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Sample records for mild feed restriction

  1. Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters.

    PubMed Central

    Grigor, M R; Allan, J; Carne, A; Carrington, J M; Geursen, A

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples were taken from rats feeding ten pups and from both the suckled and non-suckled glands of rats feeding two pups. The lipid, protein and lactose concentrations were similar in the milks from the secreting glands, but the fluid from the non-suckled glands contained less lactose and lipid but significantly higher total protein and transferrin concentrations. The fatty acid compositions of the milk from the three sources were very similar. The mammary tissue from the rats feeding ten pups had a higher DNA content/g wet wt. than either the suckled or non-suckled mammary tissue of the rats feeding two pups. The specific activities of several lipogenic enzymes were significantly lower in the non-suckled mammary tissue. PMID:3707536

  2. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  3. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 h, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits in multiple organisms. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMD, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into effective and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. PMID:27304506

  4. Effect of early feed restriction and enzyme supplementation on digestive enzyme activities in broilers.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D F; Cruz, V C; Sartori, J R; Vicentini Paulino, M L M

    2004-09-01

    The effect of feed restriction and enzymatic supplementation on intestinal and pancreatic enzyme activities and weight gain was studied in broiler chickens. Quantitative feed restriction was applied to chickens from 7 to 14 d of age. An enzyme complex mainly consisting of protease and amylase was added to the chicken ration from hatching to the end of the experiment. Birds subjected to feed restriction whose diet was not supplemented showed an increase in sucrase, amylase, and lipase activities immediately after the restriction period. Amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in chickens subjected to feed restriction and fed a supplemented diet than in those only subjected to feed restriction. Trypsin activity increased after feed restriction and after supplementation, but there was no interaction between these effects. Early feed restriction had no effect on enzyme activity in 42-d-old chickens. Chickens subjected to early restriction and fed the supplemented diet presented higher sucrase, maltase, and lipase activities than nonsupplemented ones (P < 0.05). There was no effect of early feed restriction or diet supplementation on weight gain to 42 d. Percentage weight gain from 14 to 42 d of age was equivalent in feed-restricted and ad libitum fed birds. Feed-restricted broilers fed a supplemented diet showed a higher percentage weight gain than nonsupplemented birds. We conclude that enzymatic supplementation potentiates the effect of feed restriction on digestive enzyme activity and on weight gain.

  5. Beneficial effects of mild stress (hormetic effects): dietary restriction and health.

    PubMed

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Iki, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Hormesis is defined as a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition, and has been recognized as representing an overcompensation for mild environmental stress. The beneficial effects of mild stress on aging and longevity have been studied for many years. In experimental animals, mild dietary stress (dietary restriction, DR) without malnutrition delays most age-related physiological changes, and extends maximum and average lifespan. Animal studies have also demonstrated that DR can prevent or lessen the severity of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, autoimmune disease, allergy, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The effects of DR are considered to result from hormetic mechanisms. These effects were reported by means of various DR regimens, such as caloric restriction, total-nutrient restriction, alternate-day fasting, and short-term fasting. Mild dietary stress, including restriction of amount or frequency of intake, is the essence of DR. For more than 99% of their history, humans lived as hunter-gatherers and adapted to restrictions in their food supply. On the other hand, an oversufficiency of food for many today has resulted in the current global epidemic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. DR may be used, therefore, as a novel approach for therapeutic intervention in several diseases, when detailed information about effects of mild dietary stress on human health is obtained from clinical trials.

  6. Effect of early feed restriction on reproductive performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Reproductive performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was evaluated following feed restriction (100, 85, and 70% of ad libitum) between 2 to 5 wk of age with three replicates of 12, 2-wk-old chicks per replicate. Body weight, feed conversion, and leucocyte distribution were measured during feed restriction. After experimental feed treatment, BW, age at first egg, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were evaluated from five replicates of two females and one male per treatment. Feed-restricted female chicks had lower BW from 3 to 5 wk of age, but male weights were depressed only during the most severe restriction at 4 and 5 wk. No treatment differences were observed among BW within a sex from 6 to 13 wk. Body weights at first egg were significantly heavier for females fed 70% ad libitum than for birds on other treatments. Fertility, age at first egg, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight were unaffected by feed restriction. Although hatchability was unaffected by feed restriction, percentage of late dead and total dead embryos were significantly reduced in eggs from restricted quail. Thirty quail fed 70% of ad libitum control intake had significantly increased egg specific gravity. Feed restriction increased the percentage of heterophils and basophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, whereas the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Feed can be restricted to 85 or 70% of ad libitum feed intake from 2 to 5 wk of age without detrimentally affecting reproductive parameters between 6 to 13 wk of age.

  7. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( < 0.01) less feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( < 0.01), and PEM ( < 0.01) in Exp. 1, but no differences were detected between high- and low-RFI lambs for ADG ( = 0.79), DMD ( = 0.42), BC ( > 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( < 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.02) in low-RFI lambs, whereas G:F ( = 0.02) and PEM ( < 0.01) were improved in high-RFI lambs under the feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at

  8. Serial hepatic gene expression profiling in Angus steers during feed restriction and realimentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growing ruminants maintained under dietary restriction for extended periods will exhibit compensatory growth when reverted to ad libitum feeding. This period of compensatory growth is associated with increased feed efficiency, lower basal energy requirements, and changes in circulating concentration...

  9. Effect of feed restriction on rabbit meat quality of the Rex du Poitou(®).

    PubMed

    Larzul, C; Thébault, R G; Allain, D

    2004-07-01

    Two orylag(®) rabbit genotypes, Castor and Chinchilla, feed restricted from 8 to 18 weeks of age at 130 g/d or fed ad libitum, were compared for growth, feed efficiency, carcass traits, and meat sensory characteristics. The total body electrical conductivity (ToBEC) value was also measured to predict meat quality. The feeding level was more restrictive for Castor than for Chinchilla rabbits (74% and 90%, respectively). As expected, growth, feed efficiency, carcass yield and adiposity were altered in both genotypes with feed restriction. For restricted animals, tenderness, juiciness, flavour, flouriness, stickiness and fatness were not affected by the genotype. Feed restriction only significantly decreased flouriness in the Castor genotype. Correlations between meat characteristics and sensory traits were low, and the ToBEC value was not correlated with organoleptic quality.

  10. The Leeds food preference questionnaire after mild sleep restriction - A small feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Zant, Janneke C; Aussems, Audrey; Faatz, Vivian; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2016-02-01

    Besides the increased sedentary lifestyle and increased caloric intake, changes in dietary composition may play an important role in the increased prevalence of obesity. Because inadequate sleep could be a risk factor in the aetiology of obesity, reliable methods for assessing food intake and food choice after sleep restriction are needed. We translated the Leeds food preference questionnaire (LFPQ), addressing preferences for sweet/savoury tastes and low-fat/high-fat foods, into Dutch, and tested it in 15 mildly sleep-restricted psychology students. The participants completed the LFPQ in our laboratory on two separate occasions, with approximately one week in between. Sleep on the preceding night was not controlled, but mild sleep-restriction was confirmed by a short sleep latency test (sSLT) or a short maintenance of wakefulness test (sMWT). Each participant completed the sSLT and sMWT once, just before the LFPQ, in a cross-over design randomised for the first test. Differences were present in preferences for food items from different categories (sweet/savoury and low-fat/high-fat; p<0.001). The choice frequencies for various food categories were comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The choice frequencies for individual items were also comparable on both occasions (p=0.27). The LFPQ is easily implemented under mild sleep-restricted conditions, and translation is straightforward. Future studies using the LFPQ after sleep restriction could elucidate if restricting sleep or longer periods affects food choice, which could underlie increases in obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived environmental restrictions for the participation of children with mild developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Ratzon, N Z; Jarus, T; Bart, O

    2012-11-01

    In light of the International Classification of Functioning, and Health (ICF) model, to assess whether parents of children with mild developmental disabilities perceived various environmental factors as barriers to their child's participation, and whether these factors have a unique contribution to the total explained variance of participation, beyond personal factors. Seventy-nine kindergarten children (mean age 5.20 ± 0.52 years old) with mild developmental disabilities and their parents participated in the study. Three questionnaires measuring the child's participation, performance skills and environmental factors were completed by the parents. Parents perceived environmental factors as slightly restricting to their child's participation. Associations were found between home and education factors and the dimensions of child participation - independence, enjoyment and parental satisfaction. Although parents perceived human environmental factors as more restricting than physical factors at home, regression analysis revealed that the latter was found to affect the child participation dimension of independence beyond the contribution of personal factors. These findings are the first, to our knowledge, to support the contribution of environmental factors to the participation of young children with mild developmental disabilities. The results show that environmental factors have significant slight contribution to child's independence in participation beyond other predictors (i.e. personal factors). Therefore, it is recommended to include environmental restrictions measurement in the child evaluation process to facilitate effective intervention programs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  13. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. The effect of quantitative feed restriction on allometric growth in broilers.

    PubMed

    van der Klein, S A S; Silva, F A; Kwakkel, R P; Zuidhof, M J

    2017-01-01

    Feed restriction in broilers is aimed at preventing metabolic disorders, increasing feed efficiency, or manipulating carcass conformation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of modest graded levels feed restriction during the second and third wk of life. Mixed-sex chickens were raised in pens with 4 replications per treatment to 35 d of age. Chickens were fed ad libitum throughout the trial, or 90, 80, or 70% of expected ad libitum feed intake during the second wk of life, or 95, 90, 85, or 80% of expected ad libitum feed intake during the third wk of life. Feed intake, BW, ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured and weekly dissections were conducted to characterize allometric growth of the breast muscle, legs, abdominal fat pad, liver, gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), and heart. Feeding 70% of ad libitum during wk 2 and 80% during wk 3 reduced ADG during the restriction period and reduced BW at the end of the restriction period, but chickens exhibited complete compensatory growth within one wk after the restriction period. No significant effects of restriction treatment were found on BW, FCR, fat pad, empty GIT, breast muscle, heart, legs, and liver weight at d 35, but allometric growth curve for breast muscle was lower in birds fed 80 and 85% of ad libitum during wk 3, and for birds fed 70% of ad libitum in wk 2. Allometric growth curves for all body parts were different between males and females, except for the liver. Females had higher relative fat pad, breast muscle, and liver weight and a lower GIT and heart and leg weight compared with males at d 35. Feed restriction could differentially affect males and females. This study showed that feeding 70% of ad libitum in wk 2 might be beneficial to reduce fat pad, but later feed restriction in wk 3 may reduce breast muscle weight at broiler processing age.

  15. Iron-restricted pair-feeding affects renal damage in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yoshiro; Senchi, Aya; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Horimatsu, Tetsuo; Okuno, Keisuke; Yasumura, Seiki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that dietary iron restriction prevents the development of renal damage in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, iron deficiency is associated with appetite loss. In addition, calorie restriction is reported to prevent the development of end-stage renal pathology in CKD rats. Thus, the beneficial effect of iron restriction on renal damage may depend on calorie restriction. Here, we investigate the effect of pair-feeding iron restriction on renal damage in a rat model of CKD. Methods First, to determine the amount of food intake, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly given an ad libitum normal diet or an iron-restricted diet, and the food intake was measured. Second, CKD was induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy in SD rats, and CKD rats were given either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet. Results Food intake was reduced in the iron-restricted diet group compared to the normal diet group of SD rats for 16 weeks (mean food intake; normal diet group and iron-restricted diet group: 25 and 20 g/day, respectively). Based on the initial experiments, CKD rats received either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet (20 g/day) for 16 weeks. Importantly, pair-feeding iron restriction prevented the development of proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage in CKD rats. Interestingly, pair-feeding iron restriction attenuated renal expression of nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor in CKD rats. Conclusions Pair-feeding iron restriction affected renal damage in a rat model of CKD. PMID:28196143

  16. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Inayati, Dyah Ayu; Scherbaum, Veronika; Purwestri, Ratna Chrismiari; Hormann, Elizabeth; Wirawan, Nia Novita; Suryantan, Julia; Hartono, Susan; Bloem, Maurice Alexander; Pangaribuan, Rosnani Verba; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Hoffmann, Volker; Bellows, Anne Camilla

    2012-03-21

    This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (< -1.0 to ≥ -1.5 Weight-for-Height Z-scores) aged ≥ 6 to < 60 months on Nias Island, Indonesia. Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215) who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  17. Child body mass index, genotype and parenting in the prediction of restrictive feeding.

    PubMed

    Bost, K K; Teran-Garcia, M; Donovan, S M; Fiese, B H

    2017-04-21

    Restrictive feeding is implicated in pediatric obesity, and caregivers increase controlling feeding practices on the basis of higher child weight status. However, few studies have examined how child genetic and parenting characteristics together impact restrictive feeding. We examined whether child body mass index (BMI) status predicts caregiver use of restrictive feeding and if this association is moderated by (i) caregiver strategies to manage their children's distress and (ii) child variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158) Met, rs4680). Participants included 126 Caucasian children (50% girls) and their caregivers who were participating in a larger study in the USA. Caregivers reported on their feeding practices and responses to child distress when children were 2.5-3.5 years of age. Child anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Restrictive feeding was assessed again 1-1.5 years later. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples, and COMT-rs4680 was genotyped using TaqMan® methodology. Child BMI percentile predicted subsequent caregiver restrictive feeding for children who were Met/Met and who had caregivers reporting higher use of negative responses to child distress. For Val carriers, BMI percentile predicted restrictive feeding when caregivers were below the mean on these responses. Caregivers are at risk for use of restrictive feeding practices when their children are at higher BMI percentiles, and this association increases when caregivers use more ineffective stress regulation practices and their children are homozygous for the Met allele. Prevention programmes might focus on parenting behaviours that foster emotion regulation and consider variation in child responses to parenting. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Digestive response to restricted feeding in migratory yellow-rumped warblers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Smaller guts and slow initial mass gains at stopover sites have led to the idea that digestive physiology limits refueling rates in migrating birds. We tested the digestive-limitation hypothesis in yellow-rumped warblers using food restriction to simulate infrequent feeding during migration, which may cause a reduction in alimentary tract mass. Restricted birds had small intestine, pancreas, and liver masses 18%-22% lower than ad lib.-fed controls. Total activities of sucrase, maltase, aminopeptidase, and amylase were significantly lower in restricted birds, while those of trypsin and chymotrypsin were not. Only aminopeptidase mass-specific activity was significantly lower in restricted birds. Previously restricted birds were able to feed and digest at a high rate immediately following return to ad lib. feeding. Digestive efficiency did not differ between groups. These results suggest that before migration yellow-rumped warblers have some spare digestive capacity to compensate for declines in their digestive organ masses during migration.

  19. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-12-23

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis.

  20. Attenuated allergic responses to house dust mite antigen in feed-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, W; Kari, F W; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    2000-12-01

    Caloric restriction has been shown to alter a broad range of immunological end points in both experimental animals and humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term moderate feed restriction (25% reduction) on allergic immune responses in Brown Norway rats. After 3 weeks of acclimation to their feed regimens, rats were sensitized and 2 weeks later challenged with house dust mite (HDM) antigen via intratracheal instillation. Feed restriction resulted in lower levels of antigen-specific IgE in serum and reduced antigen specific lymphoproliferative activity in pulmonary lymph nodes. Feed restriction also attenuated pulmonary inflammation, as evidenced by lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total protein, decreased infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, feed restriction decreased TNF-[alpha] secretion in serum and decreased mRNA expression of TNF-[alpha] and interleukin-6 in pulmonary lymph nodes. We conclude that feed restriction strongly dampened the allergic immune responses to HDM in rats and that this attenuation was associated with decreased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  2. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  3. Feed restriction enhances the depressive effects of erythromycin on equine hindgut microbial metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuela; Guschlbauer, Maria; Feige, Karsten; Schluesener, Michael; Bester, Kai; Beyerbach, Martin; Breves, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Equine typholocolitis is a sporadic diarrheal disease causing high mortality rates. One of the risk factors responsible for this is the oral application of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate whether erythromycin in combination with feed restriction provokes changes in microbial hindgut metabolism and could therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of equine typhlocolitis. As application of erythromycin and feed restriction are risk factors for equine typhlocolitis, both factors were chosen to investigate their individual and combined effects on hindgut microbial metabolism. The colon simulation technique (Cositec) was used to evaluate biochemical parameters of microbial metabolism. Production rates of the acetate, proprionate and butyrate were measured as quantitative parameters of microbial fermentation. Application of erythromycin (10 mg/d) predominantly decreased the production rates of propionate. Reducing the fermentable substrate to 30% induced an even more pronounced impairment. The detrimental effects of feed restriction on the production rates of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were enhanced when feed restriction was combined with the application of erythromycin. Irrespective of erytrhomycin, the butyrate fermentation rate was completely inhibited by feed restriction within two days after start of restriction. The reduction in butyrate fermentation rate has to be discussed as a pathophysiological factor for the onset of acute typhlocolitis.

