptible and resistant insects. Among the differentially expressed genes, repat and arylphorin were identified and their increased expression was correlated with B. thuringiensis resistance. We also found overlap among genes that were constitutively over-expressed in resistant insects with genes that were up-regulated in susceptible insects after exposure to Xentari™, suggesting a permanent activation of the response to Xentari™ in resistant insects. Increased aminopeptidase activity in the lumen of resistant insects in the absence of exposure to Xentari™ corroborated the hypothesis of permanent activation of response genes. Increase in midgut proliferation has been proposed as a mechanism of response to pathogens in the adult from several insect species. Analysis of S. exigua larvae revealed that midgut proliferation was neither increased in resistant insects nor induced by exposure of susceptible larvae to Xentari™, suggesting that mechanisms other than midgut proliferation are involved in the response to B. thuringiensis by S. exigua larvae. PMID:20862260

  5. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    , SCFA absorption also accelerates urea transport into the rumen, which via ammonium recycling, may remove protons from rumen to the blood. Ammonium absorption into the blood is also stimulated by luminal SCFA. It is suggested that the interacting transport processes for SCFA, urea, and ammonia represent evolutionary adaptations of ruminants to actively coordinate energy fermentation, protein assimilation, and pH regulation in the rumen.

  6. 6S RNA Regulation of pspF Transcription Leads to Altered Cell Survival at High pH

    PubMed Central

    Trotochaud, Amy E.; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    6S RNA is a highly abundant small RNA that regulates transcription through direct interaction with RNA polymerase. Here we show that 6S RNA directly inhibits transcription of pspF, which subsequently leads to inhibition of pspABCDE and pspG expression. Cells without 6S RNA are able to survive at elevated pH better than wild-type cells due to loss of 6S RNA-regulation of pspF. This 6S RNA-dependent phenotype is eliminated in pspF-null cells, indicating that 6S RNA effects are conferred through PspF. Similar growth phenotypes are seen when PspF levels are increased in a 6S RNA-independent manner, signifying that changes to pspF expression are sufficient. Changes in survival at elevated pH most likely result from altered expression of pspABCDE and/or pspG, both of which require PspF for transcription and are indirectly regulated by 6S RNA. 6S RNA provides another layer of regulation in response to high pH during stationary phase. We propose that the normal role of 6S RNA at elevated pH is to limit the extent of the psp response under conditions of nutrient deprivation, perhaps facilitating appropriate allocation of diminishing resources. PMID:16707685

  7. Regulation of pH in the mammalian central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Obara, Marta; Szeliga, Monika; Albrecht, Jan

    2008-05-01

    The maintenance of pH homeostasis in the CNS is of key importance for proper execution and regulation of neurotransmission, and deviations from this homeostasis are a crucial factor in the mechanism underlying a spectrum of pathological conditions. The first few sections of the review are devoted to the brain operating under normal conditions. The article commences with an overview of how extrinsic factors modelling the brain at work: neurotransmitters, depolarising stimuli (potassium and voltage changes) and cyclic nucleotides as major signal transducing vehicles affect pH in the CNS. Further, consequences of pH alterations on the major aspects of CNS function and metabolism are outlined. Next, the major cellular events involved in the transport, sequestration, metabolic production and buffering of protons that are common to all the mammalian cells, including the CNS cells. Since CNS function reflects tight interaction between astrocytes and neurons, the pH regulatory events pertinent to either cell type are discussed: overwhelming evidence implicates astrocytes as a key player in pH homeostasis in the brain. The different classes of membrane proteins involved in proton shuttling are listed and their mechanisms of action are given. These include: the Na+/H+ exchanger, different classes of bicarbonate transporters acting in a sodium-dependent- or -independent mode, monocarboxylic acid transporters and the vacuolar-type proton ATPase. A separate section is devoted to carbonic anhydrase, which is represented by multiple isoenzymes capable of pH buffering both in the cell interior and in the extracellular space. Next, impairment of pH regulation and compensatory responses occurring in brain affected by different pathologies: hypoxia/ischemia, epilepsy, hyperammonemic encephalopathies, cerebral tumours and HIV will be described. The review is limited to facts and plausible hypotheses pertaining to phenomena directly involved in pH regulation: changes in pH that

  8. The Importance of pH in Regulating the Function of the Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L1 Cysteine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Jonathan; Robinson, Mark W.; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Xu, Weibo; Stack, Colin M.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L cysteine proteases to invade its host, migrate through tissues and digest haemoglobin, its main source of amino acids. Here we investigated the importance of pH in regulating the activity and functions of the major cathepsin L protease FheCL1. The slightly acidic pH of the parasite gut facilitates the auto-catalytic activation of FheCL1 from its inactive proFheCL1 zymogen; this process was ∼40-fold faster at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.0. Active mature FheCL1 is very stable at acidic and neutral conditions (the enzyme retained ∼45% activity when incubated at 37°C and pH 4.5 for 10 days) and displayed a broad pH range for activity peptide substrates and the protein ovalbumin, peaking between pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. This pH profile likely reflects the need for FheCL1 to function both in the parasite gut and in the host tissues. FheCL1, however, could not cleave its natural substrate Hb in the pH range pH 5.5 and pH 7.0; digestion occurred only at pH≤4.5, which coincided with pH-induced dissociation of the Hb tetramer. Our studies indicate that the acidic pH of the parasite relaxes the Hb structure, making it susceptible to proteolysis by FheCL1. This process is enhanced by glutathione (GSH), the main reducing agent contained in red blood cells. Using mass spectrometry, we show that FheCL1 can degrade Hb to small peptides, predominantly of 4–14 residues, but cannot release free amino acids. Therefore, we suggest that Hb degradation is not completed in the gut lumen but that the resulting peptides are absorbed by the gut epithelial cells for further processing by intracellular di- and amino-peptidases to free amino acids that are distributed through the parasite tissue for protein anabolism. PMID:19172172

  9. Hindsight/RREB-1 functions in both the specification and differentiation of stem cells in the adult midgut of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Baechler, Brittany L.; McKnight, Cameron; Pruchnicki, Porsha C.; Biro, Nicole A.; Reed, Bruce H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adult Drosophila midgut is established during the larval/pupal transition from undifferentiated cells known as adult midgut precursors (AMPs). Four fundamental cell types are found in the adult midgut epithelium: undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their committed daughter cells, enteroblasts (EBs), plus enterocytes (ECs) and enteroendocrine cells (EEs). Using the Drosophila posterior midgut as a model, we have studied the function of the transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt)/RREB-1 and its relationship to the Notch and Egfr signaling pathways. We show that hnt is required for EC differentiation in the context of ISC-to-EC differentiation, but not in the context of AMP-to-EC differentiation. In addition, we show that hnt is required for the establishment of viable or functional ISCs. Overall, our studies introduce hnt as a key factor in the regulation of both the developing and the mature adult midgut. We suggest that the nature of these contextual differences can be explained through the interaction of hnt with multiple signaling pathways. PMID:26658272

  10. Midgut malrotation causing intermittent intestinal obstruction in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Bektasoglu, Huseyin Kazim; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Yardimci, Erkan; Firat, Yurdakul Deniz; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Midgut malrotation is a congenital anomaly of intestinal rotation and fixation that is generally seen in neonatal population. Adult cases are rarely reported. Early diagnosis is crucial to avoid life threatening complications. Here, we present an adulthood case of midgut volvulus as a rare cause of acute abdomen.

  11. Laparoscopic Ileocolic Resection for Crohn's Disease Associated With Midgut Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Biancone, Livia; Tema, Giorgia; Porokhnavets, Kristina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Gaspari, Achille L.; Sica, Giuseppe S.

    2014-01-01

    Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation. Its incidence in adults is rare. A case of midgut malrotation in a 51-year-old man with complicated Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum is presented. Symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed. Preoperative workup led to correct surgical planning that ultimately allowed a successful laparoscopic resection. PMID:25419109

  12. Regulation of arsenic mobility on basaltic glass surfaces by speciation and pH.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Meharg, Andrew A; Gislason, Sigurdur R

    2008-12-01

    The importance of geothermal energy as a source for electricity generation and district heating has increased over recent decades. Arsenic can be a significant constituent of the geothermal fluids pumped to the surface during power generation. Dissolved As exists in different oxidation states, mainly as As(III) and As(V), and the charge of individual species varies with pH. Basaltic glass is one of the most important rock types in many high-temperature geothermal fields. Static batch and dynamic column experiments were combined to generate and validate sorption coefficients for As(III) and As(V) in contact with basaltic glass at pH 3-10. Validation was carried out by two empirical kinetic models and a surface complexation model (SCM). The SCM provided a better fit to the experimental column data than kinetic models at high pH values. However, in certain circumstances, an adequate estimation of As transport in the column could not be attained without incorporation of kinetic reactions. The varying mobility with pH was due to the combined effects of the variable charge of the basaltic glass with the pH point of zero charge at 6.8 and the individual As species as pH shifted, respectively. The mobility of As(III) decreased with increasing pH. The opposite was true for As(V), being nearly immobile at pH 3 to being highly mobile at pH 10. Incorporation of appropriate sorption constants, based on the measured pH and Eh of geothermal fluids, into regional groundwater-flow models should allow prediction of the As(III) and As(V) transport from geothermal systems to adjacent drinking water sources and ecosystems.

  13. Regulation of Drosophila mesoderm migration by phosphoinositides and the PH domain of the Rho GTP exchange factor Pebble.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J; Ng, Michelle M; Fraval, Hamilton; Tan, Julie; Liu, Wenjie; Smallhorn, Masha; Brill, Julie A; Field, Seth J; Saint, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Drosophila RhoGEF Pebble (Pbl) is required for cytokinesis and migration of mesodermal cells. In a screen for genes that could suppress migration defects in pbl mutants we identified the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PtdInsP) regulator pi5k59B. Genetic interaction tests with other PtdInsP regulators suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels are important for mesoderm migration when Pbl is depleted. Consistent with this, the leading front of migrating mesodermal cells was enriched for PtdIns(4,5)P2. Given that Pbl contains a Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain, a known PtdInsP-binding motif, we examined PtdInsP-binding of Pbl and the importance of the PH domain for Pbl function. In vitro lipid blot assays showed that Pbl binds promiscuously to PtdInsPs, with binding strength associated with the degree of phosphorylation. Pbl was also able to bind lipid vesicles containing PtdIns(4,5)P2 but binding was strongly reduced upon deletion of the PH domain. Similarly, in vivo, loss of the PH domain prevented localisation of Pbl to the cell cortex and severely affected several aspects of early mesoderm development, including flattening of the invaginated tube onto the ectoderm, extension of protrusions, and dorsal migration to form a monolayer. Pbl lacking the PH domain could still localise to the cytokinetic furrow, however, and cytokinesis failure was reduced in pbl(ΔPH) mutants. Taken together, our results support a model in which interaction of the PH-domain of Pbl with PtdIns(4,5)P2 helps localise it to the plasma membrane which is important for mesoderm migration.

  14. NHE1 is the sodium-hydrogen exchanger active in acute intracellular pH regulation in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Siyanov, Violetta; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-06-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) of the Slc9 gene family are the major regulators of intracellular pH against acidosis in mammalian cells. Of five plasma membrane NHE isoforms, mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos express mRNAs encoding NHE1 (SLC9A1), NHE3 (SLC9A3), and NHE4 (SLC9A4), with higher mRNA levels for each in oocytes through one-cell stage embryos and lower levels after the two-cell stage. NHE2 (SLC9A2) and NHE5 (SLC9A5) are not expressed. Measurements of intracellular pH during recovery from induced acidosis indicated that recovery occurred via NHE activity at all preimplantation stages assessed (one-cell, two-cell, eight-cell and morula). Recovery from acidosis at each stage was entirely inhibited by cariporide, which is very highly selective for NHE1. In contrast, the moderately NHE3-selective inhibitor S3226 did not preferentially block recovery, nor did adding S3226 increase inhibition over cariporide alone, indicating that NHE3 did not play a role. There was no indication of NHE4 activity. Another regulator of intracellular pH against acidosis, the sodium-dependent bicarbonate/chloride exchanger (NDBCE; SLC4A8), had low or absent activity in two-cell embryos. Thus, NHE1 appears to be the only significant regulator of intracellular pH in preimplantation mouse embryos. Culturing embryos from the one-cell or two-cell stages in acidotic medium inhibited their development. Unexpectedly, inhibition of NHE1 with cariporide, NDBCE with DIDS, or both together did not affect embryo development to the blastocyst stage more substantially under conditions of chronic acidosis than at normal pH. Preimplantation mouse embryos thus appear to have limited capacity to resist chronic acidosis using intracellular pH regulatory mechanisms.

  15. PH Domain-Arf G Protein Interactions Localize the Arf-GEF Steppke for Cleavage Furrow Regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghoon M; Rodrigues, Francisco F; Yu, Cao Guo; Swan, Michael; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) to specific subcellular sites dictates where they activate small G proteins for the regulation of various cellular processes. Cytohesins are a conserved family of plasma membrane GEFs for Arf small G proteins that regulate endocytosis. Analyses of mammalian cytohesins have identified a number of recruitment mechanisms for these multi-domain proteins, but the conservation and developmental roles for these mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report how the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the Drosophila cytohesin Steppke affects its localization and activity at cleavage furrows of the early embryo. We found that the PH domain is necessary for Steppke furrow localization, and for it to regulate furrow structure. However, the PH domain was not sufficient for the localization. Next, we examined the role of conserved PH domain amino acid residues that are required for mammalian cytohesins to bind PIP3 or GTP-bound Arf G proteins. We confirmed that the Steppke PH domain preferentially binds PIP3 in vitro through a conserved mechanism. However, disruption of residues for PIP3 binding had no apparent effect on GFP-Steppke localization and effects. Rather, residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins made major contributions to this Steppke localization and activity. By analyzing GFP-tagged Arf and Arf-like small G proteins, we found that Arf1-GFP, Arf6-GFP and Arl4-GFP, but not Arf4-GFP, localized to furrows. However, analyses of embryos depleted of Arf1, Arf6 or Arl4 revealed either earlier defects than occur in embryos depleted of Steppke, or no detectable furrow defects, possibly because of redundancies, and thus it was difficult to assess how individual Arf small G proteins affect Steppke. Nonetheless, our data show that the Steppke PH domain and its conserved residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins have substantial effects on Steppke localization and activity in early Drosophila embryos.

  16. The midgut of the silkmoth Bombyx mori is able to recycle molecules derived from degeneration of the larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Franzetti, Eleonora; Romanelli, Davide; Caccia, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia; Congiu, Terenzio; Rajagopalan, Muthukumaran; Grimaldi, Annalisa; de Eguileor, Magda; Casartelli, Morena; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    The midgut represents the middle part of the alimentary canal and is responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption in insect larva. Despite the growing interest in this organ for different purposes, such as studies on morphogenesis and differentiation, stem cell biology, cell death processes and transport mechanisms, basic information on midgut development is still lacking for a large proportion of insect species. Undoubtedly, this lack of data could hinder the full exploitation of practical applications that involve midgut as their primary target. This may represent in particular a significant problem for Lepidoptera, an insect order that includes some of the most important species of high economic importance. With the aim of overcoming this fragmentation of knowledge, we performed a detailed morphofunctional analysis of the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a representative model among Lepidoptera, during its development from the larval up to the adult stage, focusing attention on stem cells. Our data demonstrate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, not only in the larval midgut but also in the pupal and adult midgut epithelium. Moreover, we present evidence for a complex trophic relationship between the dying larval epithelium and the new adult one, which is established during metamorphosis. This study, besides representing the first morphological and functional characterization of the changes that occur in the midgut of a lepidopteron during the transition from the larva to the moth, provides a detailed analysis of the midgut of the adult insect, a stage that has been neglected up to now.

  17. Org-1 is required for the diversification of circular visceral muscle founder cells and normal midgut morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Christoph; Frasch, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The T-Box family of transcription factors plays fundamental roles in the generation of appropriate spatial and temporal gene expression profiles during cellular differentiation and organogenesis in animals. In this study we report that the Drosophila Tbx1 orthologue optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) exerts a pivotal function in the diversification of circular visceral muscle founder cell identities in Drosophila. In embryos mutant for org-1, the specification of the midgut musculature per se is not affected, but the differentiating midgut fails to form the anterior and central midgut constrictions and lacks the gastric caeca. We demonstrate that this phenotype results from the nearly complete loss of the founder cell specific expression domains of several genes known to regulate midgut morphogenesis, including odd-paired (opa), teashirt (tsh), Ultrabithorax (Ubx), decapentaplegic (dpp) and wingless (wg). To address the mechanisms that mediate the regulatory inputs from org-1 towards Ubx, dpp, and wg in these founder cells we genetically dissected known visceral mesoderm specific cis-regulatory-modules (CRMs) of these genes. The analyses revealed that the activities of the dpp and wg CRMs depend on org-1, the CRMs are bound by Org-1 in vivo and their T-Box binding sites are essential for their activation in the visceral muscle founder cells. We conclude that Org-1 acts within a well-defined signaling and transcriptional network of the trunk visceral mesoderm as a crucial founder cell-specific competence factor, in concert with the general visceral mesodermal factor Biniou. As such, it directly regulates several key genes involved in the establishment of morphogenetic centers along the anteroposterior axis of the visceral mesoderm, which subsequently organize the formation of midgut constrictions and gastric caeca and thereby determine the morphology of the midgut. PMID:23380635

  18. Role of the bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase in pH sensing and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Chin; Oude-Elferink, Ronald P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, adcy10) was recently identified as a unique source of cAMP in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Its activity is regulated by bicarbonate and fine-tuned by calcium. As such, and in conjunction with carbonic anhydrase (CA), sAC constitutes an HCO−3/CO−2/pH sensor. In both alpha-intercalated cells of the collecting duct and the clear cells of the epididymis, sAC is expressed at significant level and involved in pH homeostasis via apical recruitment of vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA) in a PKA-dependent manner. In addition to maintenance of pH homeostasis, sAC is also involved in metabolic regulation such as coupling of Krebs cycle to oxidative phosphorylation via bicarbonate/CO2 sensing. Additionally, sAC also regulates CFTR channel and plays an important role in regulation of barrier function and apoptosis. These observations suggest that sAC, via bicarbonate-sensing, plays an important role in maintaining homeostatic status of cells against fluctuations in their microenvironment. PMID:24575049

  19. Overcoming Hypoxia-Mediated Tumor Progression: Combinatorial Approaches Targeting pH Regulation, Angiogenesis and Immune Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Chafe, Shawn C.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important contributor to the heterogeneity of the microenvironment of solid tumors and is a significant environmental stressor that drives adaptations which are essential for the survival and metastatic capabilities of tumor cells. Critical adaptive mechanisms include altered metabolism, pH regulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, migration/invasion, diminished response to immune cells and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In particular, pH regulation by hypoxic tumor cells, through the modulation of cell surface molecules such as extracellular carbonic anhydrases (CAIX and CAXII) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT-1 and MCT-4) functions to increase cancer cell survival and enhance cell invasion while also contributing to immune evasion. Indeed, CAIX is a vital regulator of hypoxia mediated tumor progression, and targeted inhibition of its function results in reduced tumor growth, metastasis, and cancer stem cell function. However, the integrated contributions of the repertoire of hypoxia-induced effectors of pH regulation for tumor survival and invasion remain to be fully explored and exploited as therapeutic avenues. For example, the clinical use of anti-angiogenic agents has identified a conundrum whereby this treatment increases hypoxia and cancer stem cell components of tumors, and accelerates metastasis. Furthermore, hypoxia results in the infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), regulatory T cells (Treg) and Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), and also stimulates the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells, which collectively suppress T-cell mediated tumor cell killing. Therefore, combinatorial targeting of angiogenesis, the immune system and pH regulation in the context of hypoxia may lead to more effective strategies for curbing tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, thereby increasing therapeutic efficacy and leading to more effective strategies for the treatment of patients with

  20. Soil pH regulates the abundance and diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2009-12-01

    Archaeal communities in many acidic forest soil systems are dominated by a distinct crenarchaeal lineage Group 1.1c. In addition, they are found consistently in other acidic soils including grassland pasture, moorland and alpine soils. To determine whether soil pH is a major factor in determining their presence and abundance, Group 1.1c community size and composition were investigated across a pH gradient from 4.5 to 7.5 that has been maintained for > 40 years. The abundances of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota, total Crenarchaeota and total bacteria were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and the diversity of Group 1.1c crenarchaeal community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota declined as the pH increased, whereas total Crenarchaeota and Bacteria showed no clear trend. Community diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota was also influenced with different DGGE bands dominating at different pH. Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota were also quantified in 13 other soils representing a range of habitats, soil types and pH. These results exhibited the same trend as that shown across the pH gradient with Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota representing a greater proportion of total Crenarchaeota in the most acidic soils.

  1. Characterization of intracellular pH regulation in the guinea-pig ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Chae Hun; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular pH was recorded fluorimetrically by using carboxy-SNARF-1, AM-loaded into superfused ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea-pig heart. Intracellular acid and base loads were induced experimentally and the changes of pHi used to estimate intracellular buffering power (β). The rate of pHi recovery from acid or base loads was used, in conjunction with the measurements of β, to estimate sarcolemmal transporter fluxes of acid equivalents. A combination of ion substitution and pharmacological inhibitors was used to dissect acid effluxes carried on Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) and Na+-HCO3− cotransport (NBC), and acid influxes carried on Cl−-HCO3− exchange (AE) and Cl−-OH− exchange (CHE). The intracellular intrinsic buffering power (βi), estimated under CO2/HCO3−-free conditions, varied inversely with pHi in a manner consistent with two principal intracellular buffers of differing concentration and pK. In CO2/HCO3−-buffered conditions, intracellular buffering was roughly doubled. The size of the CO2-dependent component (βCO2) was consistent with buffering in a cell fully open to CO2. Because the full value of βCO2 develops slowly (2·5 min), it had to be measured under equilibrium conditions. The value of βCO2 increased monotonically with pHi. In 5 % CO2/HCO3−-buffered conditions (pHo 7·40), acid extrusion on NHE and NBC increased as pHi was reduced, with the greater increase occurring through NHE at pHi < 6·90. Acid influx on AE and CHE increased as pHi was raised, with the greater increase occurring through AE at pHi > 7·15. At resting pHi (7·04-7·07), all four carriers were activated equally, albeit at a low rate (about 0·15 mM min−1). The pHi dependence of flux through the transporters, in combination with the pHi and time dependence of intracellular buffering (βi+βCO2), was used to predict mathematically the recovery of pHi following an intracellular acid or base load. Under several conditions the mathematical predictions

  2. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    PubMed

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  3. Regulation of intracellular pH in LLC-PK1 cells by Na+/H+ exchange.

    PubMed

    Montrose, M H; Murer, H

    1986-01-01

    Suspensions of LLC-PK1 cells (a continuous epitheliod cell line with renal characteristics) are examined for mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation using the fluorescent probe BCECF. Initial experiments determine suitable calibration procedures for use of the BCECF fluorescent signal. They also determine that the cell suspension contains cells which (after 4 hr in suspension) have Na+ and K+ gradients comparable to those of cells in monolayer culture. The steady-state intracellular pH (7.05 +/- 0.01, n = 5) of cells which have recovered in (pH 7.4) Na+-containing medium is not affected over several minutes by addition of 100 microM amiloride or removal of extracellular Na+ (Na+o less than 1 mM). In contrast, when the cells recover from an acid load (caused by NH4 preincubation and removal), the recovery is largely Na+ dependent and is sensitive to 100 microM amiloride. These results suggest that with resting pH near neutrality, both Na+o/H+i and Na+i/H+o exchange reactions are functionally inactive (compared to cellular buffering capacity). In contrast, Na+o/H+i exchange is activated by an increased cellular acid load. This activation may be observed directly either as a stimulation of net H+ efflux or net Na+ influx with decreasing intracellular pH. The extrapolation of this latter data suggests a "set point" of Na+/H+ exchange of approximately pH 7.0, consistent with the observed resting intracellular pH of approximately 7.05.

  4. Non-ionic diffusion and carrier-mediated transport drive extracellullar pH regulation of mouse colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular pH (pHo) regulation within mouse colonic crypt lumens is stimulated by transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Current work assesses underlying mechanisms contributing to pHo regulation. 2. Crypt luminal alkalinization was saturable by apical SCFA (substrate concentration activating half-maximal transport (KT) of isobutyrate = 45 mM). However, saturation was consistent with either carrier-mediated SCFA flux or non-ionic diffusion, because the non-ionized form was titrated by luminal alkalinization. Direct acidification of apical perfusates increased the magnitude of SCFA-induced luminal alkalinization, roughly in the same proportion to the increased concentration of non-ionized SCFA in the crypt lumen. 3. Transepithelial gradients of an alternative weak acid (CO2) produce pHo changes similar to SCFA. In contrast, a weak base (NH3) changes pHo with reverse dependence on the orientation of the transepithelial gradient compared with SCFA. Results implicate non-ionic diffusion in pHo regulation, and suggest that pHo changes may underly SCFA-stimulated bicarbonate secretion and ammonium absorption. 4. SCFA metabolism plays a minor role in extracellular pH regulation. An avidly metabolized SCFA (N-butyrate) augments crypt luminal alkalinization only slightly (0.08 pH units) versus a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate). 5. Apical addition of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) partially inhibits luminal alkalinization caused by apical SCFA. DIDS has no effect on luminal alkalinization caused by transepithelial CO2 gradients. Probenecid (1 mM), alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4 mM) or basolateral DIDS (1 mM) do not affect pHo regulation. Results suggest that DIDS-sensitive, SCFA-dependent transport in the colonocyte apical membrane contributes to pHo regulation. Images Figure 7 PMID:8865074

  5. Amino acid metabolic signaling influences Aedes aegypti midgut microbiome variability.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah M; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; MacLeod, Hannah J; Talyuli, Octavio A C; Dimopoulos, George

    2017-07-01

    The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81-92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae. We conducted transcriptomic analysis on the two mosquito strains that showed the greatest difference in bacterial load, and found that they differ in transcript abundance of many genes implicated in amino acid metabolism, in particular the branched chain amino acid degradation pathway. We then silenced this pathway by targeting multiple genes using RNA interference, which resulted in strain-specific bacterial proliferation, thereby eliminating the difference in midgut bacterial load between the strains. This suggests that the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation pathway controls midgut bacterial load, though the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Overall, our results indicate that amino acid metabolism can act to influence the midgut microbiota. Moreover, they suggest that genetic or physiological variation in BCAA degradation pathway activity may in part explain midgut microbiota variation in the field.

  6. Amino acid metabolic signaling influences Aedes aegypti midgut microbiome variability

    PubMed Central

    Short, Sarah M.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; MacLeod, Hannah J.; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81–92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae. We conducted transcriptomic analysis on the two mosquito strains that showed the greatest difference in bacterial load, and found that they differ in transcript abundance of many genes implicated in amino acid metabolism, in particular the branched chain amino acid degradation pathway. We then silenced this pathway by targeting multiple genes using RNA interference, which resulted in strain-specific bacterial proliferation, thereby eliminating the difference in midgut bacterial load between the strains. This suggests that the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation pathway controls midgut bacterial load, though the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Overall, our results indicate that amino acid metabolism can act to influence the midgut microbiota. Moreover, they suggest that genetic or physiological variation in BCAA degradation pathway activity may in part explain midgut microbiota variation in the field. PMID:28753661

  7. Systemic Activin signaling independently regulates sugar homeostasis, cellular metabolism, and pH balance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain cellular and physiological metabolic homeostasis is key for the survival of multicellular organisms in changing environmental conditions. However, our understanding of extracellular signaling pathways that modulate metabolic processes remains limited. In this study we show that the Activin-like ligand Dawdle (Daw) is a major regulator of systemic metabolic homeostasis and cellular metabolism in Drosophila. We find that loss of canonical Smad signaling downstream of Daw leads to defects in sugar and systemic pH homeostasis. Although Daw regulates sugar homeostasis by positively influencing insulin release, we find that the effect of Daw on pH balance is independent of its role in insulin signaling and is caused by accumulation of organic acids that are primarily tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. RNA sequencing reveals that a number of TCA cycle enzymes and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation are up-regulated in the daw mutants, indicating either a direct or indirect role of Daw in regulating these genes. These findings establish Activin signaling as a major metabolic regulator and uncover a functional link between TGF-β signaling, insulin signaling, and metabolism in Drosophila. PMID:24706779

  8. Altered intracellular pH regulation in cells with high levels of P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding-cassette transporter that pumps many structurally unrelated drugs out of cells through an ATP-dependent mechanism. As a result, multidrug-resistant cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein have reduced intracellular steady-state levels of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, increased cytosolic pH has been a frequent finding in multidrug-resistant cells that express P-glycoprotein, and it has been proposed that this consequence of P-glycoprotein expression may contribute to the lower intracellular levels of chemotherapeutic agents. In these studies, we measured intracellular pH and the rate of acid extrusion in response to an acid load in two cells with very different levels of P-glycoprotein expression: V79 parental cells and LZ-8 multidrug resistant cells. Compared to the wild-type V79 cells, LZ-8 cells have a lower intracellular pH and a slower recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load. The data also show that LZ-8 cells have reduced ability to extrude acid, probably due to a decrease in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity. The alterations in intracellular pH and acid extrusion in LZ-8 cells are reversed by 24-h exposure to the multidrug-resistance modulator verapamil. The lower intracellular pH in LZ-8 indicates that intracellular alkalinization is not necessary for multidrug resistance. The reversal by verapamil of the decreased acid-extrusion suggests that P-glycoprotein can affect other membrane transport mechanism.

  9. The discovery of a novel antagonist - Manduca sexta allatotropin analogue - as an insect midgut active ion transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xi-le; Kai, Zhen-Peng; Chamberlin, Mary E; Horodyski, Frank M; Yang, Xin-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The midgut is an important site for both nutrient absorption and ionic regulation in lepidopteran larvae, major pests in agriculture. The larval lepidopteran midgut has become a potent insecticide target over the past few decades. Recent studies have shown that an insect neuropeptide, Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT), exhibits inhibition of active ion transport (AIT) across the larval midgut epithelium. The full characteristic of the AIT inhibition capacity of Manse-AT is essential to assay. In this study, AIT inhibition across the M. sexta midgut by Manse-AT and its analogues in a range of concentrations was assayed. The structure-activity relationship of Manse-AT was also studied by truncated and alanine-replacement strategies. Our results identified three residues, Thr4, Arg6 and Phe8, as the most important components for activity on the midgut. Replacement of Glu1, Met2 and Met3 reduced the potency of the analogues. The conservative substitution of Gly7 with alanine had little effect on the potency of the analogues. We demonstrated for the first time that Manse-AT (10-13) behaves as a potent antagonist in vitro on active ion transport across the epithelium of the posterior midgut in M. sexta. Structure-activity studies of Manse-AT are useful in developing lead compounds for the design and testing of synthetic antagonists, ultimately to develop potent and specific pest control strategies. Manse-AT (10-13) has been discovered as the first Manse-AT antagonist, with a significant effect and a short sequence compared with other insect neuropeptides. It may be a new potential pest control agent in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Chitin is a component of the Rhodnius prolixus midgut.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Evelyn S L; Mansur, Juliana F; Justi, Silvia A; Figueira-Mansur, Janaina; Dos Santos, Vivian M; Lopez, Sheila G; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Lara, Flavio A; Melo, Ana C A; Moreira, Monica F

    2016-02-01

    Chitin is an essential component of the peritrophic matrix (PM), which is a structure that lines the insect's gut and protects against mechanical damage and pathogens. Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) does not have a PM, but it has an analogous structure, the perimicrovillar membrane (PMM); chitin has not been described in this structure. Here, we show that chitin is present in the R. prolixus midgut using several techniques. The FTIR spectrum of the KOH-resistant putative chitin-material extracted from the midgut bolus showed peaks characteristic of the chitin molecule at 3500, 1675 and 1085 cm(1). Both the midgut bolus material and the standard chitin NMR spectra showed a peak at 1.88 ppm, which is certainly due to methyl protons in the acetamide a group. The percentages of radioactive N-acetylglucosamine (CPM) incorporated were 2 and 4% for the entire intestine and bolus, respectively. The KOH-resistant putative chitin-material was also extracted and purified from the N-acetylglucosamine radioactive bolus, and the radioactivity was estimated through liquid scintillation. The intestinal CHS cDNA translated sequence was the same as previously described for the R. prolixus cuticle and ovaries. Phenotypic alterations were observed in the midgut of females with a silenced CHS gene after a blood meal, such as retarded blood meal digestion; the presence of fresh blood that remained red nine days after the blood meal; and reduced trachea and hemozoin content compared with the control. Wheat germ agglutinin (a specific probe that detects chitin) labeling proximal to the intestine (crop and midgut) was much lower in females with a silenced CHS gene, especially in the midgut region, where almost no fluorescence signal was detected compared with the control groups. Midguts from females with a CHS gene silenced by dsRNA-CHS and control midguts pre-treated with chitinase showed that the chitin-derived fluorescence signal decreased in the region around the epithelium

  11. Update on management of midgut neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarz Sarshekeh, Amir; Halperin, Daniel M; Dasari, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Midgut neuroendocrine tumors are typically indolent but can be fatal when advanced. They can also cause significant morbidity due to the characteristic carcinoid syndrome. Somatostatin analogs continue to be the mainstay of treatment given their antiproliferative properties, as well as inhibitory effects on hormones that cause carcinoid syndrome. There have been several recent advances in the systemic therapy of these tumors including consolidation of somatostatin analogs as the cornerstone of therapy, completion of pivotal trials with mTOR inhibitors, and the establishment of novel approaches including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and oral inhibitors of peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase in tumor and symptom control, respectively. In this review article, the recent advances are summarized and an updated approach to management is proposed. PMID:27347369

  12. Regulation of the reserve carbohydrate metabolism by alkaline pH and calcium in Neurospora crassa reveals a possible cross-regulation of both signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Ambrosio, Daniela Luz; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2017-06-09

    Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism. In this work, we present evidence that in N. crassa the glycogen and trehalose metabolism is modulated by alkaline pH and calcium stresses. We demonstrated that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa controls the accumulation of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose via the PAC-3 transcription factor, which is the central regulator of the signaling pathway. The protein binds to the promoters of most of the genes encoding enzymes of glycogen and trehalose metabolism and regulates their expression. We also demonstrated that the reserve carbohydrate levels and gene expression are both modulated under calcium stress and that the response to calcium stress may involve the concerted action of PAC-3. Calcium activates growth of the Δpac-3 strain and influences its glycogen and trehalose accumulation. In addition, calcium stress differently regulates glycogen and trehalose metabolism in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. While glycogen levels are decreased in both strains, the trehalose levels are significantly increased in the wild-type strain and not affected by calcium in the mutant strain when compared to mycelium not exposed to calcium. We previously reported the role of PAC-3 as a transcription factor involved in glycogen metabolism regulation by controlling the expression of the gsn gene, which encodes an enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In this work, we extended the investigation by studying in greater detail the effects of pH on the metabolism of the

  13. Tissue-specific PhBPBT expression is differentially regulated in response to endogenous ethylene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone involved in many physiological processes including senescence, fruit ripening, and defense. Here we show the effects of pollination and wound-induced ethylene signals on transcript accumulation of benzoyl CoA:benzyl alcohol/phenylethanol benzoyltransferase (PhBPBT...

  14. Dynamin GTPase Regulation is Altered by PH Domain Mutations Found in Centronuclear Myopathy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kenniston, J.; Lemmon, M

    2010-01-01

    The large GTPase dynamin has an important membrane scission function in receptor-mediated endocytosis and other cellular processes. Self-assembly on phosphoinositide-containing membranes stimulates dynamin GTPase activity, which is crucial for its function. Although the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain is known to mediate phosphoinositide binding by dynamin, it remains unclear how this promotes activation. Here, we describe studies of dynamin PH domain mutations found in centronuclear myopathy (CNM) that increase dynamin's GTPase activity without altering phosphoinositide binding. CNM mutations in the PH domain C-terminal {alpha}-helix appear to cause conformational changes in dynamin that alter control of the GTP hydrolysis cycle. These mutations either 'sensitize' dynamin to lipid stimulation or elevate basal GTPase rates by promoting self-assembly and thus rendering dynamin no longer lipid responsive. We also describe a low-resolution structure of dimeric dynamin from small-angle X-ray scattering that reveals conformational changes induced by CNM mutations, and defines requirements for domain rearrangement upon dynamin self-assembly at membrane surfaces. Our data suggest that changes in the PH domain may couple lipid binding to dynamin GTPase activation at sites of vesicle invagination.

  15. pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Mason, Caleb; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-05-12

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes. First, we found that a modest elevation of external pH can raise the pH in early endosomes in a cell type-dependent manner and thereby delay the acid-induced fusion of endocytosed ASLV. Second, we observed a cell type-dependent delay between the low pH-dependent and temperature-dependent steps of viral fusion, consistent with the delayed enlargement of the fusion pore. Third, ectopic expression of IFITMs, known to potently block influenza virus fusion with late compartments, was found to only partially inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. Interestingly, IFITM expression promoted virus uptake and the acidification of endosomal compartments, resulting in an accelerated fusion rate when driven by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, but not by the transmembrane isoform of the ASLV receptor. Collectively, these results highlight the role of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors in regulating the efficiency and kinetics of virus entry and fusion with target cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Donald R.; Martina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K+-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

  17. Mutually exclusive binding of APPL(PH) to BAR domain and Reptin regulates β-catenin dependent transcriptional events.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sajid; Parveen, Zahida; Ferdous, Saba; Bibi, Nousheen

    2013-12-01

    Reptin functions in a wide range of biological processes including chromatin remodelling, nucleolar organization and transcriptional regulation of WNT signalling. As β-catenin dependent transcriptional repression and activation events involve binding of Reptin and histone deacetylase 1 to APPL endocytic proteins, this complex has become an important target to identify molecules governing endocytic processes and WNT signalling. Here, we describe the structural basis of APPL binding to Reptin to explore their mode of binding in context with APPL1/APPL2 dimerization. There is an evidence that both PH and BAR domains of APPL proteins exhibit alternately conserved regions involved in hetero-dimerization process and our in-silico data also corroborate this fact. Moreover, APPL2(PH) domain binds to the BAR domain region encompassing a nuclear localization signal. We conclude that APPL(PH) binding to BAR domain and Reptin is mutually exclusive which regulates the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Reptin. Furthermore, Reptin is unable to bind with membrane-associated APPL proteins. These observations were further expanded by experimental approaches where we identified a novel point mutation D316N lying in the APPL1(PH) domain which resulted in a significantly reduced binding with Reptin. By luciferase assays, we observed that overexpression of APPL1(D316N) and APPL1(WT) stimulated β-catenin/TCF dependent transcriptional activity in a similar manner which suggested that binding of Reptin to APPL1 is not necessary for β-catenin dependent target gene expression. Overall, our data attempt to highlight a comparative role of APPL proteins in controlling β-catenin dependent transcription mechanism which may improve our understanding of gene regulation.

  18. FGF control of E-cadherin targeting in the Drosophila midgut impacts on primordial germ cell motility.

    PubMed

    Parés, Guillem; Ricardo, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Embryo formation requires tight regulation and coordination of adhesion in multiple cell types. By undertaking imaging, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and genetic analysis during posterior midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila, we find a new requirement for the conserved fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway in the maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion through FGF modulation of zygotic E-cadherin. During Drosophila gastrulation, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are transported with the posterior midgut while it undergoes dynamic cell shape changes. In embryos mutant for the FGF signaling pathway components Branchless and Breathless, zygotic E-cadherin is not targeted to adherens junctions, causing midgut pocket collapse, which impacts on PGC movement. We find that the ventral midline also requires FGF signaling to maintain cell-cell adhesion. We show that FGF signaling regulates the distribution of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut and the ventral midline, a role that is likely crucial in other tissues undergoing active cell shape changes with higher adhesive needs.

  19. Partial characterization of a lipase from gypsy moth (lymantria dispar L.) larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Lipase activity of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was studied by the spectrophotometric method using crude homogenate of fifth-instar larval midgut tissues as the enzyme source and p-nitrophenyl caprylate (pNPC) as substrate. A Km value of 0.310 mM and a Vmax value of 1.479 U/mg prot. were obtained for this substrate. Among various p-nitrophenyl esters tested, maximum activity was obtained for p-nitrophenyl caprylate and p-nitrophenyl caprate. The enzyme was most active at alkaline pH, with maximum at pH 8.2. Decreased activity was detected after preincubation in buffers of pH below 7.0 and above 8.2. The enzyme was unstable at room temperature. The enzyme was Ca2+ independent. Its activity was inhibited by PMSF, Fe2+, Ag+ and Pb2+, while Fe3+ inhibited enzyme activity by about 40%.

  20. Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Park, Joung-Sun; Kim, Young-Shin; Chung, Hae-Young; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2012-03-10

    Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1-related ISC proliferation is associated with EGFR signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmp1 in the gut is required for the intestinal homeostasis and longevity.

  1. Toxoneuron nigriceps parasitization delays midgut replacement in fifth-instar Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Gianluca; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Pennacchio, Francesco; de Eguileor, Magda

    2008-05-01

    We have analyzed the effects of Toxoneuron nigriceps parasitization on the midgut development of its host Heliothis virescens. In parasitized H. virescens larvae, the midgut epithelium undergoes a complete replacement, which is qualitatively not different to that observed in synchronous unparasitized larvae, with similar temporal profiles of cell death and metabolic activity. However, the whole gut replacement process is significantly delayed in parasitized larvae, with complete differentiation of the new gut epithelium being observed 4 days later than in unparasitized controls. The administration of juvenile hormone before commitment and of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) after commitment delays and fosters, respectively, the replacement process of the midgut epithelium; moreover, the injection of 20E into developmentally arrested and 20E-deficient host last-instar larvae parasitized by T. nigriceps immediately triggers regular gut development. These hormone-based experiments suggest that endocrine alterations in the larval host, induced by T. nigriceps parasitism, are responsible for the temporal alterations in the gut replacement process. The role of this parasitoid-induced developmental change in the host regulation process is discussed.

  2. Responses of midgut amylases of Helicoverpa armigera to feeding on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Kotkar, Hemlata M; Sarate, Priya J; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2009-08-01

    Midgut digestive amylases and proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous and devastating insect pest of economic importance have been studied. We also identified the potential of a sorghum amylase inhibitor against H. armigera midgut amylase. Amylase activities were detected in all the larval instars, pupae, moths and eggs; early instars had lower amylase levels which steadily increased up to the sixth larval instar. Qualitative and quantitative differences in midgut amylases of H. armigera upon feeding on natural and artificial diets were evident. Natural diets were categorized as one or more members of legumes, vegetables, flowers and cereals belonging to different plant families. Amylase activity and isoform patterns varied depending on host plant and/or artificial diet. Artificial diet-fed H. armigera larvae had comparatively high amylase activity and several unique amylase isoforms. Correlation of amylase and proteinase activities of H. armigera with the protein and carbohydrate content of various diets suggested that H. armigera regulates the levels of these digestive enzymes in response to macromolecular composition of the diet. These adjustments in the digestive enzymes of H. armigera may be to obtain better nourishment from the diet and avoid toxicity due to nutritional imbalance. H. armigera, a generalist feeder experiences a great degree of nutritional heterogeneity in its diet. An investigation of the differences in enzyme levels in response to macronutrient balance and imbalance highlight their importance in insect nutrition.

  3. Mechanisms of larval midgut damage following exposure to phoxim and repair of phoxim-induced damage by cerium in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Sun, Qingqing; Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hong, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Sang, Xuezi; Gui, Suxin; Wang, Ling; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

    2015-04-01

    Bombyx mori is an important economic animal for silk production. However, it is liable to be infected by organophosphorus pesticide that can contaminate its food and growing environment. It has been known that organophosphorus pesticide including phoxim exposure may damage the digestive systems, produce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in silkworm B. mori, whereas cerium treatment has been demonstrated to relieve phoxim-induced toxicity in B. mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of midgut injury due to phoxim exposure and B. mori protection after cerium pretreatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the midgut damage and its molecular mechanisms, and the protective role of cerium in B. mori following exposure to phoxim. The results showed that phoxim exposure led to severe midgut damages and oxidative stress; whereas cerium relieved midgut damage and oxidative stress caused by phoxim in B. mori. Furthermore, digital gene expression suggested that phoxim exposure led to significant up-regulation of 94 genes and down-regulation of 52 genes. Of these genes, 52 genes were related with digestion and absorption, specifically, the significant alterations of esterase, lysozyme, amylase 48, and lipase expressions. Cerium pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of 116 genes, and down-regulation of 29 genes, importantly, esterase 48, lipase, lysozyme, and α-amylase were up-regulated. Treatment with Phoxim + CeCl3 resulted in 66 genes up-regulation and 39 genes down-regulation; specifically, levels of esterase 48, lipase, lysozyme, and α-amylase expression in the midgut of silkworms were significantly increased. Therefore, esterase 48, lipase, lysozyme, and α-amylase may be potential biomarkers of midgut toxicity caused by phoxim exposure. These findings may expand the application of rare earths in sericulture. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rewiring global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP) to improve E. coli tolerance towards low pH.

    PubMed

    Basak, Souvik; Geng, Hefang; Jiang, Rongrong

    2014-03-10

    Bioprocesses such as production of organic acids or acid hydrolysis of bioresources during biofuel production often suffer limitations due to microbial sensitivity under acidic conditions. Approaches for improving the acid tolerance of these microbes have mainly focused on using metabolic engineering tools. Here, we tried to improve strain acidic tolerance from its transcription level, i.e. we adopted error-prone PCR method to engineer global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP) of Escherichia coli to improve its performance at low pH. The best mutant AcM1 was identified from random mutagenesis libraries based on its growth performance. AcM1 almost doubled (0.113h(-1)) the growth rate of the control (0.062h(-1)) at pH 4.24. It also demonstrated better thermotolerance than the control at 48°C, whose growth was completely inhibited at this temperature. Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR results revealed a stress response overlap among low pH stress-, oxidative stress- and osmotic stress-related genes. The chief enzyme responsible for cell acid tolerance, glutamate decarboxylase, demonstrated over twofold activity in AcM1 compared to the control. Differential binding properties of AcM1 mutant CRP with Class-I, II, and III CRP-dependent promoters suggested that modifications to native CRP may lead to transcription profile changes. Hence, we believe that transcriptional engineering of global regulator CRP can provide a new strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  5. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  6. Regulation of Intravesicular pH and Development of Botulinum Intoxication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    muscle rigor and synaptic failure in isolated muscle tissue. The least toxic compounds tested were two ionophores, nigericin and monensin, that increase...neutralize pH gradients across vesicular and other membranes. Of the two drugs, nigericin showed the least toxicity with no loss of muscle...contractility and only a slow block of synaptic transmission when applied at concentrations below 100 nM. Concentrations of nigericin < or = 10 nM showed no

  7. Regulation of intracellular pH values in higher plant cells. Carbon-13 and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Gout, E; Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1992-07-15

    The regulation of the cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH values (pHc and pHv) in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells was analyzed using 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Suspension-cultured cells were compressed in the NMR tube and perfused with the help of an original arrangement enabling a tight control of the pH (external pH, pHe) of the carefully oxygenated circulating nutrient medium. Intracellular pH values were measured from the chemical shifts of: CH2-linked carboxyl groups of citric acid below pH 5.7; orthophosphate between pH 5.7 and 8.0; 13C-enriched bicarbonate over pH 8.0. pHc and pHv were independent of pHe over the range 4.5-7.5. In contrast intracellular pH values decreased rapidly below pHe 4.5 and increased progressively at pHe over 7.5. There was an acceleration in the rate of O2 consumption accompanied with a decrease in cytoplasmic ATP concentration as pHe decreased. When the rate of O2 consumption was approaching the uncoupled O2 uptake rate, a loss of pHc control was observed. It is concluded that as pHe decreased, the plasma membrane ATPase consumed more and more ATP to reject the invading H+ ions in order to maintain pHc at a constant value. Below pHe 4.5 the efficiency of the H+ pump to react to back leakage of H+ ions became insufficient, leading to an acidification of pHc and to an alkalinization of pHe. On the other hand, over pHe 7.5 a passive influx of OH- ions was observed, and pHc increased proportionally to the increase of pHe. Simultaneously appreciable amounts of organic acids (malate and citrate) were synthesized by cells during the course of the alkalinization of the cytoplasmic compartment. The synthesis of organic acids which partially counteract the alkalinization of the cytoplasmic compartment may result from a marked activation of the cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase induced by an increase in cytoplasmic bicarbonate concentration. The fluctuations of pHv followed a similar course to that of p

  8. pH dependence of the stress regulator DksA.

    PubMed

    Furman, Ran; Danhart, Eric M; NandyMazumdar, Monali; Yuan, Chunhua; Foster, Mark P; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    DksA controls transcription of genes associated with diverse stress responses, such as amino acid and carbon starvation, oxidative stress, and iron starvation. DksA binds within the secondary channel of RNA polymerase, extending its long coiled-coil domain towards the active site. The cellular expression of DksA remains constant due to a negative feedback autoregulation, raising the question of whether DksA activity is directly modulated during stress. Here, we show that Escherichia coli DksA is essential for survival in acidic conditions and that, while its cellular levels do not change significantly, DksA activity and binding to RNA polymerase are increased at lower pH, with a concomitant decrease in its stability. NMR data reveal pH-dependent structural changes centered at the interface of the N and C-terminal regions of DksA. Consistently, we show that a partial deletion of the N-terminal region and substitutions of a histidine 39 residue at the domain interface abolish pH sensitivity in vitro. Together, these data suggest that DksA responds to changes in pH by shifting between alternate conformations, in which competing interactions between the N- and C-terminal regions modify the protein activity.

  9. pH Dependence of the Stress Regulator DksA

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Ran; Danhart, Eric M.; NandyMazumdar, Monali; Yuan, Chunhua; Foster, Mark P.; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    DksA controls transcription of genes associated with diverse stress responses, such as amino acid and carbon starvation, oxidative stress, and iron starvation. DksA binds within the secondary channel of RNA polymerase, extending its long coiled-coil domain towards the active site. The cellular expression of DksA remains constant due to a negative feedback autoregulation, raising the question of whether DksA activity is directly modulated during stress. Here, we show that Escherichia coli DksA is essential for survival in acidic conditions and that, while its cellular levels do not change significantly, DksA activity and binding to RNA polymerase are increased at lower pH, with a concomitant decrease in its stability. NMR data reveal pH-dependent structural changes centered at the interface of the N and C-terminal regions of DksA. Consistently, we show that a partial deletion of the N-terminal region and substitutions of a histidine 39 residue at the domain interface abolish pH sensitivity in vitro. Together, these data suggest that DksA responds to changes in pH by shifting between alternate conformations, in which competing interactions between the N- and C-terminal regions modify the protein activity. PMID:25799498

  10. Sodium-dependent pH regulation in active sea urchin sperm.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J; Harter, C C

    1984-02-01

    Extracellular sodium ion is required for activation of motility and respiration in sea urchin sperm when semen is diluted in seawater. We have investigated the role of sodium ion in maintenance of sperm activity. Active sperm lose activity on transfer to sodium-free artificial seawater and can be reactivated with external Na+. Reactivation occurs in the range of Na+ concentration required for initial activation; ammonium can substitute for sodium in reactivation. Sperm withdrawn from sodium and sperm prior to activation share a characteristic morphology with straight or gently bent flagella. Activation of sperm by amines in the absence of Na+ is unstable. It is followed by a steady respiratory decline which is temporarily reversed by addition of more amine and stably reversed by addition of Na+. Measurements of intracellular pH indicate that the internal pH rises during amine activation. Internal reacidification occurs during the period of respiratory decline, and Na+ again elevates internal pH. Treatment with cyanide abolishes the reacidification, indicating that it depends on respiration. We conclude that the sodium requirement persists in active sperm; respiration-dependent production of H+ must be balanced by sodium-dependent H+ removal to maintain activity.

  11. pH regulation in anoxic rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5: biochemical pHstats and net H+ influx in the absence and presence of NO3−

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, Hank; Kulichikhin, Konstantin Y.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    During anoxia, cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial. Mechanisms of pH regulation were studied in the coleoptile of rice exposed to anoxia and pH 3.5, resulting in H+ influx. Germinating rice seedlings survived a combination of anoxia and exposure to pH 3.5 for at least 4 d, although development was retarded and net K+ efflux was continuous. Further experiments used excised coleoptile tips (7–10 mm) in anoxia at pH 6.5 or 3.5, either without or with 0.2 mM NO3−, which distinguished two processes involved in pH regulation. Net H+ influx (μmol g−1 fresh weight h−1) for coleoptiles with NO3− was ∼1.55 over the first 24 h, being about twice that in the absence of NO3−, but then decreased to 0.5–0.9 as net NO3− uptake declined from ∼1.3 to 0.5, indicating reduced uptake via H+–NO3− symports. NO3− reduction presumably functioned as a biochemical pHstat. A second biochemical pHstat consisted of malate and succinate, and their concentrations decreased substantially with time after exposure to pH 3.5. In anoxic coleoptiles, K+ balancing the organic anions was effluxed to the medium as organic anions declined, and this efflux rate was independent of NO3− supply. Thus, biochemical pHstats and reduced net H+ influx across the plasma membrane are important features contributing to pH regulation in anoxia-tolerant rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5. PMID:22174442

  12. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics across a bedrock-regulated subarctic pH gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, N.; Heim, E. W.; Sadowsky, J.; Remiszewski, K.; Varner, R. K.; Bryce, J. G.; Frey, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Bedrock geochemistry has been shown to influence landscape evolution due to nutrient limitation on primary production. There may also be less direct interactions between bedrock-derived chemicals and ecosystem function. Effects of calcium (Ca) and pH on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have been shown in acid impacted forests o f North America. Understanding intrinsic factors that affect C and nutrient dynamics in subarctic ecosystems has implications for how these ecosystems will respond to a changing climate. How the soil microbial community allocates enzymes to acquire resources from the environment can indicate whether a system is nutrient or energy limited. This study examined whether bedrock geochemistry exerts pressure on nutrient cycles in the overlying soils. In thin, weakly developed soils, bedrock is the primary mineral material and is a source of vital nutrients. Nitrogen (N) and C are not derived from bedrock, but their cycling is still affected by reactions with geologically-derived chemicals. Our study sites near Abisko, Sweden (~68°N) were selected adjacent to five distinct bedrock outcrops (quartzite, slate, carbonate, and two different metasedimenty units). All sites were at a similar elevation (~700 m a.s.l.) and had similar vegetation (subarctic heath). Nutrient concentrations in bedrock and soils were measured in addition to soil microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. We found a statistically significant correlation between soil Ca concentrations and soil pH (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). There were also significant relationships between soil pH and the ratio of C-acquiring to N-acquiring enzyme activity (r = -0.89, p < 0.01), soil pH and soil C-to-N ratio (r = -0.76, p < 0.01), and the ratio of C-acquiring to N-acquiring enzyme activity and soil C-to-N ratio (r = 0.78, p < 0.01). These results suggest that soil Ca concentrations influence C and N cycling dynamics in these soils through their effect on soil pH.

  13. Tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; Fernández, María; Martín, M. Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The microbial decarboxylation of some amino acids leads to the undesirable presence of biogenic amines in foods. One of the most abundant and frequent biogenic amines found in fermented foods is tyramine, which is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine. In the present work, transcriptional analysis of tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans IPLA655, a strain isolated from cheese, was studied. The gene coding for the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdcA) and that coding for the tyrosine‐tyramine antiporter (tyrP) form an operon transcribed from the promoter PtdcA, the expression of which is regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration. Quantification of gene expression during the log phase of growth showed high concentrations of tyrosine and acidic pH conditions to induce tdcA‐tyrP polycistronic messenger transcription. PMID:21255297

  14. Tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration.

    PubMed

    Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, María; Martín, M Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    The microbial decarboxylation of some amino acids leads to the undesirable presence of biogenic amines in foods. One of the most abundant and frequent biogenic amines found in fermented foods is tyramine, which is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine. In the present work, transcriptional analysis of tyramine biosynthesis in Enterococcus durans IPLA655, a strain isolated from cheese, was studied. The gene coding for the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdcA) and that coding for the tyrosine-tyramine antiporter (tyrP) form an operon transcribed from the promoter P(tdcA), the expression of which is regulated by the extracellular pH and tyrosine concentration. Quantification of gene expression during the log phase of growth showed high concentrations of tyrosine and acidic pH conditions to induce tdcA-tyrP polycistronic messenger transcription.

  15. The development of malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Bennink, Sandra; Kiesow, Meike J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mosquito midgut stages of malaria parasites are crucial for establishing an infection in the insect vector and to thus ensure further spread of the pathogen. Parasite development in the midgut starts with the activation of the intraerythrocytic gametocytes immediately after take‐up and ends with traversal of the midgut epithelium by the invasive ookinetes less than 24 h later. During this time period, the plasmodia undergo two processes of stage conversion, from gametocytes to gametes and from zygotes to ookinetes, both accompanied by dramatic morphological changes. Further, gamete formation requires parasite egress from the enveloping erythrocytes, rendering them vulnerable to the aggressive factors of the insect gut, like components of the human blood meal. The mosquito midgut stages of malaria parasites are unprecedented objects to study a variety of cell biological aspects, including signal perception, cell conversion, parasite/host co‐adaptation and immune evasion. This review highlights recent insights into the molecules involved in gametocyte activation and gamete formation as well as in zygote‐to‐ookinete conversion and ookinete midgut exit; it further discusses factors that can harm the extracellular midgut stages as well as the measures of the parasites to protect themselves from any damage. PMID:27111866

  16. A Biophysical Model for Integration of Electrical, Osmotic, and pH Regulation in the Human Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Cibele V.; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A dynamical biophysical model for the functioning of an epithelium is presented. This model integrates the electrical and osmotic behaviors of the epithelium, taking into account intracellular conditions. The specific tissue modeled is the human bronchial epithelium, which is of particular interest, as it is the location of the most common lethal symptoms of cystic fibrosis. The model is implemented in a modular form to facilitate future application of the code to other epithelial tissue by inputting different transporters, channels, and geometric parameters. The model includes pH regulation as an integral component of overall regulation of epithelial function, through the interdependence of pH, bicarbonate concentration, and current. The procedures for specification, the validation of the model, and parametric studies are presented using available experimental data of cultured human bronchial epithelium. Parametric studies are performed to elucidate a), the contribution of basolateral chloride channels to the short-circuit current functional form, and b), the role that regulation of basolateral potassium conductance plays in epithelial function. PMID:20409466

  17. Perfused Gills Reveal Fundamental Principles of pH Regulation and Ammonia Homeostasis in the Cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y.; Sung, Po-Hsuan; Guh, Ying-Jey; Lee, Jay-Ron; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood NH4+ concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete NH4+ via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/NH4+ homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species. The octopus gill is capable of regulating ammonia (NH3/NH4+) homeostasis by the accumulation of ammonia at low blood levels (<260 μM) and secretion at blood ammonia concentrations exceeding in vivo levels of 300 μM. NH4+ transport is sensitive to the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor KH7 indicating that this process is mediated through cAMP-dependent pathways. The perfused octopus gill has substantial pH regulatory abilities during an acidosis, accompanied by an increased secretion of NH4+. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses revealed tissue specific expression and localization of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase, Na+/H+-exchanger 3, and Rhesus protein in the gill. Using the octopus gill as a molluscan model, our results highlight the coupling of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion, which may represent a conserved pH regulatory mechanism across many marine taxa. PMID:28373845

  18. HCO3−-independent pH Regulation in Astrocytes in Situ Is Dominated by V-ATPase* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Garrido-Comas, Nestor; Salter, Mike; Fern, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of HCO3−-independent intracellular pH (pHi) regulation were examined in fibrous astrocytes within isolated neonatal rat optic nerve (RON) and in cultured cortical astrocytes. In agreement with previous studies, resting pHi in cultured astrocytes was 6.82 ± 0.06 and inhibition of the V-ATPase H+ pump by Cl− removal or via the selective inhibitor bafilomycin had only a small effect upon resting pHi and recovery following an acid load. In contrast, resting pHi in RON astrocytes was 7.10 ± 0.04, significantly less acidic than that in cultured cells (p < 0.001), and responded to inhibition of V-ATPase with profound acidification to the 6.3–6.5 range. Fluorescent immuno-staining and immuno-gold labeling confirmed the presence V-ATPase in the cell membrane of RON astrocyte processes and somata. Using ammonia pulse recovery, pHi recovery in RON astrocyte was achieved largely via V-ATPase with sodium-proton exchange (NHE) playing a minor role. The findings indicate that astrocytes in a whole-mount preparation such as the optic nerve rely to a greater degree upon V-ATPase for HCO3−-independent pHi regulation than do cultured astrocytes, with important functional consequences for the regulation of pH in the CNS. PMID:25666621

  19. Perfused Gills Reveal Fundamental Principles of pH Regulation and Ammonia Homeostasis in the Cephalopod Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Sung, Po-Hsuan; Guh, Ying-Jey; Lee, Jay-Ron; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Weihrauch, Dirk; Tseng, Yung-Che

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to terrestrial animals most aquatic species can be characterized by relatively higher blood [Formula: see text] concentrations despite its potential toxicity to the central nervous system. Although many aquatic species excrete [Formula: see text] via specialized epithelia little information is available regarding the mechanistic basis for NH3/[Formula: see text] homeostasis in molluscs. Using perfused gills of Octopus vulgaris we studied acid-base regulation and ammonia excretion pathways in this cephalopod species. The octopus gill is capable of regulating ammonia (NH3/[Formula: see text]) homeostasis by the accumulation of ammonia at low blood levels (<260 μM) and secretion at blood ammonia concentrations exceeding in vivo levels of 300 μM. [Formula: see text] transport is sensitive to the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor KH7 indicating that this process is mediated through cAMP-dependent pathways. The perfused octopus gill has substantial pH regulatory abilities during an acidosis, accompanied by an increased secretion of [Formula: see text]. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses revealed tissue specific expression and localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, V-type H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3, and Rhesus protein in the gill. Using the octopus gill as a molluscan model, our results highlight the coupling of acid-base regulation and nitrogen excretion, which may represent a conserved pH regulatory mechanism across many marine taxa.

  20. The zebrafish merovingian mutant reveals a role for pH regulation in hair cell toxicity and function

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Owens, Kelly N.; Linbo, Tor; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Control of the extracellular environment of inner ear hair cells by ionic transporters is crucial for hair cell function. In addition to inner ear hair cells, aquatic vertebrates have hair cells on the surface of their body in the lateral line system. The ionic environment of these cells also appears to be regulated, although the mechanisms of this regulation are less understood than those of the mammalian inner ear. We identified the merovingian mutant through genetic screening in zebrafish for genes involved in drug-induced hair cell death. Mutants show complete resistance to neomycin-induced hair cell death and partial resistance to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. This resistance is probably due to impaired drug uptake as a result of reduced mechanotransduction ability, suggesting that the mutants have defects in hair cell function independent of drug treatment. Through genetic mapping we found that merovingian mutants contain a mutation in the transcription factor gcm2. This gene is important for the production of ionocytes, which are cells crucial for whole body pH regulation in fish. We found that merovingian mutants showed an acidified extracellular environment in the vicinity of both inner ear and lateral line hair cells. We believe that this acidified extracellular environment is responsible for the defects seen in hair cells of merovingian mutants, and that these mutants would serve as a valuable model for further study of the role of pH in hair cell function. PMID:24973752

  1. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  2. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity.

  3. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H(+) fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11(CA)) is sensitive to the presence of NH4(+) at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3(-). The NH4(+) and NO3(-) ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4(+) and / or NO3(-). These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11 (CA) suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this Addendum article we discuss these findings and their implications.

  4. Potassium secretion in rat distal colon during dietary potassium loading: role of pH regulated apical potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sandle, G; Butterfield, I

    1999-01-01

    Background—Chronic dietary K+ loading increases the abundance of large conductance (210 pS) apical K+ channels in surface cells of rat distal colon, resulting in enhanced K+ secretion in this epithelium. However, the factors involved in the regulation of these K+ channels are at present unclear. 
Aims—To evaluate the effect of dietary K+ loading on intracellular pH and its relation to large conductance apical K+ channel activity in surface cells of rat distal colon. 
Methods/Results—As assessed by fluorescent imaging, intracellular pH was higher in K+ loaded animals (7.48 (0.09)) than in controls (7.07 (0.04); p<0.01) when surface cells were bathed in NaCl solution, and a similar difference in intracellular pH was observed when cells were bathed in Na2SO4 solution (7.67 (0.09) and 6.92 (0.05) respectively; p<0.001). Ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA; an inhibitor of Na+-H+ exchange; 1 µM) decreased intracellular pH when surface cells from K+ loaded animals were bathed in either solution, although the decrease was greater when the solution contained NaCl (ΔpH 0.50 (0.03)) rather than Na2SO4 (ΔpH 0.18 (0.02); p<0.05). In contrast, EIPA had no effect in cells from control animals. As assessed by patch clamp recording techniques, the activity of large conductance K+ channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from distal colonic surface cells of K+ loaded animals increased twofold when the bath pH was raised from 7.40 to 7.60. As assessed by cell attached patches in distal colonic surface cells from K+ loaded animals, the addition of 1 µM EIPA decreased K+ channel activity by 50%, consistent with reversal of Na+-H+ exchange mediated intracellular alkalinisation. 
Conclusion—Intracellular alkalinisation stimulates pH sensitive large conductance apical K+ channels in rat distal colonic surface cells as part of the K+ secretory response to chronic dietary K+ loading. Intracellular alkalinisation seems to reflect an increase in EIPA sensitive Na

  5. Phosducin-like protein regulates G-protein betagamma folding by interaction with tailless complex polypeptide-1alpha: dephosphorylation or splicing of PhLP turns the switch toward regulation of Gbetagamma folding.

    PubMed

    Humrich, Jan; Bermel, Christina; Bünemann, Moritz; Härmark, Linda; Frost, Robert; Quitterer, Ursula; Lohse, Martin J

    2005-05-20

    Phosducin-like protein (PhLP) exists in two splice variants PhLP(LONG) (PhLP(L)) and PhLP(SHORT) (PhLP(S)). Whereas PhLP(L) directly inhibits Gbetagamma-stimulated signaling, the G betagamma-inhibitory mechanism of PhLP(S) is not understood. We report here that inhibition of Gbetagamma signaling in intact HEK cells by PhLP(S) was independent of direct Gbetagamma binding; however, PhLP(S) caused down-regulation of Gbeta and Ggamma proteins. The down-regulation was partially suppressed by lactacystine, indicating the involvement of proteasomal degradation. N-terminal fusion of Gbeta or Ggamma with a dye-labeling protein resulted in their stabilization against down-regulation by PhLP(S) but did not lead to a functional rescue. Moreover, in the presence of PhLP(S), stabilized Ggamma subunits did not coprecipitate with stabilized Gbeta subunits, suggesting that PhLP(S) might interfere with Gbetagamma folding. PhLP(S) and several truncated mutants of PhLP(S) interacted with the subunit tailless complex polypeptide-1alpha (TCP-1alpha) of the CCT chaperonin complex, which is involved in protein folding. Knock-down of TCP-1alpha in HEK cells by small interfering RNA also led to down-regulation of Gbetagamma. We therefore conclude that the strong inhibitory action of PhLP(S) on Gbetagamma signaling is the result of a previously unrecognized mechanism of Gbetagamma-regulation, inhibition of Gbetagamma-folding by interference with TCP-1alpha.

  6. TRP-ML1 regulates lysosomal pH and acidic lysosomal lipid hydrolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Soyombo, Abigail A; Tjon-Kon-Sang, Sandra; Rbaibi, Youssef; Bashllari, Enkelejda; Bisceglia, Jill; Muallem, Shmuel; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2006-03-17

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by mutations in the ion channel mucolipin 1 (TRP-ML1). MLIV is typified by accumulation of lipids and membranous materials in intracellular organelles, which was hypothesized to be caused by the altered membrane fusion and fission events. How mutations in TRP-ML1 lead to aberrant lipolysis is not known. Here we present evidence that MLIV is a metabolic disorder that is not associated with aberrant membrane fusion/fission events. Thus, measurement of lysosomal pH revealed that the lysosomes in TRP-ML1(-/-) cells obtained from the patients with MLIV are over-acidified. TRP-ML1 can function as a H(+) channel, and the increased lysosomal acidification in TRP-ML1(-/-) cells is likely caused by the loss of TRP-ML1-mediated H(+) leak. Measurement of lipase activity using several substrates revealed a marked reduction in lipid hydrolysis in TRP-ML1(-/-) cells, which was rescued by the expression of TRP-ML1. Cell fractionation indicated specific loss of acidic lipase activity in TRP-ML1(-/-) cells. Furthermore, dissipation of the acidic lysosomal pH of TRP-ML1(-/-) cells by nigericin or chloroquine reversed the lysosomal storage disease phenotype. These findings provide a new mechanism to account for the pathogenesis of MLIV.

  7. Escherichia coli Response to Uranyl Exposure at Low pH and Associated Protein Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Arbia; Carrière, Marie; Bremond, Nicolas; Ben Mlouka, Mohamed Amine; Coquet, Laurent; Llorens, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Jouenne, Thierry; Cosette, Pascal; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding of uranyl toxicity in bacteria is necessary to optimize strains for bioremediation purposes or for using bacteria as biodetectors for bioavailable uranyl. In this study, after different steps of optimization, Escherichia colicells were exposed to uranyl at low pH to minimize uranyl precipitation and to increase its bioavailability. Bacteria were adapted to mid acidic pH before exposure to 50 or 80 µM uranyl acetate for two hours at pH≈3. To evaluate the impact of uranium, growth in these conditions were compared and the same rates of cells survival were observed in control and uranyl exposed cultures. Additionally, this impact was analyzedby two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis proteomics to discover protein actors specifically present or accumulated in contact with uranium.Exposure to uranium resulted in differential accumulation of proteins associated with oxidative stress and in the accumulation of the NADH/quinone oxidoreductase WrbA. This FMN dependent protein performs obligate two-electron reduction of quinones, and may be involved in cells response to oxidative stress. Interestingly, this WrbA protein presents similarities with the chromate reductase from E. coli, which was shown to reduce uranyl in vitro. PMID:24587082

  8. Escherichia coli response to uranyl exposure at low pH and associated protein regulations.

    PubMed

    Khemiri, Arbia; Carrière, Marie; Bremond, Nicolas; Ben Mlouka, Mohamed Amine; Coquet, Laurent; Llorens, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Jouenne, Thierry; Cosette, Pascal; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding of uranyl toxicity in bacteria is necessary to optimize strains for bioremediation purposes or for using bacteria as biodetectors for bioavailable uranyl. In this study, after different steps of optimization, Escherichia coli cells were exposed to uranyl at low pH to minimize uranyl precipitation and to increase its bioavailability. Bacteria were adapted to mid acidic pH before exposure to 50 or 80 µM uranyl acetate for two hours at pH≈3. To evaluate the impact of uranium, growth in these conditions were compared and the same rates of cells survival were observed in control and uranyl exposed cultures. Additionally, this impact was analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis proteomics to discover protein actors specifically present or accumulated in contact with uranium.Exposure to uranium resulted in differential accumulation of proteins associated with oxidative stress and in the accumulation of the NADH/quinone oxidoreductase WrbA. This FMN dependent protein performs obligate two-electron reduction of quinones, and may be involved in cells response to oxidative stress. Interestingly, this WrbA protein presents similarities with the chromate reductase from E. coli, which was shown to reduce uranyl in vitro.

  9. Dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal. Methodology/Principal findings We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses. Conclusion/Significance Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of

  10. Dengue virus serotype 2 infection alters midgut and carcass gene expression in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Hanley, Kathryn A; Sundararajan, Anitha; Devitt, Nicholas P; Schilkey, Faye D; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal. We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses. Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of Ae. albopictus.

  11. Intracellular pH regulation in resting and contracting segments of rat mesenteric resistance vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, C; Cragoe, E J

    1988-01-01

    1. The pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and -6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) in segments of rat resistance vessels (internal diameter about 200 microns) with the vessels mounted in a myograph for simultaneous measurements of isometric contraction. 2. BCECF loaded slowly into the vessels over 1 h and did not affect the maximal contractility of the vessels. There was a loss of dye with time which, however, was very slow when the segments were only excited for 2 s/min, suggesting that the loss was mainly due to dye bleaching with only a very slow leak. 3. The ratio of the emissions (at 540 nm) with excitation at 495 and 450 nm was calibrated in terms of pH using the K+-H+ ionophore nigericin. This calibration gave a pHi value of 7.15 +/- 0.02 (n = 20), suggesting that hydrogen ions are not in electrochemical equilibrium in these vascular smooth muscles which have a membrane potential of about -60 mV. 4. Addition of 10 mM-NH4Cl caused a transient alkalinization and wash-out of 10 mM-NH4Cl a transient acidification. Increasing CO2 with maintained bicarbonate caused a rapid acidification followed by an incomplete recovery. Removal of CO2 and bicarbonate (HEPES-buffered solution) with constant extracellular pH caused a transient alkalinization but steady-state pHi was not significantly altered. 5. In bicarbonate-free buffer the Na+-H+ exchange blocker 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and sodium-free conditions caused a slow acidification. In bicarbonate buffer (PSS) EIPA had no detectable effect after 10 min but the anion exchange blocker diisothio-cyanatostilbenedisulphonic acid (DIDS) caused a small acidification over that time course. 6. The rate of recovery after an acid load was about 50% lower in HEPES buffer compared to PSS and it was inhibited by EIPA. In PSS amiloride and EIPA each had a small inhibitory effect on the pH recovery after an acid load. DIDS also inhibited the recovery from an acid load

  12. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process.

  13. pH Regulation of ammonia secretion by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on appressorium formation and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Itay; Shafran, Hadas; Davidzon, Maayan; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2010-03-01

    Host-tissue alkalinization via ammonia accumulation is key to Colletotrichum spp. colonization. Using macroarrays carrying C. gloeosporioides cDNAs, we monitored gene expression during the alkalinization process. A set of genes involved in synthesis and catabolism of ammonia accumulation were identified. Expression of NAD(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH2, encoding ammonia synthesis) and the ammonia exporter AMET were induced at pH 4.0 to 4.5. Conversely, ammonia uptake and transcript activation of the ammonia and glutamate importers (MEP and GLT, respectively) and glutamine synthase (GS1) were higher at pH 6.0 to 7.0. Accumulated ammonia in the wild-type mycelium decreased during ambient alkalinization, concurrent with increased GS1 expression. Deltapac1 mutants of C. gloeosporioides, which are sensitive to alkaline pH changes, showed upregulation of the acid-expressed GDH2 and downregulation of the alkaline-expressed GS1, resulting in 60% higher ammonia accumulation inside the mycelium. Deltagdh2 strains of C. gloeosporioides, impaired in ammonia production, showed 85% inhibition in appressorium formation followed by reduced colonization on avocado fruit (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) pericarp, while exogenic ammonia addition restored appressoria formation. Thus the modulation of genes involved in ammonia metabolism and catabolism by C. gloeosporioides is ambient pH-dependent. Aside from its contribution to necrotrophic stages, ammonia accumulation by germinating spores regulates appressorium formation and determines the initiation of biotrophic stages of avocado-fruit colonization by Colletotrichum spp.

  14. Proton/l-Glutamate Symport and the Regulation of Intracellular pH in Isolated Mesophyll Cells.

    PubMed

    Snedden, W A; Chung, I; Pauls, R H; Bown, A W

    1992-06-01

    Addition of l-[U-(14)C]glutamate to a suspension of mechanically isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells results in (a) alkalinization of the medium, (b) uptake of l-[U-(14)C]glutamate, and (c) efflux of [(14)C]4-aminobutyrate, a product of glutamate decarboxylation. All three phenomena were eliminated by treatment with 1 millimolar aminooxyacetate. In vitro glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) assays showed that (a) 2 millimolar aminooxyacetate eliminated enzyme activity, (b) activity was pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, and (c) activity exhibited a sharp pH optimum at 6.0 that decreased to 20% of optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Addition of 1.5 millimolar sodium butyrate or sodium acetate to cell suspensions caused immediate alkalinization of the medium followed by a resumption of acidification of the medium at a rate approximately double the initial rate. The data indicate that (a) continued H(+)/l-glutamate contransport is dependent upon GAD activity, (b) the pH-dependent properties of GAD are consistent with a role in a metabolic pH-stat, and (c) the regulation of intracellular pH during H(+)/l-Glu symport may involve both H(+) consumption during 4-aminobutyrate production and ATP-driven H(+) efflux.

  15. Proton/l-Glutamate Symport and the Regulation of Intracellular pH in Isolated Mesophyll Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Snedden, Wayne A.; Chung, Induk; Pauls, Randy H.; Bown, Alan W.

    1992-01-01

    Addition of l-[U-14C]glutamate to a suspension of mechanically isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells results in (a) alkalinization of the medium, (b) uptake of l-[U-14C]glutamate, and (c) efflux of [14C]4-aminobutyrate, a product of glutamate decarboxylation. All three phenomena were eliminated by treatment with 1 millimolar aminooxyacetate. In vitro glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) assays showed that (a) 2 millimolar aminooxyacetate eliminated enzyme activity, (b) activity was pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, and (c) activity exhibited a sharp pH optimum at 6.0 that decreased to 20% of optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Addition of 1.5 millimolar sodium butyrate or sodium acetate to cell suspensions caused immediate alkalinization of the medium followed by a resumption of acidification of the medium at a rate approximately double the initial rate. The data indicate that (a) continued H+/l-glutamate contransport is dependent upon GAD activity, (b) the pH-dependent properties of GAD are consistent with a role in a metabolic pH-stat, and (c) the regulation of intracellular pH during H+/l-Glu symport may involve both H+ consumption during 4-aminobutyrate production and ATP-driven H+ efflux. PMID:16668938

  16. Intracellular pH regulation of neurons in chemosensitive and nonchemosensitive areas of brain slices.

    PubMed

    Putnam, R W

    2001-12-01

    The role of changes of intracellular pH (pH(i)) as the proximal signal in central chemosensitive neurons has been studied. pH(i) recovery from acidification is mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchange in all medullary neurons and pH(i) recovery from alkalinization is mediated by Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange in most medullary neurons. These exchangers are more sensitive to inhibition by changes in extracellular pH (pH(o)) in neurons from chemosensitive regions compared to those from nonchemosensitive regions. Thus, neurons from chemosensitive regions exhibit a maintained intracellular acidification in response to hypercapnic acidosis but they show pH(i) recovery in response to isohydric hypercapnia. A similar pattern of pH(i) response is seen in other CO(2)/H(+)-responsive cells, including glomus cells, sour taste receptor cells, and chemosensitive neurons from snails, suggesting that a maintained fall of pH(i) is a common feature of the proximal signal in all CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive cells. To further evaluate the potential role of pH(i) changes as proximal signals for chemosensitive neurons, studies must be done to: determine why a lack of pH(i) recovery from hypercapnic acidosis is seen in some nonchemosensitive neurons; establish a correlation between hypercapnia-induced changes of pH(i) and membrane potential (V(m)); compare the hypercapnia-induced pH(i) changes seen in neuronal cell bodies with those in dendritic processes; understand why the V(m) response to hypercapnia of many chemosensitive neurons is washed out when using whole cell patch pipettes; and employ knock out mice to investigate the role of certain proteins in the CO(2)/H(+) response of chemosensitive neurons.