  4. Alternatives to restrictive feeding practices to promote self-regulation in childhood: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Rollins, B Y; Savage, J S; Fisher, J O; Birch, L L

    2016-10-01

    Intake of energy-dense snack foods is high among US children. Although the use of restrictive feeding practices has been shown to be counterproductive, there is very limited evidence for effective alternatives to restriction that help children moderate their intake of these foods and that facilitate the development of self-regulation in childhood. The developmental literature on parenting and child outcomes may provide insights into alternatives to restrictive feeding practices. This review paper uses a model of parental control from the child development and parenting literatures to (i) operationally define restrictive feeding practices; (ii) summarize current evidence for antecedents and effects of parental restriction use on children's eating behaviours and weight status, and (iii) highlight alternative feeding practices that may facilitate the development of children's self-regulation and moderate children's intake of palatable snack foods. We also discuss recent empirical evidence highlighting the role of child temperament and food motivation related behaviours as factors that prompt parents to use restrictive feeding practices and, yet, may increase children's dysregulated intake of forbidden foods.

  5. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (< -1.0 to ≥ -1.5 Weight-for-Height Z-scores) aged ≥ 6 to < 60 months on Nias Island, Indonesia. Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215) who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes

  6. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  7. Mild caloric restriction up-regulates the expression of prohibitin: A proteome study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Shoko; Masuda, Junko; Shimagami, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomomasa; Saito, Kenji; Kato, Hisanori

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomic analysis was performed to elucidate physiological alterations induced by mild CR. {yields} The results suggest good reproducibility and possibility to grasp the important response of CR. {yields} The increase in prohibitin abundance was observed in CR groups by proteomic analysis. {yields} We hypothesize that prohibitin might be involved in the longevity induced by CR. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is well known to expand lifespan in a variety of species and to retard many age-related diseases. The effects of relatively mild CR on the proteome profile in relation to lifespan have not yet been reported, despite the more extensive studies of the stricter CR conditions. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the protein profiles in rat livers after mild CR for a relatively short time. Young growing rats were fed CR diets (10% and 30% CR) for 1 month. We performed the differential proteomic analysis of the rat livers using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The most remarkable protein among the differentially expressed proteins was found to be prohibitin, the abundance of which was increased by 30% CR. Prohibitin is a ubiquitously expressed protein shown to suppress cell proliferation and to be related to longevity. The increase in prohibitin was observed both in 10% and 30% CR by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, induction of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) protein, related to the actions of prohibitin in promoting longevity, was observed. The increased prohibitin level in response to subtle CR suggests that this increase may be one of the early events leading to the expansion of lifespan in response to CR.

  8. Effects of mild calorie restriction on lipid metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Yoon; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Han, Sung Nim

    2017-08-26

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and to decrease inflammatory diseases. However, most existing CR models use 30-50% calorie reduction, which is hard to achieve in humans. We investigated the effects of mild CR on lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (10% kcal fat, Control) or high fat diet (60% kcal fat, HFD) ad libitum or reduced amount of control diet to achieve 15% CR for 16 wks. Body weights, white adipose tissue weights, liver triacylglycerol levels, and serum fetuin-A levels were lower in CR than in the Control. Serum adiponectin levels were higher in CR and lower in HFD compared with the Control. Liver and adipose tissue Mcp-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in CR compared with the Control. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of Mcp-1, Il-6, Tnf-α and Socs3 were significantly higher in HFD than in the Control and CR, and levels of these negatively correlated with serum adiponectin levels. CR group had the lowest leptin levels and the highest liver Lepr expression, and Lepr mRNA levels positively correlated with liver Socs3 mRNA levels. Our findings showed that mild CR lowered adiposity which resulted in higher adiponectin and lower fetuin-A levels, and might have contributed to alleviation of inflammatory status in the liver and adipose tissue. Furthermore, mild CR might have affected leptin sensitivity by up-regulating Lepr expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ascites syndrome and related pathologies in feed restricted broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Cooper, M A; Kidd, B D; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2000-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the incidence of ascites can be significantly reduced through feed restriction. This method is thought to have an effect by slowing the growth rate of the birds. Interestingly, when birds are grown in a hypobaric chamber, ascites incidence increases while the overall growth rate of the birds is decreased. Unfortunately, the restriction programs practiced also have a detrimental effect on growth characteristics. An experiment was conducted to determine if the timing and duration of feed restriction can be used to reduce the incidence of ascites for broilers reared under high altitude and local elevation without having a negative impact on growth. A total of 600 commercial broiler males were used. Birds were divided, placing 360 birds in the hypobaric chamber at a simulated 2900 m (9,500 ft) above sea level, and 240 birds were placed at local elevation [390 m (1,300 ft) above sea level]. At each altitude there were four treatments: 1) fully fed controls; 2) feed available for 8 h/d for 6 wk (the duration of the study); 3) feed available for 8 h/d during the first 3 wk, then full feed for the remaining 3 wk; and 4) full feed for the first wk, then 3 wk of 8 h of feed availability, then 2 wk of full feed. Birds and feed were weighed weekly, and mortalities were necropsied to determine the cause of death. At the end of 6 wk, blood samples were taken, and the birds were weighed, necropsied, and scored for ascites, and organ weights were recorded. All feed restriction treatments significantly reduced ascites incidence, when compared with the fully fed controls. Treatment 2 birds were significantly lighter than any other group at both altitudes. The fully fed controls at local elevation were heavier than the fully fed controls at simulated high altitude, as seen in past experiments.

  10. Effects of feed restriction and realimentation on digestive and immune function in the Leghorn chick.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder-Orth, C A; Karasov, W H

    2006-08-01

    How regulatory changes of digestive and immune functions of the gut influence each other has not been sufficiently studied. We tested for simultaneous changes in the digestive physiology and mucosal immune function of the guts of White Leghorn cockerel chicks undergoing food restriction and realimentation. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control = fed ad libitum 7 to 17 d of age; restricted = feed restricted d 12 to 17 (at 2 restriction levels: 54 and 34% ad libitum); refed = feed restricted d 7 to 13 and then fed ad libitum d 14 to 17. Refed chicks exhibited 1 d of hyperphagy and an increase in apparent digestive efficiency following restriction (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Total small intestine mass and duodenal maltase activity differed among the groups in the order refed > control > restricted, as expected (ANOVA, P < 0.05 for both measures). In contrast, there were no significant treatment effects on our measures of gut immune structure and function, including bursa mass, spleen mass, and total IgA content of intestinal flush samples measured with standard ELISA techniques. The results of this study indicated that, during feed restriction and realimentation, some features of gut immune function are maintained unchanged in the face of regulatory changes that influence digestive functions.

  11. Effects of feed restriction and cold exposure on glucose metabolism in response to feeding and insulin in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Takebayashi, A; Kodama, Y; Nakamura, K; Ito, H; Arino, Y; Fujita, T; Takahashi, H; Ambo, K

    1999-09-01

    The effects of feed restriction, cold exposure, and the initiation of feeding on blood glucose metabolism, other blood metabolites, hormones, and tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin were measured in sheep. The sheep consumed orchardgrass hay ad libitum (AL) or were restricted to 82% of the ME requirement for maintenance (RE) and were exposed to a thermoneutral (20 degrees C) or a cold environment (2 degrees C). An isotope dilution method and a glucose clamp approach were applied to determine blood glucose metabolism and insulin action, respectively. Plasma NEFA and insulin concentrations were influenced by feed restriction. Concentrations of plasma glucose, NEFA, insulin, and glucagon were influenced by cold exposure. Plasma NEFA concentration for RE decreased after the initiation of feeding and plasma insulin concentration increased transiently for all treatments. [U-13C]Glucose was continuously infused for 8 or 7 h after a priming injection starting 3 h before the initiation of either feeding or insulin infusion, respectively. When responses to feeding were studied, blood glucose turnover rate was less (P < .001) for RE than for AL, and it was greater (P < .001) during cold exposure than in the thermoneutral environment. The rate changed little after the initiation of feeding. For the glucose clamp approach, insulin was infused over four sequential 1-h periods at rates from .64 to 10 mU x kg BW(-1) x min(-1), with concomitant glucose infusion to maintain preinfusion plasma glucose concentrations. The rates of glucose infusion and blood glucose turnover increased (P < .001) dose-dependently with insulin infusion rate. The maximal glucose infusion rate was greater (P < .05) for RE than for AL and was greater (P < .001) during cold exposure than in the thermoneutral environment. The plasma insulin concentration at half-maximal glucose infusion rate was lower (P < .1) during cold exposure. Blood glucose turnover rate tended to be greater (P = .10) for RE

  12. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

    PubMed

    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  13. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  14. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  15. Long-term intermittent feeding, but not caloric restriction, leads to redox imbalance, insulin receptor nitration, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Chausse, Bruno; Romano, Renato L; Garcia, Camila C M; Colepicolo, Pio; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-10-01

    Calorie restriction is a dietary intervention known to improve redox state, glucose tolerance, and animal life span. Other interventions have been adopted as study models for caloric restriction, including nonsupplemented food restriction and intermittent, every-other-day feedings. We compared the short- and long-term effects of these interventions to ad libitum protocols and found that, although all restricted diets decrease body weight, intermittent feeding did not decrease intra-abdominal adiposity. Short-term calorie restriction and intermittent feeding presented similar results relative to glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, long-term intermittent feeding promoted glucose intolerance, without a loss in insulin receptor phosphorylation. Intermittent feeding substantially increased insulin receptor nitration in both intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle, a modification associated with receptor inactivation. All restricted diets enhanced nitric oxide synthase levels in the insulin-responsive adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. However, whereas calorie restriction improved tissue redox state, food restriction and intermittent feedings did not. In fact, long-term intermittent feeding resulted in largely enhanced tissue release of oxidants. Overall, our results show that restricted diets are significantly different in their effects on glucose tolerance and redox state when adopted long-term. Furthermore, we show that intermittent feeding can lead to oxidative insulin receptor inactivation and glucose intolerance.

  16. Mammary gland and milk fatty acid composition of two dairy goat breeds under feed-restriction.

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana; Alves, Susana P; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Capote, Juan; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Bessa, Rui J B; de Almeida, André M

    2017-08-01

    Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high tolerance to SWL are relevant to understand the physiological responses to pasture scarcity so they could be used in programs for animal breeding. In the Canary Islands there are two dairy goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to SWL: the Palmera, susceptible to SWL; and the Majorera, tolerant to SWL. Fat is one of the milk components most affected by environmental and physiological conditions. This study hypothesises that feed-restriction affects Majorera and Palmera breeds differently, leading to different fatty acid profiles in the mammary gland and milk. An interaction between breed and feed-restriction was observed in the mammary gland. Feed-restriction was associated with an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in palmitic acid percentage in the Palmera breed whereas no differences were observed in the Majorera breed. Palmitic and oleic acids together constituted around 60% of the total fatty acids identified, which suggests that Palmera breed is more susceptible to SWL. In milk, feed-restriction affected both breeds similarly. Regarding the interaction of the breed with the treatment, we also observed similar responses in both breeds, but this influence affects only around 2% of the total fatty acids. In general, Majorera breed is more tolerant to feed-restriction.

  17. Effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala and growth performance of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ricalde, R; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E; Novelo-Ucan, W; Martinez-Romero, P; Segura-Correa, J

    2017-08-13

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera (MO) or Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and growth of rabbits. In experiment one, 45 rabbits (male and female) weighing 1.18 ± 0.15 kg were used. They were randomly distributed to three feed restriction treatments (20, 30, and 40%) with 15 rabbits each (9 females and 6 males) and they were offered M. oleifera (MO) ad libitum. In experiment two, 45 growing male rabbits weighing 0.63 ± 0.113 kg were used. They were randomly assigned to 0, 20, and 30% feed restriction diets, and they have free access to L. leucocephala (LL). Intake of MO increased (P < 0.05) conforming feed restriction increased (40.6, 52.9, and 55.2 g/day of MO for 20, 30, and 40%, respectively). Daily liveweight gain and feed conversion did not differ (P > 0.05), and economic efficiency was similar among treatments. Consumption of LL increased (P < 0.05) in rabbits under the 30% restriction treatment in comparison to that of rabbits restricted 20% (46.0 and 44.4 g/day, respectively). Total feed intake (LL + feed) was highest in 20% restricted rabbits (108.0, 100.8, and 93.2 g/day for 20, 30, and 0%, respectively). Daily liveweight gain and feed conversion were not affected by feed restriction (P > 0.05). Economic efficiency improved twice in feed-restricted rabbits (2.0 and 2.3 for 20 and 30%, respectively) in contrast to that of the control 0% group (1.1). The results suggest that rabbits restricted up to 30% and supplemented with either MO or LL did not affect growth performance and reduced feed cost.

  18. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  19. Disruption of running activity rhythm following restricted feeding in female mice: Preventive effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kazumi; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Biological rhythms are critical in the etiology of mood disorders; therefore, effective mood disorder treatments should address rhythm disturbances. Among the variables synchronized with the light-dark cycle, spontaneous activity in rodents is useful for investigating circadian rhythms. However, previous studies have focused only on the increase of wheel-running activity under restricted feeding conditions, while little information is available on circadian rhythm of running activity. In this study, chronometrical analysis was used to assess whether circadian rhythms during wheel-running are altered by restricted feeding and affected by antidepressant drugs. Wheel revolutions were automatically recorded and analyzed using cosinor-rhythmometry in 8-week old ICR albino mice. When feeding was restricted to 1 h per day (21:00-22:00), wheel-running rhythms were reliably disrupted. Female mice exhibited marked alterations in the pattern and extent of wheel-running beginning on day 1. Subchronic treatment with imipramine or paroxetine, as well as tandospirone and (-)-DOI, prevented wheel-running rhythm disruption. Thus, altering the circadian activity rhythms of female mice on a 1-h feeding schedule may be useful for investigating disturbances in biological rhythms.

  20. Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

  1. Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction does not alter response of protein synthesis to feeding in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Burrin, D G; Pond, W G; Nguyen, H V

    1997-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the acute response of tissue protein synthesis to feeding in newborn pigs. Newborn pigs of sows fed either control or protein-restricted diets throughout gestation were designated C or IUGR, respectively. Both groups were either fasted for 9 h after birth or fed hourly 30 ml colostrum/kg body wt for 2.75 h after a 6-h fast. Fractional rates of tissue protein synthesis (Ks) were measured in vivo with a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine. Birth weight was reduced by 33% in IUGR pigs. IUGR had no effect on Ks in skeletal muscles, heart, liver, jejunum, or pancreas. Feeding stimulated tissue Ks similarly in C and IUGR pigs. Fasting plasma insulin concentrations and their rise with feeding were unaffected by IUGR. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations were reduced by 42% in IUGR pigs and were not altered by feeding in either IUGR or C pigs. There were positive nonlinear relationships between tissue Ks and circulating concentrations of insulin. The results indicate that, in newborn pigs, tissue Ks are unaffected by IUGR, despite reduced plasma IGF-I concentrations. The efficiency with which nutrients stimulate tissue Ks is also not altered by IUGR, perhaps because the rise in plasma insulin concentrations with feeding is unaffected by IUGR.