  17. Regulation of the voltage-insensitive step of HERG activation by extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinlian; Bett, Glenna C L

    2010-06-01

    Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG, Kv11.1, KCNH2) voltage-gated K(+) channels dominate cardiac action potential repolarization. In addition, HERG channels play a role in neuronal and smooth cell excitability as well as cancer pathology. Extracellular pH (pH(o)) is modified during myocardial ischemia, inflammation, and respiratory alkalosis, so understanding the response of HERG channels to changes in pH is of clinical significance. The relationship between pH(o) and HERG channel gating appears complex. Acidification has previously been reported to speed, slow, or have no effect on activation. We therefore undertook comprehensive analysis of the effect of pH(o) on HERG channel activation. HERG channels have unique and complex activation gating characteristics with both voltage-sensitive and voltage-insensitive steps in the activation pathway. Acidosis decreased the activation rate, suppressed peak current, and altered the sigmoidicity of gating near threshold potentials. At positive voltages, where the voltage-insensitive transition is rate limiting, pH(o) modified the voltage-insensitive step with a pK(a) similar to that of histidine. Hill coefficient analysis was incompatible with a coefficient of 1 but was well described by a Hill coefficient of 4. We derived a pH(o)-sensitive term for a five-state Markov model of HERG channel gating. This model demonstrates the mechanism of pH(o) sensitivity in HERG channel activation. Our experimental data and mathematical model demonstrate that the pH(o) sensitivity of HERG channel activation is dominated by the pH(o) sensitivity of the voltage-insensitive step, in a fashion that is compatible with the presence of at least one proton-binding site on each subunit of the channel tetramer.

  18. pH, Lactate, and Hypoxia: Reciprocity in Regulating High-Affinity Monocarboxylate Transporter Expression in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Caruso, James P; Koch, Brandon J; Benson, Philip D; Varughese, Elsa; Monterey, Michael D; Lee, Amy E; Dave, Ajal M; Kiousis, Sam; Sloan, Andrew E; Mathupala, Saroj P

    2017-02-01

    Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to prevent "self-poisoning." One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor. Yet, MCT2 is considered to not respond to hypoxia, which is counterintuitive. Its response to tumor lactate has not been reported. In this report, we experimentally identify the transcription initiation site/s for MCT2 in astrocytes (normal) and glioma (tumor). We then use a BACmid library to isolate a 4.2-kbp MCT2 promoter-exon I region and examine promoter response to glycolysis-mediated stimuli in glioma cells. Reporter analysis of nested-promoter constructs indicated response of MCT2 to hypoxia, pH, lactate, and glucose, the major physiological "players" that facilitate a tumor's growth and proliferation. Immunoblot analysis of native MCT2 expression under altered pH and hypoxia reflected the reporter data. The pH-mediated gene-regulation studies we describe are the first to record H(+)-based reporter studies for any mammalian system and demonstrate the exquisite response of the MCT2 gene to minute changes in tumor pH. Identical promoter usage also provides the first evidence of astrocytes harnessing the same gene regulatory regions to facilitate astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling, a metabolic feature of normal brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vacuolar CAX1 and CAX3 influence auxin transport in guard cells via regulation of apoplastic pH.

    PubMed

    Cho, Daeshik; Villiers, Florent; Kroniewicz, Laetitia; Lee, Sangmee; Seo, You Jin; Hirschi, Kendal D; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Kwak, June M

    2012-11-01

    CATION EXCHANGERs CAX1 and CAX3 are vacuolar ion transporters involved in ion homeostasis in plants. Widely expressed in the plant, they mediate calcium transport from the cytosol to the vacuole lumen using the proton gradient across the tonoplast. Here, we report an unexpected role of CAX1 and CAX3 in regulating apoplastic pH and describe how they contribute to auxin transport using the guard cell's response as readout of hormone signaling and cross talk. We show that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) inhibition of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure is impaired in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3. These mutants exhibited constitutive hypopolarization of the plasma membrane, and time-course analyses of membrane potential revealed that IAA-induced hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane is also altered in these mutants. Both ethylene and 1-naphthalene acetic acid inhibited ABA-triggered stomatal closure in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3, suggesting that auxin signaling cascades were functional and that a defect in IAA transport caused the phenotype of the cax mutants. Consistent with this finding, chemical inhibition of AUX1 in wild-type plants phenocopied the cax mutants. We also found that cax1/cax3 mutants have a higher apoplastic pH than the wild type, further supporting the hypothesis that there is a defect in IAA import in the cax mutants. Accordingly, we were able to fully restore IAA inhibition of ABA-induced stomatal closure in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3 when stomatal movement assays were carried out at a lower extracellular pH. Our results suggest a network linking the vacuolar cation exchangers to apoplastic pH maintenance that plays a crucial role in cellular processes.

  20. P2X4 Forms Functional ATP-activated Cation Channels on Lysosomal Membranes Regulated by Luminal pH*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhong, Xi Zoë; Cao, Qi; Zhao, Kexin; Zhu, Michael X.; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth; Dong, Xian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    P2X receptors are commonly known as plasma membrane cation channels involved in a wide variety of cell functions. The properties of these channels have been extensively studied on the plasma membrane. However, studies in amoeba suggest that P2X receptors are also present intracellularly and involved in vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Recently, it was shown that in addition to plasma membrane expression, mammalian P2X4 was also localized intracellularly in lysosomes. However, it was not clear whether the lysosomal P2X4 receptors function as channels and how they are activated and regulated. In this paper, we show that both P2X4 and its natural ligand, ATP, are enriched in lysosomes of COS1 and HEK293 cells. By directly recording membrane currents from enlarged lysosomal vacuoles, we demonstrated that lysosomal P2X4 formed channels activated by ATP from the luminal side in a pH-dependent manner. While the acidic pH at the luminal side inhibited P2X4 activity, increasing the luminal pH in the presence of ATP caused P2X4 activation. We further showed that, as for the plasma membrane P2X4, the lysosomal P2X4 was potentiated by ivermectin but insensitive to suramin and PPADS, and it permeated the large cation N-methyl-d-glucamine upon activation. Our data suggest that P2X4 forms functional ATP-activated cation channels on lysosomal membranes regulated by luminal pH. Together with the reported fusion effect of intracellular P2X in lower organisms, we speculate that the lysosome-localized P2X4 may play specific roles in membrane trafficking of acidic organelles in mammalian cells. PMID:24817123

  1. Extracellular pH Regulates Zinc Signaling via an Asp Residue of the Zinc-sensing Receptor (ZnR/GPR39)*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Limor; Asraf, Hila; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc activates a specific Zn2+-sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, and thereby triggers cellular signaling leading to epithelial cell proliferation and survival. Epithelial cells that express ZnR, particularly colonocytes, face frequent changes in extracellular pH that are of physiological and pathological implication. Here we show that the ZnR/GPR39-dependent Ca2+ responses in HT29 colonocytes were maximal at pH 7.4 but were reduced by about 50% at pH 7.7 and by about 62% at pH 7.1 and were completely abolished at pH 6.5. Intracellular acidification did not attenuate ZnR/GPR39 activity, indicating that the pH sensor of this protein is located on an extracellular domain. ZnR/GPR39-dependent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or AKT pathways was abolished at acidic extracellular pH of 6.5. A similar inhibitory effect was monitored for the ZnR/GPR39-dependent up-regulation of Na+/H+ exchange activity at pH 6.5. Focusing on residues putatively facing the extracellular domain, we sought to identify the pH sensor of ZnR/GPR39. Replacing the histidine residues forming the Zn2+ binding site, His17 or His19, or other extracellular-facing histidines to alanine residues did not abolish the pH dependence of ZnR/GPR39. In contrast, replacing Asp313 with alanine resulted in similar Ca2+ responses triggered by ZnR/GPR39 at pH 7.4 or 6.5. This mutant also showed similar activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, and ZnR-dependent up-regulation of Na+/H+ exchange at pH 7.4 and pH 6.5. Substitution of Asp313 to His or Glu residues restored pH sensitivity of the receptor. This indicates that Asp313, which was shown to modulate Zn2+ binding, is an essential residue of the pH sensor of GPR39. In conclusion, ZnR/GPR39 is tuned to sense physiologically relevant changes in extracellular pH that thus regulate ZnR-dependent signaling and ion transport activity. PMID:22879599

  2. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anil K.; Coppens, Isabelle; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Ploug, Michael; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is an essential step for the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito. Invasion involves recognition between a presumed mosquito midgut receptor and an ookinete ligand. Here, we show that enolase lines the ookinete surface. An antienolase antibody inhibits oocyst development of both Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that enolase may act as an invasion ligand. Importantly, we demonstrate that surface enolase captures plasminogen from the mammalian blood meal via its lysine motif (DKSLVK) and that this interaction is essential for midgut invasion, because plasminogen depletion leads to a strong inhibition of oocyst formation. Although addition of recombinant WT plasminogen to depleted serum rescues oocyst formation, recombinant inactive plasminogen does not, thus emphasizing the importance of plasmin proteolytic activity for ookinete invasion. The results support the hypothesis that enolase on the surface of Plasmodium ookinetes plays a dual role in midgut invasion: by acting as a ligand that interacts with the midgut epithelium and, further, by capturing plasminogen, whose conversion to active plasmin promotes the invasion process. PMID:21949403

  3. Regulation of the putative bglPH operon for aryl-beta-glucoside utilization in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, S; Hecker, M

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the putative operon bglPH of Bacillus subtilis was studied by using bglP'-lacZ transcriptional fusions. The bglP gene encodes an aryl-beta-glucoside-specific enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate sugar:phosphotransferase system, whereas the bglH gene product functions as a phospho-beta-glucosidase. Expression of bglPH is regulated by at least two different mechanisms: (i) carbon catabolite repression and (ii) induction via an antitermination mechanism. Distinct deletions of the promoter region were created to determine cis-acting sites for regulation. An operatorlike structure partially overlapping the -35 box of the promoter of bglP appears to be the catabolite-responsive element of this operon. The motif is similar to that of amyO and shows no mismatches with respect to the consensus sequence established as the target of carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. Catabolite repression is abolished in both ccpA and ptsH1 mutants. The target of the induction by the substrate, salicin or arbutin, is a transcriptional terminator located downstream from the promoter of bglP. This structure is very similar to that of transcriptional terminators which regulate the induction of the B. subtilis sacB gene, the sacPA operon, and the Escherichia coli bgl operon. The licT gene product, a member of the BglG-SacY family of antitermination proteins, is essential for the induction process. Expression of bglP is under the negative control of its own gene product. The general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system are required for bglP expression. Furthermore, the region upstream from bglP, which reveals a high AT content, exerts a negative regulatory effect on bglP expression. PMID:7559347

  4. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  5. Intracellular pH Regulation in Cultured Astrocytes from Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bevensee, Mark O.; Apkon, Michael; Boron, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    In the preceding paper (Bevensee, M.O., R.A. Weed, and W.F. Boron. 1997. J. Gen. Physiol. 110: 453–465.), we showed that a Na+-driven influx of HCO3− causes the increase in intracellular pH (pHi) observed when astrocytes cultured from rat hippocampus are exposed to 5% CO2/17 mM HCO3−. In the present study, we used the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2′,7′-biscarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and the perforated patch-clamp technique to determine whether this transporter is a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger, an electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporter, or an electroneutral Na/HCO3 cotransporter. To determine if the transporter is a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger, we depleted the cells of intracellular Cl− by incubating them in a Cl−-free solution for an average of ∼11 min. We verified the depletion with the Cl−-sensitive dye N-(6-methoxyquinolyl)acetoethyl ester (MQAE). In Cl−-depleted cells, the pHi still increases after one or more exposures to CO2/HCO3−. Furthermore, the pHi decrease elicited by external Na+ removal does not require external Cl−. Therefore, the transporter cannot be a Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger. To determine if the transporter is an electrogenic Na/ HCO3 cotransporter, we measured pHi and plasma membrane voltage (Vm) while removing external Na+, in the presence/absence of CO2/HCO3− and in the presence/absence of 400 μM 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS). The CO2/HCO3− solutions contained 20% CO2 and 68 mM HCO3−, pH 7.3, to maximize the HCO3− flux. In pHi experiments, removing external Na+ in the presence of CO2/HCO3− elicited an equivalent HCO3− efflux of 281 μM s−1. The HCO3− influx elicited by returning external Na+ was inhibited 63% by DIDS, so that the predicted DIDS-sensitive Vm change was 3.3 mV. Indeed, we found that removing external Na+ elicited a DIDS-sensitive depolarization that was 2.6 mV larger in the presence than in the absence of CO2/ HCO3−. Thus, the Na

  6. A pH Switch Regulates the Inverse Relationship between Membranolytic and Chaperone-like Activities of HSP-1/2, a Major Protein of Horse Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-07-05

    HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and perturbs its structure by intercalating into the hydrophobic core, which results in an efflux of choline phospholipids and cholesterol, an important event in sperm capacitation. HSP-1/2 also exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) in vitro and protects target proteins against various kinds of stress. In the present study we show that HSP-1/2 exhibits destabilizing activity toward model supported and cell membranes. The membranolytic activity of HSP-1/2 is found to be pH dependent, with lytic activity being high at mildly acidic pH (6.0-6.5) and low at mildly basic pH (8.0-8.5). Interestingly, the CLA is also found to be pH dependent, with high activity at mildly basic pH and low activity at mildly acidic pH. Taken together the present studies demonstrate that the membranolytic and chaperone-like activities of HSP-1/2 have an inverse relationship and are regulated via a pH switch, which is reversible. The higher CLA observed at mildly basic pH could be correlated to an increase in surface hydrophobicity of the protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting regulation of two different activities of a chaperone protein by a pH switch.

  7. PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Sigaut, Lorena; Scochera, Florencia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; González Flecha, F. Luis; Alleva, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:27028641

  8. PIP Water Transport and Its pH Dependence Are Regulated by Tetramer Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Sigaut, Lorena; Scochera, Florencia; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; González Flecha, F Luis; Alleva, Karina

    2016-03-29

    Many plasma membrane channels form oligomeric assemblies, and heterooligomerization has been described as a distinctive feature of some protein families. In the particular case of plant plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs), PIP1 and PIP2 monomers interact to form heterotetramers. However, the biological properties of the different heterotetrameric configurations formed by PIP1 and PIP2 subunits have not been addressed yet. Upon coexpression of tandem PIP2-PIP1 dimers in Xenopus oocytes, we can address, for the first time to our knowledge, the functional properties of single heterotetrameric species having 2:2 stoichiometry. We have also coexpressed PIP2-PIP1 dimers with PIP1 and PIP2 monomers to experimentally investigate the localization and biological activity of each tetrameric assembly. Our results show that PIP2-PIP1 heterotetramers can assemble with 3:1, 1:3, or 2:2 stoichiometry, depending on PIP1 and PIP2 relative expression in the cell. All PIP2-PIP1 heterotetrameric species localize at the plasma membrane and present the same water transport capacity. Furthermore, the contribution of any heterotetrameric assembly to the total water transport through the plasma membrane doubles the contribution of PIP2 homotetramers. Our results also indicate that plasma membrane water transport can be modulated by the coexistence of different tetrameric species and by intracellular pH. Moreover, all the tetrameric species present similar cooperativity behavior for proton sensing. These findings throw light on the functional properties of PIP tetramers, showing that they have flexible stoichiometry dependent on the quantity of PIP1 and PIP2 molecules available. This represents, to our knowledge, a novel regulatory mechanism to adjust water transport across the plasma membrane.

  9. Inverse pH Regulation of Plant and Fungal Sucrose Transporters: A Mechanism to Regulate Competition for Sucrose at the Host/Pathogen Interface?

    PubMed Central

    Wippel, Kathrin; Wittek, Anke; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant sucrose transporter activities were shown to respond to changes in the extracellular pH and redox status, and oxidizing compounds like glutathione (GSSG) or H2O2 were reported to effect the subcellular targeting of these proteins. We hypothesized that changes in both parameters might be used to modulate the activities of competing sucrose transporters at a plant/pathogen interface. We, therefore, compared the effects of redox-active compounds and of extracellular pH on the sucrose transporters UmSRT1 and ZmSUT1 known to compete for extracellular sucrose in the Ustilago maydis (corn smut)/Zea mays (maize) pathosystem. Methodology/Principal Findings We present functional analyses of the U. maydis sucrose transporter UmSRT1 and of the plant sucrose transporters ZmSUT1 and StSUT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in Xenopus laevis oocytes in the presence of different extracellular pH-values and redox systems, and study the possible effects of these treatments on the subcellular targeting. We observed an inverse regulation of host and pathogen sucrose transporters by changes in the apoplastic pH. Under none of the conditions analyzed, we could confirm the reported effects of redox-active compounds. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that changes in the extracellular pH but not of the extracellular redox status might be used to oppositely adjust the transport activities of plant and fungal sucrose transporters at the host/pathogen interface. PMID:20865151

  10. LeftyA sensitive cytosolic pH regulation and glycolytic flux in Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Salker, Madhuri S.; Zhou, Yuetao; Singh, Yogesh; Brosens, Jan; Lang, Florian

    2015-05-08

    Objective: LeftyA, a powerful regulator of stemness, embryonic differentiation, and reprogramming of cancer cells, counteracts cell proliferation and tumor growth. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux, which is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH and thus requires export of H{sup +} and lactate. H{sup +} extrusion is in part accomplished by Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchangers, such as NHE1. An effect of LeftyA on transport processes has, however, never been reported. The present study thus explored whether LeftyA modifies regulation of cytosolic pH (pHi) in Ishikawa cells, a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma cell model. Methods: NHE1 transcript levels were determined by qRT-PCR, NHE1 protein abundance quantified by Western blotting, pH{sub i} estimated utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity from Na{sup +} dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing an enzymatic assay and subsequent colorimetry. Results: A 2 h treatment with LeftyA (8 ng/ml) significantly decreased NHE1 transcript levels (by 99.6%), NHE1 protein abundance (by 71%), Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity (by 55%), pHi (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.05 ± 0.02), and lactate release (by 41%). Conclusions: LeftyA markedly down-regulates NHE1 expression, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity, pHi, and lactate release in Ishikawa cells. Those effects presumably contribute to cellular reprogramming and growth inhibition. - Highlights: • LeftyA, an inhibitor of tumor growth, reduces Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-exchanger activity by 55%. • LeftyA decreases NHE1 transcripts by 99.6% and NHE1 protein by 71%. • LeftyA decreases cytosolic pH from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.05 ± 0.02. • Cytosolic acidification by Lefty A decreases glycolysis by 41%. • Cytosolic acidification by Lefty A compromises energy production of tumor cells.

  11. Regulation of human airway ciliary beat frequency by intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Sutto, Zoltan; Conner, Gregory E; Salathe, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    pHi affects a number of cellular functions, but the influence of pHi on mammalian ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is not known. CBF and pHi of single human tracheobronchial epithelial cells in submerged culture were measured simultaneously using video microscopy (for CBF) and epifluorescence microscopy with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. Baseline CBF and pHi values in bicarbonate-free medium were 7.2 ± 0.2 Hz and 7.49 ± 0.02, respectively (n = 63). Alkalization by ammonium pre-pulse to pHi 7.78 ± 0.02 resulted in a 2.2 ± 0.1 Hz CBF increase (P < 0.05). Following removal of NH4Cl, pHi decreased to 7.24 ± 0.02 and CBF to 5.8 ± 0.1 Hz (P < 0.05). Removal of extracellular CO2 to change pHi resulted in similar CBF changes. Pre-activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (10 μm forskolin), broad inhibition of protein kinases (100 μm H-7), inhibition of PKA (10 μm H-89), nor inhibition of phosphatases (10 μm cyclosporin + 1.5 μm okadaic acid) changed pHi-mediated changes in CBF, nor were they due to [Ca2+]i changes. CBF of basolaterally permeabilized human tracheobronchial cells, re-differentiated at the air–liquid interface, was 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.4, 7.0 ± 0.3 and 7.3 ± 0.3 Hz at basolateral i.e., intracellular pH of 6.8, 7.2, 7.6 and 8.0, respectively (n = 18). Thus, intracellular alkalization stimulates, while intracellular acidification attenuates human airway CBF. Since phosphorylation and [Ca2+]i changes did not seem to mediate pHi-induced CBF changes, pHi may directly act on the ciliary motile machinery. PMID:15308676

  12. Intracellular pH and multidrug resistance regulate complement-mediated cytotoxicity of nucleated human cells.

    PubMed

    Weisburg, J H; Roepe, P D; Dzekunov, S; Scheinberg, D A

    1999-04-16

    In previous work (Weisburg, J. H., Curcio, M., Caron, P. C., Raghi, G., Mechetner, E. B., Roepe, P. D., and Scheinberg, D. A. (1996) J. Exp. Med. 183, 2699-2704), we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) cells created by continuous selection with the vinca alkaloid vincristine (HL60 RV+) or by retroviral infection (K562/human MDR 1 cells) exhibited significant resistance to complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). This resistance was due to the presence of overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-GP). In this paper, we probe the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon. We test whether the significant elevated intracellular pH (pHi) that accompanies P-GP overexpression is sufficient to confer resistance to CMC and whether this resistance is related to effects on complement function in the cell membrane. Control HL60 cells not expressing P-GP, but comparably elevated in cytosolic pHi by two independent methods (CO2 "conditioning" or isotonic Cl- substitution), are tested for CMC using two different antibody-antigen systems (human IgG and murine IgM; protein and carbohydrate) and two complement sources (rabbit and human). Elevation of pHi by either of these methods or by expression of P-GP confers resistance to CMC. Resistance is not observed when the alkalinization mediated by reverse Cl-/HCO3- exchange upon Cl- substitution is blocked by treatment with dihydro-4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate. Continuous photometric monitoring of 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), to assess changes in pHi or efflux of the probe through MAC pores, in single cells or cell populations, respectively, verifies changes in pHi upon CO2 conditioning and Cl- substitution and release of BCECF upon formation of MAC pores. Antibody binding and internalization kinetics are similar in both the parental and resistant cell lines as measured by radioimmunoassay, but flow cytometric data showed that net complement deposition in the cell membrane is both delayed and reduced in

  13. Transport mechanism and pH regulation of the Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA from Escherichia coli: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Mager, Thomas; Rimon, Abraham; Padan, Etana; Fendler, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Using an electrophysiological assay the activity of NhaA was tested in a wide pH range from pH 5.0 to 9.5. Forward and reverse transport directions were investigated at zero membrane potential using preparations with inside-out and right side-out-oriented transporters with Na(+) or H(+) gradients as the driving force. Under symmetrical pH conditions with a Na(+) gradient for activation, both the wt and the pH-shifted G338S variant exhibit highly symmetrical transport activity with bell-shaped pH dependences, but the optimal pH was shifted 1.8 pH units to the acidic range in the variant. In both strains the pH dependence was associated with a systematic increase of the K(m) for Na(+) at acidic pH. Under symmetrical Na(+) concentration with a pH gradient for NhaA activation, an unexpected novel characteristic of the antiporter was revealed; rather than being down-regulated, it remained active even at pH as low as 5. These data allowed a transport mechanism to advance based on competing Na(+) and H(+) binding to a common transport site and a kinetic model to develop quantitatively explaining the experimental results. In support of these results, both alkaline pH and Na(+) induced the conformational change of NhaA associated with NhaA cation translocation as demonstrated here by trypsin digestion. Furthermore, Na(+) translocation was found to be associated with the displacement of a negative charge. In conclusion, the electrophysiological assay allows the revelation of the mechanism of NhaA antiport and sheds new light on the concept of NhaA pH regulation.

  14. Tigutcystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from Triatoma infestans midgut expressed in response to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Buarque, Diego S.; Spindola, Leticia M.N.; Martins, Rafael M.; Braz, Gloria R.C.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Tigutcystatin inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteases with high specificity. {yields} Tigutcystatin expression is up-regulated in response to T. cruzi infection. {yields} It is the first cysteine proteases inhibitor characterized from a triatomine insect. -- Abstract: The insect Triatoma infestans is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. A cDNA library was constructed from T. infestans anterior midgut, and 244 clones were sequenced. Among the EST sequences, an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to a cystatin type 2 precursor was identified. Then, a 288-bp cDNA fragment encoding mature cystatin (lacking signal peptide) named Tigutcystatin was cloned fused to a N-terminal His tag in pET-14b vector, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta gami. Tigutcystatin purified and cleaved by thrombin to remove His tag presented molecular mass of 11 kDa and 10,137 Da by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. Purified Tigutcystatin was shown to be a tight inhibitor towards cruzain, a T. cruzi cathepsin L-like enzyme (K{sub i} = 3.29 nM) and human cathepsin L (K{sub i} = 3.78 nM). Tissue specific expression analysis showed that Tigutcystatin was mostly expressed in anterior midgut, although amplification in small intestine was also detected by semi quantitative RT-PCR. qReal time PCR confirmed that Tigutcystatin mRNA is significantly up-regulated in anterior midgut when T. infestans is infected with T. cruzi. Together, these results indicate that Tigutcystatin may be involved in modulation of T. cruzi in intestinal tract by inhibiting parasite cysteine proteases, which represent the virulence factors of this protozoan.

  15. Laminin and the malaria parasite's journey through the mosquito midgut.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Romanico B G; Lycett, Gareth; Mahairaki, Vassiliki; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Louis, Christos

    2005-07-01

    During the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium, Plasmodium ookinetes come to rest on the basal lamina, where they transform into the sporozoite-producing oocysts. Laminin, one of the basal lamina's major components, has previously been shown to bind several surface proteins of Plasmodium ookinetes. Here, using the recently developed RNAi technique in mosquitoes, we used a specific dsRNA construct targeted against the LANB2 gene (laminin gamma1) of Anopheles gambiae to reduce its mRNA levels, leading to a substantial reduction in the number of successfully developed oocysts in the mosquito midgut. Moreover, this molecular relationship is corroborated by the intimate association of developing P. berghei parasites and laminin in the gut, as observed using confocal microscopy. Our data support the notion of laminin playing a functional role in the development of the malaria parasite within the mosquito midgut.

  16. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Galkina, Svetlana I; Sud'ina, Galina F; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na(+) and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl(-) efflux through chloride channels and Na(+) influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  17. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I. . E-mail: galkina@genebee.msu.su; Sud'ina, Galina F.; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na{sup +} and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl{sup -} efflux through chloride channels and Na{sup +} influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  18. Improving pH sensitivity by field-induced charge regulation in flexible biopolymer electrolyte gated oxide transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Gan, Lu; Liu, Yu; Gui, Weijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohang

    2017-10-01

    Electrical manipulation of charged ions in electrolyte-gated transistors is crucial for enhancing the electric-double-layer (EDL) gating effect, thereby improving their sensing abilities. Here, indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) based thin-film-transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on flexible plastic substrate. Acid doped chitosan-based biopolymer electrolyte is used as the gate dielectric, exhibiting an extremely high EDL capacitance. By regulating the dynamic EDL charging process with special gate potential profiles, the EDL gating effect of the chitosan-gated TFT is enhanced, and then resulting in higher pH sensitivities. An extremely high sensitivity of ∼57.8 mV/pH close to Nernst limit is achieved when the gate bias of the TFT sensor sweeps at a rate of 10 mV/s. Additionally, an enhanced sensitivity of 2630% in terms of current variation with pH range from 11 to 3 is realized when the device is operated in the ion depletion mode with a negative gate bias of -0.7 V. Robust ionic modulation is demonstrated in such chitosan-gated sensors. Efficiently driving the charged ions in the chitosan-gated IZO-TFT provides a new route for ultrasensitive, low voltage, and low-cost biochemical sensing technologies.

  19. The volume-regulated anion channel (LRRC8) in nodose neurons is sensitive to acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runping; Lu, Yongjun; Gunasekar, Susheel; Zhang, Yanhui; Benson, Christopher J; Chapleau, Mark W; Sah, Rajan; Abboud, François M

    2017-03-09

    The leucine rich repeat containing protein 8A (LRRC8A), or SWELL1, is an essential component of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) that is activated by cell swelling and ionic strength. We report here for the first time to our knowledge its expression in a primary cell culture of nodose ganglia neurons and its localization in the soma, neurites, and neuronal membrane. We show that this neuronal VRAC/SWELL1 senses low external pH (pHo) in addition to hypoosmolarity. A robust sustained chloride current is seen in 77% of isolated nodose neurons following brief exposures to extracellular acid pH. Its activation involves proton efflux, intracellular alkalinity, and an increase in NOX-derived H2O2. The molecular identity of both the hypoosmolarity-induced and acid pHo-conditioned VRAC as LRRC8A (SWELL1) was confirmed by Cre-flox-mediated KO, shRNA-mediated knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated LRRC8A deletion in HEK cells and in primary nodose neuronal cultures. Activation of VRAC by low pHo reduces neuronal injury during simulated ischemia and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced (NMDA-induced) apoptosis. These results identify the VRAC (LRRC8A) as a dual sensor of hypoosmolarity and low pHo in vagal afferent neurons and define the mechanisms of its activation and its neuroprotective potential.

  20. The volume-regulated anion channel (LRRC8) in nodose neurons is sensitive to acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runping; Lu, Yongjun; Gunasekar, Susheel; Zhang, Yanhui; Benson, Christopher J.; Chapleau, Mark W.; Sah, Rajan; Abboud, François M.

    2017-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat containing protein 8A (LRRC8A), or SWELL1, is an essential component of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) that is activated by cell swelling and ionic strength. We report here for the first time to our knowledge its expression in a primary cell culture of nodose ganglia neurons and its localization in the soma, neurites, and neuronal membrane. We show that this neuronal VRAC/SWELL1 senses low external pH (pHo) in addition to hypoosmolarity. A robust sustained chloride current is seen in 77% of isolated nodose neurons following brief exposures to extracellular acid pH. Its activation involves proton efflux, intracellular alkalinity, and an increase in NOX-derived H2O2. The molecular identity of both the hypoosmolarity-induced and acid pHo–conditioned VRAC as LRRC8A (SWELL1) was confirmed by Cre-flox–mediated KO, shRNA-mediated knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated LRRC8A deletion in HEK cells and in primary nodose neuronal cultures. Activation of VRAC by low pHo reduces neuronal injury during simulated ischemia and N-methyl-D-aspartate–induced (NMDA-induced) apoptosis. These results identify the VRAC (LRRC8A) as a dual sensor of hypoosmolarity and low pHo in vagal afferent neurons and define the mechanisms of its activation and its neuroprotective potential. PMID:28289711

  1. Ultrastructure and immunolocalization of digestive enzymes in the midgut of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Fialho, Maria do Carmo Q; Terra, Walter R; Moreira, Nathália R; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, Jose Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus has been utilized in biological control programs. Its midgut is anatomically divided into anterior, middle and posterior regions, which play different roles in the digestive process. We describe the midgut ultrastructure and the secretion of digestive enzymes in the midgut of P. nigrispinus. Midguts were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy and the digestive enzymes amylase, cathepsin L, aminopeptidase and α-glucosidase were immunolocalized. The ultrastructural features of the digestive cells in the anterior, middle and posterior midgut regions suggest that they play a role in digestive enzyme synthesis, ion and nutrient absorption, storage and excretion. The digestive enzymes have different distribution along the midgut regions of the predator P. nigrispinus. Amylase, aminopeptidase and α-glucosidase occur in three midgut regions, whereas cathepsin L occurs in the middle and posterior midgut regions. The anterior midgut region of P. nigrispinus seems to play a role in water absorption, the middle midgut may be involved in nutrient absorption and the posterior midgut region is responsible for water transport to the midgut lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sharply Tuned pH Response of Genetic Competence Regulation in Streptococcus mutans: a Microfluidic Study of the Environmental Sensitivity of comX

    PubMed Central

    Son, Minjun; Ghoreishi, Delaram; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans is a transient state that is regulated in response to multiple environmental inputs. These include extracellular pH and the concentrations of two secreted peptides, designated CSP (competence-stimulating peptide) and XIP (comX-inducing peptide). The role of environmental cues in regulating competence can be difficult to disentangle from the effects of the organism's physiological state and its chemical modification of its environment. We used microfluidics to control the extracellular environment and study the activation of the key competence gene comX. We find that the comX promoter (PcomX) responds to XIP or CSP only when the extracellular pH lies within a narrow window, about 1 pH unit wide, near pH 7. Within this pH range, CSP elicits a strong PcomX response from a subpopulation of cells, whereas outside this range the proportion of cells expressing comX declines sharply. Likewise, PcomX is most sensitive to XIP only within a narrow pH window. While previous work suggested that comX may become refractory to CSP or XIP stimulus as cells exit early exponential phase, our microfluidic data show that extracellular pH dominates in determining sensitivity to XIP and CSP. The data are most consistent with an effect of pH on the ComR/ComS system, which has direct control over transcription of comX in S. mutans. PMID:26070670

  3. A chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B

    2005-08-01

    A chymotrypsin-like proteinase was isolated from the posterior midgut of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, TmC1, was purified to homogeneity as determined by SDS-PAGE and postelectrophoretic activity detection. TmC1 had a molecular mass of 23.0 kDa, pI of 8.4, a pH optimum of 9.5, and the optimal temperature for activity was 51 degrees C. The proteinase displayed high stability at temperatures below 43 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-11.2, which is inclusive of the pH of the posterior and middle midgut. The enzyme hydrolyzed long chymotrypsin peptide substrates SucAAPFpNA, SucAAPLpNA and GlpAALpNA and did not hydrolyze short chymotrypsin substrates. Kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction demonstrated that the best substrate was SucAAPFpNA, with k(cat app) 36.5 s(-1) and K(m) 1.59 mM. However, the enzyme had a lower K(m) for SucAAPLpNA, 0.5 mM. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was an effective inhibitor of TmC1, and the proteinase was not inhibited by either tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N(alpha)-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). However, the activity of TmC1 was reduced with sulfhydryl reagents. Several plant and insect proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors were active against the purified enzyme, the most effective being Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI). The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was IISGSAASKGQFPWQ, which was up to 67% similar to other insect chymotrypsin-like proteinases and 47% similar to mammalian chymotrypsin A. The amino acid composition of TmC1 differed significantly from previously isolated T. molitor enzymes.

  4. Mitochondria in the midgut epithelial cells of sugarcane borer parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Silva, M D; Gregório, E A

    2010-02-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been controlled by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); however, very little is known about the effect of the parasitism in the host organs, including the midgut. This work aims to verify mitochondrial alteration in the different midgut epithelial cells of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes. Midgut fragments (anterior and posterior region) of both non-parasitized and parasitized larvae were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The mitochondria of midgut epithelial cell in the parasitized larvae exhibit morphological alteration, represented by matrix rarefaction and vacuolisation. These mitochondrial alterations are more pronounced in the anterior midgut region during the parasitism process, mainly in the columnar cell.

  5. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  6. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host.

  7. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Akile; Uçar, Bercis İmge; Düzgün, Şükrü Aydın; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Şanal, Bekir; Bayhan, Nilüfer Araz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal malrotation refers to the partial or complete failure of rotation of midgut around the superior mesenteric vessels in embryonic life. Arrested midgut rotation results due to narrow-based mesentery and increases the risk of twisting midgut and subsequent obstruction and necrosis. Presentation of case 40 years old female patient admitted to emergency service with acute abdomen and computerized tomography scan showed dilated large and small intestine segments with air-fluid levels and twisted mesentery around superior mesenteric artery and vein indicating “whirpool sign”. Discussion Malrotation in adults is a rare cause of midgut volvulus as though it should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Even though clinical symptoms are obscure, adult patients usually present with vomiting and recurrent abdominal pain due to chronic partial obstruction. Contrast enhanced radiograph has been shown to be the most accurate method. Typical radiological signs are corkscrew sign, which is caused by the dilatation of various duodenal segments at different levels and the relocation of duodenojejunal junction due to jejunum folding. As malrotation commonly causes intestinal obstruction, patients deserve an elective laparotomy. Conclusion Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:27015011

  8. Aarskog's syndrome with Hirschsprung's disease, midgut malrotation, and dental anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Hassinger, D D; Mulvihill, J J; Chandler, J B

    1980-01-01

    A 23-year-old man with Aarskog's syndrome had Hirschspring's disease, midgut malrotation, a renal cyst, a cartilaginous projection of the pinna, geographic tongue, and dental anomalies. The family history, negative for these features, including several malignancies. Any or all of these features could be considered part of Aarskog's syndrome and may represent anomalies of neural crest development. Images PMID:7401138

  9. Mamestra configurata nucleopolyhedrovirus-A transcriptome from infected host midgut.

    PubMed

    Donly, B Cameron; Theilmann, David A; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Baldwin, Douglas; Erlandson, Martin A

    2014-02-01

    Infection of an insect by a baculovirus occurs in two distinct phases, an initial infection of host midgut by occlusion-derived virions (ODVs) and subsequent systemic infection of other tissues by budded virions (BV). A vast majority of investigations of the infection process have been restricted to cell culture studies using BV that emulate the systemic phase of infection. This is one of the first studies to investigate baculovirus gene expression in ODV infected midgut cells. We have focused on the critical first phase of in vivo infection by Mamestra configurata nucleopolyhedrovirus-A in M. configurata larvae, using qPCR and RNAseq mass sequencing to measure virus gene expression in midgut cells. The earliest genes detected by each method had significant overlap, including known early genes as well as genes unique to MacoNPV-A and genes of unknown function. The RNAseq data also revealed a large range of expression levels across all ORFs, which could not be measured using qPCR. This dataset provides a first whole genome transcriptomic analysis of viral genes required for virus infection in vivo and will provide the basis for functionally analyzing specific genes that may be critical elements in baculovirus midgut infectivity and host range.

  10. Circadian Regulation of the PhCCD1 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Controls Emission of β-Ionone, a Fragrance Volatile of Petunia Flowers1

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Andrew J.; Underwood, Beverly A.; Auldridge, Michele; Loucas, Holly M.; Shibuya, Kenichi; Schmelz, Eric; Clark, David G.; Klee, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to be the precursors of terpenoid volatile compounds that contribute to flavor and aroma. One such volatile, β-ionone, is important to fragrance in many flowers, including petunia (Petunia hybrida). However, little is known about the factors regulating its synthesis in vivo. The petunia genome contains a gene encoding a 9,10(9′,10′) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, PhCCD1. The PhCCD1 is 94% identical to LeCCD1A, an enzyme responsible for formation of β-ionone in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; Simkin AJ, Schwartz SH, Auldridge M, Taylor MG, Klee HJ [2004] Plant J [in press]). Reduction of PhCCD1 transcript levels in transgenic plants led to a 58% to 76% decrease in β-ionone synthesis in the corollas of selected petunia lines, indicating a significant role for this enzyme in volatile synthesis. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that PhCCD1 is highly expressed in corollas and leaves, where it constitutes approximately 0.04% and 0.02% of total RNA, respectively. PhCCD1 is light-inducible and exhibits a circadian rhythm in both leaves and flowers. β-Ionone emission by flowers occurred principally during daylight hours, paralleling PhCCD1 expression in corollas. The results indicate that PhCCD1 activity and β-ionone emission are likely regulated at the level of transcript. PMID:15516502

  11. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization.

  12. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  13. Determination of mosquito bloodmeal pH in situ by ion-selective microelectrode measurement: implications for the regulation of malarial gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Billker, O; Miller, A J; Sinden, R E

    2000-06-01

    Malarial gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host as developmentally arrested intra-erythrocytic cells, which only resume development into gametes when ingested into the bloodmeal of the female mosquito vector. The ensuing development encompasses sexual reproduction and mediates parasite transmission to the insect. In vitro the induction of gametogenesis requires a drop in temperature and either a pH increase from physiological blood pH (ca pH 7.4) to about pH 8.0, or the presence of a gametocyte-activating factor recently identified as xanthurenic acid (XA). However, it is unclear whether either the pH increase or XA act as natural triggers in the mosquito bloodmeal. We here use pH-sensitive microelectrodes to determine bloodmeal pH in intact mosquitoes. Measurements taken in the first 30 min after ingestion, when malarial gametogenesis is induced in vivo, revealed small pH increases from 7.40 (mouse blood) to 7.52 in Aedes aegypti and to 7.58 in Anophĕles stephensi. However, bloodmeal pH was clearly suboptimal if compared to values required to induce gametogenesis in vitro. Xanthurenic acid is shown to extend the pH-range of exflagellation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner to values that we have observed in the bloodmeal, suggesting that in vivo malarial gametogenesis could be further regulated by both these factors.

  14. Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae midgut transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Warr, Emma; Aguilar, Ruth; Dong, Yuemei; Mahairaki, Vassiliki; Dimopoulos, George

    2007-01-29

    The midgut of hematophagous insects, such as disease transmitting mosquitoes, carries out a variety of essential functions that mostly relate to blood feeding. The midgut of the female malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major site of interactions between the parasite and the vector. Distinct compartments and cell types of the midgut tissue carry out specific functions and vector borne pathogens interact and infect different parts of the midgut. A microarray based global gene expression approach was used to compare transcript abundance in the four major female midgut compartments (cardia, anterior, anterior part of posterior and posterior part of posterior midgut) and between the male and female Anopheles gambiae midgut. Major differences between the female and male midgut gene expression relate to digestive processes and immunity. Each compartment has a distinct gene function profile with the posterior midgut expressing digestive enzyme genes and the cardia and anterior midgut expressing high levels of antimicrobial peptide and other immune gene transcripts. Interestingly, the cardia expressed several known anti-Plasmodium factors. A parallel peptidomic analysis of the cardia identified known mosquito antimicrobial peptides as well as several putative short secreted peptides that are likely to represent novel antimicrobial factors. The A. gambiae sex specific midgut and female midgut compartment specific transcriptomes correlates with their known functions. The significantly greater functional diversity of the female midgut relate to hematophagy that is associated with digestion and nutrition uptake as well as exposes it to a variety of pathogens, and promotes growth of its endogenous microbial flora. The strikingly high proportion of immunity related factors in the cardia tissue most likely serves the function to increase sterility of ingested sugar and blood. A detailed characterization of the functional specificities of the female mosquito midgut and

  15. The N-terminal domain of the V-ATPase subunit 'a' is regulated by pH in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Reinhard; Peter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a well known, yet poorly understood phenomenon, which might underlie the contribution of V-ATPases in various cellular signaling processes.(1) In yeast, V-ATPase is regulated by glucose and contributes to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). We have recently shown that, in vivo, glucose regulates V-ATPase through cytosolic pH, suggesting that V-ATPase contains a pH sensitive subunit, which regulates assembly of the holo-complex.(2) Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of the N-terminal domain of subunit 'a', Vph1N, which has been suggested to act as a pH sensor in mammalian cells.(3) Interestingly, our studies demonstrate pH-dependent oligomerization of this domain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we identify a membrane proximal region that is required for the pH-dependent oligomerization, and suggest a speculative model for the regulation of the V-ATPase holo-complex by pH.

  16. Role of a Novel PH-Kinase Domain Interface in PKB/Akt Regulation: Structural Mechanism for Allosteric Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) belongs to the AGC superfamily of related serine/threonine protein kinases. It is a key regulator downstream of various growth factors and hormones and is involved in malignant transformation and chemo-resistance. Full-length PKB protein has not been crystallised, thus studying the molecular mechanisms that are involved in its regulation in relation to its structure have not been simple. Recently, the dynamics between the inactive and active conformer at the molecular level have been described. The maintenance of PKB's inactive state via the interaction of the PH and kinase domains prevents its activation loop to be phosphorylated by its upstream activator, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). By using a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modelling, classical biochemical assays, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)/two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a detailed model depicting the interaction between the different domains of PKB in its inactive conformation was demonstrated. These findings in turn clarified the molecular mechanism of PKB inhibition by AKT inhibitor VIII (a specific allosteric inhibitor) and illustrated at the molecular level its selectivity towards different PKB isoforms. Furthermore, these findings allude to the possible function of the C-terminus in sustaining the inactive conformer of PKB. This study presents essential insights into the quaternary structure of PKB in its inactive conformation. An understanding of PKB structure in relation to its function is critical for elucidating its mode of activation and discovering how to modulate its activity. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of PKB activation by the specific drug AKT inhibitor VIII has critical implications for determining the mechanism of inhibition of other allosteric inhibitors and for opening up opportunities for the design of new generations of modulator drugs. PMID:19166270

  17. Sodium/proton exchanger isoform 1 regulates intracellular pH and cell proliferation in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Carlos; Araos, Joaquín; Naranjo, Luciano; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Ramírez, Marco A; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells generate protons (H(+)) that are extruded to the extracellular medium mainly via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and cell proliferation. In primary cultures of human ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells (haOC) we assayed whether NHE1 was required for pHi modulation and cell proliferation. Human ovary expresses NHE1, which is higher in haOC and A2780 (ovarian cancer cells) compared with HOSE cells (normal ovarian cells). Basal pHi and pHi recovery (following a NH4Cl pulse) was higher in haOC and A2780, compared with HOSE cells. Zoniporide (NHE1 inhibitor) caused intracellular acidification and pHi recovery was independent of intracellular buffer capacity, but reduced in NHE1 knockdown A2780 cells. Zoniporide reduced the maximal proliferation capacity, cell number, thymidine incorporation, and ki67 (marker of proliferation) fluorescence in haOC cells. SLC9A1 (for NHE1) amplification associated with lower overall patient survival. In conclusion, NHE1 is expressed in human ovarian cancer where it has a pro-proliferative role. Increased NHE1 expression and activity constitute an unfavourable prognostic factor in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of pH regulators used as additives on the bioavailability of ibuprofen from hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Hannula, A M; Marvola, M; Rajamaeki, M; Ojantakanen, S

    1991-01-01

    In our previous study the reasons for fast absorption of ibuprofen from sodium bicarbonate based hard gelatin capsules stayed unclear. These were not investigated using pH regulators (aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, tartaric acid) with different chemical and physical properties. Ibuprofen absorption was much slower with aluminium hydroxide capsules (MRT 5.3, Tmax 3.1 h, Cmax 25.6 mg l-1, lag time 37.5 min) than with sodium bicarbonate capsules of the previous study (MRT 2.6 h, tmax 0.4 h, Cmax 51.4 mg l-1), lag time 0 min). The corresponding values for calcium carbonate and tartaric acid capsules were: MRT 3.7 h and 3.9 h, Tmax 1.7 h and 2.0 h, Cmax 32.2 mg l-1 and 30.8 mg l-1 and lag time 3.1 min and 7.6 min. No differences were noted in the AUC values. A rank order correlation existed between dissolution parameters and the in vivo parameters reflecting the rate of bioavailability. It was concluded that the rapid absorption of ibuprofen from capsules containing sodium carbonate is due to enhanced in vivo disintegration of the capsule, enhanced in vivo dissolution of the drug and enhanced gastric emptying rate.

  19. Damage-Induced Cell Regeneration in the Midgut of Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Janeh, Maria; Osman, Dani; Kambris, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases cause over one million deaths every year. A better characterization of the vector’s physiology and immunity should provide valuable knowledge for the elaboration of control strategies. Mosquitoes depend on their innate immunity to defend themselves against pathogens. These pathogens are acquired mainly through the oral route, which places the insects’ gut at the front line of the battle. Indeed, the epithelium of the mosquito gut plays important roles against invading pathogens acting as a physical barrier, activating local defenses and triggering the systemic immune response. Therefore, the gut is constantly confronted to stress and often suffers cellular damage. In this study, we show that dividing cells exist in the digestive tract of adult A. albopictus and that these cells proliferate in the midgut after bacterial or chemical damage. An increased transcription of signaling molecules that regulate the EGFR and JAK/STAT pathways was also observed, suggesting a possible involvement of these pathways in the regeneration of damaged guts. This work provides evidence for the presence of regenerative cells in the mosquito guts, and paves the way towards a molecular and cellular characterization of the processes required to maintain mosquito’s midgut homeostasis in both normal and infectious conditions. PMID:28300181

  20. Cell Expansion and Tracheary Element Differentiation Are Regulated by Extracellular pH in Mesophyll Cultures of Zinnia elegans L.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A. W.; Haigler, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of medium pH on cell expansion and tracheary element (TE) differentiation were investigated in differentiating mesophyll suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans L. In unbuffered cultures initially adjusted to pH 5.5, the medium pH fluctuated reproducibly, decreasing about 1 unit prior to the onset of TE differentiation and then increasing when the initiation of new Tes was complete. Elimination of large pH fluctuations by buffering the culture medium with 20 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid altered both cell expansion and TE differentiation, whereas altering the starting pH of unbuffered culture medium had no effect on either process. Cell expansion in buffered cultures was pH dependent with an optimum of 5.5 to 6.0. The direction of cell expansion was also pH dependent in buffered cultures. Cells elongated at pH 5.5 to 6.0, whereas isodiametric cell expansion was predominant at pH 6.5 to 7.0. The onset of TE differentiation was delayed when the pH was buffered higher or lower than 5.0. However, TEs eventually appeared in cultures buffered at pH 6.5 to 7.0, indicating that a decrease in pH to 5.0 is not necessary for differentiation. Very large TEs with secondary cell wall thickenings resembling metaxylem differentiated in cultures buffered at pH 5.5 to 6.0, which also showed the greatest cell expansion. The correlation between cell expansion and delayed differentiation of large, metaxylem-like TEs may indicate a link between the regulatory mechanisms controlling cell expansion and TE differentiation. PMID:12232237

  1. Vital staining of the stick insect digestive system identifies appendices of the midgut as novel system of excretion.

    PubMed

    Shelomi, Matan; Kimsey, Lynn S

    2014-06-01

    The stick insects or phasmids (Phamsatodea) have a series of pyriform ampulles with long, thin filaments on the posterior end of their midgut referred to as the "appendices of the midgut." Found only in phasmids, their function had never been determined until now. Their similarity to the Malpighian tubules, which are ubiquitous insect organs of excretion, suggested a similar function. To differentiate between the appendices and the Malpighian tubules and compare functional differences between the two tissue types, vital staining (the injection of histological stains into living organisms) was done in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy in multiple phasmid species. The results showed that the appendices originated in the basal phasmids (Timematidae) and grew more numerous in derived species. The appendices stain selectively, notably failing to pick up the indicators of the two known systems of invertebrate excretory function, indigo carmine and ammonium carmine. Appendices sequester stains in the ampule portion before eliminating the compounds into the midgut. We conclude by confirming that the appendices do have an excretory function, but one unlike any other known in invertebrates. Their function is likely cation excretion, playing a role in calcium regulation and/or organic alkaloid sequestration. The appendices must thus be considered distinct organs from the Malpighian tubules. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Results Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. Conclusion The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses. PMID:27732590

  3. Starvation suppresses cell proliferation that rebounds after refeeding in the midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2008-02-01

    Starvation affects behavior, development, metabolism, reproduction, and longevity in almost all animals including insects. In the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, we investigated the effect of starvation on organ size and cell proliferation activity of the midgut, over a period of one month, using anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and anti-phospho-histone H3 antibodies. Under starvation conditions, the midgut became clear and fragile while its length and diameter were reduced. Both the rate of BrdU-uptake in the nucleus and the mitotic activity shown by anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody decreased under long starvation up to half that of the continuously fed control. Refeeding restored BrdU-uptake and mitosis that overshot the fed control. When casein, starch, or cooking oil was fed as representative nutrient sources to the starved cockroaches, all restored BrdU-uptake, but non-nutrient, talc, did not. This study supports the hypothesis that P. americana has a homeostatic mechanism to regulate the cell population of the midgut epithelium according to changes in the nutritional environment.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses.

  5. Differential proteomic analysis of midguts from Nosema ceranae-infected honeybees reveals manipulation of key host functions.

    PubMed

    Vidau, Cyril; Panek, Johan; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G; Belzunces, Luc P; Le Gall, Morgane; Broussard, Cédric; Delbac, Frédéric; El Alaoui, Hicham

    2014-09-01

    Many invasive pathogens effectively bypass the insect defenses to ensure the completion of their life cycle. Among those, an invasive microsporidian species, Nosema ceranae, can cause nosemosis in honeybees. N. ceranae was first described in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana and is suspected to be involved in Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines worldwide. The midgut of honeybees is the first barrier against N. ceranae attacks. To bring proteomics data on honeybee/N. ceranae crosstalk and more precisely to decipher the worker honeybee midgut response after an oral inoculation of N. ceranae (10days post-infection), we used 2D-DIGE (2-Dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis) combined with mass spectrometry. Forty-five protein spots produced by the infected worker honeybee group were shown to be differentially expressed when compared to the uninfected group; 14 were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. N. ceranae mainly caused a modulation of proteins involved in three key host biological functions: (i) energy production, (ii) innate immunity (reactive oxygen stress) and (iii) protein regulation. The modulation of these host biological functions suggests that N. ceranae creates a zone of "metabolic habitat modification" in the honeybee midgut favoring its development by enhancing availability of nutrients and reducing the worker honeybee defense.

  6. The Aspergillus PacC zinc finger transcription factor mediates regulation of both acid- and alkaline-expressed genes by ambient pH.

    PubMed Central

    Tilburn, J; Sarkar, S; Widdick, D A; Espeso, E A; Orejas, M; Mungroo, J; Peñalva, M A; Arst, H N

    1995-01-01

    The pH regulation of gene expression in Aspergillus nidulans is mediated by pacC, whose 678 residue-derived protein contains three putative Cys2His2 zinc fingers. Ten pacCc mutations mimicking growth at alkaline pH remove between 100 and 214 C-terminal residues, including a highly acidic region containing an acidic glutamine repeat. Nine pacC+/- mutations mimicking acidic growth conditions remove between 299 and 505 C-terminal residues. Deletion of the entire pacC coding region mimics acidity but leads additionally to poor growth and conidiation. A PacC fusion protein binds DNA with the core consensus GCCARG. At alkaline ambient pH, PacC activates transcription of alkaline-expressed genes (including pacC itself) and represses transcription of acid-expressed genes. pacCc mutations obviate the need for pH signal transduction. Images PMID:7882981

  7. Intracellular pH (pHin) and cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) regulation via ATPases: studies in cell populations, single cells, and subcellular compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Jose D.; Sanka, Shankar C.; Gyorke, Sandor; Wesson, Donald E.; Minta, Akwasi; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul

    1999-07-01

    Changes in pHin and (Ca2+)cyt are important in the signal transduction mechanisms leading to many physiological responses including cell growth, motility, secretion/exocytosis, etc. The concentrations of these ions are regulated via primary and secondary ion transporting mechanisms. In diabetes, specific pH and Ca2+ regulatory mechanism might be altered. To study these ions, we employ fluorescence spectroscopy, and cell imagin spectroscopy/confocal microscopy. pH and Ca2+ indicators are loaded in the cytosol with acetoxymethyl ester forms of dyes, and in endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartments by overnight incubation of cells with dextran- conjugated ion fluorescent probes. We focus on specific pH and Ca2+ regulatory systems: plasmalemmal vacuolar- type H+-ATPases (pm V-ATPases) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA). As experimental models, we employ vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and microvascular endothelial cells. We have chosen these cells because they are important in blood flow regulation and in angiogenesis. These processes are altered in diabetes. In many cell types, ion transport processes are dependent on metabolism of glucose for maximal activity. Our main findings are: (a) glycolysis coupling the activity of SERCA is required for cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis in both VSM and microvascular endothelial cells; (b) E/L compartments are important for pH and Ca2+ regulation via H+-ATPases and SERCA, respectively; and (c) pm-V- ATPases are important for pHin regulation in microvascular endothelial cells.

  8. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during...

  9. Insect midgut α-mannosidases from family 38 and 47 with emphasis on those of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nathalia R; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2015-12-01

    α-Mannosidases are enzymes which remove non-reducing terminal residues from glycoconjugates. Data on both GH47 and GH38 (Golgi and lysosomal) enzymes are available. Data on insect midgut α-mannosidases acting in digestion are preliminary and do not include enzyme sequences. Tenebrio molitor midgut α-mannosidases were separated by chromatography into two activity peaks: a major (Man1) and a minor (Man2). An antibody generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence of α-mannosidase fragment recognizes Man2 but not Man1. That fragment was later found to correspond to TmMan2 (GenBank access KP892646), showing that the cDNA coding for Man2 is actually TmMan2. TmMan2 codes for a mature α-mannosidase with 107.5 kDa. Purified Man2 originates after SDS-PAGE one band of about 72 kDa and another of 51 kDa, which sums 123 kDa, in agreement with gel filtration (123 kDa) data. These results suggest that Man2 is processed into peptides that remain noncovalently linked within the functional enzyme. The physical and kinetical properties of purified Man1 and Man2 are similar. They have a molecular mass of 123 kDa (gel filtration), pH optimum (5.6) and response to inhibitors like swainsonine (Man1 Ki, 68 nM; Man2 Ki, 63 nM) and deoxymannojirimycin (Man1 Ki, 0.12 mM; Man2 Ki, 0.15 mM). Their substrate specificities are a little different as Man2 hydrolyzes α-1,3 and α-1,6 bonds better than α-1,2, whereas the contrary is true for Man1. Thus, they pertain to Class II (GH38 α-mannosidases), that are catabolic α-mannosidases similar to lysosomal α-mannosidase. However, Man2, in contrast to true lysosomal α-mannosidase, is secreted (immunocytolocalization data) into the midgut contents. There, Man2 may participate in digestion of fungal cell walls, known to have α-mannosides in their outermost layer. The amount of family 38 α-mannosidase sequences found in the transcriptome (454 pyrosequencing) of the midgut of 9 insects pertaining to 5 orders is

  10. Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase Regulates Hippocampal Neuronal pH by Recruiting Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE5 to the Cell Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Szabó, Elöd Z.; Numata, Masayuki; Orlowski, John

    2014-01-01

    Strict regulation of intra- and extracellular pH is an important determinant of nervous system function as many voltage-, ligand-, and H+-gated cationic channels are exquisitely sensitive to transient fluctuations in pH elicited by neural activity and pathophysiologic events such as hypoxia-ischemia and seizures. Multiple Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) are implicated in maintenance of neural pH homeostasis. However, aside from the ubiquitous NHE1 isoform, their relative contributions are poorly understood. NHE5 is of particular interest as it is preferentially expressed in brain relative to other tissues. In hippocampal neurons, NHE5 regulates steady-state cytoplasmic pH, but intriguingly the bulk of the transporter is stored in intracellular vesicles. Here, we show that NHE5 is a direct target for phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stresses. In NHE5-transfected non-neuronal cells, activation of AMPK by the AMP mimetic AICAR or by antimycin A, which blocks aerobic respiration and causes acidification, increased cell surface accumulation and activity of NHE5, and elevated intracellular pH. These effects were effectively blocked by the AMPK antagonist compound C, the NHE inhibitor HOE694, and mutation of a predicted AMPK recognition motif in the NHE5 C terminus. This regulatory pathway was also functional in primary hippocampal neurons, where AMPK activation of NHE5 protected the cells from sustained antimycin A-induced acidification. These data reveal a unique role for AMPK and NHE5 in regulating the pH homeostasis of hippocampal neurons during metabolic stress. PMID:24936055

  11. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase regulates hippocampal neuronal pH by recruiting Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE5 to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Szabó, Elöd Z; Numat, Masayuki; Orlowski, John

    2014-07-25

    Strict regulation of intra- and extracellular pH is an important determinant of nervous system function as many voltage-, ligand-, and H(+)-gated cationic channels are exquisitely sensitive to transient fluctuations in pH elicited by neural activity and pathophysiologic events such as hypoxia-ischemia and seizures. Multiple Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) are implicated in maintenance of neural pH homeostasis. However, aside from the ubiquitous NHE1 isoform, their relative contributions are poorly understood. NHE5 is of particular interest as it is preferentially expressed in brain relative to other tissues. In hippocampal neurons, NHE5 regulates steady-state cytoplasmic pH, but intriguingly the bulk of the transporter is stored in intracellular vesicles. Here, we show that NHE5 is a direct target for phosphorylation by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stresses. In NHE5-transfected non-neuronal cells, activation of AMPK by the AMP mimetic AICAR or by antimycin A, which blocks aerobic respiration and causes acidification, increased cell surface accumulation and activity of NHE5, and elevated intracellular pH. These effects were effectively blocked by the AMPK antagonist compound C, the NHE inhibitor HOE694, and mutation of a predicted AMPK recognition motif in the NHE5 C terminus. This regulatory pathway was also functional in primary hippocampal neurons, where AMPK activation of NHE5 protected the cells from sustained antimycin A-induced acidification. These data reveal a unique role for AMPK and NHE5 in regulating the pH homeostasis of hippocampal neurons during metabolic stress.

  12. Internal pH regulation facilitates in situ long-term acclimation of massive corals to end-of-century carbon dioxide conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.; Fietzke, J.; Schmidt, G. M.; Fink, A.; Hofmann, L. C.; de Beer, D.; Fabricius, K. E.

    2016-08-01

    The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1-7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals’ pHcf (using boron isotopes). Porites maintained a similar pHcf (~8.24) at both a control (pH 8.1) and seep-influenced site (pH 7.9). Internal pHcf was slightly reduced (8.12) at seawater pH 7.6, and decreased to 7.94 at a site with a seawater pH of 7.4. A growth response model based on pHcf mirrors the observed distribution patterns of this species in the field. We suggest Porites has the capacity to acclimate after long-time exposure to end-of-century reduced seawater pH conditions and that strong control over pHcf represents a key mechanism to persist in future oceans. Only beyond end-of-century pCO2 conditions do they face their current physiological limit of pH homeostasis and pHcf begins to decrease.

  13. Internal pH regulation facilitates in situ long-term acclimation of massive corals to end-of-century carbon dioxide conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, M.; Fietzke, J.; Schmidt, G. M.; Fink, A; Hofmann, L. C.; de Beer, D.; Fabricius, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1–7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals’ pHcf (using boron isotopes). Porites maintained a similar pHcf (~8.24) at both a control (pH 8.1) and seep-influenced site (pH 7.9). Internal pHcf was slightly reduced (8.12) at seawater pH 7.6, and decreased to 7.94 at a site with a seawater pH of 7.4. A growth response model based on pHcf mirrors the observed distribution patterns of this species in the field. We suggest Porites has the capacity to acclimate after long-time exposure to end-of-century reduced seawater pH conditions and that strong control over pHcf represents a key mechanism to persist in future oceans. Only beyond end-of-century pCO2 conditions do they face their current physiological limit of pH homeostasis and pHcf begins to decrease. PMID:27477963

  14. Heme crystallization in the midgut of triatomine insects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcus F; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Braga, Cláudia M S; Silva, José R; Mury, Flavia B; Dansa-Petretski, Marílvia; Menezes, Diego; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2007-01-01

    Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal produced by several blood-feeding organisms in order to detoxify free heme released upon hemoglobin (Hb) digestion. Here we show that heme crystallization also occurs in three species of triatomine insects. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared light absorption spectra of insoluble pigments isolated from the midgut of three triatomine species Triatoma infestans, Dipetalogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus indicated that all produce Hz. Morphological analysis of T. infestans and D. maximus midguts revealed the close association of Hz crystals to perimicrovillar membranes and also as multicrystalline assemblies, forming nearly spherical structures. Heme crystallization was promoted by isolated perimicrovillar membranes from all three species of triatomine bugs in vitro in heat-sensitive reactions. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that Hz formation is an ancestral adaptation of Triatominae to a blood-sucking habit and that the presence of perimicrovillar membranes plays a central role in this process.

  15. Intracellular pH regulates basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in colonic epithelial cells by modulating Ca2+ activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The role of intracellular pH as a modulator of basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances in epithelial cells was studied using digitonin- permeabilized colonic cell layers so that cytosolic pH could be clamped at specific values, while basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances were activated by stepwise increases in intracellular free Ca2+. Increasing the intracellular pH from 6.6 to 8.0 enhanced the sensitivity of both ionic conductances to intracellular Ca2+, but changing extracellular pH had no effect. Maximal K+ and Cl- currents activated by Ca2+ were not affected by changes in intracellular pH, suggesting that protons do not alter the conduction properties of the channels. Hill analysis of the Ca2+ activation process revealed that raising the cytosolic pH from 6.6 to 8.0 reduced the K1/2 for Ca2+ activation. In the absence of Ca2+, changes in intracellular pH did not have a significant effect on the basolateral K+ and Cl- conductances. These results are consistent with the notion that changes in cytosolic pH can modulate basolateral conductances by modifying the action of calcium, perhaps by acting at or near the activation site to provide a mechanism of variable "gain control." PMID:1719125

  16. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors.

    PubMed

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2014-01-08

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis.

  17. Whole-Genome Expression Analysis in the Third Instar Larval Midgut of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, Thomas W. R.; Pearce, Stephen L.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Survival of insects on a substrate containing toxic substances such as plant secondary metabolites or insecticides is dependent on the metabolism or excretion of those xenobiotics. The primary sites of xenobiotic metabolism are the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body. In general, gene expression in these organs is reported for the entire tissue by online databases, but several studies have shown that gene expression within the midgut is compartmentalized. Here, RNA sequencing is used to investigate whole-genome expression in subsections of third instar larval midguts of Drosophila melanogaster. The data support functional diversification in subsections of the midgut. Analysis of the expression of gene families that are implicated in the metabolism of xenobiotics suggests that metabolism may not be uniform along the midgut. These data provide a starting point for investigating gene expression and xenobiotic metabolism and other functions of the larval midgut. PMID:25193493

  18. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoforms composition regulates cellular pH homeostasis in differentiating PC12 cells in a manner dependent on cytosolic Ca2+ elevations.

    PubMed

    Boczek, Tomasz; Lisek, Malwina; Ferenc, Bozena; Kowalski, Antoni; Stepinski, Dariusz; Wiktorska, Magdalena; Zylinska, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) by extruding Ca(2+) outside the cell, actively participates in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Acting as Ca(2+)/H(+) counter-transporter, PMCA transports large quantities of protons which may affect organellar pH homeostasis. PMCA exists in four isoforms (PMCA1-4) but only PMCA2 and PMCA3, due to their unique localization and features, perform more specialized function. Using differentiated PC12 cells we assessed the role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in the regulation of intracellular pH in steady-state conditions and during Ca(2+) overload evoked by 59 mM KCl. We observed that manipulation in PMCA expression elevated pHmito and pHcyto but only in PMCA2-downregulated cells higher mitochondrial pH gradient (ΔpH) was found in steady-state conditions. Our data also demonstrated that PMCA2 or PMCA3 knock-down delayed Ca(2+) clearance and partially attenuated cellular acidification during KCl-stimulated Ca(2+) influx. Because SERCA and NCX modulated cellular pH response in neglectable manner, and all conditions used to inhibit PMCA prevented KCl-induced pH drop, we considered PMCA2 and PMCA3 as mainly responsible for transport of protons to intracellular milieu. In steady-state conditions, higher TMRE uptake in PMCA2-knockdown line was driven by plasma membrane potential (Ψp). Nonetheless, mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) in this line was dissipated during Ca(2+) overload. Cyclosporin and bongkrekic acid prevented Ψm loss suggesting the involvement of Ca(2+)-driven opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore as putative underlying mechanism. The findings presented here demonstrate a crucial role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in regulation of cellular pH and indicate PMCA membrane composition important for preservation of electrochemical gradient.

  19. Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase Isoforms Composition Regulates Cellular pH Homeostasis in Differentiating PC12 Cells in a Manner Dependent on Cytosolic Ca2+ Elevations

    PubMed Central

    Ferenc, Bozena; Kowalski, Antoni; Stepinski, Dariusz; Wiktorska, Magdalena; Zylinska, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) by extruding Ca2+ outside the cell, actively participates in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Acting as Ca2+/H+ counter-transporter, PMCA transports large quantities of protons which may affect organellar pH homeostasis. PMCA exists in four isoforms (PMCA1-4) but only PMCA2 and PMCA3, due to their unique localization and features, perform more specialized function. Using differentiated PC12 cells we assessed the role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in the regulation of intracellular pH in steady-state conditions and during Ca2+ overload evoked by 59 mM KCl. We observed that manipulation in PMCA expression elevated pHmito and pHcyto but only in PMCA2-downregulated cells higher mitochondrial pH gradient (ΔpH) was found in steady-state conditions. Our data also demonstrated that PMCA2 or PMCA3 knock-down delayed Ca2+ clearance and partially attenuated cellular acidification during KCl-stimulated Ca2+ influx. Because SERCA and NCX modulated cellular pH response in neglectable manner, and all conditions used to inhibit PMCA prevented KCl-induced pH drop, we considered PMCA2 and PMCA3 as mainly responsible for transport of protons to intracellular milieu. In steady-state conditions, higher TMRE uptake in PMCA2-knockdown line was driven by plasma membrane potential (Ψp). Nonetheless, mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) in this line was dissipated during Ca2+ overload. Cyclosporin and bongkrekic acid prevented Ψm loss suggesting the involvement of Ca2+-driven opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore as putative underlying mechanism. The findings presented here demonstrate a crucial role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in regulation of cellular pH and indicate PMCA membrane composition important for preservation of electrochemical gradient. PMID:25014339

  20. Galactolipase, phospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase activities in the midgut of six species of lepidopteran larvae feeding on different lipid diets.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; Amara, Sawsan; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Galactolipase, phospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase activities were measured from the midgut of six species of lepidopteran larvae, two folivores, Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae); two granivores, Plodia interpunctella (Pyralidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Pyrallidae); a presumptive carnivore, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae); and a keratinophage, Tineola bisselliella (Tineidae). Galactolipase has not been previously reported in insects. Galactolipase and phospholipase activities were high in the folivores and triacylglycerol lipase activity was low, matching the high galactolipid content of leaves. Conversely, galactolipase and phospholipase activities were low, but not absent, and triacylglycerol lipase activity high in the four other non-folivorous species, matching the high acylglycerol content of their diets. These data suggest the utility of reclassification, for evolutionary studies, of phytophagous lepidoptera into two feeding classes; folivore and granivore, the latter having similarity to the fungivore line of feeders in terms of its lipase activities and ability to retrieve essential polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids from their diets. All the digestive lipases have alkaline pH optima for activity, matching the pH of the lepidopteran midgut and their amino acid content show modifications likely to stabilize the proteins in that environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain-midgut cross-talk and autocrine metabolastat via the sNPF/CCAP negative feed-back loop in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Mikani, Azam; Watari, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Makio

    2015-12-01

    Immunohistochemical reactivities against short neuropeptide F (sNPF-ir) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP-ir) were detected in both the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) and midgut epithelial cells of the male American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells and decreased the CCAP-ir cells in the Br-SOG, whereas refeeding reversed these effects. The contents of sNPF in the Br-SOG, midgut and hemolymph titer decreased in response to an injection of CCAP into the hemocoel of normally fed male cockroaches, while CCAP titers/contents decreased in response to an injection of sNPF. The results of a double-labeling experiment demonstrated that sNPF-ir co-existed in CCAP-ir cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral region of protocerebrum (DL), deutocerebrum (De) and SOG. sNPF-ir and CCAP-ir were also colocalized in the midgut. sNPF and CCAP are neuropeptides and midgut factors that interact with each other. Since the two peptides are known to be secreted by identical cells that affect each other, this constitutes autocrine negative feedback regulation for a quick response to food accessibility/inaccessibility. These peptides not only constitute the switch in the digestive mechanism but also couple digestive adaptation with behavior. A CCAP injection suppressed locomotor activity when cockroaches were starved, whereas sNPF activated it when they were fed.

  2. Expression of a sugar clade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-03-01

    Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar clade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae.

  3. pH regulation in single CA1 neurons acutely isolated from the hippocampi of immature and mature rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bevensee, M O; Cummins, T R; Haddad, G G; Boron, W F; Boyarsky, G

    1996-01-01

    1. We used the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) to study the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in single pyramidal neurons freshly isolated from the hippocampal CA1 region of immature (2- to 10-day-old) and more mature (21- to 30-day-old) rats. 2. Whether isolated from immature or mature rats, neurons had a broad range of initial pHi values (6.3-7.7) when the cells were examined in solutions buffered with Hepes and no CO2/HCO3-. The initial pHi distribution for neurons isolated from immature rats was best fitted with a Gaussian distribution with a mean of 6.95. In contrast, the initial pHi distribution for neurons isolated from mature rats was best fitted with the sum of two Gaussian distributions with means of 6.68 and 7.32. 3. When neurons with a relatively low initial pHi in Hepes-buffered solutions were acid loaded, pHi recovered very slowly. Neurons with a relatively high initial pHi recovered rapidly. The rate constant for the exponential pHi recovery increased with initial pHi. All pHi recoveries required Na+. 4. Both for neurons with a relatively high (> or = 7.05) and a relatively low (< 7.05) initial pHi, net acid extrusion rates (Jtotal = dpHi/dt x buffering power) decreased linearly with increasing pHi. Compared with the line for neurons with a relatively low initial pHi, that for neurons with a relatively high pHi had a significantly greater slope and was alkaline shifted by 0.6-0.7 pH units. 5. Removing external Na+ in the absence of CO2/HCO3- caused pHi to decrease by approximately 0.3 in neurons with a relatively low initial pHi, and by approximately 0.5 in neurons with a relatively high initial pHi. This initial acidification was followed by a slower, partial pHi recovery in approximately 32% of neurons with a relatively low initial pHi, but only approximately 14% of neurons with a relatively high pHi. 6. When exposed to CO2/HCO3-, all neurons initially acidified. Neurons with a relatively low

  4. Differential expression of chemosensory-protein genes in midguts in response to diet of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Qi, Jiangwei; Zhou, Xiaofan; Hu, Mei Ying; Zhong, Guo Hua

    2017-03-22

    While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut. The orthologous relationships between midgut expressed CSPs in S. litura and those in Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella also suggest a conserved pattern of CSP expression in midgut. We further demonstrated that the expression of midgut-CSPs may change in response to different host plants, and SlitCSPs could bind typical chemicals from host plant in vitro. Overall, our results suggested midgut expressed SlitCSPs may have functional roles, likely contributing to specialization and adaption to different ecosystems. Better knowledge of this critical component of the chemsensation signaling pathways in midguts may improve our understanding of food preference processes in a new perspective.

  5. Cellulolytic environment in the midgut of the wood-feeding higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Gaku; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hojo, Masaru; Fujita, Ai; Makiya, Hiromi; Miyagi, Mio; Arakawa, Gaku; Arioka, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower termites, xylophagous higher termites thrive on wood without the aid of symbiotic protists. In the higher termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis, both endogenous endo-β-1,4-glucanase and β-glucosidase genes are expressed in the midgut, which is believed to be the main site of cellulose digestion. To further explore the detailed cellulolytic system in the midgut of N. takasagoensis, we performed immunohistochemistry and digital light microscopy to determine distributions of cellulolytic enzymes in the salivary glands and the midgut as well as the total cellulolytic activity in the midgut. Although cellulolytic enzymes were uniformly produced in the midgut epithelium, the concentration of endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity and luminal volume in the midgut were comparable to those of the wood-feeding lower termite Coptotermes formosanus, which digests cellulose with the aid of hindgut protists. However, the size of ingested wood particles was considerably larger in N. takasagoensis than that in C. formosanus. Nevertheless, it is possible that the cellulolytic system in the midgut of N. takasagoensis hydrolyzes highly crystalline cellulose to a certain extent. The glucose produced did not accumulate in the midgut lumen. Therefore, the present study suggests that the midgut of the higher termite provides the necessary conditions for cellulolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase like gene located in the tyramine biosynthesis cluster of Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by tyrosine concentration and extracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tyramine producer Enterococcus durans IPLA655 contains all the necessary genes for tyramine biosynthesis, grouped in the TDC cluster. This cluster includes tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase like gene. Results This work shows that tyrS was maximally transcribed in absence of tyrosine at acidic pH, showing a greater than 10-fold induction in mRNA levels over levels occurring in presence of tyrosine. Mapping of the tyrS transcriptional start site revealed an unusually long untranslated leader region of 322 bp, which displays the typical features of the T box transcriptional attenuation mechanism. The tyrosine concentration regulation of tyrS was found to be mediated by a transcription antitermination system, whereas the specific induction at acidic pH was regulated at transcription initiation level. Conclusions The expression of the tyrS gene present in the TDC cluster of E. durans is transcriptionally regulated by tyrosine concentration and extracelular pH. The regulation is mediated by both an antitermination system and the promoter itself. PMID:22333391

  7. Debra-mediated Ci degradation controls tissue homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-02-11

    Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control.

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella zofingiensis in bench-scale outdoor ponds by regulation of pH using dairy wastewater in winter, South China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuhao; Wang, Zhongming; Zhu, Shunni; Zhou, Weizheng; Dong, Renjie; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2012-10-01

    Cultivation of Chlorella zofingiensis and nutrients removal in dairy wastewater were investigated in bench-scale outdoor ponds in winter, South China. The impacts of the two types of pH regulations, 5 ≈ 6% CO(2) and acetic acid (HAc) on this process were studied. After 6 days cultivation, the removal rates of total nitrogen (TN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)) using CO(2) regulation were better than those using HAc. The removal rates of PO(4)(3-) and TN were 97.5% and 51.7%, respectively using CO(2) regulation; 79.6% (TN) and 42.0% (PO(4)(3-)) were obtained using HAc regulation. Higher biomass, protein, sugar content, and stable pH control were found using CO(2) regulation. However, significantly higher lipid content (31.8%) was observed using HAc regulation. The dominant differences of fatty acids were the content of C18:1 and C18:3. The growth characteristics and environmental conditions especially during the typical logarithmic phase were also analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Hypothetical Model of Crossing Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus through Its Host Midgut Physical Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Wang, Xue-Yang; Hu, Hao; Killiny, Nabil; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori) that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV. PMID:25502928

  10. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  11. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of the Midgut of the Chinese Oak Silkworm Antheraea pernyi Infected with Antheraea pernyi Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Liu, Wei; He, Ying-Zi; Wang, Feng-Cheng; Jiang, Yi-Ren; Qin, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus (ApNPV) is an exclusive pathogen of A. pernyi. The intense interactions between ApNPV and A. pernyi cause a series of physiological and pathological changes to A. pernyi. However, no detailed report exists regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between ApNPV and A. pernyi. In this study, four cDNA libraries of the A. pernyi midgut, including two ApNPV-infected groups and two control groups, were constructed for transcriptomic analysis to provide new clues regarding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these interactions. The transcriptome of the A. pernyi midgut was de novo assembled using the Trinity platform because of the lack of a genome resource for A. pernyi. Compared with the controls, a total of 5,172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2,183 up-regulated and 2,989 down-regulated candidates, of which 2,965 and 911 DEGs were classified into different GO categories and KEGG pathways, respectively. The DEGs involved in A. pernyi innate immunity were classified into several categories, including heat-shock proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, serpins, serine proteases and cytochrome P450s. Our results suggested that these genes were related to the immune response of the A. pernyi midgut to ApNPV infection via their essential roles in regulating a variety of physiological processes. Our results may serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanisms of ApNPV invasion but also on the anti-ApNPV mechanism of A. pernyi. PMID:27820844

  13. Sugar digestion in mosquitoes: identification and characterization of three midgut alpha-glucosidases of the neo-tropical malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Souza-Neto, Jayme A; Machado, Fábio P; Lima, José B; Valle, Denise; Ribolla, Paulo E M

    2007-08-01

    Dietary carbohydrates provide an important source of energy for flight, and contribute to longevity and fecundity of mosquitoes. The most common sugar mosquitoes ingest is sucrose, and digestion of this substance is carried out mainly by alpha-glucosidases. In the current work, we tested the efficiency of sucrose on Anopheles aquasalis female diet. The best longevity (days) was reached when sugar was available in the diet, whereas most only blood fed females were dead 6 days after emergence. Three alpha-glucosidase isoforms were detected in the adult female midgut, named alphaGlu1, alphaGlu2 and alphaGlu3. These are acidic alpha-glucosidases with optima pH around pH 5.5. alphaGlu1 and alphaGlu2 are present in both secreted and membrane-bound forms, whereas alpha-Glu3 only in anchored to membranes. The alpha-glucosidase activity is concentrated mainly in the posterior midgut (70%), both in non-fed or 10% sucrose fed females. The single form of these alpha-glucosidases seemed to be approximately 70 kDa polypeptides, although alphaGlu2 is presented in >or=600 kDa self-aggregates. Km values of alphaGlu1, alphaGlu2 and alphaGlu3 differed significantly from each other, supporting the statement that three alpha-glucosidases are produced in the female midgut. Together, all data suggest that sugar is an essential component of A. aquasalis female diet. In addition, alpha-glucosidases are synthesized in the same place where sucrose is digested and absorbed, the midgut.