  3. Restricted feeding modulates the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase activity, expression, and histological location.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Méndez, Isabel; Turrubiate, Isaías; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Pérez-Mendoza, Moisés; García-Tejada, Paola; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats. Restricted feeding involved food access for 2 h each day for three weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum as well as acute fasting (21 h fasting) and refeeding (22 h fasting followed by 2 h of food access). Glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA, protein, activity, and histological location were measured every 3 h by qPCR, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to generate 24-h profiles. Restricted feeding promoted higher levels of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity, as well as a loss of 24-h rhythmicity, in comparison to ad libitum conditions. The rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase activity detected in serum was changed. The data demonstrated that daytime restricted feeding enhanced glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity levels in liver mitochondria, changed the rhythmicity of its mRNA and serum activity, but without effect in its expression in hepatocytes surrounding central and portal veins. These results could be related to the adaptation in nitrogen and energy metabolism that occurs in the liver during restricted feeding and the concomitant expression of the food entrainable oscillator. Impact statement For the first time, we are reporting the changes in daily rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) mRNA, protein and activity that occur in the liver during the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). These results are part of the metabolic adaptations

  4. Effect of feed restriction on reproductive and metabolic hormones in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Gencoglu, H; Hackbart, K S; Nascimento, A B; Dalla Costa, F; Bender, R W; Guenther, J N; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of feed restriction (FR) on serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, progesterone (P4), insulin, and milk production in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 114 ± 14 d pregnant and 685 ± 39 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. During the first 8 d of each period, cows in all treatments were fed for ad libitum feed intake. Beginning on d 9 of each period, cows received 1 of 4 treatments: ad libitum (AL), 25% feed restriction (25 FR), 50% feed restriction (50 FR), and 50% of TMR replaced with wheat straw (50 ST). Daily feed allowance was divided into 3 equal portions allocated every 8h with jugular blood samples collected immediately before each feeding through d 14. In addition, on d 12 of each period, blood samples were collected before and at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after morning feeding. The conventional total mixed ration and total mixed ration with straw averaged 15.1 and 10.8%, 32.1 and 50.5%, and 26.8 and 17.0% for concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch, respectively. Cows that were feed and energy restricted had reduced dry matter intake, net energy for lactation intake, circulating glucose concentrations, and milk production, but greater body weight and body condition score losses than AL cows. Circulating concentrations of insulin were lower for cows fed 50 FR (8.27 μIU/mL) and 50 ST (6.24 μIU/mL) compared with cows fed AL (16.65 μIU/mL) and 25 FR (11.16 μIU/mL). Furthermore, the greatest plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was observed for 50 ST (647.7 μ Eq/L), followed by 50 FR (357.5 μEq/L), 25 FR (225.3 μEq/L), and AL (156.3 μEq/L). In addition, serum P4 concentration was lower for cows fed AL than cows fed 50 ST and 25 FR. Thus, FR reduced circulating glucose and insulin but increased P4 concentration, changes that may be positive in reproductive

  5. Milking and feed restriction regulate transcripts of mammary epithelial cells purified from milk.

    PubMed

    Boutinaud, M; Ben Chedly, M H; Delamaire, E; Guinard-Flament, J

    2008-03-01

    Feed restriction and once-daily milking (ODM) reduce milk yield in dairy cows and the amount of glucose taken up by the mammary gland. The modulation of mammary glucose uptake may be the consequence of modifications to glucose transport, capacity for lactose synthesis, and cell death in mammary epithelial cells (MEC). The aim was to demonstrate the usefulness of a new method to purify MEC from milk somatic cells and to examine the effects of feed restriction and ODM on mammary transcripts. Five Holstein cows were subjected to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 2 milking frequencies and 2 feeding levels, during which the cows were milked once or twice daily while fed a diet providing either 98 or 70% of requirements. The cows were equipped to study net mammary balance of glucose. On d 7 of each experimental week, milk and lactose yields and mammary glucose uptake were measured. Cells were isolated from fresh milk by centrifugation to generate total milk cell samples. Mammary epithelial cells were separated from total milk cells by using magnetic beads associated with anticytokeratin 8 antibodies. Total RNA was extracted from both total milk cells and purified MEC samples. Real-time reverse transcription PCR was performed to determine mRNA levels in purified MEC under feed restriction and under ODM. Purified MEC samples revealed higher total RNA quality (RNA integrity number = 8) and were better suited to the measurement of mammary transcripts than total milk cell samples (RNA integrity number = 4). Significant correlations were obtained between mRNA levels and net glucose balance data (0.465 < r < 0.680), demonstrating the validity of results obtained by using purified MEC. Feed restriction induced a significant reduction (by half) in type 1 glucose transporter mRNA levels without any effect on alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), galactosyltransferase, kappa-casein, bcl2, or bax mRNA levels. When compared with twice daily milking, ODM reduced kappa-casein (-86%) and alpha

  6. Restricted feeding phase shifts clock gene and sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T; Ashley, Stanley W; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali; Rhoads, David B

    2010-05-01

    The intestine exhibits striking diurnal rhythmicity in glucose uptake, mediated by the sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT1); however, regulatory pathways for these rhythms remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that SGLT1 rhythmicity is linked to the circadian clock. To investigate this, we examined rhythmicity of Sglt1 and individual clock genes in rats that consumed food ad libitum (AL). We further compared phase shifts of Sglt1 and clock genes in a second group of rats following restricted feeding to either the dark (DF) or light (LF) phase. Rats fed during the DF were pair-fed to rats fed during the LF. Jejunal mucosa was harvested across the diurnal period to generate expression profiles of Sglt1 and clock genes Clock, Bmal1 (brain-muscle Arnt-like 1), ReverbA/B, Per(Period) 1/2, and Cry (Cryptochrome) 1/2. All clock genes were rhythmic in AL rats (P < 0.05). Sglt1 also exhibited diurnal rhythmicity, with peak expression preceding nutrient arrival (P < 0.05). Light-restricted feeding shifted the expression rhythms of Sglt1 and most clock genes (Bmal1, ReverbA and B, Per1, Per2, and Cry1) compared with dark-restricted feeding (P < 0.05). The Sglt1 rhythm shifted in parallel with rhythms of Per1 and ReverbB. These effects of restricted feeding highlight luminal nutrients as a key Zeitgeber in the intestine, capable of simultaneously shifting the phases of transporter and clock gene expression, and suggest a role for clock genes in regulating Sglt1 and therefore glucose uptake. Understanding the regulatory cues governing rhythms in intestinal function may allow new therapeutic options for conditions of dysregulated absorption such as diabetes and obesity.

  7. Quantitative analysis of light-phase restricted feeding reveals metabolic dyssynchrony in mice.

    PubMed

    Bray, M S; Ratcliffe, W F; Grenett, M H; Brewer, R A; Gamble, K L; Young, M E

    2013-06-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the time of day at which calories are consumed markedly impacts body weight gain and adiposity. However, a precise quantification of energy balance parameters during controlled animal studies enforcing time-of-day-restricted feeding is currently lacking in the absence of direct human interaction. The purpose of the present study was therefore to quantify the effects of restricted feeding during the light (sleep)-phase in a fully-automated, computer-controlled comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system (CLAMS) designed to modulate food access in a time-of-day-dependent manner. Energy balance, gene expression (within metabolically relevant tissues), humoral factors and body weight were assessed. We report that relative to mice fed only during the dark (active)-phase, light (sleep)-phase fed mice: (1) consume a large meal upon initiation of food availability; (2) consume greater total calories per day; (3) exhibit a higher respiratory exchange ratio (indicative of decreased reliance on lipid/fatty acid oxidation); (4) exhibit tissue-specific alterations in the phases and amplitudes of circadian clock and metabolic genes in metabolically active tissues (greatest phase differences observed in the liver and diminution of amplitudes in epididymal fat, gastrocnemius muscle and heart); (5) exhibit diminished amplitude in humoral factor diurnal variations (for example, corticosterone); and (6) exhibit greater weight gain within 9 days of restricted feeding. Collectively, these data suggest that weight gain following light (sleep)-phase restricted feeding is associated with significant alterations in energy balance, as well as dyssynchrony between metabolically active organs.

  8. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  9. Influence of gestational maternal feed restriction on growth performance and meat quality of rabbit offsprings.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Skoupa, E-P; Konga, A; Symeon, G K; Charismiadou, M A; Deligeorgis, S G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction during pregnancy on reproductive performance of rabbit does and growth performance and meat quality of their offspring. A total of 26 primiparous non lactating does were equally divided into two treatment groups: the control group (C, n=13) that was fed ad libitum throughout gestation and the feed restricted group (R, n=13) that was fed to 75% of maintenance energy requirements from the 7(th) to the 26(th) day of gestation. Rabbit offsprings were weaned at 35 days of age and grown until the 72 days of age when they were slaughtered for meat quality assessment. Meat quality traits measured were pH(24), colour (L*, a*, b*), percentage of released water, cook loss, shear values and intramuscular fat. At kindling, R does produced smaller litter weights compared with those of does from group C, 447.8 and 591.4 g, respectively, and smaller individual kit birth weights, 56.2 and 71.5 g, respectively (P0.05). Performance and meat quality characteristics of fattening rabbits at 72 days of age were not influenced by gestational feed restriction of their mothers (P>0.05). Taking into consideration that, simultaneous gestation and lactation in rabbit does may be simulated by gestational feed restriction, results of the present study suggest that lactating does can support a simultaneous gestation without any adverse effect on the offsprings' quantitative and qualitative performance at the expense of increased mortality rates at parturition and until weaning.

  10. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  11. Effect of feed restriction on metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laeger, T; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2012-03-01

    Endocrines and metabolites in the circulation act as long-term hunger or satiety signals in the brain during negative energy balance and play an important role in the control of feed intake. These signals also occur in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the hypothalamus and brainstem: 2 major centers of feed intake regulation. Thus CSF functions as a transport medium for fuel signals between blood and brain. The CSF metabolite concentrations are mainly under control of the blood-brain barriers, which provide specific carrier molecules facilitating the entry of substances required by the brain and protect the brain from factors that could impair neuronal function. The transport of small molecules such as amino acids (AA) across the blood-brain barriers may be limited by competing AA that share a common transporter for the uptake into brain. Consequently, CSF metabolite concentrations differ from those in blood. Thus it appears likely that central (CSF) rather than peripheral (blood) metabolites act as pivotal signals for the control of feed intake. However, the contribution of putative orexigenic and anorexigenic signals in CSF of cows has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate associations existing between both plasma and CSF metabolites, each in response to feed restriction-induced negative energy balance. Seven German Holstein dairy cows, between 87 and 96 DIM of the second lactation (milk yield, 27.9 L/d) were fed ad libitum (AL) for 4 d and CSF from the spinal cord and blood from the jugular vein was withdrawn before morning feeding at the fifth day. Subsequently, animals were feed restricted (R) to 50% of the previous AL intake for 4 d and CSF and plasma were collected at the ninth day. Body weight, feed intake, water intake, and milk production were determined. Thirty-one AA, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea, and osmolality were measured in both CSF and

  12. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique; Okey, Allan B.

    2008-07-01

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment.

  13. Cyclic restricted feeding enhances lipid storage in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Endo, Yuriko

    2013-05-24

    People who skip breakfast have more visceral fat than those who eat breakfast; however, the mechanism underlying this difference is unclear. In this study, we examined 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and assessed 1) whether restricted feeding (i.e., "breakfast skipping") alters the cyclic expression of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and lipogenic proteins and 2) whether repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increases de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. Differentiated adipocytes were divided into two groups: a control group and a restricted feeding group, for which incubation with growth medium from ZT 9 to ZT 12 was withheld. A bout of restricted feeding disrupted the cyclic expression of BMAL1 protein and increased the expression of lipogenic proteins, such as fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes. Furthermore, the repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. These findings suggest that direct disruption of intracellular molecular clock systems by breakfast skipping and the concurrent changes in the daily cycle of lipogenic proteins in adipocytes, as a consequence of repeated nutrition at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals, would result in increased lipogenesis and lipid storage. These alterations are important molecular mechanisms underlying augmented adiposity induced by breakfast skipping.

  14. Effect of feed restriction on adipose tissue transcript concentrations in genetically lean and obese pigs.

    PubMed

    McNeel, R L; Ding, S T; Smith, E O; Mersmann, H J

    2000-04-01

    To determine possible genetic influences on the steady-state concentrations of several key transcription factor transcripts and the transcript concentrations for adipocyte-characteristic proteins, young, genetically obese and lean pigs were given ad libitum access or feed or were restrictively fed at 50% of ad libitum intake for 5 wk. Obese pigs were smaller and fatter than lean pigs, whether intake was ad libitum or restrictive. Plasma protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentrations were greater in obese than in lean pigs. Plasma NEFA, blood urea nitrogen, triacylglycerols, and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations were less (P < .02) in pigs fed restrictively than in pigs with ad libitum access to feed, regardless of genetic group. The adipose tissue glucose transporter 4, fatty acid synthase, and leptin transcript concentrations were greater (P < .05) in obese than in lean pigs. The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins beta and alpha, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, hormone-sensitive lipase, and the beta1-adrenergic receptor transcript concentrations tended (P < . 10) to be greater in adipose tissue from obese than in that from lean pigs. Several other transcripts were numerically greater in obese than in lean pigs. The data collectively suggest that messenger RNA concentration for several adipose tissue proteins is a contributing factor to the excess fat deposition in these obese pigs. Restricted feeding did not change the concentration of any transcript except that for adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, which was reduced. The accretion of fat was markedly reduced in the restrictively fed pigs, but this diminution does not seem to be regulated by modulation of messenger RNA concentration.

  15. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (P<0.001) to 166% and 148% in R1 and to 128% and 145% in R2. Restricted rabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at

  17. Effects of temporary intensive feed restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of growing male Californian rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wareth, Ahmed A A; Kehraus, Saskia; Ali, Abdalla H H; Ismail, Zeinhom S H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a temporary quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of rabbits. A total of 80 weaned male Californian rabbits (30 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments of 20 rabbits each. The Control group was fed ad libitum during the whole experimental period (days 30-72 of age). For the three restricted fed groups the feed intake was reduced by 15%, 30% and 45% compared to the Control group, respectively. The feed restriction was applied after weaning and lasted for 21 d. Thereafter, at 51 d of age, in all treatments the feed supply returned to ad libitum intake till 72 d of age (AL period). The feed restriction decreased the body weight gain of rabbits (during the restriction period and the whole experimental period, p < 0.001) and improved feed conversion ratio during all tested periods (p < 0.001). In the AL period, the daily body weight gain of all groups was similar. After the AL period, the digestibility of all measured nutrients was significantly higher for animals fed restrictively. Furthermore, feed restrictions significantly decreased the proportion of perirenal and scapular fat and increased relative weight and length of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it can be concluded that the applied feed restriction improved feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and reduced fat at the slaughter age of Californian rabbits, but the reduced body weight gain could not be compensated by a subsequent ad libitum feeding for 3 weeks.

  18. The effect of shelter on welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared under a feed restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Persson, L; Alanärä, A

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether shelter (presence or absence) affected the frequency of fin damage in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar exposed to feed restrictions (0·73 or 0·33% of body mass day(-1) ). The presence of shelter had a positive effect on the pectoral fins at both feed ration levels and on the dorsal fin at the higher ration level but it had a negative effect on survival. The reduced feed rations resulted in fish of the same size and nutritional status as wild fish. The provision of shelter has potential to mitigate the negative effects of feed restrictions on fin quality, but the optimal shelter design requires some additional investigation.

  19. Moderate decreases in the forage-to-concentrate ratio before feed restriction and increases thereafter independently improve the recovery from a feed restriction insult in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, R I; Aschenbach, J R; Barreda, D R; Penner, G B

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) of diets fed prior to and during (PRE) feed restriction (FR) and diets fed post-FR (POST) affect the recovery for DMI, ruminal fermentation, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption following FR. Twenty ovariectomized and ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford heifers were used in this study and were fed (ad libitum) either a high forage (HF; F:C = 92:8) or a moderate forage (MF; F:C = 60:40) diet for 19 d. Heifers were then exposed to a 5-d FR period where feed was restricted to 25% of ad libitum intake relative to that measured during the previous 5 d. After FR, heifers were provided feed ad libitum with one half of the HF and MF heifers receiving the HF or MF diet during the 3-wk recovery period (REC1, REC2, and REC3). This resulted in 4 treatment combinations separated over time (PRE-POST): HF-HF, HF-MF, MF-HF, and MF-MF. The PRE × POST interaction was not significant for any of the measured variables, and the PRE × POST × period interaction was only significant for the molar proportion of ruminal butyrate. For heifers fed HF PRE, DMI increased from REC1 to REC3 whereas DMI did not differ among periods for heifers fed MF PRE (PRE × period, P = 0.045). The duration that pH < 5.5 (PRE × POST; P = 0.003) was numerically greater during REC1 for heifers fed HF than MF PRE (191 vs. 98 min/d), with duration decreasing from REC1 to REC2 for heifers fed HF PRE. Total ruminal SCFA concentration and absorption rate were not affected by the diet fed PRE (P > 0.05) or period (P > 0.05). For heifers fed MF POST, DMI increased from REC1 to REC3 whereas DMI did not differ among POST periods for heifers fed HF POST (POST × period, P = 0.033). The duration that ruminal pH was <5.5 was greater for heifers fed MF than HF POST (274.9 vs. 14.1 min/d; POST × period, P < 0.001) with MF heifers decreasing duration from REC1 to REC2 whereas duration did not differ among periods for HF

  20. Effect of Feed Restriction during Pregnancy on Performance and Productivity of New Zealand White Rabbit Does

    PubMed Central

    Nafeaa, Abeer; Ahmed, Souad Abd Elfattah; Fat Hallah, Said

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effect of stage of feed restriction on performance and productivity of pregnant does. New Zealand white female rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was provided daily with 185 g of food increased to 200 g from the 15th day of gestation. R1 was offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 111 g) for the first half of pregnancy and then offered 200 g of food daily till parturition. R2 was provided with 185 g of food daily through the first half of pregnancy and then offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 120 g) for the second half. After parturition, food was provided adlibitum. Maternal body weights, litter size, litter weight, and average body weight of kits at kindling of R1 showed no change, whereas R2 showed significant reduction in the weights of does at the 4th week of pregnancy and at kindling. The birth weight and weaning weight of R2 were significantly reduced. The highest mortality was recorded in kits of R2. No significant differences in blood parameters or serum prolactin were observed. The serum protein was significantly reduced R2. PMID:21904693