  14. pH might play a role in regulating the function of paired amphipathic helices domains of human Sin3B by altering structure and thermodynamic stability.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Tauheed; Ali, Mashook; Saluja, Daman; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar

    2015-04-01

    Human Sin3B (hSin3B), a transcription regulator, is a scaffold protein that binds to different transcription factors and regulates transcription. It consists of six conserved domains that include four paired amphipathic helices (PAH 1-4), histone deacetylase interaction domain (HID), and highly conserved region (HCR). Interestingly, the PAH domains of hSin3B are significantly homologous to each other, yet each one interacts with a specific set of unique transcription factors. Though various partners interacting with hSin3B PAH domains have been characterized, there is no structural information available on the individual PAH domains of hSin3B. Here we characterize the structure and stability of different PAH domains of hSin3B at both nuclear and physiological pH values by using different optical probes. We found that the native state structure and stability of different PAH domains are different at nuclear pH where hSin3B performs its biological function. We also found that PAH2 and PAH3 behave differently at both nuclear and physiological pH in terms of native state structure and thermodynamic stability, while the structural identity of PAH1 remains unaltered at both pH values. The study indicates that the structural heterogeneity of different PAH domains might be responsible for having a unique set of interacting transcription factors.

  15. The midgut transcriptome of Aedes aegypti fed with saline or protein meals containing chikungunya virus reveals genes potentially involved in viral midgut escape.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhang; Behura, Susanta K; Franz, Alexander W E

    2017-05-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Following oral acquisition, an arbovirus has to persistently infect several organs in the mosquito before becoming transmissible to another vertebrate host. A major obstacle an arbovirus has to overcome during its infection cycle inside the mosquito is the midgut escape barrier, representing the exit mechanism arboviruses utilize when disseminating from the midgut. To understand the transcriptomic basis of midgut escape and to reveal genes involved in the process, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis of midgut samples from mosquitoes which had received a saline meal (SM) or a protein meal (PM) (not) containing CHIKV. CHIKV which was orally acquired by a mosquito along with a SM or PM productively infected the midgut epithelium and disseminated to secondary tissues. A total of 27 RNA-Seq libraries from midguts of mosquitoes that had received PM or SM (not) containing CHIKV at 1 and 2 days post-feeding were generated and sequenced. Fewer than 80 genes responded differentially to the presence of CHIKV in midguts of mosquitoes that had acquired the virus along with SM or PM. SM feeding induced differential expression (DE) of 479 genes at day 1 and 314 genes at day 2 when compared to midguts of sugarfed mosquitoes. By comparison, PM feeding induced 6029 DE genes at day 1 and 7368 genes at day 2. Twenty-three DE genes encoding trypsins, metalloproteinases, and serine-type endopeptidases were significantly upregulated in midguts of mosquitoes at day 1 following SM or PM ingestion. Two of these genes were Ae. aegypti late trypsin (AeLT) and serine collagenase 1 precursor (AeSP1). In vitro, recombinant AeLT showed strong matrix metalloproteinase activity whereas recombinant AeSP1 did not. By substituting a bloodmeal for SM, we identified midgut-expressed genes not involved in blood or protein digestion. These included genes

  16. Slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at acidic pH is regulated by phoPR and host-associated carbon sources

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jacob J.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Abramovitch, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During pathogenesis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) colonizes environments, such as the macrophage or necrotic granuloma, that are acidic and rich in cholesterol and fatty acids. The goal of this study was to examine how acidic pH and available carbon sources interact to regulate Mtb physiology. Here we report that Mtb growth at acidic pH requires host-associated carbon sources that function at the intersection of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, such as pyruvate, acetate, oxaloacetate and cholesterol. In contrast, in other tested carbon sources, Mtb fully arrests its growth at acidic pH and establishes a state of non-replicating persistence. Growth-arrested Mtb is resuscitated by the addition of pyruvate suggesting that growth arrest is due to a pH-dependent checkpoint on metabolism. Additionally, we demonstrate that the phoPR two-component regulatory system is required to slow Mtb growth at acidic pH and functions to maintain redox homeostasis. Transcriptional profiling and functional metabolic studies demonstrate that signals from acidic pH and carbon source are integrated to remodel pathways associated with anaplerotic central metabolism, lipid anabolism and the regeneration of oxidized cofactors. Because phoPR is required for Mtb virulence in animals, we suggest that pH-driven adaptation may be critical to Mtb pathogenesis. PMID:24975990

  17. The antidiuretic neurohormone RhoprCAPA-2 downregulates fluid transport across the anterior midgut in the blood-feeding insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Ianowski, Juan P; Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Te Brugge, Victoria A; Orchard, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Osmotic balance in insects is regulated by the excretory system, consisting of Malpighian tubules and the gut under the control of diuretic and antidiuretic factors. Terrestrial insects must conserve water, and antidiuresis is the norm, only interrupted by brief diuretic periods. Surprisingly, little is known about antidiuresis in insects. Two antidiuretic strategies have been described. The first antidiuretic mechanism involves the reabsorption of fluid from the primary urine in the hindgut. More recently, a second antidiuretic strategy was reported, consisting of inhibition of primary urine formation by the Malpighian tubules. Recently, we isolated, characterized, and cloned the gene encoding for the antidiuretic neurohormone (the neuropeptide RhoprCAPA-2) acting on the Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus. Here we describe a third, novel mechanism central to the antidiuretic strategy of R. prolixus, the inhibition of ion and fluid transport across the anterior midgut by RhoprCAPA-2. Our results show that RhoprCAPA-2 (1 micromol/l) reduces serotonin-stimulated fluid transport from 83 +/- 11 to 12 +/- 12 nl/min and equivalent short-circuit current from 20 +/- 4 to 5 +/- 0.7 microA/cm(2) in diuretic hormone-stimulated anterior midgut. RhoprCAPA-2 appears to function independently of intracellular cGMP or Ca(2+) in the midgut. Thus, the antidiuretic neurohormone RhoprCAPA-2 has multiple target tissues, and we hypothesize that RhoprCAPA-2 functions to coordinate the transport activity of the anterior midgut and Malpighian tubules so that the rate of fluid transport into the haemolymph by the anterior midgut matches the transport rate of Malpighian tubules to maintain the volume and ion composition of haemolymph.

  18. The Antioxidant Role of Xanthurenic Acid in the Aedes aegypti Midgut during Digestion of a Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vitor L. A.; Dias, Felipe; Nunes, Rodrigo D.; Pereira, Luiza O.; Santos, Tiago S. R.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Ramos, Tadeu D.; Silva-Mendes, Bernardo J.; Perales, Jonas; Valente, Richard H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    In the midgut of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever, an intense release of heme and iron takes place during the digestion of a blood meal. Here, we demonstrated via chromatography, light absorption and mass spectrometry that xanthurenic acid (XA), a product of the oxidative metabolism of tryptophan, is produced in the digestive apparatus after the ingestion of a blood meal and reaches milimolar levels after 24 h, the period of maximal digestive activity. XA formation does not occur in the White Eye (WE) strain, which lacks kynurenine hydroxylase and accumulates kynurenic acid. The formation of XA can be diminished by feeding the insect with 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[4-(3-nitrophenyl)thiazol-2-yl] benzenesulfonamide (Ro-61-8048), an inhibitor of XA biosynthesis. Moreover, XA inhibits the phospholipid oxidation induced by heme or iron. A major fraction of this antioxidant activity is due to the capacity of XA to bind both heme and iron, which occurs at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5-8.0), a condition found in the insect midgut. The midgut epithelial cells of the WE mosquito has a marked increase in occurrence of cell death, which is reversed to levels similar to the wild type mosquitoes by feeding the insects with blood supplemented with XA, confirming the protective role of this molecule. Collectively, these results suggest a new role for XA as a heme and iron chelator that provides protection as an antioxidant and may help these animals adapt to a blood feeding habit. PMID:22701629

  19. The Ca2+-Regulation of the Mitochondrial External NADPH Dehydrogenase in Plants Is Controlled by Cytosolic pH

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Meng-Shu; Jensen, Anna M.; Boquist, Ann-Sofie; Liu, Yun-Jun; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2015-01-01

    NADPH is a key reductant carrier that maintains internal redox and antioxidant status, and that links biosynthetic, catabolic and signalling pathways. Plants have a mitochondrial external NADPH oxidation pathway, which depends on Ca2+ and pH in vitro, but concentrations of Ca2+ needed are not known. We have determined the K0.5(Ca2+) of the external NADPH dehydrogenase from Solanum tuberosum mitochondria and membranes of E. coli expressing Arabidopsis thaliana NDB1 over the physiological pH range using O2 and decylubiquinone as electron acceptors. The K0.5(Ca2+) of NADPH oxidation was generally higher than for NADH oxidation, and unlike the latter, it depended on pH. At pH 7.5, K0.5(Ca2+) for NADPH oxidation was high (≈100 μM), yet 20-fold lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were determined at pH 6.8. Lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were observed with decylubiquinone than with O2 as terminal electron acceptor. NADPH oxidation responded to changes in Ca2+ concentrations more rapidly than NADH oxidation did. Thus, cytosolic acidification is an important activator of external NADPH oxidation, by decreasing the Ca2+-requirements for NDB1. The results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge on how whole cell NADPH redox homeostasis is affected in plants modified for the NDB1 gene. PMID:26413894

  20. The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway acts as an innate antiviral immune response in Aedes aegypti, modulating arbovirus infection of mosquitoes. Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. SINV strain TR339 encounters a midgut escape barrier (MEB) during infection of Ae. aegypti. The nature of this barrier is not well understood. To investigate the role of the midgut as the central organ determining vector competence for arboviruses, we generated transgenic mosquitoes in which the RNAi pathway was impaired in midgut tissue of bloodfed females. We used these mosquitoes to reveal effects of RNAi impairment in the midgut on SINV replication, midgut infection and dissemination efficiencies, and mosquito longevity. Results As a novel tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions, we engineered a transgenic mosquito line with an impaired RNAi pathway in the midgut of bloodfed females by silencing expression of the Aa-dcr2 gene. In midgut tissue of the transgenic Carb/dcr16 line, Aa-dcr2 expression was reduced ~50% between 1-7 days post-bloodmeal (pbm) when compared to the recipient mosquito strain. After infection with SINV-TR339EGFP, Aa-dcr2 expression levels were enhanced in both mosquito strains. In the RNAi pathway impaired mosquito strain SINV titers and midgut infection rates were significantly higher at 7 days pbm. There was also a strong tendency for increased virus dissemination rates among the transgenic mosquitoes. Between 7-14 days pbm, SINV was diminished in midgut tissue of the transgenic mosquitoes. Transgenic impairment of the RNAi pathway and/or SINV infection did not affect longevity of the mosquitoes. Conclusions We showed that RNAi impaired transgenic mosquitoes are a useful tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions at the molecular level. Following ingestion by Ae. aegypti, the recombinant SINV-TR339EGFP was confronted with both MEB and a midgut

  1. K-targeted strategy for isolation of phenolic alkaloids of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by counter-current chromatography using lysine as a pH regulator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihong; Zhou, Hui; Guo, Xiuyun; Wu, Shihua

    2017-03-24

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is an efficient liquid-liquid partition chromatography technique without support matrix. Despite there are many significant advancements in the CCC separation of natural products especially for non-ionic neutral compounds, CCC isolation of ionic compounds including alkaloids is still a challenging process guide by classical partition coefficients (K) or distribution ratio (KC) because their partition coefficient could not be equal to distribution ratio in common ionic conditions. Here, taking the extract of embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn as sample, we introduced a modified K-targeted strategy for isolation of phenolic alkaloids by use of lysine as a pH regulator. The results indicated that if the mass of basic regulators such as aqueous ammonia and lysine added into the solvent system were high enough to inhibit the ionization of the targeted alkaloids, the distribution ratio of targets with ionic and non-ionic molecular forms got stable and might not been changed as the concentration of the pH regulator. In this case, the distribution ratio of target was almost equal to the partition coefficient. Thus, the targets could be isolated by K-targeted CCC separation through adding a certain amount pH regulators into the solvent system. Further experiments also showed that the sample concentration was an important factor on the distribution ratio of targets. Meanwhile, CCC experiments indicated that lysine was more suitable than aqueous ammonia for the separation of phenolic alkaloids because the chemical property of lysine-target complex in the CCC fractions was more stable. Therefore, the preparative CCC separation was performed using 20mM lysine as a pH regulator with more than 800mg injection mass. After simple back-extraction with dichloromethane, the lysine in the CCC fraction was removed completely and pure isoliensinine and neferine were obtained. In summary, the whole results indicated that the modified K

  2. Regulation of carboxypeptidase E. Effect of pH, temperature and Co2+ on kinetic parameters of substrate hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D; Das, B; Fricker, L D

    1992-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E is a member of the carboxypeptidase A and B gene family, with many of the putative active-site and substrate-binding residues conserved between these enzymes. However, the pH optimum of carboxypeptidase E is substantially lower than that of carboxypeptidases A and B. To evaluate whether the difference in the pH optima of these carboxypeptidases reflects fundamental differences in the ionization behaviour of active-site residues, the influence of pH on carboxypeptidase E activity was examined. The V(max) for hydrolysis of dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg is pH-independent between 5 and 7, but decreases at pH values below 5. The pKa for the group the protonation of which leads to the loss of activity is approximately 4.8, and the slope of the V(max.)/pH profile suggests that only a single ionizable group is involved. In contrast, Km and V(max.)/Km are dramatically influenced by pH over the range 5-7, with multiple ionizable groups detected in this pH range. The pKa of the group the protonation of which decreases the V(max.) of substrate hydrolysis is lower (4.5) for carboxypeptidase E which had been reconstituted with Co2+. The enthalpy of ionization of the group observed in the V(max.) profile for carboxypeptidase E is approx. 28.9 kJ/mol. These results are compatible with the active-site model of the homologous carboxypeptidase A: in this model the ionization of a metal-bound water molecule is responsible for the observed decrease in V(max.). PMID:1637350

  3. Regulation of Renal Citrate Metabolism by Bicarbonate Ion and pH: Observations in Tissue Slices and Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, David P.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of acid-base balance on the oxidation and utilization of citrate and other organic acids has been studied in tissue slices and isolated kidney mitochondria. The results show that: 1) With bicarbonate-buffered media, citrate oxidation and utilization are inhibited in slices of renal cortex and in kidney mitochondria when [HCO3-] and pH are increased within the physiologic range (pH 7.0 to 7.8; 10 to 60 μmoles HCO3- per ml). When phosphate or Tris buffers are used, no comparable effect on citrate oxidation occurs when pH is varied. 2) This effect is not demonstrable in heart or liver slices when a physiologic buffer is used. 3) α-Ketoglutarate utilization is inhibited in slices of renal cortex under similar conditions. Pyruvate and L-malate utilization are not inhibited in slices or mitochondria. 4) Citrate content in slices of renal cortex incubated with a high [HCO3-] is considerably greater than the concentration found with a low [HCO3-] in the medium. This effect is not duplicated by pH change in a nonbicarbonate buffer system. In mitochondria citrate content is also increased markedly at high bicarbonate concentrations. 5) The kinetic characteristics of the inhibition of citrate oxidation are those of a competitive type of inhibition. 6) When pH was varied with a constant [HCO3-] in the media, citrate oxidation was inhibited by increasing pH in slices of renal cortex but not in mitochondria. On the other hand, when [HCO3-] was increased without change in pH, no decrease in citrate oxidation occurred in slices, but a marked inhibitory effect was found when mitochondria were used. From a comparison of these results with those previously obtained in intact animal experiments, we conclude that the inhibition of citrate oxidation caused by increasing pH and [HCO3-] in slices of renal cortex and kidney mitochondria is an in vitro representation of the inhibition of citrate reabsorption in the nephron that occurs in metabolic alkalosis. Thus, citrate

  4. Hsp70 and small Hsps are the major heat shock protein members involved in midgut metamorphosis in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Huang, L-X; Shen, Y; Huang, L-H; Feng, Q-L

    2012-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are important chaperones, which are involved in various signal pathways and regulate lots of physiological processes. Early research suggested that some Hsps are involved in insect development. However, few studies have been carried out to explore the roles of Hsps, especially in larval-pupal metamorphosis. In the present study, 49 Hsp unigenes were identified in the Spodoptera litura transcriptome and their mRNA expression profiles during midgut metamorphosis were examined using a tag-based digital gene expression system. The genes with the most different levels of expression were then cloned and their expression patterns in midguts from sixth instar larvae to pupae were analysed using real time quantitative PCR. The responses of these genes to juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were also studied. The results showed that the mRNA levels of 22 Hsp unigenes changed significantly during midgut metamorphosis. Amongst these 22 unigenes, hsp70, hsp20.4 and hsp20.8 were the most up-regulated members, and hsp15.9, hsp19.3 and hsp22.0 were the most down-regulated ones. Further studies showed that hsp70, hsp20.4 and hsp20.8 were remarkably up-regulated by JH. In addition, 20E slightly increased the mRNA levels of both hsp20.4 and hsp20.8. However, hsp15.9, hsp19.3 and hsp22.0 did not respond to either JH or 20E. These results indicate that Hsp70 and small Hsps (sHsps) are probably the major players in midgut metamorphosis in S. litura. The current findings provide valuable insights into the roles of the Hsp superfamily in insect metamorphosis.

  5. Regulation of intracellular pH in the smooth muscle of guinea-pig ureter: Na+ dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Aickin, C C

    1994-01-01

    1. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig ureter have been investigated using double-barrelled pH-sensitive microelectrodes in isolated strips of tissue. 2. Removal of CO2-HCO3- from the superfusing solution caused a fall in the steady-state pHi except in a few cells which had been excised from the animal for many hours (usually > 24 h). The pHi value was 7.22 +/- 0.09 (n = 89; mean +/- S.D. of an observation) in solution buffered with 5% CO2-21 mM HCO3-, compared with 6.92 +/- 0.24 (n = 67) in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-. Recovery from experimentally induced acidosis was faster in the presence, rather than nominal absence, of CO2-HCO3- (mean half-times of 2.7 +/- 0.7 min, n = 41, and 4.6 +/- 1.3 min, n = 12, respectively). These results suggest the presence of both HCO(3-)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for the effective extrusion of acid equivalents. 3. Recovery from acidosis was dependent on external Na+ (Na+o) in both the presence and nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-, with an apparent half-maximal activation at approximately 4 and 20 mM Na+o, respectively. Removal of Na+o in the steady state caused a fall in pHi which proceeded at a faster rate in the presence rather than in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-. 4. Amiloride (100 microM-1 mM) reversibly inhibited the recovery from acidosis and caused a fall in the steady-state pHi when applied in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3-, but had no measurable effect on either the recovery from acidosis or steady-state pHi in the presence of CO2-HCO3-. These results suggest that Na(+)-H+ exchange was responsible for extrusion of acid equivalents in the nominal absence of CO2 and HCO3-, but that it played little part under more physiological conditions. 5. Although Na(+)-H+ exchange appeared to be activated below a pHi of about 7.2, it was incapable of maintaining a 'normal' pHi in the nominal absence of CO2-HCO3- in freshly excised cells, where values

  6. Modulation of Phagosomal pH by Candida albicans Promotes Hyphal Morphogenesis and Requires Stp2p, a Regulator of Amino Acid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Vylkova, Slavena; Lorenz, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most important fungal pathogen of humans, has a unique interaction with macrophages in which phagocytosis induces a switch from the yeast to hyphal form, allowing it to escape by rupturing the immune cell. While a variety of factors induce this switch in vitro, including neutral pH, it is not clear what triggers morphogenesis within the macrophage where the acidic environment should inhibit this transition. In vitro, C. albicans grown in similar conditions in which amino acids are the primary carbon source generate large quantities of ammonia to raise the extracellular pH and induce the hyphal switch. We show here that C. albicans cells neutralize the macrophage phagosome and that neutral pH is a key inducer of germination in phagocytosed cells by using a mutant lacking STP2, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple amino acid permeases, that is completely deficient in alkalinization in vitro. Phagocytosed stp2Δ mutant cells showed significant reduction in hypha formation and escaped from macrophages less readily compared to wild type cells; as a result stp2Δ mutant cells were killed at a higher rate and caused less damage to RAW264.7 macrophages. Stp2p-regulated import leads to alkalinization of the phagosome, since the majority of the wild type cells fail to co-localize with acidophilic dyes, whereas the stp2Δ mutant cells were located in acidic phagosomes. Furthermore, stp2Δ mutant cells were able to form hyphae and escape from neutral phagosomes, indicating that the survival defect in these cells was pH dependent. Finally, these defects are reflected in an attenuation of virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Altogether our results suggest that C. albicans utilizes amino acids to promote neutralization of the phagosomal pH, hyphal morphogenesis, and escape from macrophages. PMID:24626429

  7. pH up-regulation as a potential mechanism for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to sustain growth in aragonite undersaturated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.; Ragazzola, F.; Foster, L. C.; Form, A.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Cold-water corals are important habitat formers in deep-water ecosystems and at high latitudes. Ocean acidification and the resulting change in aragonite saturation are expected to affect these habitats and impact coral growth. Counter to expectations, the deep water coral Lophelia pertusa has been found to be able to sustain growth even in undersaturated conditions. However, it is important to know whether such undersaturation modifies the skeleton and thus its ecosystem functioning. Here we used Synchrotron X-Ray Tomography and Raman spectroscopy to examine changes in skeleton morphology and fibre orientation. We combined the morphological assessment with boron isotope analysis to determine if changes in growth are related to changes in control of calcification pH. We compared the isotopic composition and structure formed in their natural environment to material grown in culture at lower pH conditions. Skeletal morphology is highly variable but shows no distinctive differences between natural and low pH conditions. Raman investigations found no difference in macromorphological skeletal arrangement of early mineralization zones and secondary thickening between the treatments. The δ11B analyses show that L. pertusa up-regulates the internal calcifying fluid pH (pHcf) during calcification compared to ambient seawater pH and maintains a similar elevated pHcf at increased pCO2 conditions. We suggest that as long as the energy is available to sustain the up-regulation, i.e. individuals are well fed, there is no detrimental effect to the skeletal morphology.

  8. Carbon, nitrogen and pH regulate the production and activity of a polygalacturonase isozyme produced by Penicillium expansum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of carbon, nitrogen and pH on polygalacturonase activity produced by Penicillium expansum were investigated. P. expansum mycelial growth was greatest on lyophilized fruit tissue and the highest PG activity occurred in apple pectin medium. Nitrogen source influenced PG activity and was ...

  9. Ultrastructural and Transcriptional Changes in Response to Dietary Lectins in the Hessian Fly Larval Midgut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The midgut is a major interface between phytophagous insects and their host plants. Here we report on ultrastructural and transcriptional changes in response to dietary lectins introduced into the host plant during the 1st instar in the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larval midgut. Resul...

  10. Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Wheat Germ Agglutinin and Starvation in Drosophila melanogaster Larval Midgut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One function of plant lectins such as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is to serve as defenses against herbivorous insects. The midgut is one critical site affected by dietary lectins. We observed marked cellular, structural, and gene expression changes in the midguts of Drosophila melanogaster third-i...

  11. Ligninolytic peroxidase gene expression by Pleurotus ostreatus: differential regulation in lignocellulose medium and effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Castanera, Raul; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; López-Lucendo, María F; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Martínez, Angel T

    2014-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an important edible mushroom and a model lignin degrading organism, whose genome contains nine genes of ligninolytic peroxidases, characteristic of white-rot fungi. These genes encode six manganese peroxidase (MnP) and three versatile peroxidase (VP) isoenzymes. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, secretion of four of these peroxidase isoenzymes (VP1, VP2, MnP2 and MnP6) was confirmed when P. ostreatus grows in a lignocellulose medium at 25°C (three more isoenzymes were identified by only one unique peptide). Then, the effect of environmental parameters on the expression of the above nine genes was studied by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR by changing the incubation temperature and medium pH of P. ostreatus cultures pre-grown under the above conditions (using specific primers and two reference genes for result normalization). The cultures maintained at 25°C (without pH adjustment) provided the highest levels of peroxidase transcripts and the highest total activity on Mn(2+) (a substrate of both MnP and VP) and Reactive Black 5 (a VP specific substrate). The global analysis of the expression patterns divides peroxidase genes into three main groups according to the level of expression at optimal conditions (vp1/mnp3>vp2/vp3/mnp1/mnp2/mnp6>mnp4/mnp5). Decreasing or increasing the incubation temperature (to 10°C or 37°C) and adjusting the culture pH to acidic or alkaline conditions (pH 3 and 8) generally led to downregulation of most of the peroxidase genes (and decrease of the enzymatic activity), as shown when the transcription levels were referred to those found in the cultures maintained at the initial conditions. Temperature modification produced less dramatic effects than pH modification, with most genes being downregulated during the whole 10°C treatment, while many of them were alternatively upregulated (often 6h after the thermal shock) and downregulated (12h) at 37°C. Interestingly, mnp4 and

  12. Simultaneous multiple wavelength fluorescence video microscopy shows Ca2+ regulation of pH in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen J.; Beatty, Diane M.; Chronwall, Bibie M.

    1994-08-01

    We have designed an epifluorescence video microscope for simultaneous dual excitation of indo 1 (for [Ca2+]i) at 350 nm and SNARF 1 (for pHi) at 540 nm. The microscope will simultaneously capture all four emission images at 405, 475, 575, and 640 nm from the two ratio dyes at video frame or field rates. Popular dyes for measuring [Ca2+]i, such as indo 1 and fura 2, have pH- dependent Kd's; thus changes in pHi can be misinterpreted as changes in [Ca2+]i. For any pixel (or region of interest), we use the pH value to generate the appropriate Kd. The corrected Kd is then used to calculate a corrected calcium value. Using the imaging system, we show that, for the peptide secreting melanotropes of the pituitary intermediate lobe, changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2PLU)]i) produce changes in intracellular pH (pHi). Melanotropes grown in primary explant culture and double-loaded with indo-1 acetoxy methyl ester (AM) and SNARF-1 AM, were examined for Ca2+/pH interactions. Following experimentation, cells were positively identified by (beta) -endorphin fluorescence immunohistochemistry. K-induced depolarization of melanotropes produced increases in [Ca2PLU)]i due to activation of L-type Ca-channels. Ca2+ entry was closely coupled to reductions in pHi. Effects were dependent upon entry of extracellular Ca2+ rather than release from intracellular stores. The close association between increases in intracellular Ca2+ and H+ suggest that the pHi changes are due to release of H+ upon binding of Ca2+ to intracellular buffers. Although the pH drop is `passive,' it will be sensed by all cytoplasmic components. Thus it represents a second messenger pathway, akin to the generation of cAMP or inositol trisphosphate, which cannot fail to influence numerous pH-dependent cell activities.

  13. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  14. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    PubMed

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Almeida, Igor C; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  15. A midgut-specific serine protease, BmSP36, is involved in dietary protein digestion in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Li, You-Shan; Tang, Xin; Guo, Peng-Chao; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Yan; Xia, Qing-You; Zhao, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Serine proteases play important roles in digestion and immune responses during insect development. In the present study, the serine protease gene BmSP36, which encodes a 292-residue protein, was cloned from the midgut cells of Bombyx mori. BmSP36 contains an intact catalytic triad (H57, D102 and S195) and a conserved substrate-binding site (G189, H216 and G226), suggesting that it is a serine protease with chymotrypsin-like specificity. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of BmSP36 indicated that its messenger RNA and protein expression mainly occurred in the midgut at the feeding stages. Western blotting, immunofluorescence and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed secretion of BmSP36 protein from epithelial cells into the midgut lumen. The transcriptional and translational expression of BmSP36 was down-regulated after starvation but up-regulated after refeeding. Moreover, expression of the BmSP36 gene could be up-regulated by a juvenile hormone analogue. These results enable us to better define the potential role of BmSP36 in dietary protein digestion at the feeding stages during larval development. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Midgut transcriptomic response of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar, to infection with l. dispar and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developmental resistance of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to baculovirus infection consists of both midgut-based and systemic components. To characterize the midgut response of larvae to baculovirus infection and identify larval host genes putatively involved in the midgut component of devel...

  17. Lipase Activity in the Larval Midgut of Rhynchophorus palmarum: Biochemical Characterization and the Effects of Reducing Agents.

    PubMed

    Santana, Camilla Camerino; Barbosa, Leandro A; Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio; Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes do; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Grillo, Luciano A M

    2017-09-13

    Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R. palmarum palm weevil. Lipase activity was highest between the temperatures of 37 °C and 45 °C and at pH 6.5. Lipase activity was also sensitive to variations in salt and calcium concentrations. Lipases have been described structurally as enzymes with the Ser-His-Asp Catalytic Triad, containing an active serine. The serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride) inhibited the lipases from R. palmarum, demonstrating the importance of a serine residue for this activity. The ability of the lipases to hydrolyze p-Nitrophenyl esters with different chain lengths has revealed the activities of a broad range of substrates. The lipase activities of R. palmarum increased in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), while in the presence of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), activities were drastically reduced. To our knowledge, this study has provided the first information about lipase activity in the R. palmarum palm weevil.

  18. Regulation of ion transport by pH and [HCO3-] in isolated gills of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Sabatini, Sebastian E; Goss, Greg G; Luquet, Carlos M

    2008-03-01

    Posterior isolated gills of Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulatus were symmetrically perfused with hemolymph-like saline of varying [HCO3-] and pH. Elevating [HCO3-] in the saline from 2.5 to 12.5 mmol/l (pH 7.75 in both cases) induced a significant increase in the transepithelial potential difference (Vte), a measure of ion transport. The elevation in [HCO3-] also induced a switch from acid secretion (-43.7 +/- 22.5 microequiv.kg(-1).h(-1)) in controls to base secretion (84.7 +/- 14.4 microequiv.kg(-1).h(-1)). The HCO3(-)-induced Vte increase was inhibited by basolateral acetazolamide (200 micromol/l), amiloride (1 mmol/l), and ouabain (5 mmol/l) but not by bafilomycin (100 nmol/l). The Vte response to HCO3(-) did not take place in Cl(-)-free conditions; however, it was unaffected by apical SITS (2 mmol/l) or DIDS (1 mmol/l). A decrease in pH from 7.75 to 7.45 pH units in the perfusate also induced a significant increase in Vte, which was matched by a net increase in acid secretion of 67.8 +/- 18.4 microequiv kg(-1) h(-1). This stimulation was sensitive to basolateral acetazolamide, bafilomycin, DIDS, and Na+-free conditions, but it still took place in Cl(-)-free saline. Therefore, the cellular response to low pH is different from the HCO3(-)-stimulated response. We also report V-H+-ATPase- and Na+-K+-ATPase-like immunoreactivity in gill sections for the first time in this crab. Our results suggest that carbonic anhydrase (CA), basolateral Na+/H+ exchangers and Na+-K+-ATPase and apical anion exchangers participate in the HCO3(-)-stimulated response, while CA, apical V-H+-ATPase and basolateral HCO3(-)-dependent cotransporters mediate the response to low pH.

  19. Role of H(+)-pyrophosphatase activity in the regulation of intracellular pH in a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: Physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; de Felipe, Ana-Paula; Sueiro, Rosa-Ana; Fontenla, Francisco; Leiro, José-Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The scuticociliatosis is a very serious disease that affects the cultured turbot, and whose causal agent is the anphizoic and marine euryhaline ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. Several protozoans possess acidic organelles that contain high concentrations of pyrophosphate (PPi), Ca(2+) and other elements with essential roles in vesicular trafficking, pH homeostasis and osmoregulation. P. dicentrarchi possesses a pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) that pumps H(+) through the membranes of vacuolar and alveolar sacs. These compartments share common features with the acidocalcisomes described in other parasitic protozoa (e.g. acid content and Ca(2+) storage). We evaluated the effects of Ca(2+) and ATP on H (+)-PPase activity in this ciliate and analyzed their role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and osmoregulation, by the addition of PPi and inorganic molecules that affect osmolarity. Addition of PPi led to acidification of the intracellular compartments, while the addition of ATP, CaCl2 and bisphosphonates analogous of PPi and Ca(2+) metabolism regulators led to alkalinization and a decrease in H(+)-PPase expression in trophozoites. Addition of NaCl led to proton release, intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and downregulation of H(+)-PPase expression. We conclude that the regulation of the acidification of intracellular compartments may be essential for maintaining the intracellular pH homeostasis necessary for survival of ciliates and their adaptation to salt stress, which they will presumably face during the endoparasitic phase, in which the salinity levels are lower than in their natural environment.

  20. A vacuolar-type proton pump in a vesicle fraction enriched with potassium transporting plasma membranes from tobacco hornworm midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, H.; Weerth, S.; Schindlbeck, M.; Klein, U.

    1989-07-05

    Mg-ATP dependent electrogenic proton transport, monitored with fluorescent acridine orange, 9-aminoacridine, and oxonol V, was investigated in a fraction enriched with potassium transporting goblet cell apical membranes of Manduca sexta larval midgut. Proton transport and the ATPase activity from the goblet cell apical membrane exhibited similar substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. ATP and GTP were far better substrates than UTP, CTP, ADP, and AMP. Azide and vanadate did not inhibit proton transport, whereas 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide were inhibitors. The pH gradient generated by ATP and limiting its hydrolysis was 2-3 pH units. Unlike the ATPase activity, proton transport was not stimulated by KCl. In the presence of 20 mM KCl, a proton gradient could not be developed or was dissipated. Monovalent cations counteracted the proton gradient in an order of efficacy like that for stimulation of the membrane-bound ATPase activity: K+ = Rb+ much greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than choline (chloride salts). Like proton transport, the generation of an ATP dependent and azide- and vanadate-insensitive membrane potential (vesicle interior positive) was prevented largely by 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide. Unlike proton transport, the membrane potential was not affected by 20 mM KCl. In the presence of 150 mM choline chloride, the generation of a membrane potential was suppressed, whereas the pH gradient increased 40%, indicating an anion conductance in the vesicle membrane. Altogether, the results led to the following new hypothesis of electrogenic potassium transport in the lepidopteran midgut. A vacuolar-type electrogenic ATPase pumps protons across the apical membrane of the goblet cell, thus energizing electroneutral proton/potassium antiport. The result is a net active and electrogenic potassium flux.

  1. Brugia malayi microfilariae transport alphaviruses across the mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent ingestion of microfilariae (MF) and arboviruses by mosquitoes can enhance mosquito transmission of virus compared to when virus is ingested alone. Within hours of being ingested, MF penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus into mosquito hemocoel, creating a disseminated viral infection much sooner than normal. How virus is actually introduced is not known. In this report, we present experimental evidence that suggests that certain alphaviruses may adhere or otherwise associate with sheathed Brugia malayi MF in the blood of a dually-infected host and that the virus is carried into the mosquito hemocoel by the MF during their penetration of the mosquito midgut. The mechanism of MF enhancement may be more complex than simple leakage of viremic blood into the hemocoel during MF penetration. The affinity of arboviruses to adhere to or otherwise associate with MF may depend on the specific combination of the virus and MF involved in a dual host infection. This in turn may determine the relative importance that MF enhancement has within an arbovirus transmission system. PMID:28222120

  2. Brugia malayi microfilariae transport alphaviruses across the mosquito midgut.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Turell, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent ingestion of microfilariae (MF) and arboviruses by mosquitoes can enhance mosquito transmission of virus compared to when virus is ingested alone. Within hours of being ingested, MF penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus into mosquito hemocoel, creating a disseminated viral infection much sooner than normal. How virus is actually introduced is not known. In this report, we present experimental evidence that suggests that certain alphaviruses may adhere or otherwise associate with sheathed Brugia malayi MF in the blood of a dually-infected host and that the virus is carried into the mosquito hemocoel by the MF during their penetration of the mosquito midgut. The mechanism of MF enhancement may be more complex than simple leakage of viremic blood into the hemocoel during MF penetration. The affinity of arboviruses to adhere to or otherwise associate with MF may depend on the specific combination of the virus and MF involved in a dual host infection. This in turn may determine the relative importance that MF enhancement has within an arbovirus transmission system.

  3. The midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a vector of Leishmania infantum: comparison of sugar fed and blood fed sand flies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parasite-vector interactions are fundamental in the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis. Leishmania development in the vector sand fly is confined to the digestive tract, where sand fly midgut molecules interact with the parasites. In this work we sequenced and analyzed two midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar fed and blood fed female Phlebotomus perniciosus and compared the transcript expression profiles. Results A total of 4111 high quality sequences were obtained from the two libraries and assembled into 370 contigs and 1085 singletons. Molecules with putative roles in blood meal digestion, peritrophic matrix formation, immunity and response to oxidative stress were identified, including proteins that were not previously reported in sand flies. These molecules were evaluated relative to other published sand fly transcripts. Comparative analysis of the two libraries revealed transcripts differentially expressed in response to blood feeding. Molecules up regulated by blood feeding include a putative peritrophin (PperPer1), two chymotrypsin-like proteins (PperChym1 and PperChym2), a putative trypsin (PperTryp3) and four putative microvillar proteins (PperMVP1, 2, 4 and 5). Additionally, several transcripts were more abundant in the sugar fed midgut, such as two putative trypsins (PperTryp1 and PperTryp2), a chymotrypsin (PperChym3) and a microvillar protein (PperMVP3). We performed a detailed temporal expression profile analysis of the putative trypsin transcripts using qPCR and confirmed the expression of blood-induced and blood-repressed trypsins. Trypsin expression was measured in Leishmania infantum-infected and uninfected sand flies, which identified the L. infantum-induced down regulation of PperTryp3 at 24 hours post-blood meal. Conclusion This midgut tissue-specific transcriptome provides insight into the molecules expressed in the midgut of P. perniciosus, an important vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old

  4. Malaria parasites co-opt human factor H to prevent complement-mediated lysis in the mosquito midgut.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nina; Lasonder, Edwin; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Kuehn, Andrea; Tews, Sabrina; Fischer, Rainer; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine; Pradel, Gabriele

    2013-01-16

    Human complement is a first line defense against infection in which circulating proteins initiate an enzyme cascade on the microbial surface that leads to phagocytosis and lysis. Various pathogens evade complement recognition by binding to regulator proteins that protect host cells from complement activation. We show that emerging gametes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum bind the host complement regulator factor H (FH) following transmission to the mosquito to protect from complement-mediated lysis by the blood meal. Human complement is active in the mosquito midgut for approximately 1 hr postfeeding. During this period, the gamete surface protein PfGAP50 binds to FH and uses surface-bound FH to inactivate the complement protein C3b. Loss of FH-mediated protection, either through neutralization of FH or blockade of PfGAP50, significantly impairs gametogenesis and inhibits parasite transmission to the mosquito. Thus, Plasmodium co-opts the protective host protein FH to evade complement-mediated lysis within the mosquito midgut.

  5. Dual regulation of the native ClC-K2 chloride channel in the distal nephron by voltage and pH

    PubMed Central

    Pinelli, Laurent; Nissant, Antoine; Edwards, Aurélie; Paulais, Marc

    2016-01-01

    ClC-K2, a member of the ClC family of Cl− channels and transporters, forms the major basolateral Cl− conductance in distal nephron epithelial cells and therefore plays a central role in renal Cl− absorption. However, its regulation remains largely unknown because of the fact that recombinant ClC-K2 has not yet been studied at the single-channel level. In the present study, we investigate the effects of voltage, pH, Cl−, and Ca2+ on native ClC-K2 in the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells from the mouse connecting tubule. The ∼10-pS channel shows a steep voltage dependence such that channel activity increases with membrane depolarization. Intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular pH (pHo) differentially modulate the voltage dependence curve: alkaline pHi flattens the curve by causing an increase in activity at negative voltages, whereas alkaline pHo shifts the curve toward negative voltages. In addition, pHi, pHo, and extracellular Ca2+ strongly increase activity, mainly because of an increase in the number of active channels with a comparatively minor effect on channel open probability. Furthermore, voltage alters both the number of active channels and their open probability, whereas intracellular Cl− has little influence. We propose that changes in the number of active channels correspond to them entering or leaving an inactivated state, whereas modulation of open probability corresponds to common gating by these channels. We suggest that pH, through the combined effects of pHi and pHo on ClC-K2, might be a key regulator of NaCl absorption and Cl−/HCO3− exchange in type B intercalated cells. PMID:27574292

  6. Dual regulation of the native ClC-K2 chloride channel in the distal nephron by voltage and pH.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Laurent; Nissant, Antoine; Edwards, Aurélie; Lourdel, Stéphane; Teulon, Jacques; Paulais, Marc

    2016-09-01

    ClC-K2, a member of the ClC family of Cl(-) channels and transporters, forms the major basolateral Cl(-) conductance in distal nephron epithelial cells and therefore plays a central role in renal Cl(-) absorption. However, its regulation remains largely unknown because of the fact that recombinant ClC-K2 has not yet been studied at the single-channel level. In the present study, we investigate the effects of voltage, pH, Cl(-), and Ca(2+) on native ClC-K2 in the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells from the mouse connecting tubule. The ∼10-pS channel shows a steep voltage dependence such that channel activity increases with membrane depolarization. Intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular pH (pHo) differentially modulate the voltage dependence curve: alkaline pHi flattens the curve by causing an increase in activity at negative voltages, whereas alkaline pHo shifts the curve toward negative voltages. In addition, pHi, pHo, and extracellular Ca(2+) strongly increase activity, mainly because of an increase in the number of active channels with a comparatively minor effect on channel open probability. Furthermore, voltage alters both the number of active channels and their open probability, whereas intracellular Cl(-) has little influence. We propose that changes in the number of active channels correspond to them entering or leaving an inactivated state, whereas modulation of open probability corresponds to common gating by these channels. We suggest that pH, through the combined effects of pHi and pHo on ClC-K2, might be a key regulator of NaCl absorption and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange in type B intercalated cells.

  7. Effect of air breathing on acid-base and ion regulation after exhaustive exercise and during low pH exposure in the bowfin, Amia calva.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R J; Milligan, L; Pagnotta, A; McDonald, D G

    2001-01-01

    To explore a potential conflict between air breathing and acid-base regulation in the bowfin (Amia calva), we examined how individuals with access to air differed from fish without air access in their response to acidosis. After exhaustive exercise, bowfin with access to air recovered significantly more slowly from the acidosis than fish without air access. While arterial blood pH (pH(a)) of fish without air access recovered to resting levels by 8 h, pH(a) was still significantly depressed in fish having access to air. In addition, Pco(2) was slightly more elevated in fish having air access than those without it. Fish with access to air still had a significant metabolic acid load after 8-h recovery, while those without air access completely cleared the load within 4 h. These results suggest that bowfin with access to air were breathing air and, consequently, were less able to excrete CO(2) and H(+) and experienced a delayed recovery. In contrast, during exposure to low pH, air breathing seemed to have a protective effect on acid-base status in bowfin. During exposure to low pH water, bowfin with access to air developed a much milder acidosis than bowfin without air access. The more severe acidosis in fish without air access was caused by an increased rate of lactic acid production. It appears that enhanced O(2) delivery allowed air-breathing bowfin to avoid acidosis-induced anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid production. In addition, during low pH exposure, plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations of fish without air access fell slightly more rapidly than those in fish with air access, indicating that the branchial ventilatory changes associated with air breathing limited, to some degree, ion losses associated with low pH exposure.

  8. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na⁺ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Burford, James L; McDonough, Alicia A; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-12-01

    The proximal tubule Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na(+) reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution.

  9. Carbon regulation of environmental pH by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangcheng; Barad, Shiri; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Dubey, Amit; Casado, Virginia; Glam, Nofar; Mínguez, Jose Diaz; Espeso, Eduardo A; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. This capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. Here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus nidulans and Fusarium oxysporum-secrete small pH-affecting molecules. These molecules modify the environmental pH, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce the expression of PACC-dependent genes. We show that, in many organisms, acidification is induced under carbon excess, i.e. 175 mm sucrose (the most abundant sugar in fruits). In contrast, alkalinization occurs under conditions of carbon deprivation, i.e. less than 15 mm sucrose. The carbon source is metabolized by glucose oxidase (gox2) to gluconic acid, contributing to medium acidification, whereas catalysed deamination of non-preferred carbon sources, such as the amino acid glutamate, by glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (gdh2), results in the secretion of ammonia. Functional analyses of Δgdh2 mutants showed reduced alkalinization and pathogenicity during growth under carbon deprivation, but not in high-carbon medium or on fruit rich in sugar, whereas analysis of Δgox2 mutants showed reduced acidification and pathogencity under conditions of excess carbon. The induction pattern of gdh2 was negatively correlated with the expression of the zinc finger global carbon catabolite repressor creA. The present results indicate that differential pH modulation by fruit fungal pathogens is a host-dependent mechanism, affected by host sugar content, that modulates environmental pH to enhance fruit colonization.

  10. cAMP/protein kinase A activates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator for ATP release from rat skeletal muscle during low pH or contractions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jie; Lu, Lin; Cai, Weisong; Ballard, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in ATP release from skeletal muscle at low pH. These experiments investigate the signal transduction mechanism linking pH depression to CFTR activation and ATP release, and evaluate whether CFTR is involved in ATP release from contracting muscle. Lactic acid treatment elevated interstitial ATP of buffer-perfused muscle and extracellular ATP of L6 myocytes: this ATP release was abolished by the non-specific CFTR inhibitor, glibenclamide, or the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172, suggesting that CFTR was involved, and by inhibition of lactic acid entry to cells, indicating that intracellular pH depression was required. Muscle contractions significantly elevated interstitial ATP, but CFTR(inh)-172 abolished the increase. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the signal transduction pathway for CFTR-regulated ATP release from muscle: forskolin increased CFTR phosphorylation and stimulated ATP release from muscle or myocytes; lactic acid increased intracellular cAMP, pCREB and PKA activity, whereas IBMX enhanced ATP release from myocytes. Inhibition of PKA with KT5720 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced ATP release from muscle. Inhibition of either the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) with amiloride or the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX) with SN6 or KB-R7943 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced release of ATP from muscle, suggesting that these exchange proteins may be involved in the activation of CFTR. Our data suggest that CFTR-regulated release contributes to ATP release from contracting muscle in vivo, and that cAMP and PKA are involved in the activation of CFTR during muscle contractions or acidosis; NHE and NCX may be involved in the signal transduction pathway.

  11. cAMP/Protein Kinase A Activates Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator for ATP Release from Rat Skeletal Muscle during Low pH or Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weisong; Ballard, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in ATP release from skeletal muscle at low pH. These experiments investigate the signal transduction mechanism linking pH depression to CFTR activation and ATP release, and evaluate whether CFTR is involved in ATP release from contracting muscle. Lactic acid treatment elevated interstitial ATP of buffer-perfused muscle and extracellular ATP of L6 myocytes: this ATP release was abolished by the non-specific CFTR inhibitor, glibenclamide, or the specific CFTR inhibitor, CFTRinh-172, suggesting that CFTR was involved, and by inhibition of lactic acid entry to cells, indicating that intracellular pH depression was required. Muscle contractions significantly elevated interstitial ATP, but CFTRinh-172 abolished the increase. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the signal transduction pathway for CFTR-regulated ATP release from muscle: forskolin increased CFTR phosphorylation and stimulated ATP release from muscle or myocytes; lactic acid increased intracellular cAMP, pCREB and PKA activity, whereas IBMX enhanced ATP release from myocytes. Inhibition of PKA with KT5720 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced ATP release from muscle. Inhibition of either the Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) with amiloride or the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) with SN6 or KB-R7943 abolished lactic-acid- or contraction-induced release of ATP from muscle, suggesting that these exchange proteins may be involved in the activation of CFTR. Our data suggest that CFTR-regulated release contributes to ATP release from contracting muscle in vivo, and that cAMP and PKA are involved in the activation of CFTR during muscle contractions or acidosis; NHE and NCX may be involved in the signal transduction pathway. PMID:23226244

  12. Target-Based Screen Against a Periplasmic Serine Protease That Regulates Intrabacterial pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains its intrabacterial pH (pHIB) near neutrality in the acidic environment of phagosomes within activated macrophages. A previously reported genetic screen revealed that Mtb loses this ability when the mycobacterial acid resistance protease (marP) gene is disrupted. In the present study, a high throughput screen (HTS) of compounds against the protease domain of MarP identified benzoxazinones as inhibitors of MarP. A potent benzoxazinone, BO43 (6-chloro-2-(2′-methylphenyl)-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one), acylated MarP and lowered Mtb’s pHIB and survival during incubation at pH 4.5. BO43 had similar effects on MarP-deficient Mtb, suggesting the existence of additional target(s). Reaction of an alkynyl-benzoxazinone, BO43T, with Mycobacterium bovis variant bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) followed by click chemistry with azido-biotin identified both the MarP homologue and the high temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) homologue, an essential protein. Thus, the chemical probe identified through a target-based screen not only reacted with its intended target in the intact cells but also implicated an additional enzyme that had eluded a genetic screen biased against essential genes. PMID:25457457

  13. Ionic Specificity in pH Regulated Charged Interfaces: Fe[superscript 3+]versus La[superscript 3+

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Park, Rebecca Y.; Meyer, David H.; Travesset, Alex; Vaknin, David

    2012-03-26

    We determine the distribution of two trivalent ions Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} next to two different amphiphilic charged interfaces as ions or complexes, consisting of the phosphate lipid dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) and the fatty acid arachidic acid (AA). These amphiphiles provide a wide range of pK{sub a} values, from 2.1 (DHDP) to 5.1 (AA), thus allowing manipulation of the surface charge over extremely low pH (pH {approx}1 or larger), and the two ions provide two limiting cases of specificity for the amphiphiles. We find that La{sup 3+} distribution is mostly sensitive to the surface charge, whereas the Fe{sup 3+} binding depends on its character in the solution and is highly specific, as indicated by the crucial role played by iron complexes (Fe(OH){sub 3} or Fe(OH){sup 2+}) forming covalent bonds even for an uncharged interface. The implications of the results to other ions and/or amphiphilic interfaces are also discussed.

  14. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities.

  15. Ultrastructural changes of the midgut epithelium in Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada) during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Wójtowicz, Maria; Kaczmarek, Lukasz

    2011-04-01

    The midgut epithelium of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer (Eutardigrada) is composed of columnar digestive cells. At its anterior end, a group of cells with cytoplasm which differs from the cytoplasm of digestive cells is present. Probably, those cells respond to crescent-like cells (midgut regenerative cells) described for some tardigrade species. Their mitotic divisions have not been observed. We analyzed the ultrastructure of midgut digestive cells in relation to five different stages of oogenesis (previtellogenesis, beginning of the vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis--early choriogenesis, vitellogenesis--middle choriogenesis, late choriogenesis). In the midgut epithelium cells, the gradual accumulation of glycogen granules, lipid droplets and structures of varying electron density occurs. During vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, in the cytoplasm of midgut cells we observed the increasing number of organelles which are responsible for the intensive synthesis of lipids, proteins and saccharides such as cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. At the end of oogenesis, autophagy also intensifies in midgut epithelial cells, which is probably caused by the great amount of reserve material. Midgut epithelium of analyzed species takes part in the yolk precursor synthesis.

  16. Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Suppresses Midgut Immunity to Support Plasmodium Development

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Kakani, Parik; Choudhury, Tania Pal; Kumar, Vikas; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Rini; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    The heme peroxidase HPX15 is an evolutionary conserved anopheline lineage-specific gene. Previously, we found that this gene is present in the genome of 19 worldwide distributed different species of Anopheles mosquito and its orthologs are absent in other mosquitoes, insects, or human. In addition, 65–99% amino acid identity among these 19 orthologs permitted us to hypothesize that the functional aspects of this gene might be also conserved in different anophelines. In this study, we found that Anopheles stephensi AsHPX15 gene is mainly expressed in the midgut and highly induced after uninfected or Plasmodium berghei-infected blood feeding. RNA interference-mediated silencing of midgut AsHPX15 gene drastically reduced the number of developing P. berghei oocysts. An antiplasmodial gene nitric oxide synthase was induced 13-fold in silenced midguts when compared to the unsilenced controls. Interestingly, the induction of antiplasmodial immunity in AsHPX15-silenced midguts is in absolute agreement with Anopheles gambiae. In A. gambiae, AgHPX15 catalyzes the formation of a dityrosine network at luminal side of the midgut that suppresses the activation of mosquito immunity against the bolus bacteria. Thus, a low-immunity zone created by this mechanism indirectly supports Plasmodium development inside the midgut lumen. These indistinguishable functional behaviors and conserved homology indicates that HPX15 might be a potent target to manipulate the antiplasmodial immunity of the anopheline midgut, and it will open new frontiers in the field of malaria control. PMID:28352267

  17. Temporal and spatial expression of caudal-type homeobox proteins in the midgut of human embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Wei-Lin; Yuan, Zheng-Wei; Bai, Yu-Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal expression of caudal-type homeobox genes (CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4) during development of the midgut in human embryos and to explore the possible roles of CDX genes during the morphogenesis of human midgut. Human embryos (n=28) were sectioned serially and sagittally and CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins were detected on the midline from the 5th to 9th weeks of gestation by immunohistochemical staining. Results: CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins were weakly expressed in epithelium and mesenchyme of the midgut in the 6th and 7th weeks of gestation and reached estimated optimal level on the 8th and 9th weeks of gestation. In the 9th week of gestation, immunoreactivities specific to CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 were restricted in epithelium of the midgut. Conclusions: CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins began to express in human midgut in the 6th week of gestation. From the 6th to 9th week of gastation, the expression of CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins gradually increase and exhibited overlapping expression patterns, suggesting that CDX genes may be involved in early development of the epithelium of human midgut. Cross-regulatory interactions may exist among CDX genes with respect to human midgut development. PMID:26884902

  18. Purification and Characterization of Midgut α-Amylase in a Predatory Bug, Andralus spinidens

    PubMed Central

    Sorkhabi-Abdolmaleki, Sahar; Zibaee, Arash; Hoda, Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    α-Amylases are widespread enzymes that catalyze endohydrolysis of long α-1,4-glucan chains such as starch and glycogen. The highest amylolytic activity was found in 5th instar nymphs and midgut of the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens F. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The α-amylase was purified following a three-step procedure. The purified α-amylase had a specific activity of 13.46 U/mg protein, recovery of 4.21, purification fold of 13.87, and molecular weight of 21.3 kDa. The enzyme had optimal pH and temperature of 7 and 45°C, respectively. Na+, Mn+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ significantly decreased activity of the purified α-amylase, but some concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and Cu2+ had the opposite effect. EDTA, EGTA, and DTC significantly decreased enzymatic activity, showing the presence of metal ions in the catalytic site of the enzyme. Kinetic parameters of the purified α-amylase showed a Km of 3.71% in starch and 4.96% for glycogen, suggesting that the enzyme had a higher affinity for starch. PMID:25373212

  19. Antioxidant defenses in caterpillars: role of the ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, R V; Bumgarner, S L; Roosen, E F; Martin, M M

    2001-04-01

    This study demonstrates that an ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen can act as an effective antioxidant defense in caterpillars that feed on prooxidant-rich foods. In tannin-sensitive larvae of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae), ingested tannic acid is oxidized in the midgut lumen, generating significant quantities of peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, which readily diffuses across cell membranes and is a powerful cytotoxin. By contrast, in the tannin-tolerant larvae of the white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (Lymantriidae), tannic acid oxidation and the generation of peroxides are suppressed. The superior defense of O. leucostigma against oxidative stress imposed by the oxidation of ingested polyphenols can be explained by the presence of higher concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione in the midgut lumen. In O. leucostigma at least 50% of the ingested ascorbate present in the anterior midgut is still present in the posterior midgut, whereas in M. disstria, only 10% of the ascorbate is present in the posterior half of the midgut. We propose that the maintenance of higher levels of ascorbate in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma than in M. disstria is explained by the secretion of glutathione into the midgut lumen by O. leucostigma, thereby forming a complete ascorbate-recycling system. The concentration of glutathione in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma is 3.5-fold higher than in M. disstria and more than double the concentration in the diet. Our results emphasize the importance of a defensive strategy in herbivorous insects based on the maintenance of conditions in the gut lumen that reduce or eliminate the potential prooxidant behavior of ingested phenols.

  20. Intracellular pH regulation in the renal proximal tubule of the salamander. Basolateral HCO3- transport

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have used pH-, Na-, and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes to study basolateral HCO3- transport in isolated, perfused proximal tubules of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In one series of experiments, we lowered basolateral pH (pHb) from 7.5 to 6.8 by reducing [HCO3-]b from 10 to 2 mM at a constant pCO2. This reduction of pHb and [HCO3-]b causes a large (approximately 0.35), rapid fall in pHi as well as a transient depolarization of the basolateral membrane. Returning pHb and [HCO3-]b to normal has the opposite effects. Similar reductions of luminal pH (pHl) and [HCO3-]l have only minor effects. The reduction of [HCO3-]b and pHb also produces a reversible fall in aiNa. In a second series of experiments, we reduced [Na+]b at constant [HCO3-]b and pHb, and also observed a rapid fall in pHi and a transient basolateral depolarization. These changes are reversed by returning [Na+]b to normal. The effects of altering [Na+]l in the presence of HCO3-, or of altering [Na+]b in the nominal absence of HCO3-, are substantially less. Although the effects on pHi and basolateral membrane potential of altering either [HCO3-]b or [Na+]b are largely blocked by 4-acetamido-4- isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS), they are not affected by removal of Cl-, nor are there accompanying changes in aiCl consistent with a tight linkage between Cl- fluxes and those of Na+ and HCO3-. The aforementioned changes are apparently mediated by a single transport system, not involving Cl-. We conclude that HCO3- transport is restricted to the basolateral membrane, and that HCO3- fluxes are linked to those of Na+. The data are compatible with an electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporter that carries Na+, HCO3-, and net negative charge in the same direction. PMID:6833997

  1. Utility of the CT Scan in Diagnosing Midgut Volvulus in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morshedi, Mehdi; Baradaran Jamili, Mohammad; Shafizadeh Barmi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic intestinal malrotation first presenting in the adults is rare. Midgut volvulus is the most common complication of malrotation in the adults. Because of more differential diagnosis, Computed Tomography (CT) scan can play an important role in the evaluation of patients with this abnormality. The whirl pattern around the superior mesenteric artery found on CT scan in patients with midgut volvulus is pathognomonic and diagnostic. We describe a case of intestinal malrotation complicated by midgut volvulus in an adult patient. The preoperative CT findings were pathognomonic. PMID:28182093

  2. Active site characterization and molecular cloning of Tenebrio molitor midgut trehalase and comments on their insect homologs.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ana; Cardoso, Christiane; Genta, Fernando A; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2013-08-01

    The soluble midgut trehalase from Tenebrio molitor (TmTre1) was purified after several chromatographic steps, resulting in an enzyme with 58 kDa and pH optimum 5.3 (ionizing active groups in the free enzyme: pK(e1) = 3.8 ± 0.2 pK(e2) = 7.4 ± 0.2). The purified enzyme corresponds to the deduced amino acid sequence of a cloned cDNA (TmTre1-cDNA), because a single cDNA coding a soluble trehalase was found in the T. molitor midgut transcriptome. Furthermore, the mass of the protein predicted to be coded by TmTre1-cDNA agrees with that of the purified enzyme. TmTre1 has the essential catalytic groups Asp 315 and Glu 513 and the essential Arg residues R164, R217, R282. Carbodiimide inactivation of the purified enzyme at different pH values reveals an essential carboxyl group with pKa = 3.5 ± 0.3. Phenylglyoxal modified a single Arg residue with pKa = 7.5 ± 0.2, as observed in the soluble trehalase from Spodoptera frugiperda (SfTre1). Diethylpyrocarbonate modified a His residue that resulted in a less active enzyme with pK(e1) changed to 4.8 ± 0.2. In TmTre1 the modified His residue (putatively His 336) is more exposed than the His modified in SfTre1 (putatively His 210) and that affects the ionization of an Arg residue. The architecture of the active site of TmTre1 and SfTre1 is different, as shown by multiple inhibition analysis, the meaning of which demands further research. Trehalase sequences obtained from midgut transcriptomes (pyrosequencing and Illumina data) from 8 insects pertaining to 5 different orders were used in a cladogram, together with other representative sequences. The data suggest that the trehalase gene went duplication and divergence prior to the separation of the paraneopteran and holometabolan orders and that the soluble trehalase derived from the membrane-bound one by losing the C-terminal transmembrane loop. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source, root-zone pH, and aerial CO2 concentration on growth and productivity of soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D.; Tolley-Henry, L.

    1989-01-01

    An important feature of controlled-environment crop production systems such as those to be used for life support of crews during space exploration is the efficient utilization of nitrogen supplies. Making decisions about the best sources of these supplies requires research into the relationship between nitrogen source and the physiological processes which regulate vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Work done in four areas within this research objective is reported: (1) experiments on the effects of root-zone pH on preferential utilization of NO3(-) versus NH4(+) nitrogen; (2) investigation of processes at the whole-plant level that regulate nitrogen uptake; (3) studies of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and NO3(-) supply on the growth of soybeans; and (4) examination of the role of NO3(-) uptake in enhancement of root respiration.

  4. Characterization of a Digestive α-Amylase in the Midgut of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharifloo, Ali; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal J.; Jahroumi, Khalil Talebi

    2016-01-01

    The current study deals with a digestive α-amylase in the larvae of Pieris brassicae L. through purification, enzymatic characterization, gene expression, and in vivo effect of a specific inhibitor, Acarbose. Although α-amylase activity was the highest in the whole gut homogenate of larvae but compartmentalization of amylolytic activity showed an equal activity in posterior midgut (PM) and anterior midgut (AM). A three step purification using ammonium sulfate, Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose Fast flow revealed an enzyme with a specific activity of 5.18 U/mg, recovery of 13.20, purification fold of 19.25 and molecular weight of 88 kDa. The purified α-amylase had the highest activity at optimal pH and temperature of 8 and 35°C. Also, the enzyme had Vmax values of 4.64 and 3.02 U/mg protein and Km values of 1.37 and 1.74% using starch and glycogen as substrates, respectively. Different concentrations of acarbose, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, and ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethylether) N, N, N′, N′-tetraacetic acid significantly decreased activity of the purified α-amylase. The 4th instar larvae of P. brassicae were fed on the treated leaves of Raphanus sativus L. with 0.22 mM of Acarbose to find in vivo effects on nutritional indices, α-amylase activity, and gene expression. The significant differences were only found in conversion efficiency of digested food, relative growth rate, and metabolic cost of control and fed larvae on Acarbose. Also, amylolytic activity significantly decreased in the treated larvae by both biochemical and native-PAGE experiments. Results of RT-PCR revealed a gene with 621 bp length responsible for α-amylase expression that had 75% identity with Papilio xuthus and P. polytes. Finally, qRT-PCR revealed higher expression of α-amylase in control larvae compared to acarbose-fed ones. PMID:27014094

  5. Vcx1 and ESCRT components regulate intracellular pH homeostasis in the response of yeast cells to calcium stress.

    PubMed

    Papouskova, Klara; Jiang, Linghuo; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) are involved in the formation of multivesicular bodies and sorting of targeted proteins to the yeast vacuole. The deletion of seven genes encoding components of the ESCRT machinery render Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells sensitive to high extracellular CaCl2 concentrations as well as to low pH in media. In this work, we focused on intracellular pH (pHin) homeostasis of these mutants. None of the studied ESCRT mutants exhibited an altered pHin level compared to the wild type under standard growth conditions. Nevertheless, 60 min of CaCl2 treatment resulted in a more significant drop in pHin levels in these mutants than in the wild type, suggesting that pHin homeostasis is affected in ESCRT mutants upon the addition of calcium. Similarly, CaCl2 treatment caused a bigger pHin decrease in cells lacking the vacuolar Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter Vcx1 which indicates a role for this protein in the maintenance of proper pHin homeostasis when cells need to cope with a high CaCl2 concentration in media. Importantly, ESCRT gene deletions in the vcx1Δ strain did not result in an increase in the CaCl2-invoked drop in the pHin levels of cells, which demonstrates a genetic interaction between VCX1 and studied ESCRT genes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The role of carbonic anhydrase 9 in regulating extracellular and intracellular ph in three-dimensional tumor cell growths.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Patiar, Shalini; Supuran, Claudiu T; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2009-07-24

    We have studied the role of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), a cancer-associated extracellular isoform of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in multicellular spheroid growths (radius of approximately 300 microm) of human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Spheroids were transfected with CA9 (or empty vector) and imaged confocally (using fluorescent dyes) for both intracellular pH (pH(i)) and pH in the restricted extracellular spaces (pH(e)). With no CA9 expression, spheroids developed very low pH(i) (approximately 6.3) and reduced pH(e) (approximately 6.9) at their core, associated with a diminishing gradient of acidity extending out to the periphery. With CA9 expression, core intracellular acidity was less prominent (pH(i) = approximately 6.6), whereas extracellular acidity was enhanced (pH(e) = approximately 6.6), so that radial pH(i) gradients were smaller and radial pH(e) gradients were larger. These effects were reversed by eliminating CA9 activity with membrane-impermeant CA inhibitors. The observation that CA9 activity reversibly reduces pH(e) indicates the enzyme is facilitating CO(2) excretion from cells (by converting vented CO(2) to extracellular H(+)), rather than facilitating membrane H(+) transport (such as H(+) associated with metabolically generated lactic acid). This latter process requires titration of exported H(+) ions with extracellular HCO(3)(-), which would reduce rather than increase extracellular acidity. In a multicellular structure, the net effect of CA9 on pH(e) will depend on the cellular CO(2)/lactic acid emission ratio (set by local oxygenation and membrane HCO(3)(-) uptake). Our results suggest that CO(2)-producing tumors may express CA9 to facilitate CO(2) excretion, thus raising pH(i) and reducing pH(e), which promotes tumor proliferation and survival. The results suggest a possible basis for attenuating tumor development through inhibiting CA9 activity.

  7. An Na(+)-independent short-chain fatty acid transporter contributes to intracellular pH regulation in murine colonocytes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major anions in the colonic lumen. Experiments studied how intracellular pH (pHi) of isolated colonocytes was affected by exposure to SCFAs normally found in the colon. Isolated crypt fragments were loaded with SNARF-1 (a fluorescent dye with pH-sensitive excitation and emission spectra) and studied in a digital imaging microscope. Intracellular pH was measured in individual colonocytes as the ratio of fluorescence intensity in response to alternating excitation wavelengths (575/505 nm). After exposure to 65 mM acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, or iso-butyrate in isosmotic Na(+)- free media (substituted with tetramethylammonia), all colonocytes acidified rapidly and then > 90% demonstrated a pHi alkalinization (Na(+)-independent pHi recovery). Upon subsequent removal of the SCFA, pHi alkalinized beyond the starting pHi (a pHi overshoot). Using propionate as a test SCFA, experiments demonstrate that the acidification and pHi overshoot are explained by transmembrane influx and efflux of nonionized SCFA, respectively. The basis for the pHi overshoot is shown to be accumulation of propionate during pHi alkalinization. The Na(+)-independent pHi recovery (a) demonstrates saturable propionate activation kinetics; (b) demonstrates substrate specificity for unmodified aliphatic carbon chains; (c) occurs after exposure to SCFAs of widely different metabolic activity, (d) is electroneutral; and (e) is not inhibited by changes in the K+ gradient, Cl- gradient or addition of the anion transport inhibitors DIDS (1 mM), SITS (1 mM), alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (4 mM), or probenicid (1 mM). Results suggest that most mouse colonocytes have a previously unreported SCFA transporter which mediates Na(+)-independent pHi recovery. PMID:7658194

  8. Calcium tartrate crystals in the midgut of the grape leafhopper.

    PubMed

    Böll, S; Schmitt, T; Burschka, C; Schreier, P; Schwappach, P; Herrmann, J V

    2005-12-01

    Calcium tartrate crystals were observed in the midgut of grape leafhoppers. This unique compound was found for the first time in insects. The size of the crystals varied strongly between and within individuals with a mean length of 153 +/- 87 microm and a mean width of 71 +/- 46 microm. In addition, the number of crystals per individual showed a broad variation and ranged from 1 to 150 crystals/individual. The occurrence of calcium tartrate crystals as well as the number of crystals per individual followed the same seasonal pattern as seasonal vine leaf concentrations of tartaric acid found in a previous study, indicating that calcium tartrate is formed to neutralize the tartaric acid in the gut system. It further implies that the grape leafhopper, rather than being a pure phloem sucker, employs a mixed feeding strategy to satisfy its demands for calcium uptake.

  9. Midgut proteases of the cardamom shoot and capsule borer Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their interaction with aprotinin.

    PubMed

    Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

    2006-02-01

    Protease inhibitors cause mortality in a range of insects, and transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors have been protected against pest attack, particularly internal feeders that are not amenable to control by conventional means. A study of luminal proteases in Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as protease inhibitors. The midgut protease profile of the gut lumen from C. punctiferalis was studied to determine the conditions for optimal protein hydrolysis. Optimum conditions for peptidase activity were found to be in 50 mm Tris-HCl, pH 10 containing 20 mm CaCl2; incubation for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Four synthetic substrates, i.e. benzoyl-arg-p-nitroanilide, benzoyl-tyr-p-nitroanilide, succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leu-p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) and leu-p-nitroanilide were hydrolysed by C. punctiferalis gut proteases in Tris-HCl buffer pH 10. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were the prominent digestive proteases, and age-related modulation of midgut proteases existed for trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase-like chymotrypsin and leucine aminopeptidase. Serine protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride inhibited peptidase activity. Some metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Pb(2+) and Co(2+) enhanced BApNA-ase activity whereas others like Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and Hg(2+) were inhibitory at 6 mm concentration. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were significantly inhibited by 94% and 29%, respectively, by aprotinin (150 nm) under in vitro conditions. A possible incorporation of protease inhibitors into transgenic plants is discussed.

  10. Vacuolar CAX1 and CAX3 Influence Auxin Transport in Guard Cells via Regulation of Apoplastic pH1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Daeshik; Villiers, Florent; Kroniewicz, Laetitia; Lee, Sangmee; Seo, You Jin; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Kwak, June M.

    2012-01-01

    CATION EXCHANGERs CAX1 and CAX3 are vacuolar ion transporters involved in ion homeostasis in plants. Widely expressed in the plant, they mediate calcium transport from the cytosol to the vacuole lumen using the proton gradient across the tonoplast. Here, we report an unexpected role of CAX1 and CAX3 in regulating apoplastic pH and describe how they contribute to auxin transport using the guard cell’s response as readout of hormone signaling and cross talk. We show that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) inhibition of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure is impaired in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3. These mutants exhibited constitutive hypopolarization of the plasma membrane, and time-course analyses of membrane potential revealed that IAA-induced hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane is also altered in these mutants. Both ethylene and 1-naphthalene acetic acid inhibited ABA-triggered stomatal closure in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3, suggesting that auxin signaling cascades were functional and that a defect in IAA transport caused the phenotype of the cax mutants. Consistent with this finding, chemical inhibition of AUX1 in wild-type plants phenocopied the cax mutants. We also found that cax1/cax3 mutants have a higher apoplastic pH than the wild type, further supporting the hypothesis that there is a defect in IAA import in the cax mutants. Accordingly, we were able to fully restore IAA inhibition of ABA-induced stomatal closure in cax1, cax3, and cax1/cax3 when stomatal movement assays were carried out at a lower extracellular pH. Our results suggest a network linking the vacuolar cation exchangers to apoplastic pH maintenance that plays a crucial role in cellular processes. PMID:22932758

  11. Enhancement of butanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum SE25 through accelerating phase shift by different phases pH regulation from cassava flour.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-guang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Yu, Xiao-bin; Wei, Luo; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A prominent delay with 12h was encountered in the phase shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in butanol production when the substrate-glucose was replaced by cassava flour. To solve this problem, different phase of pH regulation strategies were performed to shorten this delay time. With this effort, the phase shift occurred smoothly and the fermentation time was shortened. Under the optimal conditions, 16.24g/L butanol and 72h fermentation time were achieved, which were 25.3% higher and 14.3% shorter than those in the case of without pH regulation. Additionally, the effect of CaCO3 on "acid crash" and butanol production was also investigated. It was found that organic acids reassimilation would be of benefit to enhance butanol production. These results indicated that the simple but effective approach for acceleration of phase shift is a promising technique for shortening the fermentation time and improvement of butanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NBCe1 (SLC4A4) a potential pH regulator in enamel organ cells during enamel development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jalali, R; Guo, J; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Bervoets, T J M; Paine, M L; Boron, W F; Parker, M D; Bijvelds, M J C; Medina, J F; DenBesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J

    2014-11-01

    During the formation of dental enamel, maturation-stage ameloblasts express ion-transporting transmembrane proteins. The SLC4 family of ion-transporters regulates intra- and extracellular pH in eukaryotic cells by cotransporting HCO3 (-) with Na(+). Mutation in SLC4A4 (coding for the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1) induces developmental defects in human and murine enamel. We have hypothesized that NBCe1 in dental epithelium is engaged in neutralizing protons released during crystal formation in the enamel space. We immunolocalized NBCe1 protein in wild-type dental epithelium and examined the effect of the NBCe1-null mutation on enamel formation in mice. Ameloblasts expressed gene transcripts for NBCe1 isoforms B/D/C/E. In wild-type mice, weak to moderate immunostaining for NBCe1 with antibodies that recognized isoforms A/B/D/E and isoform C was seen in ameloblasts at the secretory stage, with no or low staining in the early maturation stage but moderate to high staining in the late maturation stage. The papillary layer showed the opposite pattern being immunostained prominently at the early maturation stage but with gradually less staining at the mid- and late maturation stages. In NBCe1 (-/-) mice, the ameloblasts were disorganized, the enamel being thin and severely hypomineralized. Enamel organs of CFTR (-/-) and AE2a,b (-/-) mice (CFTR and AE2 are believed to be pH regulators in ameloblasts) contained higher levels of NBCe1 protein than wild-type mice. Thus, the expression of NBCe1 in ameloblasts and the papillary layer cell depends on the developmental stage and possibly responds to pH changes.

  13. Separate Gating Mechanisms Mediate the Regulation of K2P Potassium Channel TASK-2 by Intra- and Extracellular pH*

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L. Pablo; Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.

    2010-01-01

    TASK-2 (KCNK5 or K2P5.1) is a background K+ channel that is opened by extracellular alkalinization and plays a role in renal bicarbonate reabsorption and central chemoreception. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to its regulation by extracellular protons (pHo) TASK-2 is gated open by intracellular alkalinization. The following pieces of evidence suggest that the gating process controlled by intracellular pH (pHi) is independent from that under the command of pHo. It was not possible to overcome closure by extracellular acidification by means of intracellular alkalinization. The mutant TASK-2-R224A that lacks sensitivity to pHo had normal pHi-dependent gating. Increasing extracellular K+ concentration acid shifts pHo activity curve of TASK-2 yet did not affect pHi gating of TASK-2. pHo modulation of TASK-2 is voltage-dependent, whereas pHi gating was not altered by membrane potential. These results suggest that pHo, which controls a selectivity filter external gate, and pHi act at different gating processes to open and close TASK-2 channels. We speculate that pHi regulates an inner gate. We demonstrate that neutralization of a lysine residue (Lys245) located at the C-terminal end of transmembrane domain 4 by mutation to alanine abolishes gating by pHi. We postulate that this lysine acts as an intracellular pH sensor as its mutation to histidine acid-shifts the pHi-dependence curve of TASK-2 as expected from its lower pKa. We conclude that intracellular pH, together with pHo, is a critical determinant of TASK-2 activity and therefore of its physiological function. PMID:20351106

  14. Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Karina; Niemietz, Christa M; Sutka, Moira; Maurel, Christophe; Parisi, Mario; Tyerman, Stephen D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles isolated by two-phase partitioning from the storage root of Beta vulgaris show atypically high water permeability that is equivalent only to those reported for active aquaporins in tonoplast or animal red cells (Pf=542 microm s(-1)). The values were determined from the shrinking kinetics measured by stopped-flow light scattering. This high Pf was only partially inhibited by mercury (HgCl2) but showed low activation energy (Ea) consistent with water permeation through water channels. To study short-term regulation of water transport that could be the result of channel gating, the effects of pH, divalent cations, and protection against dephosphorylation were tested. The high Pf observed at pH 8.3 was dramatically reduced by medium acidification. Moreover, intra-vesicular acidification (corresponding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane) shut down the aquaporins. De-phosphorylation was discounted as a regulatory mechanism in this preparation. On the other hand, among divalent cations, only calcium showed a clear effect on aquaporin activity, with two distinct ranges of sensitivity to free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 and pCa 4). Since the normal cytoplasmic free Ca2+ sits between these ranges it allows for the possibility of changes in Ca2+ to finely up- or down-regulate water channel activity. The calcium effect is predominantly on the cytoplasmic face, and inhibition corresponds to an increase in the activation energy for water transport. In conclusion, these findings establish both cytoplasmic pH and Ca2+ as important regulatory factors involved in aquaporin gating.

  15. The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2014-02-01

    The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracellular pH and its regulation in isolated type I carotid body cells of the neonatal rat.