  1. Effects of four-week feed restriction on toxicological parameters in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAKAMATSU, Kazuhiko; YAMASHITA, Hiroyuki; SATAKE, Shigeru; KAZUSA, Katsuyuki; TABATA, Hajime; NISHIKATA, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine any changes caused by feed restriction in dogs to contribute to safety evaluation in toxicity studies. Two male 7-month-old beagle dogs/group were fed 300 (control), 150 (50% of control), or 70 g/animal of diet daily (23% of control) for 4 weeks. Effects of feed restriction, except for clinical signs, were noted depending on the feed dosage in almost all examinations. The principal outcomes were: decreased body weight and water consumption, ECG changes (decreased heart rate and prolonged QTc), and hematopoietic and lymphopoietic suppression (decreased reticulocyte ratio or white blood cell count in hematology, decreased nucleated cell count in bone marrow, decreased erythroid parameters in myelography, and hypocellularity of bone marrow and thymic atrophy in histopathology). In addition, some changes were noted in urinalysis (decreased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion), blood chemistry (decreased ALP and inorganic phosphorus and increased creatinine), organ weights, and gastric histopathology. These results provide important reference data for distinguishing the primary effects of test compounds from secondary effects of decreased food consumption in toxicity studies in beagle dogs. PMID:25818481

  2. Effects of water restriction on growth performance, feed nutrient digestibility, carcass and meat traits of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bovera, F; Lestingi, A; Piccolo, G; Iannaccone, F; Attia, Y A; Tateo, A

    2013-10-01

    The study investigates the effects of a post-weaning water restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits and meat quality of 84-day-old rabbits. A total of 1388 weaned rabbits (35 days) were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of BW and sex. The two groups were fed the same diets ad libitum both in the post-weaning (35 to 60 days) and fattening (61 to 84 days) periods. In the post-weaning period, one group (AL) also received drinking water ad libitum, whereas the other (WR) had a water restriction from 35 to 41 days 2 h/day; from 42 to 48 days 2.5 h/day; from 49 to 55 days 3 h/day; and from 56 to 60 days 4 h/day. During the fattening period, both groups had water-free access. Individual live weights and feed intake per cage were recorded weekly for 32 cages randomly chosen per group (64 rabbits) to calculate the BW gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The apparent digestibility values of nutrients were measured using acid-insoluble ash. Carcass data were collected from 16 rabbits (8 males and 8 females) per group selected for similar final BW in both groups. Mortality from 35 to 60 days was higher in the AL group (10.1% v. 5.2%, for AL and WR, respectively, P < 0.0001). BW gain was higher for the AL group during both the post-weaning (+22.4%, P < 0.01) and the entire period (+7.5%, P < 0.05). Water restriction reduced feed intake both in the post-weaning (-17.4%, P < 0.0001) and in the entire period (-9.9%, P < 0.05). During the fattening period, FCR was lower for the WR group (5.15 v. 5.75 g/g, for WR and AL, respectively, P < 0.05). The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and cellulose were greater in the restricted rabbits (+4.7%, +4.5%, +10.2%, +18.8% and +12.8%, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Perirenal and scapular fat percentages were higher in the AL rabbits (+30.7% and +116.6%, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Water restriction increased

  3. Does Dietary Restriction Reduce Life Span in Male Fruit-feeding Butterflies?

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Boggs, Carol L.; Carey, James R.; Arlet, Małgorzata E.

    2009-01-01

    Male life history and resource allocation is not frequently studied in aging and life span research. Here we verify that males of long-lived fruit-feeding butterfly species have reduced longevity on restricted diets (Beck 2007 Oecologia), in contrast to the common finding of longevity extension in dietary restriction experiments in Drosophila and some other organisms. Males of some of the most long-lived species of fruit-feeding butterflies were collected from Kibale Forest, Uganda, and kept on diets of either sugar or mashed banana. Seven out of eight species had non-significantly longer life spans on mashed banana diets. Data analysis using a time-varying Cox-model with species as covariate showed that males had reduced survival on the sugar diet during the first 35 days of captive life, but the effect was absent or reversed at more advanced ages. These results challenge the generality of dietary restriction as a way to extend life span in animals. We argue that such studies on males are promising tools for better understanding life history evolution and aging because males display a wider variety of tactics for obtaining reproductive success than females. PMID:19580860

  4. Activation of geminivirus V-sense promoters in roots is restricted to nematode feeding sites.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carolina; García, Alejandra; Aristizábal, Fabio; Portillo, Mary; Herreros, Esther; Munoz-Martín, M Angeles; Grundler, Florian; Mullineaux, Phillip M; Fenoll, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Obligate sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, such as the root-knot and cyst nematodes, elicit the differentiation of specialized nematode nurse or feeding cells [nematode feeding sites (NFS), giant cells and syncytia, respectively]. During NFS differentiation, marked changes in cell cycle progression occur, partly similar to those induced by some geminiviruses. In this work, we describe the activation of V-sense promoters from the Maize streak virus (MSV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) in NFS formed by root-knot and cyst nematodes. Both promoters were transiently active in microinjection experiments. In tobacco and Arabidopsis transgenic lines carrying promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusions, the MSV V-sense promoter was activated in the vascular tissues of aerial plant parts, primarily leaf and cotyledon phloem tissue and some floral structures. Interestingly, in roots, promoter activation was restricted to syncytia and giant cells tested with four different nematode populations, but undetectable in the rest of the root system. As the activity of the promoter in transgenic rootstocks should be restricted to NFS only, the MSV promoter may have utility in engineering grafted crops for nematode control. Therefore, this study represents a step in the provision of some of the much needed additional data on promoters with restricted activation in NFS useful in biotechnological nematode control strategies.

  5. Effects of feed restriction to enhance the profitable farming of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii in sea cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Yong; Kim, Min-Suk; Kwon, Joon Yeong; Maran, B. A. Venmathi

    2013-09-01

    The feed intake, growth and body composition of juvenile blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Sparidae) (5.6 g fish-1) were investigated for 16 weeks in sea cages under seven repetitive feeding cycles: every day feeding (control), 6-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F6.1), 5-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F5.1), 4-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F4.1), 3-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F3.1), 2-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F2.1), and 1-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F1.1). The survival of the fish during the experimental period was not different among the feeding cycles. The greatest weight gain of fish was observed in the control, but not significantly different from that of the F6.1 and F5.1 groups (p > 0.05). Total feed intake and daily feed intake decreased with the increase of fasting frequency, however, actual feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio increased with the increase of the fasting frequency. Proximate composition of the whole body of fish was not affected by different feeding cycles. These results suggest that juvenile blackhead seabreams subjected to repetitive feeding cycles of 6- or 5-days feeding and 1 day fasting for 16 weeks could achieve compensatory growth, and that such mild feeding deprivation could save significant amounts of feed without causing any profit reduction that might result from a decrease in fish size or quality.

  6. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations-similar fluctuation structure at different time scales-that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)-a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the SCN. The

  7. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations—similar fluctuation structure at different time scales—that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)—a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)—the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the

  8. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; P<0.001) and showed lower feed conversion (1.56 vs. 1.61; P<0.001) than the high-yield broilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (P<0.001). Feed restriction decreased final live weight (3,194 vs. 3,142 g; P<0.01) and feed conversion (1.60 vs. 1.57; P<0.01) compared to ad libitum feeding. At gross examination, feed restriction tended to increase white-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; P<0.10), whereas females showed less wooden breasts than males (8.0 vs. 16.3%; P<0.05). White-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (P<0.05), whereas wooden breast fillets exhibited higher cooking losses (25.6 vs. 22.1%) and AK-shear force (4.23 vs. 2.84 kg/g) compared with normal fillets (P<0.001). At histological examination, 3.1% of pectoralis major were normal, 26.6% mildly degenerated, 45.3% moderately degenerated, and 25.0% severely degenerated. In conclusion, genotype had a moderate effect on growth without modifying myopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The effects of time-restricted feeding on lipid metabolism and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Amandine; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining natural feeding rhythms with time-restricted feeding (TRF), without altering nutritional intake, prevents and reverses diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its associated metabolic disorders in mice. TRF has a direct effect on animal adiposity, causes an alteration of adipokine signaling, and diminishes white adipose tissue inflammation. Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are normally circadian, but their expression is perturbed with DIO; TRF restores their cyclical expression. One mechanism through which TRF could affect host metabolism is by altering the gut microbiome. Changes in the gut microbiome are coupled with an altered stool bile acid profile. Hence, TRF could affect lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling. TRF introduces many new possibilities in treating obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. However, further studies are needed to show whether these physiological findings in mice translate to humans. PMID:26451290

  10. Time-Restricted Feeding Shifts the Skin Circadian Clock and Alters UVB-Induced DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; van Spyk, Elyse; Liu, Qiang; Geyfman, Mikhail; Salmans, Michael L; Kumar, Vivek; Ihler, Alexander; Li, Ning; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2017-08-01

    The epidermis is a highly regenerative barrier protecting organisms from environmental insults, including UV radiation, the main cause of skin cancer and skin aging. Here, we show that time-restricted feeding (RF) shifts the phase and alters the amplitude of the skin circadian clock and affects the expression of approximately 10% of the skin transcriptome. Furthermore, a large number of skin-expressed genes are acutely regulated by food intake. Although the circadian clock is required for daily rhythms in DNA synthesis in epidermal progenitor cells, RF-induced shifts in clock phase do not alter the phase of DNA synthesis. However, RF alters both diurnal sensitivity to UVB-induced DNA damage and expression of the key DNA repair gene, Xpa. Together, our findings indicate regulation of skin function by time of feeding and emphasize a link between circadian rhythm, food intake, and skin health. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success.

  12. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  13. Feed restriction ameliorates metabolic dysregulation and improves reproductive performance of meat-type country chickens.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-En; Liu, Zu-Chen; Chang, Chai-Ju; Huang, Yu-Feng; Lai, Chien-Yang; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-12-30

    Restricted feed intake improves egg production in Cornish×Plymouth Rock (broiler) hens. Red-feather (RF) and Black-feather (BF) chickens are 2 local strains of non-broiler meat-type chickens whose egg production has declined with continued selection for meat yield, and which are unstudied regarding restricted feeding and egg-laying improvement. Sixteen week old RF and BF pullets were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 85% AL intake (R). At 35wk and 50wk R-hens showed improved egg production and less abnormal ovarian morphology than AL-hens. Obesity, hepatic steatosis, lipotoxic change to plasma lipids, and systemic inflammation induced by AL feeding in RF and BF hens were similar to those observed previously in AL-broiler hens. Egg production was negatively correlated to body weight, fractional abdominal fat weight and plasma NEFA concentrations in AL hens (P<0.05). AL-hen hierarchical follicles accumulated ceramide and increased interleukin-1β production (P<0.05) in conjunction with increased granulosa cell apoptosis, follicle atresia, ovarian regression, and reduced plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations (P<0.05). The present outcomes from non-broiler but nevertheless meat-type country chicken strains indicate that selection for rapid growth and increased meat yield fundamentally changes energy metabolism in a way that renders hens highly susceptible to reproductive impairment from lipid dysregulation and pro-inflammatory signaling rather than impaired resource allocation per se. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of feed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Rawlings, N C; Wilde, R E; Crews, D H; Boisclair, Y R; Ehrhardt, R A; Kastelic, J P

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects offeed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls. Eight beef bull calves received a control diet from 10 to 70 weeks of age. An additional 16 calves had restricted feed (75% of control) from 10 to 26 weeks of age (calfhood), followed by either control or high nutrition (n=8/group) during the peripubertal period until 70 weeks of age. Restricted feed during calfhood inhibited the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, reduced the pituitary response to GnRH, impaired testicular steroidogenesis, delayed puberty, and reduced testicular weight at 70 weeks of age, regardless of the nutrition during the peripubertal period. Restricted feed reduced serum IGF-I concentrations, but concentrations of leptin, insulin, and GH were not affected. In conclusion, restricted feed during calfhood impaired sexual development in bulls due to adverse effects on every level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and these effects were not overcome by supplemental feeding during the peripubertal period. Furthermore, based on temporal associations, the effects of restricted feed on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis might be mediated by serum IGF-I concentrations. These results supported the hypotheses that the pattern of LH secretion during the early gonadotropin rise during calfhood is the main determinant of age of puberty in bulls and that gonadotropin-independent mechanisms involved in testicular growth during the peripubertal period are affected by previous LH exposure.

  15. Tuberomammillary nucleus activation anticipates feeding under a restricted schedule in rats.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, O; Serón-Ferré, M J; Bravo, H; Torrealba, F

    2000-10-27

    We used FOS-immunoreactivity to map changes in the neuronal activity of brain nuclei related to the state of arousal, in rats under a restricted feeding schedule. Our main finding was the outstanding activation of the tuberomammillary nucleus 24h after a meal, and its steep deactivation, which was independent of actually having the meal. The time course of FOS activation and deactivation indicated a burst of tuberomammilary nucleus activity in close temporal relation with the increased locomotor activity shown by rats in anticipation of the next meal.

  16. Restricted feeding-induced sleep, activity, and body temperature changes in normal and preproghrelin-deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Behavioral and physiological rhythms can be entrained by daily restricted feeding (RF), indicating the existence of a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). One manifestation of the presence of FEO is anticipatory activity to regularly scheduled feeding. In the present study, we tested if intact ghrelin...

  17. Long-term consequences of feed restriction during late pregnancy in goats on feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of female offspring.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew A; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Camous, Sylvaine; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2012-05-15

    Feed restriction during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on offspring development both during the juvenile period and during adult life. Long-term effects of maternal feed restriction during the last third of pregnancy on growth, metabolism and behavior of female kids, with a focus on feeding behavior and emotional reactivity, were studied in goats. Female kids born to control (CONT, n=17) or born to feed restricted goats (REST, n=15) were artificially reared and monitored from birth to 24 months of age. Maternal feeding restriction globally reduced live weight (P<0.001) and body condition score (P=0.02) of REST compared to CONT offspring. Females from the REST group had a higher daily feed intake (P=0.05) and tended to eat more rapidly (P=0.09) than females from the CONT group at 12 months of age. One year later, REST goats still ate more than CONT goats (P=0.05). Glucose metabolism did not appear to be modified as no differences were observed in glucose or insulin responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test. No differences in time budget were found at 12 months of age. However, the HPA axis response to an ACTH injection was greater in REST than in CONT goats: higher peak cortisol concentration (P=0.02) and a greater area under the curve were found (P=0.01) at 14 months of age. In conclusion, maternal feed restriction during late pregnancy modified both feeding behavior and the stress physiology of female offspring for up to 2 years of age. However, the changes observed were small.

  18. Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Responses to Mild Caloric Restriction in the Brown Norway Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known on the regulation of CR-induced h...

  19. Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Responses to Mild Caloric Restriction in the Brown Norway Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known on the regulation of CR-induced h...