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, K J; Vaughan-Jones, R D; Peers, C; Nye, P C

    1991-01-01

    1. The dual-emission pH-sensitive fluoroprobe carboxy-SNARF-1 (carboxy-seminaptharhodofluor) was used to measure pHi in type I cells enzymically dispersed from the neonatal rat carotid body. 2. Steady-state pHi in cells bathed in a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution (pH 7.4) was found to be remarkably alkaline (pHi = 7.77) whereas cells bathed in a CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered Tyrode solution (pH 7.4) had a more 'normal' pHi (pHi = 7.28). These observations were further substantiated by using an independent nullpoint test method to determine pHi. 3. Intracellular intrinsic buffering (beta, determined by acidifying the cell using an NH4Cl pre-pulse) was in the range 7-20 mM per pH unit and appeared to be dependent upon pHi with beta increasing as pHi decreased. 4. In cells bathed in a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution, pHi recovery from an induced intracellular acid load (10 mM-NH4Cl pre-pulse) was inhibited by the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor ethyl isopropyl amiloride (EIPA; 150 microM) or substitution of Nao+ with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG). Both EIPA and Nao+ removal also caused a rapid intracellular acidification, which in the case of Nao+ removal, was readily reversible. The rate of this acidification was similar for both Nao+ removal and EIPA addition. 5. Transferring cells from a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution to one buffered with 5% CO2-HCO3- resulted in an intracellular acidification which was partially, or wholly, sustained. The rate of acidification upon transfer to CO2-HCO3- was considerably slowed by the membrane permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, thus indicating the presence of the enzyme in these cells. 6. In CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered Tyrode solution, pHi recovery from an intracellular acidosis (NH4+ pre-pulse) was only partially inhibited by EIPA or amiloride whereas Nao+ removal completely inhibited the recovery. The stilbene DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbenedisulphonic acid, 200 microM) also partially inhibited pHi recovery following an induced

  17. Integrated Regulation of Acetoin Fermentation by Quorum Sensing and pH in Serratia plymuthica RVH1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Vivijs, Bram; Michiels, Chris M.; Aertsen, Abram

    2011-01-01

    During fermentation of sugars, a number of bacterial species are able to switch from mixed acid production to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol production in order to avoid lethal acidification of their environment, although the regulation of this switch is only poorly understood. In this study, we report the identification of the budAB structural operon, involved in acetoin production in Serratia plymuthica RVH1, and its activation by a LysR-type regulator encoded by budR, immediately upstream of this operon. In addition, the regulation of budR transcription was elucidated and found to be subject to negative control by BudR itself and to positive control by external stimuli such as N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OHHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules and acetate. Interestingly, however, we observed that induction of budR transcription by OHHL or acetate did not require BudR, indicating the involvement of additional regulatory factors in relaying these environmental signals to the budR promoter. PMID:21441339

  18. Integrated regulation of acetoin fermentation by quorum sensing and pH in Serratia plymuthica RVH1.

    PubMed

    Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Vivijs, Bram; Michiels, Chris W; Michiels, Chris M; Aertsen, Abram

    2011-05-01

    During fermentation of sugars, a number of bacterial species are able to switch from mixed acid production to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol production in order to avoid lethal acidification of their environment, although the regulation of this switch is only poorly understood. In this study, we report the identification of the budAB structural operon, involved in acetoin production in Serratia plymuthica RVH1, and its activation by a LysR-type regulator encoded by budR, immediately upstream of this operon. In addition, the regulation of budR transcription was elucidated and found to be subject to negative control by BudR itself and to positive control by external stimuli such as N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules and acetate. Interestingly, however, we observed that induction of budR transcription by OHHL or acetate did not require BudR, indicating the involvement of additional regulatory factors in relaying these environmental signals to the budR promoter.

  19. Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain Leucine-rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity by Negatively Regulating the Activity of Atypical Protein Kinase C.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaopeng; Li, Xin; Wen, Yang-An; Gao, Tianyan

    2016-11-25

    The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell cultures as indicated by the formation of aberrant multi-lumen structures. Overexpression of PHLPP resulted in a decrease in aPKC phosphorylation at both the activation loop and the turn motif sites; conversely, knockdown of PHLPP increased aPKC phosphorylation. Moreover, in vitro dephosphorylation experiments revealed that both aPKC isoforms were substrates of PHLPP. Interestingly, knockdown of PKCζ, but not PKCι, led to similar disruption of the polarized lumen structure, suggesting that PKCζ likely controls the polarization process of Caco2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PHLPP altered the apical membrane localization of aPKCs and reduced the formation of aPKC-Par3 complex. Taken together, our results identify a novel role of PHLPP in regulating aPKC and cell polarity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of midgut tissues of four non-model insects pertaining to Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Gazara, Rajesh K; Cardoso, Christiane; Bellieny-Rabelo, Daniel; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R; Venancio, Thiago M

    2017-09-05

    Despite the great morphological diversity of insects, there is a regularity in their digestive functions, which is apparently related to their physiology. In the present work we report the de novo midgut transcriptomes of four non-model insects from four distinct orders: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Musca domestica (Diptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera). We employed a computational strategy to merge assemblies obtained with two different algorithms, which substantially increased the quality of the final transcriptomes. Unigenes were annotated and analyzed using the eggNOG database, which allowed us to assign some level of functional and evolutionary information to 79.7% to 93.1% of the transcriptomes. We found interesting transcriptional patterns, such as: i) the intense use of lysozymes in digestive functions of M. domestica larvae, which are streamlined and adapted to feed on bacteria; ii) the up-regulation of orthologous UDP-glycosyl transferase and cytochrome P450 genes in the whole midguts different species, supporting the existence of an ancient defense frontline to counter xenobiotics; iii) evidence supporting roles for juvenile hormone binding proteins in the midgut physiology, probably as a way to activate genes that help fight anti-nutritional substances (e.g. protease inhibitors). The results presented here shed light on the digestive and structural properties of the digestive systems of these distantly related species. Furthermore, the produced datasets will also be useful for scientists studying these insects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. De novo transcriptome analysis of the excretory tubules of Carausius morosus (Phasmatodea) and possible functions of the midgut ‘appendices’

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules are the insect excretory organs, responsible for ion and water homeostasis and elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Post-genomic assays suggest they also metabolize and detoxify xenobiotic compounds and have antimicrobial properties. The Phasmatodea have an additional, unique set of excretory organs referred to predominantly as midgut appendices. Their function and how it compares to phasmid and other insect Malpighian tubules is unknown. Hypotheses include carbonic anhydrase activity, calcium and metal cation sequestration, and xenobiotic transport. This work presents the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of the Phasmatodean excretory organs, using the model insect Carausius morosus. I produced de novo transcriptomes of the midgut appendices, midgut wall, and Malpighian tubules, and looked for differentially expressed genes associated with putative organ functions. The appendices differentially and highly express lipid transport and metabolism proteins, and the biomineralization gene otopetrin. The Malpighian tubules differentially and highly express acid phosphatases and multiple transporter types, while appendices express fat-soluble vitamin and peptide transporters. Many defense proteins such as multidrug resistance proteins, ABC transporters, cytochrome P450’s, and glutathione-S-transferases were differentially expressed in specific excretory organs. I hypothesize that the appendices and Malpighian tubules both have defensive / xenobiotic metabolism functions, but each likely target different substrates. Phasmid Malpighian tubules excrete as in other insects, while the appendices may predominantly regulate amino acids, fats, and fat-soluble compounds. Lipid metabolism in insects is poorly understood, and the Phasmatodea may thus serve as a model for studying this further. PMID:28384348

  2. The role of cell death in the midgut epithelium in Filientomon takanawanum (Protura).

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Machida, R; Fukui, M

    2010-02-01

    Midgut epithelium in Filientomon takanawanum is composed of epithelial cells and single, sporadic regenerative cells. In 80% of analyzed specimens midgut epithelial cells, as fat body and gonads, are infected with rickettsia-like microorganism. In non-infected specimens young and completely differentiated epithelial cells are distinguished among epithelial cells. Characteristic for midgut epithelial cells regionalization in organelles distribution is not observed. Autophagy is the sporadic process, but if the cytoplasm of epithelium cells possesses numerous spherites and sporadic autophagosomes, the apoptosis begins. Necrosis is observed sporadically. In the midgut epithelium cells of about 80% of analyzed specimens rickettsia-like microorganisms are observed. The more rickettsia-like microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm, the more autophagosomes are formed, and the process of apoptosis proceeds intensively. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degeneration and cell regeneration in the midgut of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) during post-embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Aparecida das Dores; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Zanuncio, José Cola; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Cell death, proliferation, and differentiation in some developmental stages of insects have been studied in the midgut of ametabolous, which undergo only continuous growth, and holometabolous, which undergo complete metamorphosis. However, in hemimetabolous insects, evolutionarily intermediate between ametabolous and holometabolous, midgut reorganization during the post-embryonic development has been poorly studied. The present study evaluates the post-embryonic development of the midgut of a hemimetabolous insect, Podisus nigrispinus, to test the hypothesis that these insects have programmed cell death and proliferation followed by differentiation of regenerative cells during midgut growth from nymphs to adult. The morphometrical data showed a 6-fold increase in midgut length from the first instar nymph to the adult, which did not result from an increase in the size of the midgut cells, suggesting that the growth of the midgut occurs by an increase in cell number. Cell death was rarely found in the midgut, whereas proliferation of regenerative cells occurred quite frequently. The growth of the midgut of P. nigrispinus appears to result from the proliferation of regenerative cells present in the epithelium; unlike ametabolous and holometabolous insects, the midgut of P. nigrispinus does not undergo extensive remodeling, as shown by the low frequency of digestive cell death.

  4. DNA Damage–Induced Bcl-xL Deamidation Is Mediated by NHE-1 Antiport Regulated Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Oxley, David; Smith, Trevor S; Follows, George A; Green, Anthony R; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-01-01

    The pro-survival protein Bcl-xL is critical for the resistance of tumour cells to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated, using a mouse cancer model, that oncogenic tyrosine kinase inhibition of DNA damage–induced Bcl-xL deamidation tightly correlates with T cell transformation in vivo, although the pathway to Bcl-xL deamidation remains unknown and its functional consequences unclear. We show here that rBcl-xL deamidation generates an iso-Asp52/iso-Asp66 species that is unable to sequester pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins such as Bim and Puma. DNA damage in thymocytes results in increased expression of the NHE-1 Na/H antiport, an event both necessary and sufficient for subsequent intracellular alkalinisation, Bcl-xL deamidation, and apoptosis. In murine thymocytes and tumour cells expressing an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, this DNA damage–induced cascade is blocked. Enforced intracellular alkalinisation mimics the effects of DNA damage in murine tumour cells and human B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells, thereby causing Bcl-xL deamidation and increased apoptosis. Our results define a signalling pathway leading from DNA damage to up-regulation of the NHE-1 antiport, to intracellular alkalanisation to Bcl-xL deamidation, to apoptosis, representing the first example, to our knowledge, of how deamidation of internal asparagine residues can be regulated in a protein in vivo. Our findings also suggest novel approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:17177603

  5. DNA damage-induced Bcl-xL deamidation is mediated by NHE-1 antiport regulated intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Oxley, David; Smith, Trevor S; Follows, George A; Green, Anthony R; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-01-01

    The pro-survival protein Bcl-xL is critical for the resistance of tumour cells to DNA damage. We have previously demonstrated, using a mouse cancer model, that oncogenic tyrosine kinase inhibition of DNA damage-induced Bcl-xL deamidation tightly correlates with T cell transformation in vivo, although the pathway to Bcl-xL deamidation remains unknown and its functional consequences unclear. We show here that rBcl-xL deamidation generates an iso-Asp(52)/iso-Asp(66) species that is unable to sequester pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins such as Bim and Puma. DNA damage in thymocytes results in increased expression of the NHE-1 Na/H antiport, an event both necessary and sufficient for subsequent intracellular alkalinisation, Bcl-xL deamidation, and apoptosis. In murine thymocytes and tumour cells expressing an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, this DNA damage-induced cascade is blocked. Enforced intracellular alkalinisation mimics the effects of DNA damage in murine tumour cells and human B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells, thereby causing Bcl-xL deamidation and increased apoptosis. Our results define a signalling pathway leading from DNA damage to up-regulation of the NHE-1 antiport, to intracellular alkalanisation to Bcl-xL deamidation, to apoptosis, representing the first example, to our knowledge, of how deamidation of internal asparagine residues can be regulated in a protein in vivo. Our findings also suggest novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  6. Morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut in Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea).

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Swiątek, Piotr; Kszuk, Michalina; Główczyk, Kinga; Bielecki, Aleksander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents information on the organization of the midgut and its epithelium ultrastructure in juvenile and adult specimens of Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea), a species which is a widespread ectoparasite found on the body and gills and in the mouth of many types of fish. The analysis of juvenile nonfeeding specimens helped in the explanation of all alterations in the midgut epithelium which are connected with digestion. The endodermal portion (midgut) of the digestive system is composed of four regions: the esophagus, the crop, the posterior crop caecum, and the intestine. Their epithelia are formed by flat, cuboidal, or columnar digestive cells; however, single small cells which do not contact the midgut lumen were also observed. The ultrastructure of all of the regions of the midgut are described and discussed with a special emphasis on their functions in the digestion of blood. In P. geometra, the part of the midgut that is devoid of microvilli is responsible for the accumulation of blood, while the epithelium of the remaining part of the midgut, which has a distinct regionalization in the distribution of organelles, plays a role in its absorption and secretion. Glycogen granules in the intestinal epithelium indicate its role in the accumulation of sugar. The comparison of the ultrastructure of midgut epithelium in juvenile and adult specimens suggests that electron-dense granules observed in the apical cytoplasm of digestive cells take part in enzyme accumulation. Numerous microorganisms were observed in the mycetome, which is composed of two large oval diverticles that connect with the esophagus via thin ducts. Similar microorganisms also occurred in the cytoplasm of the epithelium in the esophagus, the crop, the intestine, and in their lumen. Microorganisms were observed both in fed adult and unfed juvenile specimens of P. geometra, which strongly suggests that vertical transmission occurs from parent to offspring.

  7. The fine structural morphology of the midgut of adult Drosophila: A morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gartner, L P

    1985-01-01

    The midgut of one day old Drosophilia was examined morphometrically at the electron microscopic level. Results suggest that parenchymal cells, with the exception of basal cells, possess identical functions. Drosophilia midgut cells are smaller than those of other insects studied, and the surface densities of the rER was less, indicating that its protein synthetic activity is also less than that of other insects.

  8. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  9. Analysis of gene expression in the midgut of Bombyx mori during the larval molting stage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Qiuyun; Zhu, Shoulin; Zhang, Qiaoli; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-03

    Insects can be models for understanding human intestinal infection and pathology. Molting, a special period during which the old insect cuticle is shed and a new one is produced, is crucial for insect development. Holometabolous insects may experience several larva-to-larva moltings to become larger, a pupal molt and adult eclosion to become adults. During the larval molts, they stop feeding and become quiescent. Although the molting larvae become quiescent, it is not known if changes in microbiome, physiology, development and immunity of midguts occur. Transcriptome analysis indicated that functions such as metabolism, digestion, and transport may become reduced due to the downregulated expression of many associated genes. During the molting stage, midguts harbor less microflora and DNA synthesis decreases. Both ecdysone and juvenile hormone in the larval midgut likely degrade after entering the larva-to-larva molting stage. However, at 12 h after ecdysis, the feeding larvae of 5th instars that were injected with 20-hydroxyecdysone entered a molting-like stage, during which changes in midgut morphology, DNA synthesis, gene expression, and microflora exhibited the same patterns as observed in the actual molting state. This study is important for understanding insect midgut physiology, development and immunity during a special development stage when no food is ingested. Although the molting larva becomes immobile and quiescent, we demonstrate that numerous changes occur in midgut morphology, physiology, metabolism and microbiome during this period.

  10. A novel Cph-like gene involved in histogenesis and maintenance of midgut in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gan, Liping; Zhuo, Weiwei; Li, Juan; Wang, Ying; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shiqing

    2013-12-01

    Male-biased silkworm larva resistance is useful for sericulture and lepidopteran pest control. According to previous research, the mechanism underlying this resistance might be related to midgut-specific proteins. A midgut-specific and novel hypothetical cuticular protein-like (Cph-like) gene was cloned, based on sex-disparity serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries of the B. mori midgut. The complete cDNA contained 676 bp and encoded 165 amino acid residues. The gene was located on chromosome 19 and it had only one short 75 bp intron. The Cph-like expression level was downregulated by exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone or starvation, but upregulated by exogenous methoprene or food intake. Knockdown (siRNA) of the Cph-like gene suppressed the appetite and delayed larval development, while it also degraded enterocytes and damaged the midgut morphology. Furthermore, the male-biased cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) resistance of larvae was decreased. The Cph-like gene is a midgut-specific novel gene in B. mori that may participate in histogenesis and midgut maintenance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of a pink bollworm larval midgut transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Tassone, Erica E; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Mathis, John; Nelson, Mark E; Wu, Gusui; Flexner, J Lindsey; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Fabrick, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-22

    The pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the world's most important pests of cotton. Insecticide sprays and transgenic cotton producing toxins of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are currently used to manage this pest. Bt toxins kill susceptible insects by specifically binding to and destroying midgut cells, but they are not toxic to most other organisms. Pink bollworm is useful as a model for understanding insect responses to Bt toxins, yet advances in understanding at the molecular level have been limited because basic genomic information is lacking for this cosmopolitan pest. Here, we have sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated a comprehensive larval midgut transcriptome from a susceptible strain of pink bollworm. A de novo transcriptome assembly for the midgut of P. gossypiella was generated containing 46,458 transcripts (average length of 770 bp) derived from 39,874 unigenes. The size of the transcriptome is similar to published midgut transcriptomes of other Lepidoptera and includes up to 91 % annotated contigs. The dataset is publicly available in NCBI and GigaDB as a resource for researchers. Foundational knowledge of protein-coding genes from the pink bollworm midgut is critical for understanding how this important insect pest functions. The transcriptome data presented here represent the first large-scale molecular resource for this species, and may be used for deciphering relevant midgut proteins critical for xenobiotic detoxification, nutrient digestion and allocation, as well as for the discovery of protein receptors important for Bt intoxication.

  12. Serratia odorifera a Midgut Inhabitant of Aedes aegypti Mosquito Enhances Its Susceptibility to Dengue-2 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Apte-Deshpande, Anjali; Paingankar, Mandar; Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Deobagkar, Dileep N.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito midgut plays a crucial role in its vector susceptibility and pathogen interaction. Identification of the sustainable microflora of the midgut environment can therefore help in evaluating its contribution in mosquito-pathogen interaction and in turn vector competence. To understand the bacterial diversity in the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we conducted a screening study of the gut microbes of these mosquitoes which were either collected from fields or reared in the laboratory “culture-dependent” approach. This work demonstrated that the microbial flora of larvae and adult Ae. aegypti midgut is complex and is dominated by Gram negative proteobacteria. Serratia odorifera was found to be stably associated in the midguts of field collected and laboratory reared larvae and adult females. The potential influence of this sustainable gut microbe on DENV-2 susceptibility of this vector was evaluated by co-feeding S. odorifera with DENV-2 to adult Ae. aegypti females (free of gut flora). The observations revealed that the viral susceptibility of these Aedes females enhanced significantly as compared to solely dengue-2 fed and another gut inhabitant, Microbacterium oxydans co-fed females. Based on the results of this study we proposed that the enhancement in the DENV-2 susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to blocking of prohibitin molecule present on the midgut surface of these females by the polypeptide of gut inhabitant S. odorifera. PMID:22848375

  13. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes. PMID:26514271

  14. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  15. The midgut epithelium of aquatic arthropods: a critical target organ in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Barry J; Mackie, Ryan S; Mattingly, Kimberly S; Carlson, Jonathan O; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of aquatic arthropods is emerging as an important and toxicologically relevant organ system for monitoring environmental pollution. The peritrophic matrix of aquatic arthropods, which is secreted by the midgut epithelium cells, is perturbed by copper or cadmium. Molecular biological studies have identified and characterized two midgut genes induced by heavy metals in the midgut epithelium. Many other metal-responsive genes (MRGs) await characterization. One of the MRGs codes for an intestinal mucin, which is critical for protecting the midgut from toxins and pathogens. Another codes for a tubulin gene, which is critical for structure and function of the midgut epithelial cells. Perturbation of expression of either gene could condition aquatic arthropod survivorship. Induction of these MRGs is a more sensitive and rapid indicator of heavy-metal pollution than biological assays. Characterization of genes induced by pollutants could provide mechanistic understanding of fundamental cellular responses to pollutants and insight into determinants of aquatic arthropod population genetic structure and survivorship in nature. PMID:12634118

  16. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  17. Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Hu, Marian Y; Koschnick, Nils; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Dupont, Sam; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Marine teleost fish sustain compensation of extracellular pH after exposure to hypercapnia by means of efficient ion and acid-base regulation. Elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under hypercapnia may be stimulated further by elevated temperature. Here, we characterized the regulation of transepithelial ion transporters (NKCC1, NBC1, SLC26A6, NHE1 and 2) and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase) in gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550 μatm, 1200 μatm, 2200 μatm) at optimum (10 °C) and summer maximum temperature (18 °C), respectively. Gene expression of most branchial ion transporters revealed temperature- and dose-dependent responses to elevated PCO2. Transcriptional regulation resulted in stable protein expression at 10 °C, whereas expression of most transport proteins increased at medium PCO2 and 18 °C. mRNA and protein expression of distinct ion transport proteins were closely co-regulated, substantiating cellular functional relationships. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were PCO2 independent, but increased with acclimation temperature, whereas H(+) ATPase capacities were thermally compensated but decreased at medium PCO2 and 10 °C. When functional capacities of branchial ATPases were compared with mitochondrial F1Fo ATP-synthase strong correlations of F1Fo ATP-synthase and ATPase capacities generally indicate close coordination of branchial aerobic ATP demand and supply. Our data indicate physiological plasticity in the gills of cod to adjust to a warming, acidifying ocean within limits. In light of the interacting and non-linear, dose-dependent effects of both climate factors the role of these mechanisms in shaping resilience under climate change remains to be explored.

  18. Different rate-limiting activities of intracellular pH regulators for HCO3(-) secretion stimulated by forskolin and carbachol in rat parotid intralobular ducts.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kaori; Hirono, Chikara; Kitagawa, Michinori; Shiba, Yoshiki; Sugita, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation fundamentally participates in maintaining HCO3(-) release from HCO3(-)-secreting epithelia. We used parotid intralobular ducts loaded with BCECF to investigate the contributions of a carbonic anhydrase (CA), anion channels and a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) to pHi regulation for HCO3(-) secretion by cAMP and Ca(2+) signals. Resting pHi was dispersed between 7.4 and 7.9. Forskolin consistently decreased pHi showing the dominance of pHi-lowering activities, but carbachol gathered pHi around 7.6. CA inhibition suppressed the forskolin-induced decrease in pHi, while it allowed carbachol to consistently increase pHi by revealing that carbachol prominently activated NHE via Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Under NHE inhibition, forskolin and carbachol induced the remarkable decreases in pHi, which were slowed predominantly by CA inhibition and by CA or anion channel inhibition, respectively. Our results suggest that forskolin and carbachol primarily activate the pHi-lowering CA and pHi-raising NHE, respectively, to regulate pHi for HCO3(-) secretion.

  19. Intracellular pH regulation by Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger-1 (NHE1) is required for growth factor-induced mammary branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Debnath, Shawon; Gundry, Stephen; Gundry, Sajini; Uyar, Umit; Fata, Jimmie E

    2012-05-01

    Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and protection against cytosolic acidification is primarily a function of the ubiquitous plasma membrane Na+/H+exchanger-1 (NHE1), which uses a highly conserved process to transfer cytosolic hydrogen ions (H+) across plasma membranes in exchange for extracellular sodium ions (Na+). Growth factors, which are essential regulators of morphogenesis, have also been found to be key activators of NHE1 exchanger activity; however, the crosstalk between both has not been fully evaluated during organ development. Here we report that mammary branching morphogenesis induced by transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFα) requires PI3K-dependent NHE1-activation and subsequent pHi alkalization. Inhibiting NHE1 activity after TGFα stimulation with 10 μM of the NHE1-specific inhibitor N-Methyl-N-isobutyl Amiloride (MIA) dramatically disrupted branching morphogenesis, induced extensive proliferation, ectopic expression of the epithelial hyper-proliferative marker Keratin-6 and sustained activation of MAPK. Together these findings indicate a novel developmental signaling cascade involving TGFα>PI3K>NHE1>pHi alkalization, which leads to a permissible environment for MAPK negative feedback inhibition and thus regulated mammary branching morphogenesis.

  20. Small Interfering RNA Pathway Modulates Initial Viral Infection in Midgut Epithelium of Insect after Ingestion of Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hanhong; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Mao, Qianzhuo; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by insect vectors. Persistent viruses establish their initial infection in the midgut epithelium, from where they disseminate to the midgut visceral muscles. Although propagation of viruses in insect vectors can be controlled by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral pathway, whether the siRNA pathway can control viral dissemination from the midgut epithelium is unknown. Infection by a rice virus (Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus [SRBSDV]) of its incompetent vector (the small brown planthopper [SBPH]) is restricted to the midgut epithelium. Here, we show that the siRNA pathway is triggered by SRBSDV infection in continuously cultured cells derived from the SBPH and in the midgut of the intact insect. Knockdown of the expression of the core component Dicer-2 of the siRNA pathway by RNA interference strongly increased the ability of SRBSDV to propagate in continuously cultured SBPH cells and in the midgut epithelium, allowing viral titers in the midgut epithelium to reach the threshold (1.99 × 109 copies of the SRBSDV P10 gene/μg of midgut RNA) needed for viral dissemination into the SBPH midgut muscles. Our results thus represent the first elucidation of the threshold for viral dissemination from the insect midgut epithelium. Silencing of Dicer-2 further facilitated the transmission of SRBSDV into rice plants by SBPHs. Taken together, our results reveal the new finding that the siRNA pathway can control the initial infection of the insect midgut epithelium by a virus, which finally affects the competence of the virus's vector. IMPORTANCE Many viral pathogens that cause significant global health and agricultural problems are transmitted via insect vectors. The first bottleneck in viral infection, the midgut epithelium, is a principal determinant of the ability of an insect species to transmit a virus. Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is restricted exclusively to the

  1. Vitamin K2-enhanced liver regeneration is associated with oval cell expansion and up-regulation of matrilin-2 expression in 2-AAF/PH rat model.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Sun, P; Zhang, G; Xu, X; Liu, G; Miao, H; Yang, Y; Xu, H; Zhang, L; Wu, P; Li, M

    2014-03-01

    Normal liver has a great potential of regenerative capacity after partial hepatectomy. In clinic, however, most patients receiving partial hepatectomy are usually suffering from chronic liver diseases with severely damaged hepatocyte population. Under these conditions, activation of hepatic progenitor cell (oval cell in rodents) population might be considered as an alternative mean to enhance liver functional recovery. Vitamin K2 has been shown to promote liver functional recovery in patients with liver cirrhosis. In this study, we explored the possibility of vitamin K2 treatment in activating hepatic oval cell for liver regeneration with the classic 2-acetamido-fluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) model in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 2-AAF/PH animals, vitamin K2 treatment induced a dose-dependent increase of liver regeneration as assessed by the weight ratio of remnant liver versus whole body and by measuring serum albumin level. In parallel, a drastic expansion of oval cell population as assessed by anti-OV6 and anti-CK19 immunostaining was noticed in the periportal zone of the remnant liver. Since matrilin-2 was linked to oval cell proliferation and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, we assessed its expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results revealed a significant increase after vitamin K2 treatment in parallel with the expansion of oval cell population. Consistently, knocking down matrilin-2 expression in vivo largely reduced vitamin K2-induced liver regeneration and oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that vitamin K2 treatment enhances liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, which is associated with oval cell expansion and matrilin-2 up-regulation.

  2. Regulation of SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes by pH and NaCl: a Model for In Vivo Gene Expression†

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, Jennifer A.; Caparon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    For a pathogen such as Streptococcus pyogenes, ecological success is determined by its ability to sense the environment and mount an appropriate adaptive transcriptional response. Thus, determining conditions for analyses of gene expression in vitro that are representative of the in vivo environment is critical for understanding the contributions of transcriptional response pathways to pathogenesis. In this study, we determined that the gene encoding the SpeB cysteine protease is up-regulated over the course of infection in a murine soft-tissue model. Conditions were identified, including growth phase, acidic pH, and an NaCl concentration of <0.1 M, that were required for expression of speB in vitro. Analysis of global expression profiles in response to these conditions in vitro identified a set of coregulated genes whose expression patterns showed a significant correlation with that of speB when examined during infection of murine soft tissues. This analysis revealed that a culture medium that promotes high levels of SpeB expression in vitro produced an expression profile that showed significant correlation to the profile observed in vivo. Taken together, these studies establish culture conditions that mimic in vivo expression patterns; that growth phase, pH, and NaCl may mimic relevant cues sensed by S. pyogenes during infection; and that identification of other environmental cues that alter expression of speB in vitro may provide insight into the signals that direct global patterns of gene expression in vivo. PMID:16385029

  3. Intracellular pH and its relationship to regulation of ion transport in normal and cystic fibrosis human nasal epithelia.

    PubMed Central

    Willumsen, N J; Boucher, R C

    1992-01-01

    1. Intracellular pH (pHi) of cultured human airway epithelial cells from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects were measured with double-barrelled pH-sensitive liquid exchanger microelectrodes. The cells, which were grown to confluence on a permeable collagen matrix support, were mounted in a modified miniature Ussing chamber. All studies were conducted under open circuit conditions. Values are given as means +/- S.E.M. and n refers to the number of preparations. 2. Normal preparations (n = 15) were characterized by a transepithelial potential difference (Vt) of -18 +/- 2 mV, an apical membrane potential (Va) of -19 +/- 2 mV, a basolateral membrane potential (Vb) of -37 +/- 2 mV, a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of 253 +/- 15 omega cm2, a fractional apical membrane resistance (fRa) of 0.40 +/- 0.04 and an equivalent short circuit current (Ieq) of -73 +/- 7 microA cm-2. 3. CF preparations (n = 13) were characterized by a Vt of -46 +/- 7 mV, a Va of 3 +/- 5 mV, a Vb of -43 +/- 3 mV, Rt of 373 +/- 47 omega cm2, fRa of 0.44 +/- 0.04 and an Ieq of -130 +/- 16 microA cm-2. All parameters except Vb and fRa were significantly different (P < 0.025) from those of normal preparations. 4. Despite large differences in electrochemical driving force for proton flow across the apical cell membranes between normal and CF preparations (-4 +/- 3 mV and 20 +/- 7 mV, respectively), pHi was similar (7.15 +/- 0.02 and 7.11 +/- 0.05, respectively). The driving force across the basolateral membrane was similar in normal and CF preparations (22 +/- 3 and 26 +/- 3 mV, respectively). 5. Intracellular alkalinization achieved by removal of CO2 from the luminal Ringer solution or by luminal ammonium prepulse led to stimulation of Ieq in both normal (from -58 to -70 microA cm-2, n = 4; P < 0.05) and CF (from -144 to -163 microA cm-2, n = 4; P < 0.005) preparations. The increase in Ieq was associated with a reduction of Rt, increase in fRa, and hyperpolarization of Vb. All changes in

  4. Regulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase Ena1 Expression by Calcineurin/Crz1 under High pH Stress: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Petrezsélyová, Silvia; López-Malo, María; Canadell, David; Roque, Alicia; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Marqués, M Carmen; Vilaprinyó, Ester; Alves, Rui; Yenush, Lynne; Ariño, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Regulated expression of the Ena1 Na+-ATPase is a crucial event for adaptation to high salt and/or alkaline pH stress in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ENA1 expression is under the control of diverse signaling pathways, including that mediated by the calcium-regulatable protein phosphatase calcineurin and its downstream transcription factor Crz1. We present here a quantitative study of the expression of Ena1 in response to alkalinization of the environment and we analyze the contribution of Crz1 to this response. Experimental data and mathematical models substantiate the existence of two stress-responsive Crz1-binding sites in the ENA1 promoter and estimate that the contribution of Crz1 to the early response of the ENA1 promoter is about 60%. The models suggest the existence of a second input with similar kinetics, which would be likely mediated by high pH-induced activation of the Snf1 kinase.

  5. Implication of the Mosquito Midgut Microbiota in the Defense against Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuemei; Manfredini, Fabio; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    Malaria-transmitting mosquitoes are continuously exposed to microbes, including their midgut microbiota. This naturally acquired microbial flora can modulate the mosquito's vectorial capacity by inhibiting the development of Plasmodium and other human pathogens through an unknown mechanism. We have undertaken a comprehensive functional genomic approach to elucidate the molecular interplay between the bacterial co-infection and the development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its natural vector Anopheles gambiae. Global transcription profiling of septic and aseptic mosquitoes identified a significant subset of immune genes that were mostly up-regulated by the mosquito's microbial flora, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. Microbe-free aseptic mosquitoes displayed an increased susceptibility to Plasmodium infection while co-feeding mosquitoes with bacteria and P. falciparum gametocytes resulted in lower than normal infection levels. Infection analyses suggest the bacteria-mediated anti-Plasmodium effect is mediated by the mosquitoes' antimicrobial immune responses, plausibly through activation of basal immunity. We show that the microbiota can modulate the anti-Plasmodium effects of some immune genes. In sum, the microbiota plays an essential role in modulating the mosquito's capacity to sustain Plasmodium infection. PMID:19424427

  6. Identification of CD25 as STAT5-Dependent Growth-Regulator of Leukemic Stem Cells in Ph+ CML

    PubMed Central

    Sadovnik, Irina; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Herrmann, Harald; Eisenwort, Gregor; Warsch, Wolfgang; Hoermann, Gregor; Greiner, Georg; Blatt, Katharina; Peter, Barbara; Stefanzl, Gabriele; Berger, Daniela; Bilban, Martin; Herndlhofer, Susanne; Sill, Heinz; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Streubel, Berthold; Mannhalter, Christine; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Sexl, Veronika; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), leukemic stem cells (LSCs) represent a critical target of therapy. However, little is known about markers and targets expressed by LSCs. The aim of this project was to identify novel interesting markers of CML LSCs. Experimental Design CML LSCs were examined by flow cytometry, qPCR, and various bioassays. In addition, we examined the multipotent CD25+ CML cell line KU812. Results In contrast to normal hematopoietic stem cells, CD34+/CD38− CML LSCs expressed the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain, IL-2RA (CD25). STAT5 was found to induce expression of CD25 in Lin−/Sca-1+/Kit+ stem cells in C57Bl/6 mice. Correspondingly, shRNA-induced STAT5-depletion resulted in decreased CD25 expression in KU812 cells. Moreover, the BCR/ABL1 inhibitors nilotinib and ponatinib were found to decrease STAT5 activity and CD25 expression in KU812 cells and primary CML LSCs. A CD25-targeting shRNA was found to augment proliferation of KU812 cells in vitro and their engraftment in vivo in NOD/SCID-IL-2Rγ−/− mice. In drug-screening experiments, the PI3-Kinase/mTOR blocker BEZ235 promoted the expression of STAT5 and CD25 in CML cells. Finally, we found that BEZ235 produces synergistic anti-neoplastic effects on CML cells when applied in combination with nilotinib or ponatinib. Conclusion CD25 is a novel STAT5-dependent marker of CML LSCs and may be useful for LSC detection and LSC isolation in clinical practice and basic science. Moreover, CD25 serves as a growth-regulator of CML LSCs, which may have biological and clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of new more effective LSC-eradicating treatment strategies in CML. PMID:26607600

  7. Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance to Filarial Worm Infection in Culex pipiens pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Michelle L.; Erickson, Sara M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies of these worms

  8. 1α,25(OH) 2D3 Sensitive Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Zhou, Yuetao; Zhang, Shaqiu; Singh, Yogesh; Shi, Bing; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cell proliferation is modified by 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a steroid hormone predominantly known for its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions and lactate, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1 and monocarboxylate transporters, such as MCT4. An effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on those transport processes has, however, never been reported. As cytosolic pH impacts on apoptosis, the study further explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on apoptosis and on the apoptosis regulating kinase AKT, transcription factor Forkhead box O-3 (FOXO3A) and B-cell lymphoma protein BCL-2. In human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells, cytosolic pH (pHi) was determined utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na+/H+ exchanger activity from Na+ dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels using qRT-PCR, NHE1, MCT4, total & phospho AKT, total & phospho-FOXO3A and BCL-2 protein abundance by Western blotting, lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing a colorimetric enzyme assay and cell death quantification using CytoTox 96®, Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. A 24 hours treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) significantly increased cytosolic pH (pHi), significantly decreased Na+/H+ exchanger activity, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels as well as protein abundance and significantly increased lactate concentration in the supernatant. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) further triggered apoptosis, an effect paralleled by decreased phosphorylation of AKT and FOXO3A as well as decreased abundance of BCL-2. In Ishikawa cells 1,25(OH)2D3 is a powerful stimulator of glycolysis, an effect presumably due to

  9. The regulation of exogenous NAD(P)H oxidation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf mitochondria by pH and cations.

    PubMed Central

    Edman, K; Ericson, I; Møller, I M

    1985-01-01

    Essentially chlorophyll-free mitochondria were isolated from green leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Viking II). Uncoupled oxidation of exogenous NADPH (1 mM) to oxygen had an optimum at pH 6.0, and activity was relatively low at pH 7.0, even in the presence of 1 mM-CaCl2. There was a proportional increase in the apparent Km for NADPH with decreasing H+ concentrations, suggesting that NADPH protonated on the 2'-phosphate group was the true substrate. Exogenous NADH was oxidized by oxygen with an optimum at pH 6.9. Under low-cation conditions, EGTA or EDTA (both 1 mM) had no effect on the Vmax. of NADH oxidation, although the removal of bivalent cations from the membrane surface by the chelators could be observed by use of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence. In contrast, under high-cation conditions, chelators lowered the Vmax. by about 50%, probably due to a better approach of the negatively charged chelators to the negative membrane surface than under low-cation conditions. In a low-cation medium, the Vmax. of NADH oxidation was increased by about 50% by the addition of cations. This was caused by a lowering of the size of the negative surface potential through charge screening. In contrast with other cations, La3+ inhibited NADH oxidation, possibly through binding to lipids essential for NADH oxidation. The apparent Km for NADH varied 6-fold in response to changes in the size of the surface potential, suggesting that the approach of the negatively charged NADH to the active site is hampered by the negative surface potential. The results demonstrate that the spinach leaf cell can regulate the mitochondrial NAD(P)H oxidation through several mechanisms: the pH; the cation concentration in general; and the concentration of Ca2+ in particular. The results also emphasize the importance of electrostatic considerations when investigating the kinetic behaviour of membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:3937519

  10. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  11. Dual Role of CO2/HCO3− Buffer in the Regulation of Intracellular pH of Three-dimensional Tumor Growths*

    PubMed Central

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.; Swietach, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi), a major modulator of cell function, is regulated by acid/base transport across membranes. Excess intracellular H+ ions (e.g. produced by respiration) are extruded by transporters such as Na+/H+ exchange, or neutralized by HCO3− taken up by carriers such as Na+-HCO3− cotransport. Using fluorescence pHi imaging, we show that cancer-derived cell lines (colorectal HCT116 and HT29, breast MDA-MB-468, pancreatic MiaPaca2, and cervical HeLa) extrude acid by H+ efflux and HCO3− influx, largely sensitive to dimethylamiloride and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS), respectively. The magnitude of HCO3− influx was comparable among the cell lines and may represent a constitutive element of tumor pHi regulation. In contrast, H+ efflux varied considerably (MDA-MB-468 > HCT116 > HT29 > MiaPaca2 > HeLa). When HCO3− flux was pharmacologically inhibited, acid extrusion in multicellular HT29 and HCT116 spheroids (∼10,000 cells) was highly non-uniform and produced low pHi at the core. With depth, acid extrusion became relatively more DIDS-sensitive because the low extracellular pH at the spheroid core inhibits H+ flux more than HCO3− flux. HCO3− flux inhibition also decelerated HCT116 spheroid growth. In the absence of CO2/HCO3−, acid extrusion by H+ flux in HCT116 and MDA-MB-468 spheroids became highly non-uniform and inadequate at the core. This is because H+ transporters require extracellular mobile pH buffers, such as CO2/HCO3−, to overcome low H+ ion mobility and chaperone H+ ions away from cells. CO2/HCO3− exerts a dual effect: as substrate for membrane-bound HCO3− transporters and as a mobile buffer for facilitating extracellular diffusion of H+ ions extruded from cells. These processes can be augmented by carbonic anhydrase activity. We conclude that CO2/HCO3− is important for maintaining uniformly alkaline pHi in small, non-vascularized tumor growths and may be important for cancer disease progression

  12. The chronic administration of drugs that inhibit the regulation of intracellular pH: in vitro and anti-tumour effects.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, M.; Tannock, I. F.