  20. Testing the direction of effects between child body composition and restrictive feeding practices: results from a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Derks, Ivonne Pm; Tiemeier, Henning; Sijbrands, Eric Jg; Nicholson, Jan M; Voortman, Trudy; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Jansen, Pauline W

    2017-09-01

    Background: Parental restrictive feeding (i.e., limiting food intake of children) has been linked to childhood overweight. However, the directionality of the causal pathway remains unknown.Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine the bidirectional association of maternal restrictive feeding with children's weight and body composition across childhood and to explore a possible mediating role of maternal concern about child weight.Design: Data were available for 4689 mother-child dyads participating in Generation R, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. At ages 4 and 10 y, restrictive feeding was assessed with the parent-reported Child Feeding Questionnaire, and children's body mass index (BMI) was measured. At age 6 y, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both directions of the relation between restriction and child body composition were examined with multivariable linear regression analyses and cross-lagged modeling. Mediation analyses were performed to examine concern about child weight (mother reported at child age of 10 y) as a potential mediator.Results: Higher child sex- and age-adjusted BMI SD scores (zBMI) at age 4 y predicted more restrictive feeding at age 10 y (B = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.18). Both sex- and age-adjusted FMI SD scores (zFMI) and sex-and age-adjusted FFMI SD scores (zFFMI) at 6 y were also positively associated with restrictive feeding at 10 y. Maternal concern about child weight partially mediated these associations from child body composition to restrictive feeding (e.g., for zBMI at 4 y: Bindirect = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). There was no temporal association from restrictive feeding at age 4 y to child zBMI at age 10 y after adjustment for baseline zBMI.Conclusions: The continued use of restrictive feeding practices at age 10 y appeared to be primarily a response of mothers to an unhealthy weight of their child rather than a cause of children

  1. Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-06-14

    Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Upon >24 hr of fasting, humans, rodents, and other mammals enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food consumption is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 hr, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMDs, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into feasible, effective, and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of restricted feeding of prepubertal ewe lambs on growth performance and mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Cinq-Mars, D; Lacasse, P

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of restricted feeding before puberty on growth performance and mammary gland development in replacement ewe lambs. At weaning, 72 Dorset ewe lambs were assigned to one of the three diets: an ad libitum control diet with medium-quality forage (MQF; diet A-MQF); a restricted diet with the same forage as A, but less feed concentrate (diet R-MQF); or a high-quality forage (HQF) diet (diet F-HQF). The quantity of concentrate offered to the group R-MQF and F-HQF ewe lambs was adjusted to obtain 70% of the control ewe lambs' growth rate. The diets were offered for 75 days after weaning to cover the allometric phase of mammary gland development. During this period, average daily gain (ADG) was 223 and 229 g/day for groups R-MQF and F-HQF, respectively, compared to 305 g/day for group A-MQF (P < 0.0001). At the end of this period, 28 ewe lambs were slaughtered and their mammary gland was collected. Parenchymal fresh tissue weight tended to be higher for groups R-MQF and F-HQF compared to group A-MQF (P = 0.09). Stroma weight was greater (P < 0.05) for the group A-MQF ewe lambs than for those in the other treatments. Total DNA and total protein in parenchymal tissue tended to be greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively). Dry fat-free tissue was greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P < 0.05). The remaining ewe lambs were fed the same haylage and barley diet until their first lambing. During this period, compensatory growth was observed. ADG was greater (P < 0.01) for groups R-MQF and F-HQF than for group A-MQF, and feed conversion was improved (P < 0.01) for groups R-MQF and F-HQF compared with the control, whereas the dry matter intake was similar for all groups. Live body weight, loin eye depth and backfat depth at breeding and around lambing were similar for all groups. The results of this study suggest that restricted feeding before puberty improves mammary gland development without

  3. Influence of pre-slaughtering feed restriction on muscle characteristics of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Sáez, María I; Navarro, Ginés; García-Mesa, Sergio; Martínez, Tomás F; García-Gallego, Manuel; Suárez, María D

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the consequences of dietary restriction or complete starvation before slaughtering on the biochemical and textural characteristics of sea bass muscle. Results showed that only severe feed restriction influenced negatively total body and individual organ weights, and these animals showed lower condition factor as well. Neither moderate feed restriction (up to 50% of the standard ration) kept for 30 days nor total starvation up to 12 days caused significant effects on fish weight and fillet yield. Muscle lipid content was lower in feed-restricted fish, although this parameter was not altered by starvation time. Differences between the two feeding strategies studied were observed in muscle textural and biochemical parameters, and the results point to an influence of the nutritional status on the post-mortem evolution of collagen and myofibrillar proteins, although firmness was not modified. Moderate feed restriction prior to slaughtering could be advisable in sea bass culture, given that no detrimental effects on fish quality or fish performance were noticed, whereas substantial amounts of feed can be saved. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  5. Maternal dietary carbohydrate restriction and mild-to-moderate exercise during pregnancy modify aspects of fetal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Cobrin, M; Koski, K G

    1995-06-01

    To determine whether acute bouts of exercise during pregnancy would predispose the fetus to increased risk if maternal dietary carbohydrate were restricted, untrained pregnant rats were randomly assigned to a 0% (low), 12% (moderate) or 60% (high) glucose diet, and either rested or exercised daily for 20 min from d 16 to term on a rodent treadmill at a mild (15.5 m/min) or moderate (24.3 m/min) intensity. A 3 x 3 nested factorial model with and without food intake as a covariate was employed. Both greater exercise intensity and the lower levels of dietary carbohydrate independently decreased term maternal liver and plantaris glycogen concentrations and increased plasma lactate concentrations. However, significant differences due to exercise disappeared (except for plasma lactate) with food intake controlled for in the model, indicating that energy deficits modulated these exercise effects. In contrast, for the offspring, when food intake was controlled for, a restricted level of maternal dietary carbohydrate significantly lowered fetal weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and liver glycogen concentrations measured at term. Exercise alone did not reduce mean fetal weight if nested weights within a litter were used in the statistical analysis. Mild to moderate maternal exercise lowered only fetal plasma glucose concentrations and only if maternal food intake was not controlled for. These results indicate that acute exercise during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on fetal development only if dietary glucose is severely restricted. Otherwise, adequate glucose and energy in the maternal diet in untrained pregnant rats during repeated bouts of acute exercise seem to protect the fetus.

  6. Life-extending ovariectomy in grasshoppers increases somatic storage, but dietary restriction with an equivalent feeding rate does not

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, John D.; Kellenberger, James W.; Viray, Ephraim; Smith, Alicia M.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced diet or reduced reproduction each extends lifespan in many animals. It is often thought that reduced reproduction and reduced diet may act through the same mechanisms. In grasshoppers, ovariectomy extends lifespan and reduces feeding to a level similar to that used for life extension by dietary restriction, further suggesting mechanistic overlap. Here, we measure the feeding rate of ovariectomized grasshoppers and, by manipulating feeding levels, create a sham-operated & dietary restricted group with matched daily feeding. Both groups show ~25% increased survivorship near the median age of mortality for fully fed and reproductive controls. Ovariectomy results in a doubling of fat body mass and hemolymph volume in comparison to both a feeding-matched dietary restriction group and a sham-operated & fully fed control, which do not differ from each other. Total anti-oxidant activity in the hemolymph and the skeletal muscle was unchanged upon ovariectomy or dietary restriction, so it does not appear to be a major factor in lifespan extension. Next, we measured mitochondrial counts using qPCR to determine mitochondrial cytochrome-b concentrations relative to nuclear (genomic) beta-actin. Mitochondrial counts in the ovariectomized group were lower than sham-operated and fully fed controls but not than the dietary restriction group. Last, in the fat body, transcript levels of hexamerin-90 (a hemolymph storage protein) were affected by neither ovariectomy nor dietary restriction. Hence, ovariectomy resulted in large magnitude increases in organismal storage. The matched-fed dietary restricted group differed from the ovariectomized group only in organismal storage, and not in any of the cellular parameters measured here. This study suggests that longevity via ovariectomy has distinct physiological mechanisms from longevity via dietary restriction in grasshoppers that are independent of daily feeding rate, particularly for protein and fat storage. PMID:23838534

  7. Life-extending ovariectomy in grasshoppers increases somatic storage, but dietary restriction with an equivalent feeding rate does not.

    PubMed

    Hatle, John D; Kellenberger, James W; Viray, Ephraim; Smith, Alicia M; Hahn, Daniel A

    2013-09-01

    Reduced diet or reduced reproduction each extends lifespan in many animals. It is often thought that reduced reproduction and reduced diet may act through the same mechanisms. In grasshoppers, ovariectomy extends lifespan and reduces feeding to a level similar to that used for life extension by dietary restriction, further suggesting mechanistic overlap. Here, we measure the feeding rate of ovariectomized grasshoppers and, by manipulating feeding levels, create a sham-operated & dietary restricted group with matched daily feeding. Both groups show ~25% increased survivorship near the median age of mortality for fully fed and reproductive controls. Ovariectomy results in a doubling of fat body mass and hemolymph volume in comparison to both a feeding-matched dietary restriction group and a sham-operated & fully fed control, which do not differ from each other. Total anti-oxidant activity in the hemolymph and the skeletal muscle was unchanged upon ovariectomy or dietary restriction, so it does not appear to be a major factor in lifespan extension. Next, we measured mitochondrial counts using qPCR to determine mitochondrial cytochrome-b concentrations relative to nuclear (genomic) beta-actin. Mitochondrial counts in the ovariectomized group were lower than sham-operated and fully fed controls but not than the dietary restriction group. Last, in the fat body, transcript levels of hexamerin-90 (a hemolymph storage protein) were affected by neither ovariectomy nor dietary restriction. Hence, ovariectomy resulted in large magnitude increases in organismal storage. The matched-fed dietary restricted group differed from the ovariectomized group only in organismal storage, and not in any of the cellular parameters measured here. This study suggests that longevity via ovariectomy has distinct physiological mechanisms from longevity via dietary restriction in grasshoppers that are independent of daily feeding rate, particularly for protein and fat storage.

  8. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  9. Impact of feed restriction on health, digestion and faecal microbiota of growing pigs housed in good or poor hygiene conditions.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, N; Knudsen, C; Gidenne, T; Montagne, L; Merlot, E; Zemb, O

    2014-10-01

    Feed restriction could be a relevant strategy to preserve gut health, reduce systemic inflammatory response and finally limit antibiotic use. This study assessed the effect of feed restriction on growing pigs submitted to a moderate inflammatory challenge induced by the degradation of the environmental hygiene that is known to alter growth rate. The experiment was run on 80 pigs selected at 7 weeks of age according to a 2×2 factorial design: two feeding levels, ad libitum (AL) and feed restricted (FR) at 60% of AL, and two conditions of environmental hygiene, clean and dirty. Pigs were housed individually throughout the experiment. From 61 to 68 days of age (day 0 to 7), pigs were housed in a post weaning unit and feed restriction was applied to half of the pigs from day 0 to day 29. At 68 days of age (day 7 of the experiment), pigs were transferred in a growing unit where half of FR and half of AL pigs were housed in a dirty environment (poor hygiene) and the other half in a clean environment (good hygiene) until day 42. Growth performance was recorded weekly. Blood and faeces samples were collected to measure indicators of inflammation, nutrient digestibility and microbiota composition. Faecal consistency was monitored daily to detect diarrhoeas. Feed restriction decreased daily weight gain (-35% to -50%, P<0.001), increased the feed conversion ratio (+15%, P<0.001) and CP digestibility (+3%, P<0.05) and reduced the occurrence of diarrhoeas irrespective of hygiene conditions. Poor hygiene conditions decreased growth performance (-20%, P<0.05) and total tract digestibility of all nutrients (P<0.001). Haptoglobin (+50%) concentrations and lymphocyte (+10%) and granulocyte (+40%) numbers were higher in poor hygiene conditions (P<0.05), confirming that the model was effective to induce a systemic inflammatory response. Both feed restriction and hygiene modified the profile of the faecal microbiota. In this study, feed restriction did not reduce the systemic

  10. Maternal Intuitive Eating as a Moderator of the Association between Concern about Child Weight and Restrictive Child Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.

    2015-01-01

    Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating. PMID:26145275

  11. Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Lumeng, Julie C; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2015-12-01

    Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective and experimental studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating.

  12. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  13. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  14. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    PubMed

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2017-07-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (P<0.05) weight and yield of the frenched rack cut and their meat tended (P=0.11) to be tender compared with that of lambs from restricted ewes. The percentage of oxidative muscle fibers was lower for lambs born to non-restricted ewes (P<0.05); however, no effects of ewe treatment were observed on other muscle fiber types. For experiment II, energy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (P<0.01) pre-weaning live weight gain, weaning and final weights. Lambs from restricted ewes had higher (P<0.05) feed intake as % of leg weight and a trend to be less efficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass

  15. Dietary Sodium Restriction Increases the Risk of Misinterpreting Mild Cases of Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Baudrand, Rene; Guarda, Francisco J; Torrey, Jasmine; Williams, Gordon; Vaidya, Anand

    2016-11-01

    The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is recommended to screen for primary aldosteronism (PA). To evaluate whether dietary sodium restriction results in misinterpretation of PA screening. Untreated hypertensives with ARR more than 20 on a high dietary sodium intake (HS) were also evaluated on a low dietary sodium intake (LS) (n = 241). Positive screening for PA was defined as: plasma renin activity (PRA) less than or equal to 1.0 ng/mL · h with serum aldosterone more than or equal to 6 ng/dL. PA was confirmed by a 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion more than or equal to 12 mcg with urinary sodium more than 200 mmol. Only 33% (79/241) of participants with an ARR more than 20 had a positive PA screen on HS. On LS, 56% (44/79) of these participants no longer met criteria for positive PA screening. When compared with participants with positive PA screening on both diets, participants with a positive screen on HS but negative on LS exhibited a significantly higher PRA on both diets. Remarkably, of the 48/79 participants who had PA confirmed, 52% had negative PA screening on LS. The distinguishing feature of these participants with "discordant" screening results was a larger rise in PRA on LS resulting in normalization of the ARR and higher Caucasian race prevalence. Sodium restriction is recommended in hypertension; however, it can significantly raise PRA, normalize the ARR, and result in false interpretation of PA screening. Milder phenotypes of PA, where PRA is not as suppressed, are most susceptible to dietary sodium influences on renin and ARR. Optimal screening for PA should occur under conditions of HS.

  16. PHA-4/FOXA-regulated microRNA feed forward loops during Caenorhabditis elegans dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Awadhesh; Jain, Vaibhav; Kumar, Neeraj; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab

    2014-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) increases life span and delays the onset of age-related diseases across species. However, the molecular mechanisms have remained relatively unexplored in terms of gene regulation. InC. elegans, a popular model for aging studies, the FOXA transcription factor PHA-4 is a robust genetic regulator of DR, although little is known about how it regulates gene expression. We profiled the transcriptome and miRNAome of an eat-2 mutant, a genetic surrogate of DR, by Next Generation sequencing and find that most of the miRNAs are upregulated in the young-adult worms, none significantly downregulated. Interestingly, PHA-4 can potentially regulate the expression of most of these miRNA genes. Remarkably, many of the PHA-4-regulated genes that are induced during DR are also targets of the PHA-4-upregulated miRNAs, forming a large feed-forward gene regulatory network. The genes targeted by the feed-forward loops (FFLs) are enriched for functions related to ubiquitin-mediated decay, lysosomal autophagy, cellular signalling, protein folding etc., processes that play critical roles in DR and longevity. Together our data provides a framework for understanding the complex and unique regulatory network employed during DR, suggesting that PHA-4 employs such FFLs to fine-tune gene expression and instil robustness in the system during energy crisis.

  17. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  18. PHA-4/FOXA-regulated microRNA feed forward loops during Caenorhabditis elegans dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Awadhesh; Jain, Vaibhav; Kumar, Neeraj; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) increases life span and delays the onset of age-related diseases across species. However, the molecular mechanisms have remained relatively unexplored in terms of gene regulation. In C. elegans, a popular model for aging studies, the FOXA transcription factor PHA-4 is a robust genetic regulator of DR, although little is known about how it regulates gene expression. We profiled the transcriptome and miRNAome of an eat-2 mutant, a genetic surrogate of DR, by Next Generation sequencing and find that most of the miRNAs are upregulated in the young-adult worms, none significantly downregulated. Interestingly, PHA-4 can potentially regulate the expression of most of these miRNA genes. Remarkably, many of the PHA-4-regulated genes that are induced during DR are also targets of the PHA-4-upregulated miRNAs, forming a large feed-forward gene regulatory network. The genes targeted by the feed-forward loops (FFLs) are enriched for functions related to ubiquitin-mediated decay, lysosomal autophagy, cellular signalling, protein folding etc., processes that play critical roles in DR and longevity. Together our data provides a framework for understanding the complex and unique regulatory network employed during DR, suggesting that PHA-4 employs such FFLs to fine-tune gene expression and instil robustness in the system during energy crisis. PMID:25504288

  19. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  20. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions.

  1. Impact of feed restriction on the performance of highly prolific lactating sows and its effect on the subsequent lactation.

    PubMed

    De Bettio, S; Maiorka, A; Barrilli, L N E; Bergsma, R; Silva, B A N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 50 mixed parity sows of a high-prolificacy genetic line were used to evaluate the impact of feed restriction during lactation on their production and reproductive performance and their performance in the subsequent lactation. From day 7 of lactation, sows were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into two treatments. In treatment 1, sows were fed 8.0 kg feed/day (control) and in treatment 2, sows were fed 4.0 kg/day. The same suckling pressure was maintained until weaning on day 28 of lactation. Average minimum and maximum temperatures measured during the experimental period were 32.1°C and 16.5°C, respectively. Control sows presented significantly higher feed intake (P0.10) in weaning-to-estrus interval and averaged 4.3 days. No effect of the treatment (P>0.10) was observed on any of the studied performance traits in the subsequent lactation, except for litter size at birth that tended (15.2 v. 14.1; P<0.10) to be lower for the restricted sows. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that feed restriction during lactation leads to intense catabolism of the body tissues of sows, negatively affecting their milk production, and the litter weight gain and possibly number of piglets born in the next litter. On the other hand, restricted-fed sows are more efficient, producing more milk per amount of feed intake.

  2. Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status. Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of 4-year-olds less restrictive.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S

    2014-10-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  4. Effects of strain and different skip-a-day feed restriction periods on the growth performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Benyi, Kow; Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Norris, David

    2011-04-01

    The effects of 6, 10 and 14 days of skip-a-day feed removal during the starter and grower periods on the growth performance of Ross 308 and Hubbard broiler chickens were studied in a 49-day production period. Ross 308 was superior to Hubbard in weight gain, market weight and feed utilization but consumed more feed, deposited more abdominal fat and had a higher mortality rate. Overall, feed removal improved feed efficiency, had insignificant effects on abdominal fatness and mortality rate and reduced feed intake, weight gain and market weight. On each restricted-feeding regime, the birds gained as much weight as their fully fed counterparts during the period of resumed full feeding but were unable to compensate fully for the weight loss and were lighter at the end of the trial. It is suggested that for profitable broiler production under tropical conditions, Ross 308 and skip-a-day feed removal for less than 6 days from 7 to 17 days of age be considered.

  5. Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Basta, Maria; Kritikou, Ilia; Shaffer, Michele L.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Stiffler, David; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    One workweek of mild sleep restriction adversely impacts sleepiness, performance, and proinflammatory cytokines. Many individuals try to overcome these adverse effects by extending their sleep on weekends. To assess whether extended recovery sleep reverses the effects of mild sleep restriction on sleepiness/alertness, inflammation, and stress hormones, 30 healthy young men and women (mean age ± SD, 24.7 ± 3.5 yr; mean body mass index ± SD, 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2) participated in a sleep laboratory experiment of 13 nights [4 baseline nights (8 h/night), followed by 6 sleep restriction nights (6 h/night) and 3 recovery nights (10 h/night)]. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating IL-6 and cortisol, objective and subjective daytime sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), and performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed on days 4 (baseline), 10 (after 1 wk of sleep restriction), and 13 (after 2 nights of recovery sleep). Serial 24-h IL-6 plasma levels increased significantly during sleep restriction and returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Serial 24-h cortisol levels during restriction did not change compared with baseline, but after recovery they were significantly lower. Subjective and objective sleepiness increased significantly after restriction and returned to baseline after recovery. In contrast, performance deteriorated significantly after restriction and did not improve after recovery. Extended recovery sleep over the weekend reverses the impact of one work week of mild sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and IL-6 levels, reduces cortisol levels, but does not correct performance deficits. The long-term effects of a repeated sleep restriction/sleep recovery weekly cycle in humans remain unknown. PMID:23941878

  6. Early nasogastric tube feeding versus nil per os in mild to moderate acute pancreatitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Maxim S; McIlroy, Kerry; Grayson, Lorraine; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A

    2013-10-01

    Nasojejunal tube feeding is a standard of care in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (AP) and several recent trials suggested that nasogastric tube feeding (NGT) is as safe and efficient as nasojejunal tube feeding in these patients. The aim was to investigate whether NGT presents any benefit to patients with mild to moderate AP. The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The patients in the intervention group received NGT within 24 h of hospital admission. The patients in the control group were on nil per os (NPO). The severity of acute pancreatitis was determined according to the new international multidisciplinary classification. There were 17 patients randomly allocated to the NGT group and 18 to the NPO group. The visual analogue pain score decreased to a significantly greater extent in the NGT group (from median 9 (range 7-9) at baseline to 1 (0-3) at 72 h after randomization) compared with the NPO group (from 7 (5-9) to 3 (1-4) (p = 0.036). The number of patients not requiring opiates at 48 h after randomization was significantly different (p = 0.024) between NGT (9/17) and NPO (3/18). Oral food intolerance was observed in 1/17 patient in the NGT group and 9/18 patients in the NPO group (p = 0.004). The overall hospital stay in the NGT group was 9 (5-12) days as compared with 8.5 (6-13) days in the NPO group (p = 0.91). NGT commenced within 24 h of hospital admission is well tolerated in patients with mild to moderate acute pancreatitis. Further, when compared with NPO, it significantly reduces the intensity and duration of abdominal pain, need for opiates, and risk of oral food intolerance, but not overall hospital stay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Does feeding area restriction inhibit social learning of toxic weed ingestion in cattle?

    PubMed

    Jackson, K T; Cibils, A F; Gould, W R; Graham, J D; Allison, C D

    2010-09-01

    Social learning from peers can trigger herd-wide intoxication with white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), an alkaloid-synthesizing herbaceous legume that grows on rangelands of western North America. We conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that restriction of the area allocated to animals to feed in would inhibit social facilitation of locoweed ingestion in yearling heifers. Eight heifers that avoided white locoweed (LA) and eight heifers that readily consumed it (LE) were selected from a pool of 40 cross-bred heifers and were randomly assigned to the social facilitation or social interference treatment groups. We conducted 200 10-min feeding trials in three 5-day phases (pre-treatment, treatment, post-treatment) during which animals were presented with a set of bowls arrayed in a test arena, some of which contained ground wheat straw and others contained air-dried ground white locoweed. During the pre-treatment (days 1 to 5) and the post-treatment phases (days 11 to 15) non-social trials were conducted in which the feeding behavior of individual animals was investigated in an 80 m2 arena containing 12 feeding bowls. During the treatment phase (days 6 to 10) social learning trials were conducted in which LA + LE pairs from the social interference group were exposed to 12 bowls of food distributed in an 80 m2 arena intended to induce social interference, and LA + LE pairs from the social facilitation group were exposed to 36 bowls of food distributed in a 240 m2 arena intended to permit social facilitation. During pre-treatment phase, LA heifers consumed detectably less locoweed and wheat straw and exhibited lower preference for locoweed than LE (P ⩽ 0.05) although wheat straw preference of LA and LE was similar. During social learning trials (treatment phase), LA in the social interference group visited similar number of locoweed bowls (mean ± s.e.m.: 0.2 ± 0.12) as they had during non-social learning (0.2 ± 0.20). Conversely, LA heifers in the social

  8. Dietary sodium restriction below 2 g per day predicted shorter event-free survival in patients with mild heart failure.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K; Dunbar, Sandra B; Pressler, Susan J; Lennie, Terry A

    2014-12-01

    Despite a growing recognition that a strict low sodium diet may not be warranted in compensated heart failure (HF) patients, the link between sodium restriction below 2 g/day and health outcomes is unknown in patients at different levels of HF severity. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in event-free survival among patients with <2 g/day, 2-3 g/day, or >3 g/day sodium intake stratified by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. A total of 244 patients with HF completed a four-day food diary to measure daily sodium intake. All-cause hospitalization or death for a median of 365 follow-up days and covariates on age, gender, etiology, body mass index, NYHA class, ejection fraction, total comorbidity score, the presence of ankle edema, and prescribed medications were determined by patient interview and medical record review. Hierarchical Cox hazard regression was used to address the purpose. In NYHA class I/II (n=134), patients with <2 g/day sodium intake had a 3.7-times higher risk (p=0.025), while patients with >3 g/day sodium intake had a 0.4-times lower risk (p=0.047) for hospitalization or death than those with 2-3 g/day sodium intake after controlling for covariates. In NYHA class III/IV (n=110), >3 g/day sodium intake predicted shorter event-free survival (p=0.044), whereas there was no difference in survival curves between patients with <2 g/day and those with 2-3 g/day sodium intake. Sodium restriction below 2 g/day is not warranted in mild HF patients, whereas excessive sodium intake above 3 g/day may be harmful in moderate to severe HF patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  9. Dietary sodium restriction below 2 gram per day predicted shorter event-free survival in patients with mild heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Pressler, Susan J.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing recognition that a strict low sodium diet may not be warranted in compensated heart failure (HF) patients, the link between sodium restriction below 2g/day and health outcomes is unknown in patients at different levels of HF severity. Purpose To compare differences in event-free survival among patients with < 2g/day, 2–3g/day, or > 3g/day sodium intake stratified by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Method A total of 244 patients with HF completed a four-day food diary to measure daily sodium intake. All-cause hospitalization or death for a median of 365follow-up days and covariates on age, gender, etiology, body mass index, NYHA class, ejection fraction, total comorbidity score, the presence of ankle edema, and prescribed medications were determined by patient interview and medical record review. Hierarchical Cox hazard regression was used to address the purpose. Results In NYHA class I/II (n=134), patients with < 2g/day sodium intake had a 3.7-times higher risk (p = .025), while patients with > 3g/day sodium intake had a 0.4-times lower risk (p = .047) for hospitalization or death than those with 2–3g/day sodium intake after controlling for covariates. In NYHA class III/IV (n=110), > 3g/day sodium intake predicted shorter event-free survival (p = .044), whereas there was no difference in survival curves between patients with < 2g/day and those with 2–3g/day sodium intake. Conclusion Sodium restriction below 2g/day is not warranted in mild HF patients, whereas excessive sodium intake above 3g/day may be harmful in moderate to severe HF patients. PMID:24366983

  10. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a key component of intermittent fasting regimens, has gained considerable attention in recent years. TRF allows ad libitum energy intake within controlled time frames, generally a 3-12 hour range each day. The impact of various TRF regimens on indicators of metabolic disease risk has yet to be investigated. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to summarize the current literature on the effects of TRF on body weight and markers of metabolic disease risk (i.e., lipid, glucoregulatory, and inflammatory factors) in animals and humans. Results from animal studies show TRF to be associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, and concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Human data support the findings of animal studies and demonstrate decreased body weight (though not consistently), lower concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These preliminary findings show promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors.

  11. Effect of thermal stress, restricted feeding and combined stresses (thermal stress and restricted feeding) on growth and plasma reproductive hormone levels of Malpura ewes under semi-arid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Sejian, V; Maurya, V P; Naqvi, S M K

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of thermal, nutritional and combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on the growth, oestradiol and progesterone levels during oestrus cycles in Malpura ewes. Twenty-eight adult Malpura ewes were used in the present study. The ewes were randomly allocated into four groups, viz., GI (n=7; control), GII (n=7; thermal stress), GIII (n=7; restricted feeding) and GIV (n=7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI and GII ewes) to induce nutritional insufficiency. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 10:00 and 16:00 hours to induce thermal stress for a period of two oestrous cycles. Parameters studied were body weight, oestrus incidences, plasma oestradiol 17-β, plasma progesterone, conception rate, gestation period, lambing rate, and birth weight of lambs. The results indicate that combined stress significantly (p<0.05) reduced body weight, oestrus duration, birth weight of lambs, and oestradiol 17-β whereas significantly (p < 0.05) increased oestrus cycle length and progesterone. Furthermore, the results reveal that on comparative basis, ewes were able to better adapt in terms of growth and reproduction to restricted feeding than thermal stress. However, when restricted feeding was coupled with thermal stress it had significant (p<0.05) influence on body weight, average daily gain, oestradiol 17-β and progesterone concentrations. This showed that combined stress were more detrimental for these reproductive hormones in Malpura ewes under a hot semi-arid environment. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Superparamagnetic graphene oxide-magnetite nanoparticle composites for uptake of actinide ions from mildly acidic feeds.

    PubMed

    Gadly, Trilochan; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Patre, Dinesh K; Gujar, Rajesh B; Gupta, Alka; Ballal, Anand; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2017-09-01

    Super paramagnetic graphene oxide (GO) - Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites were prepared and characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, DLS and zeta potential, etc. TEM studies have confirmed nanoparticle nature of the composites. The GO-magnetic nanoparticle composites can be dispersed in mildly acidic aqueous solutions and get concentrated in a small volume under application of an external magnetic field. The composites were evaluated for the uptake of actinide ions such as Am(3+), UO2(2+), Th(4+) and Pu(4+) from mildly acidic aqueous solutions. Am(3+) sorption sharply increased with pH as the Kd values increased from about 10 at pH 1 to 10(5) at pH 3 beyond which a plateau in the Kd values was seen. Eu(3+) displayed nearly comparable uptake behaviour to that of Am(3+) while the uptake of other metal ions followed the trend: Pu(IV)>Th(IV)>UO2(2+). The adsorption behaviour of Am(3+) onto the graphene oxide - Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites fitted very well to the Langmuir as well as Temkin isotherm models. The desorption rate (using 1M HNO3) was fast and reusability study results were highly encouraging. The very high uptake values suggest possible application of the magnetic nanoparticles in radioactive waste remediation in natural ground water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Histological aspects of the small intestine under variable feed restriction: The effects of short and intense restriction on a growing rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Vodicka, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of seven days of feed restriction (between days 42 and 49) on the morphology of the small intestine in experimental rabbit models. Sixty weaned Hyplus rabbits (35 days old) were included in the experiment and split into three groups of 20 rabbits. The first control group (n=20) received feed ad libitum (ADL group), the second (R1) experimental group (n=20) was fed 50 g feed per rabbit per day and the third (R2) experimental group (n=20) received 65 g feed per rabbit per day. Duodenal samples were collected when the rabbits were aged 49, 56, 63 and 70 days. The mean villus height, crypt depth and small intestine length were measured. Significant interactions (P<0.001) between group and age were identified in the villi height and crypt depths. The maximum mean villus height was found in the R2 group in 56-day-old rabbits (643.14 μm), while the minimum was found in the ADL group in 49-day-old rabbits (460.29 μm). The longest (P<0.001) small intestine was measured in the R1 group in 63-day-old rabbits (347.60 cm), while the shortest was measured in the ADL group in 49-day-old rabbits (263.60 cm). The models show that villus height, crypt depth and the length of the small intestine change with the intensity of feed restriction and age.

  14. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  15. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms ( P>0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm ( P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish ( P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar ( P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  16. Short-term effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy on goat kid morphology, metabolism, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Broux, B; Roussel, S; Ponter, A A; Perault, J; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2011-07-01

    Morphometric, metabolic, and behavioral modifications were studied in goat kids after maternal feed restriction during the last one-third of pregnancy. At birth, only kids from twin and triplet litters were studied [n=40 kids born to control dams (CONT) and n=38 born to restricted dams (REST)] and only males thereafter (n=13 CONT and 15 REST kids) until slaughter at 6 wk of age. Kids born to restricted goats had a smaller abdominal girth at birth (P<0.01) and tended to have a smaller body mass index (P=0.10) and a smaller density index (P=0.09) than kids born to CONT goats. Male REST kids had a lighter birth weight (P=0.03) than male CONT kids, but no differences (all P>0.10) were found for BW and morphometric measurements thereafter. Decreased NEFA concentrations suggested that male REST kids mobilized their body reserves less than CONT kids at birth (P<0.01). No modifications in drinking tests at 3 and 5 wk of age were observed, or in feeding behavior and emotional reactivity at 5 wk of age (all P>0.10). In conclusion, maternal feed restriction in the last one-third of pregnancy resulted in a decrease in birth size, but male kids rapidly caught up, and there were no changes in behavior, morphology, or metabolism during rearing. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  17. Poultry enteric inflammation model with dextran sodium sulfate mediated chemical induction and feed restriction in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, V A; Berghman, L R; Vicuña, E A; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Wolchok, J D; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G I; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Gut inflammation is a cardinal event occurring in various gastrointestinal diseases regardless of etiology. A potential mechanism of action for antibiotic growth promoters and probiotics is alleviation or attenuation of such inflammation. In vivo inflammation models and markers to quantify changes in inflammation, such as paracellular leakage and tight junction function, are necessary tools in the search for methods to reduce enteric inflammation. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and feed restriction (FRS), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d; 3 to 5 kDa) marker were evaluated for induction and assessment of enteric inflammation in broilers. Three independent experiments were conducted where birds received an inflammation inducer treatment and an oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/bird) 2.5 h before killing on d 4, followed by measurement of serum FITC-d levels and release of FITC-d from different regions of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to evaluate tight junction function. Experiment 1 tested control (CON) and DSS; Experiments 2 and 3 evaluated CON, DSS, and FRS. In all experiments DSS, as well as FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, showed higher (P<0.05) leakage of FITC-d into serum than CON, but FRS was not different from DSS. The amount of FITC-d retained in duodenal and cecal tissue was affected (P<0.05) by FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, and DSS affected FITC-d retention in duodenum only, suggesting differences in gut passage or absorption/adsorption. In conclusion, DSS oral gavage and FRS could induce leaky gut, with changes in serum FITC-d and migration of FITC-d from GIT.

  18. Time-restricted feeding in young men performing resistance training: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Forsse, Jeffrey S; Butler, Natalie K; Paoli, Antonio; Bane, Annie A; La Bounty, Paul M; Morgan, Grant B; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-03-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine eight weeks of resistance training (RT) with and without time-restricted feeding (TRF) in order to assess nutrient intake and changes in body composition and muscular strength in young recreationally active males. The TRF programme consisted of consuming all calories within a four-hour period of time for four days per week, but included no limitations on quantities or types of foods consumed. The RT programme was performed three days per week and consisted of alternating upper and lower body workouts. For each exercise, four sets leading to muscular failure between 8 and 12 repetitions were employed. Research visits were conducted at baseline, four, and eight weeks after study commencement. Measurements of total body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasound were obtained. Upper and lower body strength and endurance were assessed, and four-day dietary records were collected. TRF reduced energy intake by ∼650 kcal per day of TRF, but did not affect total body composition within the duration of the study. Cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii and rectus femoris increased in both groups. Effect size data indicate a gain in lean soft tissue in the group that performed RT without TRF (+2.3 kg, d = 0.25). Upper and lower body strength and lower body muscular endurance increased in both groups, but effect sizes demonstrate greater improvements in the TRF group. Overall, TRF reduced energy intake and did not adversely affect lean mass retention or muscular improvements with short-term RT in young males.