    1996-01-01

    Mean values of extracellular pH (pHe) in tumours tend to be about 0.5 pH units lower than in normal tissues, whereas values of intracellular pH (pHi) in tumours and normal tissues are similar. Previous studies have shown that drugs that acidify cells at lower pHe such as nigericin, used alone or with agents that inhibit the regulation of pHi, have toxicity to cultured cells at pHe < 6.5 in short-term exposure; these agents also lead to modest anti-tumour effects in mice when given acutely. To evaluate the long-term effects of these drugs at levels of pHe that might occur commonly in tumours, we exposed cells for up to 72h at pHe 6.8 or 7.2 in vitro. Nigericin (0.033 microM) caused time-dependent cell killing of murine KHT and EMT-6 cells at pHe 6.8 (but not at pHe 7.2) with a surviving fraction approximately 5 x 10(-3) after 72 h exposure. Cell killing was increased in the presence of 4,4-diisothiocyanstilbene 2,2-disulphonic acid (DIDS), an inhibitor of Na+-dependent HCO3-/CI- exchange, and to a lesser extent in the presence of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA), an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange. Cell killing was exquisitely sensitive to the level of pHe. Osmotic pumps were used to obtain a 72 h continuous infusion of nigericin in mice; this led to dose-dependent killing of cells in KHT tumours with surviving fraction of approximately 0.1 at maximum tolerated doses. Hydralazine, which may cause tumour hypoxia and lower pHi as well as pHe, caused cytotoxity when given alone by chronic infusion, and enhanced the cytotoxicity due to nigericin. The addition of DIDS and/or EIPA (using two pumps) further enhanced anti-tumour toxicity, with a surviving fraction of approximately 0.002 at tolerated doses of the four drugs used to treat KHT tumours. The experiments demonstrate the activity of drugs that inhibit the regulation of pHi against murine tumours when delivered by chronic infusion. PMID:8645575

  13. Dual role of CO2/HCO3(-) buffer in the regulation of intracellular pH of three-dimensional tumor growths.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2011-04-22

    Intracellular pH (pH(i)), a major modulator of cell function, is regulated by acid/base transport across membranes. Excess intracellular H(+) ions (e.g. produced by respiration) are extruded by transporters such as Na(+)/H(+) exchange, or neutralized by HCO(3)(-) taken up by carriers such as Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport. Using fluorescence pH(i) imaging, we show that cancer-derived cell lines (colorectal HCT116 and HT29, breast MDA-MB-468, pancreatic MiaPaca2, and cervical HeLa) extrude acid by H(+) efflux and HCO(3)(-) influx, largely sensitive to dimethylamiloride and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), respectively. The magnitude of HCO(3)(-) influx was comparable among the cell lines and may represent a constitutive element of tumor pH(i) regulation. In contrast, H(+) efflux varied considerably (MDA-MB-468 > HCT116 > HT29 > MiaPaca2 > HeLa). When HCO(3)(-) flux was pharmacologically inhibited, acid extrusion in multicellular HT29 and HCT116 spheroids (∼10,000 cells) was highly non-uniform and produced low pH(i) at the core. With depth, acid extrusion became relatively more DIDS-sensitive because the low extracellular pH at the spheroid core inhibits H(+) flux more than HCO(3)(-) flux. HCO(3)(-) flux inhibition also decelerated HCT116 spheroid growth. In the absence of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), acid extrusion by H(+) flux in HCT116 and MDA-MB-468 spheroids became highly non-uniform and inadequate at the core. This is because H(+) transporters require extracellular mobile pH buffers, such as CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), to overcome low H(+) ion mobility and chaperone H(+) ions away from cells. CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) exerts a dual effect: as substrate for membrane-bound HCO(3)(-) transporters and as a mobile buffer for facilitating extracellular diffusion of H(+) ions extruded from cells. These processes can be augmented by carbonic anhydrase activity. We conclude that CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) is important for maintaining uniformly alkaline pH(i) in small, non-vascularized tumor

  14. Occurrence of serotonin immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and midgut of adult female Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Haselton, Aaron T; Yin, Chih-Ming; Stoffolano, John G

    2006-03-01

    Serotonin is an important neuromessenger used in a variety of signaling pathways throughout the animal kingdom. In insects, serotonin has been demonstrated to mediate feeding and feeding-related behaviors. In this study, serotonin antibody was localized in cells and processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and midgut of female horse fly Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart. In the CNS, immunoreactivity was localized in cells and processes throughout the brain and ventral nerve cord. In the midgut, a fine network of immunoreactive processes was observed running along the outer surface of the midgut, with a decrease in innervation toward the posterior region of the midgut.

  15. Morphological alterations induced by boric acid and fipronil in the midgut of worker honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae : Morphological alterations in the midgut of A. mellifera.

    PubMed

    da Silva Cruz, Aline; da Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Bueno, Odair C; Malaspina, Osmar

    2010-04-01

    Morphological alterations, by means of histological and ultrastructural analysis, have been used to determine the effects of boric acid and fipronil on midgut tissues of honeybee worker, Apis mellifera L. larvae. In order to observe possible morphological alterations in the midgut, two groups of bioassays were performed. In the first one, the larvae were chronically treated with different concentrations of boric acid added to the food (1.0, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/g). In the second group, the larvae were fed with diets containing different concentrations of fipronil (0.1 and 1 microg/g) and compared with control groups without these chemical compounds. In the first bioassay, the larvae were collected on day 3 and in the second bioassay on day 4, when the mortality rate obtained in the toxicological bioassay was not very high. The larval midguts were removed and processed for morphological analyses using a light and transmission electron microscopy. We observed cytoplasmic vacuolizations, with the absence of autophagic vacuoles, and chromatinic compacting in most of the cells in the groups treated with pesticides. The morphological alterations were far greater in the larvae treated with boric acid than in the larvae treated with fipronil. Our data suggest that the midgut cell death observed was in response to boric acid and fipronil action. This study significantly improves the understanding of the toxicological effect of these insecticides from the ecotoxicological perspective.

  16. Microprofiles of oxygen, redox potential, and pH, and microbial fermentation products in the highly alkaline gut of the saprophagous larva of Penthetria holosericea (Diptera: Bibionidae).

    PubMed

    Šustr, Vladimír; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The saprophagous larvae of bibionid flies harbor bacteria in their alkaline intestinal tracts, but little is known about the contribution of the gut microbiota to the digestion of their recalcitrant diet. In this study, we measured oxygen and hydrogen partial pressure, redox potential and pH in the midgut, gastric caeca and hindgut of larvae of the bibionid fly Penthetria holosericea with Clark-type O2 and H2 microsensors, platinum redox microelectrodes, and LIX-type pH microelectrodes. The center of the midgut lumen was anoxic, whereas gastric caeca and hindgut were hypoxic. However, redox potential profiles indicated oxidizing conditions throughout the gut, with lowest values in the midgut (+20 to +60mV). Hydrogen production was not detected. The midgut was extremely alkaline (pH around 11), whereas hindgut and gastric caeca were neutral to slightly alkaline. While HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of glucose in the midgut (15mM) and gastric caeca (27mM), the concentrations of microbial fermentation products such as lactate (2-4mM), acetate (<1mM) and succinate (<0.5mM) were low in all gut regions, suggesting that the contribution of microorganisms to the digestive process, particularly in the alkaline midgut, is only of minor importance. We conclude that the digestive strategy of the saprophytic larva of P. holosericea, which feeds selectively on decomposed leaves and its own microbe-rich faeces, differs fundamentally from those of detritivorous and humivorous insects, which host a highly active, fermentative microbiota in their alkaline midgut or hindgut compartments.

  17. Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-12-01

    Chitin, an essential component of peritrophic matrix (PM), is produced by a series of biochemical reactions. Chitin synthase plays a crucial role in chitin polymerization in chitin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of chitin synthase 2 gene (LmCHS2) from Locusta migratoria. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4569 nucleotides that encode 1523 amino acid residues, and 76- and 373-nucleotides for 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. Analysis of LmCHS2 transcript in different tissues of the locust by using real-time quantitative PCR indicated that LmCHS2 was exclusively expressed in midgut and gastric caeca (a part of the midgut). The highest expression was found in the anterior midgut with a decline of the transcript level from the anterior to posterior regions. During growth and development of locusts, there was only a slight expression in eggs, but the expression gradually increased from nymphs to adults. In situ hybridization further revealed that LmCHS2 transcript mainly presented in the apical regions of brush border forming columnar cells of gastric caeca. LmCHS2 dsRNA was injected to fifth-instar nymphs to further explore biological functions of LmCHS2. Significantly down-regulated transcript of LmCHS2 resulted in a cessation of feeding and a high mortality of the insect. However, no visible abnormal morphological change of locusts was observed until insects molted to adults. After dissection, we found that the average length of midguts from the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected locusts was shorter than that of the control insects that were injected with dsGFP. Furthermore, microsection of midguts showed that the PM of the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected nymphs was amorphous and thin as compared with the controls. Our results demonstrate that LmCHS2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of chitin associated with PM and plays an essential role in locust growth and development.

  18. Prorenin Receptor Homologue VHA-20 is Critical for Intestinal pH Regulation, Ion and Water Management and Larval Development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zima, V; Šebková, K; Šimečková, K; Dvořák, T; Saudek, V; Kostrouchová, M

    2015-01-01

    The prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2) is a multifunctional transmembrane protein; it is a constituent of proton-translocating V-ATPase, a non-proteolytic activator of renin and an adaptor in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we studied vha-20, one of the two prorenin receptor homologues that are identified by sequence similarity in the C. elegans genome. We show that vha-20 (R03E1.2) is prominently expressed in the intestine, in the excretory cell and in amphid neurons, tissues critical for regulation of ion and water management. The expression of vha-20 in the intestine is dependent on NHR-31, a nuclear receptor related to HNF4. VHA-20 is indispensable for normal larval development, acidification of the intestine, and is required for nutrient uptake. Inhibition of vha-20 by RNAi leads to complex deterioration of water and pH gradients at the level of the whole organism including distention of pseudocoelome cavity. This suggests new roles of prorenin receptor in the regulation of body ion and water management and in acidification of intestinal lumen in nematodes.

  19. The sensitivity and significance analysis of parameters in the model of pH regulation on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zeng, Xiangmiao; Qiao, Lei; Li, Xisheng; Yang, Yubo; Dai, Cuihong; Hou, Aiju; Xu, Dechang

    2014-01-01

    The excessive production of lactic acid by L. bulgaricus during yogurt storage is a phenomenon we are always tried to prevent. The methods used in industry either control the post-acidification inefficiently or kill the probiotics in yogurt. Genetic methods of changing the activity of one enzyme related to lactic acid metabolism make the bacteria short of energy to growth, although they are efficient ways in controlling lactic acid production. A model of pH-induced promoter regulation on the production of lactic acid by L. bulgaricus was built. The modelled lactic acid metabolism without pH-induced promoter regulation fitted well with wild type L. bulgaricus (R2LAC = 0.943, R2LA = 0.942). Both the local sensitivity analysis and Sobol sensitivity analysis indicated parameters Tmax, GR, KLR, S, V0, V1 and dLR were sensitive. In order to guide the future biology experiments, three adjustable parameters, KLR, V0 and V1, were chosen for further simulations. V0 had little effect on lactic acid production if the pH-induced promoter could be well induced when pH decreased to its threshold. KLR and V1 both exhibited great influence on the producing of lactic acid. The proposed method of introducing a pH-induced promoter to regulate a repressor gene could restrain the synthesis of lactic acid if an appropriate strength of promoter and/or an appropriate strength of ribosome binding sequence (RBS) in lacR gene has been designed.

  20. The sensitivity and significance analysis of parameters in the model of pH regulation on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The excessive production of lactic acid by L. bulgaricus during yogurt storage is a phenomenon we are always tried to prevent. The methods used in industry either control the post-acidification inefficiently or kill the probiotics in yogurt. Genetic methods of changing the activity of one enzyme related to lactic acid metabolism make the bacteria short of energy to growth, although they are efficient ways in controlling lactic acid production. Results A model of pH-induced promoter regulation on the production of lactic acid by L. bulgaricus was built. The modelled lactic acid metabolism without pH-induced promoter regulation fitted well with wild type L. bulgaricus (R2LAC = 0.943, R2LA = 0.942). Both the local sensitivity analysis and Sobol sensitivity analysis indicated parameters Tmax, GR, KLR, S, V0, V1 and dLR were sensitive. In order to guide the future biology experiments, three adjustable parameters, KLR, V0 and V1, were chosen for further simulations. V0 had little effect on lactic acid production if the pH-induced promoter could be well induced when pH decreased to its threshold. KLR and V1 both exhibited great influence on the producing of lactic acid. Conclusions The proposed method of introducing a pH-induced promoter to regulate a repressor gene could restrain the synthesis of lactic acid if an appropriate strength of promoter and/or an appropriate strength of ribosome binding sequence (RBS) in lacR gene has been designed. PMID:25434877

  1. Two-stage pH control strategy based on the pH preference of acetoin reductase regulates acetoin and 2,3-butanediol distribution in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Bao, Teng; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH), which catalyzes the interconversion between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, plays an important role in distribution of the products pools. This work characterized the Bacillus subtilis AR/BDH for the first time. The enzyme showed very different pH preferences of pH 6.5 for reduction and pH 8.5 for oxidation. Based on these above results, a two-stage pH control strategy was optimized for acetoin production, in which the pH was controlled at 6.5 for quickly converting glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, and then 8.0 for reversely transforming 2,3-butanediol to acetoin. By over-expression of AR/BDH in the wild-type B. subtilis JNA 3-10 and applying fed-batch fermentation based on the two-stage pH control strategy, acetoin yield of B. subtilis was improved to a new record of 73.6 g/l, with the productivity of 0.77 g/(l · h). The molar yield of acetoin was improved from 57.5% to 83.5% and the ratio of acetoin/2,3-butanediol was switched from 2.7:1 to 18.0:1.

  2. Two-Stage pH Control Strategy Based on the pH Preference of Acetoin Reductase Regulates Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol Distribution in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH), which catalyzes the interconversion between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, plays an important role in distribution of the products pools. This work characterized the Bacillus subtilis AR/BDH for the first time. The enzyme showed very different pH preferences of pH 6.5 for reduction and pH 8.5 for oxidation. Based on these above results, a two-stage pH control strategy was optimized for acetoin production, in which the pH was controlled at 6.5 for quickly converting glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, and then 8.0 for reversely transforming 2,3-butanediol to acetoin. By over-expression of AR/BDH in the wild-type B. subtilis JNA 3-10 and applying fed-batch fermentation based on the two-stage pH control strategy, acetoin yield of B. subtilis was improved to a new record of 73.6 g/l, with the productivity of 0.77 g/(l·h). The molar yield of acetoin was improved from 57.5% to 83.5% and the ratio of acetoin/2,3-butanediol was switched from 2.7∶1 to 18.0∶1. PMID:24608678

  3. Regulating drug release from pH- and temperature-responsive electrospun CTS-g-PNIPAAm/poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huihua; Li, Biyun; Liang, Kai; Lou, Xiangxin; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2014-08-18

    Temperature- and pH-responsive polymers have been widely investigated as smart drug release systems. However, dual-sensitive polymers in the form of nanofibers, which is advantageous in achieving rapid transfer of stimulus to the smart polymeric structures for regulating drug release behavior, have rarely been explored. In this study, chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CTS-g-PNIPAAm) copolymer was synthesized by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) as grafting agents to graft carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm (PNIPAAm-COOH) chains onto the CTS biomacromolecules, and then CTS-g-PNIPAAm with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA) was fabricated into nanofibers through electrospinning using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, 10 wt%) as a fiber-forming facilitating additive. The BSA laden CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers were tested to determine their drug release profiles by varying pH and temperature. Finally, cytotoxicity of the CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers was evaluated by assaying the L929 cell proliferation using the MTT method. It was found that the synthesized CTS-g-PNIPAAm possessed a temperature-induced phase transition and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32° C in aqueous solutions. The rate of BSA release could be well modulated by altering the environmental pH and temperature of the hydrogel nanofibers. The CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers supported L929 cell growth, indicative of appropriate cytocompatibility. Our current work could pave the way towards developing multi-stimuli responsive nanofibrous smart materials for potential applications in the fields of drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  4. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular pH sensor involved in the regulation of acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Alexander G; Zozulya, Sergey A; Deyev, Igor E; Eladari, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies of insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) revealed its unusual property to activate upon extracellular application of mildly alkaline media, pH>7.9. The activation of IRR with hydroxyl anion has typical features of ligand-receptor interaction; it is specific, dose-dependent, involves the IRR extracellular domain and is accompanied by a major conformational change. IRR is a member of the insulin receptor minifamily and has been long viewed as an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase since no peptide or protein agonist of IRR was found. In the evolution, IRR is highly conserved since its divergence from the insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors in amphibia. The latter two cannot be activated by alkali. Another major difference between them is that unlike ubiquitously expressed insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, IRR is found in specific sets of cells of only some tissues, most of them being exposed to extracorporeal liquids of extreme pH. In particular, largest concentrations of IRR are in beta-intercalated cells of the kidneys. The primary physiological function of these cells is to excrete excessive alkali as bicarbonate into urine. When IRR is removed genetically, animals loose the property to excrete bicarbonate upon experimentally induced alkalosis. In this review, we will discuss the available in vitro and in vivo data that support the hypothesis of IRR role as a physiological alkali sensor that regulates acid-base balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emerging recognition and activation mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the midgut structure and ultrastructure in Cimex lectularius and Cimex pipistrelli (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Vilimova, J; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Kamińska, K; Kaszuba, F; Marchewka, A; Sadílek, D

    2017-02-01

    Cimicidae are temporary ectoparasites, which means that they cannot obtain food continuously. Both Cimex species examined here, Cimex lectularius (Linnaeus 1758) and Cimex pipistrelli (Jenyns 1839), can feed on a non-natal host, C. lectularius from humans on bats, C. pipistrelli on humans, but never naturally. The midgut of C. lectularius and C. pipistrelli is composed of three distinct regions-the anterior midgut (AMG), which has a sack-like shape, the long tube-shaped middle midgut (MMG), and the posterior midgut (PMG). The different ultrastructures of the AMG, MMG, and PMG in both of the species examined suggest that these regions must fulfill different functions in the digestive system. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the AMG fulfills the role of storing food and synthesizing and secreting enzymes, while the MMG is the main organ for the synthesis of enzymes, secretion, and the storage of the reserve material. Additionally, both regions, the AMG and MMG, are involved in water absorption in the digestive system of both Cimex species. The PMG is the part of the midgut in which spherites accumulate. The results of our studies confirm the suggestion of former authors that the structure of the digestive tract of insects is not attributed solely to diet but to the basic adaptation of an ancestor.

  6. DNA duplication is essential for the repair of gastrointestinal perforation in the insect midgut

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wuren; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Bing; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate animals have the capacity of repairing wounds in the skin and gut via different mechanisms. Gastrointestinal perforation, a hole in the human gastrointestinal system, is a serious condition, and surgery is necessary to repair the perforation to prevent an abdominal abscess or sepsis. Here we report the repair of gastrointestinal perforation made by a needle-puncture wound in the silkworm larval midgut. Following insect gut perforation, only a weak immune response was observed because the growth of Escherichia coli alone was partially inhibited by plasma collected at 6 h after needle puncture of the larval midgut. However, circulating hemocytes did aggregate over the needle-puncture wound to form a scab. While, cell division and apoptosis were not observed at the wound site, the needle puncture significantly enhanced DNA duplication in cells surrounding the wound, which was essential to repair the midgut perforation. Due to the repair capacity and limited immune response caused by needle puncture to the midgut, this approach was successfully used for the injection of small compounds (ethanol in this study) into the insect midgut. Consequently, this needle-puncture wounding of the insect gut can be developed for screening compounds for use as gut chemotherapeutics in the future. PMID:26754166

  7. DNA duplication is essential for the repair of gastrointestinal perforation in the insect midgut.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wuren; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Bing; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-01-12

    Invertebrate animals have the capacity of repairing wounds in the skin and gut via different mechanisms. Gastrointestinal perforation, a hole in the human gastrointestinal system, is a serious condition, and surgery is necessary to repair the perforation to prevent an abdominal abscess or sepsis. Here we report the repair of gastrointestinal perforation made by a needle-puncture wound in the silkworm larval midgut. Following insect gut perforation, only a weak immune response was observed because the growth of Escherichia coli alone was partially inhibited by plasma collected at 6 h after needle puncture of the larval midgut. However, circulating hemocytes did aggregate over the needle-puncture wound to form a scab. While, cell division and apoptosis were not observed at the wound site, the needle puncture significantly enhanced DNA duplication in cells surrounding the wound, which was essential to repair the midgut perforation. Due to the repair capacity and limited immune response caused by needle puncture to the midgut, this approach was successfully used for the injection of small compounds (ethanol in this study) into the insect midgut. Consequently, this needle-puncture wounding of the insect gut can be developed for screening compounds for use as gut chemotherapeutics in the future.

  8. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Jadhav, Bhakti R; Giri, Ashok P; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  9. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera Midgut Digestive Physiology after Ingestion of Pigeon Pea Inducible Leucine Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Lomate, Purushottam R.; Jadhav, Bhakti R.; Giri, Ashok P.; Hivrale, Vandana K.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory. PMID:24098675

  10. Effects of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on the Midgut Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YingYing; Qi, Zhijun; Qi, Meng; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Periplocoside P (PSP) isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium contains a pregnane glycoside skeleton and possesses high insecticidal properties. Preliminary studies indicated that PSP disrupts epithelial functions in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. In the present study, we examined the effects of PSP on the apical and basolateral membrane voltages, Va and Vbl, respectively, of cells from (1) midguts isolated from the larvae of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata that were in vitro incubated with toxins and (2) midguts isolated from M. separata larvae force-fed with PSP. We compared the effects of PSP with the effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab and inactive periplocoside E (PSE) on the midgut epithelial cells. The results showed that Va rapidly decreased in the presence of PSP in a time- and dose-dependent manner, similar to the effects of Cry1Ab. By contrast, PSE did not affect the Va and Vbl. Additionally, PSP did not influence the Vbl. Given these results, we speculate that PSP may modulate transport mechanisms at the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells by inhibiting the V-type H+ ATPase. PMID:27833169

  11. Insect midgut carboxypeptidases with emphasis on S10 hemipteran and M14 lepidopteran carboxypeptidases.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C; Rebola, K G O; Cardoso, C; Bragatto, I; Ribeiro, A F; Terra, W R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the whole complement of midgut carboxypeptidases from 10 insects pertaining to five orders based on transcriptomes obtained by deep sequencing and biochemical data. Most of the carboxypeptidases were metallocarboxypeptidases from family M14, with carboxypeptidase A (CPA) predominating over carboxypeptidase B (CPB). They were found in all of the insects studied except for the hemipterans and a bruchid beetle. M14 carboxypeptidases were expressed only in the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera). The most expressed CPA from this insect (SfCPA) was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a recombinant enzyme. This enzyme was used to generate antibodies used to demonstrate that SfCPA is secreted by an exocytic route. Serine carboxypeptidases from family S10 were found in all of the insects studied here. In S. frugiperda, they are expressed in all tissues besides the midgut, in accordance with their presumed lysosomal role. In the hemipteran Dysdercus peruvianus, S10 carboxypeptidases are expressed only in midgut, suggesting that they are digestive enzymes. This was confirmed by enzyme assays of midgut contents. Furthermore, the substrate specificity of D. peruvianus S10 carboxypeptidases are predicted to be one CPC (preferring hydrophobic residues) and one CPD (preferring basic residues), thus able to hydrolyse the peptides formed by their digestive cathepsin D and cathepsin L, respectively. The role of S10 carboxypeptidases in bruchid beetles are suggested to be the same as in hemipterans. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Exploring the midgut proteome of partially fed female cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus).

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Zhu, Ying; Pearson, Roger; Gough, Joanne; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2010-02-01

    The continued development of effective anti-tick vaccines remains the most promising prospect for the control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A vaccine based on midgut proteins could interfere with successful tick feeding and additionally interfere with midgut developmental stages of Babesia parasites, providing opportunities for the control of both the tick and the pathogens it transmits. Midgut proteins from partially fed adult female cattle ticks were analysed using a combination of 2-DE and gel-free LC-MS/MS. Analysis of the urea-soluble protein fraction resulted in the confident identification of 105 gut proteins, while the PBS-soluble fraction yielded an additional 37 R. microplus proteins. The results show an abundance of proteins involved in mitochondrial ATP synthesis, electron transport chain, protein synthesis, chaperone, antioxidant and protein folding and transport activities in midgut tissues of adult female ticks. Among the novel products identified were clathrin-adaptor protein, which is involved in the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles, and membrane-associated trafficking proteins such as syntaxin 6 and surfeit 4. The observations allow the formulation of hypotheses regarding midgut physiology and will serve as a basis for future vaccine development and tick-host interaction research. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of human papilloma virus type 16 E5 protein in amelanotic melanoma cells regulates endo-cellular pH and restores tyrosinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Foppoli, Cesira; Blarzino, Carla; Perluigi, Marzia; Paolini, Francesca; Morici, Salvatrice; Coccia, Raffaella; Cini, Chiara; De Marco, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanin synthesis, the elective trait of melanocytes, is regulated by tyrosinase activity. In tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas this rate limiting enzyme is inactive because of acidic endo-melanosomal pH. The E5 oncogene of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 is a small transmembrane protein with a weak transforming activity and a role during the early steps of viral infections. E5 has been shown to interact with 16 kDa subunit C of the trans-membrane Vacuolar ATPase proton pump ultimately resulting in its functional suppressions. However, the cellular effects of such an interaction are still under debate. With this work we intended to explore whether the HPV16 E5 oncoprotein does indeed interact with the vacuolar ATPase proton pump once expressed in intact human cells and whether this interaction has functional consequences on cell metabolism and phenotype. Methods The expression of the HPV16-E5 oncoproteins was induced in two Tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas (the cell lines FRM and M14) by a retroviral expression construct. Modulation of the intracellular pH was measured with Acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy. Expression of tyrosinase and its activity was followed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and enzyme assay. The anchorage-independence growth and the metabolic activity of E5 expressing cells were also monitored. Results We provide evidence that in the E5 expressing cells interaction between E5 and V-ATPase determines an increase of endo-cellular pH. The cellular alkalinisation in turn leads to the post-translational activation of tyrosinase, melanin synthesis and phenotype modulation. These effects are associated with an increased activation of tyrosine analogue anti-blastic drugs. Conclusion Once expressed within intact human cells the HPV16-E5 oncoprotein does actually interact with the vacuolar V-ATPase proton pump and this interaction induces a number of functional effects. In amelanotic melanomas these effects can modulate the

  14. An unexpected cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult patient: midgut volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Söker, Gökhan; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Karateke, Faruk; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    The most important complication of intestinal malrotation is midgut volvulus because it may lead to intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (US), colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), CT and barium studies were carried out. On US and CDUS, twisting of intestinal segments around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and alteration of the SMA–SMV relationship were detected. CT demonstrated that the small intestine was making a rotation around the SMA and SMV, which amounted to more than 360°. The upper gastrointestinal barium series revealed a corkscrew appearance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which is a pathognomonic finding of midgut volvulus. Prior knowledge of characteristic imaging findings of midgut volvulus is essential in order to reach proper diagnosis and establish proper treatment before the development of intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. PMID:24811563

  15. Regulation of the Edwardsiella ictaluri Type III Secretion System by pH and Phosphate Concentration through EsrA, EsrB, and EsrC ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, Matthew L.; Thune, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    A recently described Edwardsiella ictaluri type III secretion system (T3SS) with functional similarity to the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 T3SS is required for replication in channel catfish head-kidney-derived macrophages (HKDM) and virulence in channel catfish. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting identified low pH and phosphate limitation as conducive to expression of the E. ictaluri T3SS, growth conditions that mimic the phagosomal environment. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that expression is under the control of the EsrAB two-component regulatory system. EsrB also induces upregulation of the AraC-type regulatory protein EsrC, which enhances expression of the EscB/EseG chaperone/effector operon in concert with EsrB and induces expression of the pEI1-encoded effector, EseH. EsrC also induces expression of a putative type VI secretion system translocon protein, EvpC, which is secreted under the same low-pH conditions as the T3SS translocon proteins. The pEI2-encoded effector, EseI, was upregulated under low-pH and low-phosphate conditions but not in an EsrB- or EsrC-dependent manner. Mutations of EsrA and EsrB both resulted in loss of the ability to replicate in HKDM and full attenuation in the channel catfish host. Mutation of EsrC did not affect intracellular replication but did result in attenuation in catfish. Although EsrB is the primary transcriptional regulator for E. ictaluri genes within the T3SS pathogenicity island, EsrC regulates expression of the plasmid-carried effector eseH and appears to mediate coordinated expression of the T6SS with the T3SS. PMID:21551284

  16. Relative contribution of ruminal buffering systems to pH regulation in feedlot cattle fed either low- or high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2016-07-01

    The relative contribution of ruminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and salivary buffering to pH regulation could potentially change under different dietary conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of altering the ruminal supply of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate (CHO) on absorptive function and salivation in beef cattle. Eight heifers (mean BW±SD=410±14 kg) were randomly allocated to two treatments in a crossover design with 37-day periods. Dietary treatments were barley silage at 30% low forage (LF) or 70% high forage (HF) of dietary dry matter (DM), with the remainder of the diet consisting of barley grain (65% or 25% on a DM basis) and a constant level (5%) of supplement. The LF and HF diets contained 45.3% and 30.9% starch, and 4.1% and 14.0% physically effective fiber (DM basis), respectively. Ruminal pH was continuously measured from day 17 to day 23, whereas ruminal fluid was collected on day 23 to determine SCFA concentration. Ruminal liquid passage rate was determined on day 23 using Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Eating or resting salivation was measured by collecting masticate (days 28 and 29) or saliva samples (days 30 and 31) at the cardia, respectively. On days 30 and 31, the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen technique was used to measure total, and Cl--competitive (an indirect measure of protein-mediated transport) absorption of acetate, propionate and butyrate. As a result of the higher dietary starch content and DM intake, the ruminal supply of rapidly fermentable CHO, total ruminal SCFA concentration (118 v. 95 mM; P<0.001) and osmolality (330 v. 306 mOsm/kg; P=0.018) were greater in cattle fed LF compared with HF. In addition, feeding LF resulted in a longer duration (2.50 v. 0.09 h/day; P=0.02) and a larger area (0.44 v. 0.01 (pH×h)/day; P=0.050) that pH was below 5.5. There was no diet effect on total and Cl--competitive absorption (mmol/h and %/h) of acetate, propionate

  17. Fluazuron-induced morphophysiological changes in the cuticle formation and midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the effects of the arthropod growth regulator, fluazuron (Acatak®), in the formation of the integument and digestive processes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits treated with different doses of this chemical acaricide. For this, three different doses of fluazuron (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) were applied "pour on" to the hosts (groups II, III, and IV), as well as distilled water to the control group. On the first day after treatment (24 h), the hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. After full engorgement (7 days), the nymphs were removed, placed on labeled Petri dishes, and kept in biochemical oxygen demand incubator for 7 days. The engorged nymphs were then taken for morphological, histochemical, and histological analyses. The results showed the occurrence of cytological, morphohistological, and histochemical alterations in the integument and midgut of nymphs from all the different treated groups. These alterations occurred at cuticular level in the subdivisions of the cuticle, related to the size of the digestive cells, amount of accumulated blood elements, and digestive residues, as well as the presence of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the digestive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that fluazuron acts on the integument and midgut cells of R. sanguineus nymphs fed on treated rabbits and pointed out the possibility of the use of this chemical-which is more specific, less toxic, and less harmful to the environment and nontarget organisms-in the control of R. sanguineus, at least in the nymphal stage of its biological cycle.

  18. Cellular internalization and stress response of ingested amorphous silica nanoparticles in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Chandra, Swati; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSNPs) are used for various applications including food industry. However, limited in vivo studies are available on absorption/internalization of ingested aSNPs in the midgut cells of an organism. The study aims to examine cellular uptake of aSNPs (<30nm) in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)) owing to similarities between the midgut tissue of this organism and human and subsequently cellular stress response generated by these nanoparticles. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were exposed orally to 1-100μg/mL of aSNPs for 12-36h and oxidative stress (OS), heat shock genes (hsgs), membrane destabilization (Acridine orange/Ethidium Bromide staining), cellular internalization (TEM) and apoptosis endpoints. A significant increase was observed in OS endpoints in the midgut cells of exposed Drosophila in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Significantly increased expression of hsp70 and hsp22 along with caspases activation, membrane destabilization and mitochondrial membrane potential loss was also observed. TEM analysis showed aSNPs-uptake in the midgut cells of exposed Drosophila via endocytic vesicles and by direct membrane penetration. aSNPs after their internalization in the midgut cells of exposed Drosophila larvae show membrane destabilization along with increased cellular stress and cell death. Ingested aSNPs show adverse effects on the cells of GI tract of the exposed organism thus their industrial use as a food-additive may raise concern to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overexpression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in NIH 3T3 cells lowers membrane potential and intracellular pH and confers a multidrug resistance phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, L Y; Stutts, M J; Hoffman, M M; Roepe, P D

    1995-01-01

    Because of the similarities between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, recent observations of decreased plasma membrane electrical potential (delta psi) in cells overexpressing either MDR protein or the CFTR, and the effects of delta psi on passive diffusion of chemotherapeutic drugs, we have analyzed chemotherapeutic drug resistance for NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing different levels of functional CFTR. Three separate clones not previously exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit resistance to doxorubicin, vincristine, and colchicine that is similar to MDR transfectants not previously exposed to chemotherapeutic drugs. Two other clones expressing lower levels of CFTR are less resistant. As shown previously these clones exhibit decreased plasma membrane delta psi similar to MDR transfectants, but four of five exhibit mildly acidified intracellular pH in contrast to MDR transfectants, which are in general alkaline. Thus the MDR protein and CFTR-mediated MDR phenotypes are distinctly different. Selection of two separate CFTR clones on either doxorubicin or vincristine substantially increases the observed MDR and leads to increased CFTR (but not measurable MDR or MRP) mRNA expression. CFTR overexpressors also exhibit a decreased rate of 3H -vinblastine uptake. These data reveal a new and previously unrecognized consequence of CFTR expression, and are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane depolarization is an important determinant of tumor cell MDR. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 PMID:8519988

  20. Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, P.A.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Chepuri, V.; Gennis, R.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli contains two terminal oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of ubiquinol-8 and the reduction of oxygen to water. They are the cytochrome o oxidase complex encoded by cyoABCDE and the cytochrome d oxidase complex encoded by cydAB. To determine how these genes are regulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, including oxygen, we examined their expression by using lacZ protein fusions in wild-type and fnr mutant strains of E. coli. Based on the pattern of anaerobic cydAB expression observed, we propose the existence of a second, as yet unidentified, regulatory element that must function either to activate cydAB expression as oxygen becomes limiting or to repress cydAB expression aerobically. Whereas cytochrome o oxidase encoded by cyoABCDE appears to be produced only under oxygen-rich growth conditions, in keeping with its biochemical properties, cytochrome d oxidase is expressed moderately aerobically and is elevated yet further when oxygen becomes limiting so that the organism can cope better under oxygen starvation conditions. We also examined cyoABCDE and cydAB expression in response to growth on alternative carbon compounds and to changes in the culture medium pH and osmolarity.

  1. Regulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase Ena1 Expression by Calcineurin/Crz1 under High pH Stress: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrezsélyová, Silvia; López-Malo, María; Canadell, David; Roque, Alicia; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Marqués, M. Carmen; Vilaprinyó, Ester; Alves, Rui; Yenush, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Regulated expression of the Ena1 Na+-ATPase is a crucial event for adaptation to high salt and/or alkaline pH stress in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ENA1 expression is under the control of diverse signaling pathways, including that mediated by the calcium-regulatable protein phosphatase calcineurin and its downstream transcription factor Crz1. We present here a quantitative study of the expression of Ena1 in response to alkalinization of the environment and we analyze the contribution of Crz1 to this response. Experimental data and mathematical models substantiate the existence of two stress-responsive Crz1-binding sites in the ENA1 promoter and estimate that the contribution of Crz1 to the early response of the ENA1 promoter is about 60%. The models suggest the existence of a second input with similar kinetics, which would be likely mediated by high pH-induced activation of the Snf1 kinase. PMID:27362362

  2. MdSOS2L1 forms a complex with MdMYB1 to control vacuolar pH by transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in apples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cui-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Yan; Sun, Mei-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vacuolar pH is important and involves in many different physiological processes in plants. A recent paper published in Plant Physiology reveals that MdMYB1 regulates vacuolar pH by directly transcriptionally regulating proton pump genes and malate transporters genes, such as V-ATPase subunit gene MdVHA-B1. Here, we found that MdSOS2L1 in vitro did not directly interact with MdMYB1, however, in vivo formed a complex with MdMYB1 in the nucleus to regulate MdVHA-B1-mediated vacuolar acidification. This finding shed light on the role of MdSOS2L1 in transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in addition to its post-modified function in apples. PMID:26910596

  3. MdSOS2L1 forms a complex with MdMYB1 to control vacuolar pH by transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in apples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cui-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Yan; Sun, Mei-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar pH is important and involves in many different physiological processes in plants. A recent paper published in Plant Physiology reveals that MdMYB1 regulates vacuolar pH by directly transcriptionally regulating proton pump genes and malate transporters genes, such as V-ATPase subunit gene MdVHA-B1. Here, we found that MdSOS2L1 in vitro did not directly interact with MdMYB1, however, in vivo formed a complex with MdMYB1 in the nucleus to regulate MdVHA-B1-mediated vacuolar acidification. This finding shed light on the role of MdSOS2L1 in transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in addition to its post-modified function in apples.

  4. Detection of heparin in the salivary gland and midgut of Aedes togoi.

    PubMed

    Ha, Young-Ran; Oh, So-Ra; Seo, Eun-Seok; Kim, Bo-Heum; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes secrete saliva that contains biological substances, including anticoagulants that counteract a host's hemostatic response and prevent blood clotting during blood feeding. This study aimed to detect heparin, an anticoagulant in Aedes togoi using an immunohistochemical detection method, in the salivary canal, salivary gland, and midgut of male and female mosquitoes. Comparisons showed that female mosquitoes contained higher concentrations of heparin than male mosquitoes. On average, the level of heparin was higher in blood-fed female mosquitoes than in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Heparin concentrations were higher in the midgut than in the salivary gland. This indicates presence of heparin in tissues of A. togoi.

  5. Functional morphology of the midgut of a sandfly as compared to other hematophagous nematocera.

    PubMed

    Rudin, W; Hecker, H

    1982-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated by means of electron microscopic morphometry before and during blood digestion. Ultrastructure and cytological changes of the stomach cells upon blood feeding were generally similar to the ones described for Phlebotomus longipes (Gemetchu, 1974) and for mosquitoes (Hecker, 1977). In addition, the quantitative composition of the cells resembled the one of mosquitoes in many respects. Despite some morphological differences in the functional gut cytology, it can be admitted that, in general, digestive processes may run similarly in the midguts of sandflies and mosquitoes.

  6. Changes in midgut and brain proteins in Morimus funereus larvae depending on nutritive substrate.

    PubMed

    Ilijin, Larisa; Janković-Tomanić, Milena; Mitić, Marija; Vlahović, Milena; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Maratuga, Vesna; Prolić, Zlatko; Nenadović, Vera

    2003-01-01

    The response of Morimus funereus larvae to total starvation and refeeding with qualitatively different nutritive substrates (artificial diets supplemented with yeast as a source of B complex vitamins or with a digestibility reducer-tannic acid) was examined in this paper. Refeeding resulted in a compensatory increase of larval growth. Feeding and refeeding with qualitati