  19. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  1. Light phase-restricted feeding slows basal heart rate to exaggerate the type-3 long QT syndrome phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Elizabeth A; Burgess, Don E; Manning, Cody L; Zhao, Yihua; Moss, Arthur J; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Elayi, Claude S; Esser, Karyn A; Delisle, Brian P

    2014-12-15

    Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is caused by mutations in the SCN5A-encoded Nav1.5 channel. LQT3 patients exhibit time of day-associated abnormal increases in their heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals and risk for life-threatening episodes. This study determines the effects of uncoupling environmental time cues that entrain circadian rhythms (time of light and time of feeding) on heart rate and ventricular repolarization in wild-type (WT) or transgenic LQT3 mice (Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ)). We used an established light phase-restricted feeding paradigm that disrupts the alignment among the circadian rhythms in the central pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues including heart. Circadian analysis of the RR and QT intervals showed the Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice had QT rhythms with larger amplitudes and 24-h midline means and a more pronounced slowing of the heart rate. For both WT and Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice, light phase-restricted feeding shifted the RR and QT rhythms ~12 h, increased their amplitudes greater than twofold, and raised the 24-h midline mean by ~10%. In contrast to WT mice, the QTc interval in Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice exhibited time-of-day prolongation that was flipped after light phase-restricted feeding. The time-of-day changes in the QTc intervals of Scn5a(+/ΔKPQ) mice were secondary to a steeper power relation between their QT and RR intervals. We conclude that uncoupling time of feeding from normal light cues can dramatically slow heart rate to unmask genotype-specific differences in the QT intervals and aggravate the LQT3-related phenotype.

  2. Effect of feed restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on hormones and genes of the somatotropic axis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinéad M; Kelly, Alan K; Wylie, Alastair R G; Kenny, David A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of feed restriction and compensatory growth during re-alimentation on the functionality of the somatotropic axis. We blocked 60 bulls into one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 30) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB, n = 30). A growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) challenge was performed during each period. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and hepatic tissue collected. Hepatic expression of 13 genes of the somatotropic axis was measured by qRT-PCR. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (0.6 vs. 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more than ADLIB animals during period 2 (2.5 vs. 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Growth hormone response to GHRH was not different between treatments at either time-point (P > 0.05); however, resultant plasma IGF-1 was lower in period 1 and greater in period 2 in RES animals (P < 0.05). Expression of IGFBP2 was higher (P < 0.01) and IGF1 (P < 0.001) and GHRIA (P < 0.05) lower in RES compared with ADLIB during period 1, with no difference evident in period 2 (P > 0.05). Collectively, the results of this study are consistent with uncoupling of the somatotropic axis following feed restriction. However, there is no evidence from this study that the somatotropic axis per se is a significant contributor to compensatory growth.

  3. Lifelong wheel running exercise and mild caloric restriction attenuate nuclear EndoG in the aging plantaris muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Yang; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Lawler, John M

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in atrophy and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that insufficient heat shock proteins (HSPs) may contribute to apoptosis and muscle wasting. In addition, long-term caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong wheel running exercise (WR) with CR provide significant protection against caspase-dependent apoptosis and sarcopenia. Caspase-independent mediators (endonuclease G: EndoG; apoptosis-inducing factor: AIF) of apoptosis are also linked to muscles wasting with disuse and aging. However, the efficacy of CR and WR with CR to attenuate caspase-independent apoptosis and preserve HSPs in aging skeletal muscle are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CR and WR with CR would ameliorate age-induced elevation of EndoG and AIF while protecting HSP27 and HSP70 levels in the plantaris. Male Fischer-344 rats were divided into 4 groups at 11weeks: ad libitum feeding until 6months (YAL); fed ad libitum until 24months old (OAL); 8%CR to 24months (OCR); WR+8%CR to 24months (OExCR). Nuclear EndoG levels were significantly higher in OAL (+153%) than in YAL, while CR (-38%) and WR with CR (-46%) significantly attenuated age-induced increment in nuclear EndoG. HSP27 (-63%) protein content and phosphorylation at Ser82 (-49%) were significantly lower in OAL than in YAL, while HSP27 protein content was significantly higher in OCR (+136%) and OExCR (+155%) and p-HSP27 (+254%) was significantly higher in OExCR compared with OAL, respectively. In contrast, AIF and HSP70 were unaltered by CR or WR with CR in aging muscle. These data indicate that CR and WR with CR attenuate age-associated upregulation of EndoG translocation in the nucleus, potentially involved with HSP27 signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifelong Wheel Running Exercise and Mild Caloric Restriction Attenuate Nuclear EndoG in the Aging Plantaris Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Yang; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Lawler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in atrophy and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that insufficient heat shock proteins (HSPs) may contribute to apoptosis and muscle wasting. In addition, long-term caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong wheel running exercise (WR) with CR provide significant protection against caspase-dependent apoptosis and sarcopenia. Caspase-independent mediators (endonuclease G: EndoG; apoptosis-inducing factor: AIF) of apoptosis are also linked to muscles wasting with disuse and aging. However, the efficacy of CR and WR with CR to attenuate caspase-independent apoptosis and preserve HSPs in aging skeletal muscle are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CR and WR with CR would ameliorate age-induced elevation of EndoG and AIF while protecting HSP27 and HSP70 levels in the plantaris. Male Fischer-344 rats were divided into 4 groups at 11 weeks: ad libitum feeding until 6 mo. (YAL); fed ad libitum until 24 mo. old (OAL); 8%CR to 24 mo. (OCR); WR + 8%CR to 24 mo. (OExCR). Nuclear EndoG levels were significantly higher in OAL (+153%) than in YAL, while CR (−38%) and WR with CR (−46%) significantly attenuated age-induced increment in nuclear EndoG. HSP27 (−63%) protein content and phosphorylation at Ser82 (−49%) were significantly lower in OAL than in YAL, while HSP27 protein content was significantly higher in OCR (+136%) and OExCR (+155%) and p-HSP27 (+254%) was significantly higher in OExCR compared with OAL, respectively. In contrast, AIF and HSP70 were unaltered by CR or WR with CR in aging muscle. These data indicate that CR and WR with CR attenuate age-associated upregulation of EndoG translocation in the nucleus, potentially involved with HSP27 signaling. PMID:26055450

  5. Postweaning feed restriction effects on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to evaluate impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Bull calves (n = 56 in 2010; n = 51 in 2011) were bo...

  6. Conditional postnatal deletion of the neonatal murine hepatic circadian gene, Npas2, alters the gut microbiome following restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Derek S; Stewart, Christopher J; Chu, Derrick M; Goodspeed, Danielle M; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo J; Shope, Cynthia D; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-08-01

    We have recently shown in both non-human primates and in rodents that fetal and neonatal hepatic expression of the circadian transcription factor, Npas2, is modulated by a high fat maternal diet and plays a critical role in establishing life-long metabolic homeostasis. Similarly, we and others have also established the importance of the maternal and early postnatal diet on establishment of the early gut microbiome. We hypothesized that altered circadian gene expression solely in the neonatal liver would result in gut microbiome dysbiosis, especially with diet-induced metabolic stress (ie, restricted feeding). Using a murine model in which we conditionally knock out Npas2 in the neonatal liver, we aimed to determine the role of the circadian machinery in gut dysbiosis with restricted feeding. We collected fecal samples from liver Npas2 conditional knockout (n = 11) and wild-type (n = 13) reproductive-aged mice before (study day 0) and after the restricted feeding study (study day 17). Extracted DNA was sequenced using the MiSeq Illumina platform using primers specific for the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene. The resulting sequences were quality filtered, aligned, and assigned taxonomy. Principal coordinate analysis was performed on unweighted and weighted UniFrac distances between samples with a permutation analysis of variance to assess clustering significance between groups. Microbial taxa that significantly differ between groups of interest was determined using linear discriminate analysis effect size and randomForrest. Principal coordinate analysis performed on weighted UniFrac distances between male conditional knockout and wild-type cohorts revealed that the gut microbiome of the mice did not differ by genotype at the start of the restricted feeding study but did differ by virtue of genotype at the end of the study (P = .001). Moreover, these differences could be at least partially attributed to restricted feeding-associated alterations in relative

  7. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689

  8. Humoral Immunodeficiency with Hypotonia, Feeding Difficulties, Enteropathy, and Mild Eczema Caused by a Classical FOXP3 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Tuijnenburg, Paul; Cuadrado, Eloy; Bosch, Annet M; Kindermann, Angelika; Jansen, Machiel H; Alders, Marielle; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2017-01-01

    We describe here the case of a boy who presented with pulmonary infections, feeding difficulties due to velopharyngeal insufficiency and gastroesophageal reflux, myopathy, and hypotonia soon after birth. Later, he was also found to have an elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and mild eczema and was diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Further immunological screening at the age of 7 years showed low B and NK cell numbers but normal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and notably, normal numbers of CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM were low to normal, but he had a deficient response to a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and thus a humoral immunodeficiency. To our surprise, whole exome sequencing revealed a mutation in forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), encoding an essential transcription factor for the development and function of Treg cells. This classical mutation is associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. Further in vitro studies indeed showed defective function of Treg cells despite normal FOXP3 protein expression and nuclear localization. The boy underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 11 years of age and despite the temporary development of diabetes while on prednisone is now doing much better, IgE levels have declined, and his fatigue has improved. This case illustrates that a classical pathogenic mutation in FOXP3 can lead to a clinical phenotype where the diagnosis of IPEX syndrome was never considered because of the lack of diabetes and the presence of only mild eczema, in addition to the normal Treg cell numbers and FOXP3 expression.

  9. Humoral Immunodeficiency with Hypotonia, Feeding Difficulties, Enteropathy, and Mild Eczema Caused by a Classical FOXP3 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tuijnenburg, Paul; Cuadrado, Eloy; Bosch, Annet M.; Kindermann, Angelika; Jansen, Machiel H.; Alders, Marielle; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2017-01-01

    We describe here the case of a boy who presented with pulmonary infections, feeding difficulties due to velopharyngeal insufficiency and gastroesophageal reflux, myopathy, and hypotonia soon after birth. Later, he was also found to have an elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and mild eczema and was diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Further immunological screening at the age of 7 years showed low B and NK cell numbers but normal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and notably, normal numbers of CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM were low to normal, but he had a deficient response to a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and thus a humoral immunodeficiency. To our surprise, whole exome sequencing revealed a mutation in forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), encoding an essential transcription factor for the development and function of Treg cells. This classical mutation is associated with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. Further in vitro studies indeed showed defective function of Treg cells despite normal FOXP3 protein expression and nuclear localization. The boy underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 11 years of age and despite the temporary development of diabetes while on prednisone is now doing much better, IgE levels have declined, and his fatigue has improved. This case illustrates that a classical pathogenic mutation in FOXP3 can lead to a clinical phenotype where the diagnosis of IPEX syndrome was never considered because of the lack of diabetes and the presence of only mild eczema, in addition to the normal Treg cell numbers and FOXP3 expression. PMID:28289675

  10. Antilipolytic and lipolytic effects of administering free or ruminally protected nicotinic acid to feed-restricted Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pescara, J B; Pires, J A A; Grummer, R R

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of 12 hourly infusions of different quantities of nicotinic acid (NA) on plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA; experiment 1) and whether longer (108 h) continuous infusions of NA could induce sustained reductions of plasma NEFA (experiment 2) in nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows that were feed restricted. Experiment 1 was a 5×5 Latin square with 6-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were abomasal infusions of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of body weight (BW), infused as hourly boluses for 12 h, starting 4 d after initiation of partial feed restriction. Plasma NEFA was decreased for the highest dose: from 448 μEq/L to 138±75 μEq/L at 1 h after the first bolus of 3mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. This initial reduction in plasma NEFA concentration was followed by an increase in concentration at 2, 3, and 4 h relative to initiation of infusions. Plasma NEFA then decreased to 243 μEq/L 6h after initiation of treatments and remained low until termination of infusions. A rebound in plasma NEFA concentration occurred at 3 and 4 h after termination of infusion for cows that received 3 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW. Experiment 2 was a 5×5 Latin square with 7-d periods and 9 recovery days between each period. Each period consisted of 5 d of partial feed restriction to increase plasma NEFA concentration. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of 0, 0.5, 1, or 3 mg of free NA/h per kilogram of BW for 4.5 d starting at feed restriction or 0.5 mg of NA/h per kilogram of BW infused directly into the rumen in a form protected from microbial degradation. The ruminal administration of protected NA was initiated 2 d before abomasal infusions and initiation of feed restriction to establish steady postruminal delivery of NA by start of abomasal infusions. Plasma NEFA was approximately 70

  11. Effects of Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Synbiotic With and Without Feed Restriction on Performance, Hematological Indices and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Hassan; Saleh, Elham; Tawfeek, Samar; Youssef, Ibrahim; Abdel-Daim, Asmaa

    2016-09-12

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic with and without feed restriction on broilers performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, and feed cost of production from 1 to 56 days of age. Two hundred and forty unsexed one day-old chicks of Arbor Acres breed were used. Two trials, I & II, were conducted, with 120 birds in every one. Each trial was divided into 4 equal groups. The birds in trial I were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment, while the chicks in trial II were fed ad libitum during the first week of age, then subjected to 5 hours / day of feed restriction from the beginning of the second week up to the end of the experiment. In both trials, the birds in group 1 were fed on a control diet while the other groups were given the same control diet supplemented either with a probiotic in group 2, prebiotic in group 3, or synbiotic in group 4. It was found that chicks fed diets supplemented with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic (with and without feed restriction) exhibited higher body weight and feed efficiency than chicks fed the control diets. The feed additives in both trials did not affect hemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and total cholesterol, except the packed cell volume which was increased in the additive treatments with restriction at the end of the experiment. Moreover, the dietary treatments did not influence the carcass yield. However, the relative weights of liver, gizzard and proventriculus, small intestine and bursa of fabricius were found to be increased. The additives decreased the visible fat in the carcass, with more decreasing effect in the additive groups with restriction. The lowest feed cost per kg of weight gain was observed in the birds fed diets supplemented with synbiotic, probiotic and prebiotic. Feed restriction improved the feed conversion ratio, economic return, but decreased the feed intake, serum total cholesterol and visible fat in

  12. Effect of age on the occurrence of muscle fiber degeneration associated with myopathies in broiler chickens submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, G; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Bertotto, D; Gratta, F; Ballarin, C; Vascellari, M; Xiccato, G; Trocino, A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate muscle fiber degeneration (MFD) associated with white striping and wooden breast, pectoralis major of 192 broilers differing for genotype (standard vs. high breast yield), gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) were sampled at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d of age for histological analyses by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to evaluate tissue morphology, Masson's trichrome to identify collagen presence, and Oil red and Nile blue for lipid presence. Microvessels (diameter ≤15 μm), nuclei positive to anti-cleaved lamin A and monoclonal proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antisera were counted to assess apoptotic and regenerative processes, respectively. Significant differences were found according to feeding system, age, and their interactions. The frequency of chickens with MFD was higher with ad libitum than restricted feeding (75.0% vs. 62.5%; P = 0.01) and increased with age (18.8%, 28.1%, 75.1%, 96.9%, and 96.9% at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d). However, at 14 d a similar frequency (18.8%) was found in all broilers; at 21 d, MFD occurred more in broilers fed ad libitum than in those under restriction (50.0% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.01); at 28 d differences were reduced (87.5% vs. 62.5%; P  = 0.10) to disappear by 35 (100% and 93.8%) and 46 d (96.9% and 96.9%). The number of microvessels decreased with age (20.7 to 9.46; P < 0.001) and the number of nuclei positive to the anti-cleaved lamin A antibody increased. At histology, MFD at 46 d corresponded to loss of typical cross striations, massive necrotic process, degenerating fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells, scattered fibers in an abundant collagen-rich connective tissue, numerous adipose cells; necrotic fibers showed a high percentage of apoptotic nuclei, and regenerating fibers appeared positive to anti-PCNA antibody. In conclusion, MFD soon occurred after 2 wk of growth and increased dramatically within 28 d. Early feed restriction

  13. Effects of restricted feeding of prepubertal ewe lambs on reproduction and lactation performances over two breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Cinq-Mars, D; Lacasse, P

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of restricted feeding before puberty on reproduction, lactation and offspring growth performance in replacement ewe lambs over two breeding seasons. At weaning, 41 Dorset ewe lambs were assigned to one of three diets: an ad libitum control diet with medium-quality forage (MQF; 13.3% crude protein (CP), 1.81 Mcal metabolizable energy per kg, 42.8% ADF; diet A-MQF); a restricted diet with the same forage as A but less feed concentrate (diet R-MQF); or a high-quality forage (HQF) diet (14.8% CP, 2.15 Mcal ME/kg, 34.7% ADF; diet F-HQF). The quantity of concentrate offered to the group R-MQF and F-HQF ewe lambs was adjusted to obtain 70% of the control ewe lambs' growth rate. The diets were offered for 75 days following weaning to cover the allometric phase of mammary gland development. Prepubertal restriction did not affect (P > 0.10) the gestation rate, number of lambs born or the body weight and body condition score of ewes at lambing or at the end of lactation. Ewes from groups R-MQF and F-HQF tended to produce more milk during their first lactation compared to those from group A-MQF (P = 0.07). During the second lactation, groups R-MQF and F-HQF had better standardized milk production than group A-MQF (P < 0.05), and group R-MQF produced more milk than group F-HQF (P < 0.05). Milk fat and protein content were not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) Fat and protein yield were affected by treatments only at the second lactation (P < 0.10 and P < 0.05, respectively). Lamb birth and weaning weights were not affected by prepubertal restriction of feeding in their mother (P > 0.10). However, the average daily gain of second breeding season lambs was higher for the R-MQF group than the F-HQF group (P < 0.05), and a similar trend was observed for total gain (P < 0.10). Restricted feeding before puberty does not impair future reproductive performance; however, it has a positive impact on lactation and on lambs' growth

  14. Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 following caloric restriction and re-feeding is species dependent.

    PubMed

    Loerz, Christine; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Huebbe, Patricia; Giller, Katrin; Metges, Cornelia; Rimbach, Gerald; Maser, Edmund

    2017-02-27

    Evidence in the current literature suggests that expression and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), a key regulatory enzyme in glucocorticoid metabolism, is elevated in the liver and reduced in visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle following caloric restriction (CR). In order to investigate the influence of CR on 11β-HSD1 in more detail, we assessed expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in several tissues in two independent CR and re-feeding animal models. Levels and activity of 11β-HSD1 after CR and re-feeding were measured [mouse liver and pig liver, pig visceral adipose tissue and pig skeletal muscle] using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot analysis, and HPLC. After CR, no significant difference on mRNA levels was detected in mouse liver. But 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression was upregulated after subsequent re-feeding. In contrast, 11β-HSD1 protein expression after CR was significantly up-regulated, while no difference was detected after re-feeding. Interestingly, upregulation of protein after CR (1.4-fold) was lower than the increase in enzymatic activity (2.6-fold). Furthermore, while no difference was observed in protein levels after two weeks re-feeding, 11β-HSD1 activity increased 2.5-fold. In pig tissues neither 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels, protein expression or enzyme activity were influenced after CR and re-feeding. Overall, the results demonstrate species-dependent differences in regulation of 11β-HSD1 following CR and suggest the presence of an additional regulation step for 11β-HSD1 activity in mouse liver.

  15. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  16. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  17. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The response of various muscle types to a restriction -re-alimentation feeding strategy in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Heyer, A; Gondret, F; Louveau, I

    2007-07-01

    Muscle lipid concentration is known to influence pork eating quality. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a restriction-re-alimentation feeding strategy on intramuscular fat deposition in pigs. A total of 70 Duroc × (Large White × Landrace) pigs (castrated males and females) were used. Ten pigs were first slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (LW) to determine initial body and muscle composition. From 30 to 80 kg LW (growing period), pigs were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 70% of the ad libitum intake of AL pigs (RA). From 80 to 110 kg LW (finishing period), both AL and RA pigs were fed ad libitum. In each group, pigs were slaughtered at 80 kg (n = 10) and at 110 kg (n = 20) LW. During the growing period, the growth rate of RA pigs was reduced by 30% (P < 0.001) compared with AL pigs. During the finishing period, RA pigs had a 7% (P = 0.09) higher growth rate than AL pigs due to compensatory feed intake (+14%). Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was lower in RA pigs at 80 kg LW, but markedly increased after re-alimentation up to the level observed in AL pigs (P < 0.001). At 80 kg, the leaner carcasses of RA pigs resulted from a more pronounced reduction in fat than in lean tissue deposition rates. Re-alimentation of RA pigs increased fat tissue deposition (+160% for females, P < 0.01) but not lean deposition in the carcass, leading to limited differences in carcass composition between RA and AL pigs at 110 kg LW. Regarding tissue deposition rates, the response to feeding strategy differs between muscles. In the m. biceps femoris (BF), restriction affected lipid (-50%, P < 0.001) and protein (-25%, P < 0.001) deposition, whereas re-alimentation increased lipid (+62%, P < 0.05) but not protein deposition rates. At market weight, the extent of the difference in BF lipid concentration between RA and AL pigs was strongly reduced, but still significant. By contrast, in the m. longissimus, restriction decreased protein but not lipid

  19. Microscopic filter feeders at an angle to nearby boundaries: Feeding restrictions and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Rachel; Roper, Marcus; Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudiara, Paul; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic sessile filter feeders are an important part of aquatic ecosystems and form a vital link in the transfer of carbon in marine food webs. These filter feeders live attached to boundaries, consume bacteria and small detritus, and are in turn eaten by larger organisms. Such filter feeders survive by creating a feeding current that draws fluid towards them, and from which they filter their food of interest. Eddies form near these organisms as a result of fluid forcing near a boundary. The extent of these eddies, and their effect on the nutrient uptake of the organism, depend on the angle of fluid forcing relative to the boundary. For a model with perfect nutrient capture efficiency, and in the absence of diffusion, we show that feeding at an angle greatly increases the feeding efficiency of filter feeders. We also show experimental data that living filter feeders in culture feed at an angle to the substrate. We discuss the effects of nutrient diffusion and inefficient nutrient capture on our model, as well as a possible mechanism for filter feeders to change their orientation.

  20. Effect of long-term feed restriction on the health status and welfare of a robust horse breed, the Shetland pony (Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Riek, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor group housing is increasingly recognized as an appropriate housing system for domesticated horses. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of potential feed shortage in semi-natural horse keeping systems in winter on animal health and welfare. In 10 female Shetland ponies blood concentrations (NEFA, total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and thyroxine (T4)), body mass and the body condition score (BCS) were monitored for 7 months including a 4 months period of feed restriction in five of the 10 ponies. Restrictively fed animals lost 18.4±2.99% of their body mass and the BCS decreased by 2.2±0.8 points (BCS scale: 0=emaciated, 5=obese). Feed restriction led to a continuous increase in TB (P<0.001) and NEFA (P<0.01) concentrations compared to control ponies. The TP and BHB values only differed at the end of the trial with lower concentrations in restricted fed mares (P<0.05). Feed restriction had no effect on thyroxine concentrations. TB concentrations in the feed restricted group were out of the reference range during the entire feeding trial. The increased NEFA concentrations in feed restricted compared to control ponies suggest that fat was mobilized. The BCS, as well as plasma NEFA and TB concentrations were good indicators for a rapid detection of possible health problems caused by undernourishment in horses when kept under semi-natural conditions. In contrast, blood parameters of the control animals were within the reference ranges, suggesting that a year round outdoor housing with additional feed supply is an adequate housing system for a robust horse breed like the Shetland pony.

  1. Restricted Feeding Schedules Modulate in a Different Manner the Expression of Clock Genes in Rat Hypothalamic Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    De Araujo, Leonardo D.; Roa, Silvia L.; Bueno, Ana C.; Coeli-Lacchini, Fernanda B.; Martins, Clarissa S.; Uchoa, Ernane T.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L.; Elias, Paula C.; Moreira, Ayrton C.; De Castro, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Food access restriction is associated to changes in gene expression of the circadian clock system. However, there are only a few studies investigating the effects of non-photic synchronizers, such as food entrainment, on the expression of clock genes in the central oscillators. We hypothesized that different feeding restriction patterns could modulate the expression of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) “master” clock and in extra-SCN oscillators such as the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) hypothalamic nuclei. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group (CG; food available ad libitum), Restricted night-fed (RF-n; food access during 2 h at night), Restricted day-fed (RF-d; food access during 2 h at daytime), Day-fed (DF; food access during 12 h at daytime). After 21 days, rats were decapitated between ZT2-ZT3 (0800–0900 h); ZT11-ZT12 (1700–1800 h), or ZT17-18 (2300–2400 h). Plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The expression of Clock, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Rev-erbα, and Rorα were assessed in SCN, PVN, and ARC hypothalamic nuclei by RT-PCR and calculated by the 2[−DeltaDeltaCT(Cyclethreshold)](2−ΔΔCT) method. Restricted food availability during few h led to decreased body weight in RF-n and RF-d groups compared to controls and DF group. We also observed an anticipatory corticosterone peak before food availability in RF-n and RF-d groups. Furthermore, the pattern of clock gene expression in response to RF-n, RF-d, and DF schedules was affected differently in the SCN, PVN, and ARC hypothalamic nuclei. In conclusion, the master oscillator in SCN as well as the oscillator in PVN and ARC, all brain areas involved in food intake, responds in a tissue-specific manner to feeding restriction. PMID:28003802

  2. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  3. Effect of restricted feeding and monopropylene glycol postpartum on metabolic hormones and postpartum anestrus in grazing dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Chagas, L M; Gore, P J S; Graham, G; Macdonald, K A; Blache, D

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of feed restriction and monopropylene glycol (MPG) supplementation on the reproductive, milk production, and somatotropic axes in dairy heifers postpartum. At calving, 49 Holstein-Friesian heifers were allowed either unrestricted (UNR; n = 18) or restricted access to pasture with (RES+MPG; n = 13) or without (RES; n = 18) MPG supplementation (250 mL drenched twice daily for 150 d). The average body condition score (BCS) of the heifers was 5.3 +/- 0.2 on a scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 = emaciated and 10 = obese). Body condition score and body weight were similar among the groups at calving and decreased after calving for all groups. However, body weight loss was around 10% greater for the RES and RES+MPG groups from wk 3 to 12 compared with UNR group. The length of the postpartum anestrous interval was similar for all groups (47, 51, and 45 +/- 5 d for the UNR, RES, and RES+MPG, respectively). Average milk production, protein, fat, and lactose yields during the first 12 wk postpartum were greater in the UNR group than in the RES and RES+MPG groups. Feed restriction affected plasma concentrations of insulin, with lower concentrations in the RES group compared with the UNR group. There were no differences in plasma concentrations of insulin between the RES+MPG group and the UNR or RES groups. An effect of feed restriction was observed on insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations and also a treatment by time interaction with a changing pattern through time as concentrations in the UNR group increased relative to the RES and RES+MPG groups. There were no differences in growth hormone concentrations among the groups. Glucose concentrations were lower in the RES group when compared with RES+MPG and UNR groups and this difference lessened over time. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids were greater in the RES group compared with the RES+MPG and UNR groups. Leptin concentrations in the UNR group were greater

  4. Restricted feeding-induced sleep, activity, and body temperature changes in normal and preproghrelin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Sun, Yuxiang; Smith, Roy G; Krueger, James M

    2010-02-01

    Behavioral and physiological rhythms can be entrained by daily restricted feeding (RF), indicating the existence of a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). One manifestation of the presence of FEO is anticipatory activity to regularly scheduled feeding. In the present study, we tested if intact ghrelin signaling is required for FEO function by studying food anticipatory activity (FAA) in preproghrelin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Sleep-wake activity, locomotor activity, body temperature, food intake, and body weight were measured for 12 days in mice on a RF paradigm with food available only for 4 h daily during the light phase. On RF days 1-3, increases in arousal occurred. This response was significantly attenuated in preproghrelin KO mice. There were progressive changes in sleep architecture and body temperature during the subsequent nine RF days. Sleep increased at night and decreased during the light periods while the total daily amount of sleep remained at baseline levels in both KO and WT mice. Body temperature fell during the dark but was elevated during and after feeding in the light. In the premeal hours, anticipatory increases in body temperature, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were present from RF day 6 in both groups. Results indicate that the preproghrelin gene is not required for the manifestation of FAA but suggest a role for ghrelinergic mechanisms in food deprivation-induced arousal in mice.

  5. Restricted feeding-induced sleep, activity, and body temperature changes in normal and preproghrelin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapás, Levente; Sun, Yuxiang; Smith, Roy G.; Krueger, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological rhythms can be entrained by daily restricted feeding (RF), indicating the existence of a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). One manifestation of the presence of FEO is anticipatory activity to regularly scheduled feeding. In the present study, we tested if intact ghrelin signaling is required for FEO function by studying food anticipatory activity (FAA) in preproghrelin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Sleep-wake activity, locomotor activity, body temperature, food intake, and body weight were measured for 12 days in mice on a RF paradigm with food available only for 4 h daily during the light phase. On RF days 1–3, increases in arousal occurred. This response was significantly attenuated in preproghrelin KO mice. There were progressive changes in sleep architecture and body temperature during the subsequent nine RF days. Sleep increased at night and decreased during the light periods while the total daily amount of sleep remained at baseline levels in both KO and WT mice. Body temperature fell during the dark but was elevated during and after feeding in the light. In the premeal hours, anticipatory increases in body temperature, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were present from RF day 6 in both groups. Results indicate that the preproghrelin gene is not required for the manifestation of FAA but suggest a role for ghrelinergic mechanisms in food deprivation-induced arousal in mice. PMID:19939974

  6. Maternal high fat feeding and gestational dietary restriction: effects on offspring body weight, food intake and hypothalamic gene expression over three generations in mice.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Silvia Q; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Proctor, Lindsey; Wickwire, Kathie; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and maternal obesity have both been associated with increased incidence of obesity and metabolic disorder in offspring in both humans and animal models. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether mild gestational food restriction during the third trimester (GFR) would alter food intake and growth parameters of offspring, (2) whether effects of GFR depended on diet (high fat [HF] vs chow), (3) whether effects of excessive gestational weight gain (WG) would become magnified across generations, and (4) whether diet and GFR would alter hypothalamic gene expression in adult offspring. Three generations of female C57BL/6 mice were fed chow or HF diet, mated at 11 weeks of age and assigned to ad libitum feeding or 25% GFR. Offspring were fed the same diet as their mothers. Results showed (1) maternal gestational WG was positively correlated with offspring WG. (2) HF offspring weighed less (p<0.01) at weaning (WWT) but gained more during the 8 weeks after weaning than chow-fed offspring (p<0.05), resulting in higher final body weights (BW) (p<0.01). (3) HF males from GFR mothers had higher WWT (p<0.05), but subsequent WG and final BW were less (p<0.05) compared to males from ad lib mothers. (4) In the HF group, GFR also resulted in decreased FI (p<0.05) and FE (p<0.07) in offspring, compared to offspring from ad lib mothers. (5) In generation 3, hypothalamic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was lower in HF males from GFR mothers compared to HF males from ad lib mothers (p<0.05). In conclusion, gender and maternal GFR had independent effects on growth and FI, and hypothalamic gene expression was dependent on both gender and maternal GFR in HF offspring. Even mild food restriction of obese mothers during pregnancy may have beneficial effects in reducing the risk or degree of obesity in offspring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Life-extending dietary restriction and ovariectomy result in similar feeding rates but different physiological responses in grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Drewry, MD; Williams, JM; Hatle, JD

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced reproduction each extend life span in many species. Females undergoing DR typically experience a reduction in their fecundity, which raises the question of whether the two treatments are actually extending life span in overlapping ways. Life span in lubber grasshoppers has been shown to be increased by DR, and separately by ovariectomy (OVX). Here, we test the combination of these on life span. If life extension by the two treatments are additive, it would suggest that they likely act through separate pathways. The experimental groups were: fully reproductive and fully fed (ShamFD); ovariectomized and fully fed (OVX FD); fully reproductive and restricted diet (ShamDR); and ovariectomized and restricted diet (OVX DR). The median life spans of these groups were: ShamFD = 245 d, OVX FD = 285 d, ShamDR = 286 d, and OVX DR = 322 d. Feeding rate for the OVX FD group was 64% of ad libitum, not significantly different from the 70% of ad libitum that was used for ShamDR. We also measured hemolymph parameters of physiology in these same individuals. Hemolymph levels of vitellogenin (the egg yolk-precursor protein) were increased 5-fold by OVX, but were not affected by DR. In addition, hemolymph total anti-oxidant activity (per μg protein) was significantly reduced by OVX, but was not affected by DR. We show that OVX and DR produce different physiological responses in grasshoppers, despite life extensions and feeding levels that were not significantly different. These data suggest that OVX and DR might extend life span via distinct pathways. PMID:21742024

  8. Life-extending dietary restriction and ovariectomy result in similar feeding rates but different physiologic responses in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Drewry, M D; Williams, J M; Hatle, J D

    2011-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced reproduction each extend life span in many species. Females undergoing DR typically experience a reduction in their fecundity, which raises the question of whether the two treatments are actually extending life span in overlapping ways. Life span in lubber grasshoppers has been shown to be increased by DR, and separately by ovariectomy (OVX). Here, we test the combination of these on life span. If life extension by the two treatments are additive, it would suggest that they likely act through separate pathways. The experimental groups were: fully reproductive and fully fed (ShamFD); ovariectomized and fully fed (OVXFD); fully reproductive and restricted diet (ShamDR); and ovariectomized and restricted diet (OVXDR). The median life spans of these groups were: ShamFD=245 d, OVXFD=285 d, ShamDR=286 d, and OVXDR=322 d. Feeding rate for the OVXFD group was 64% of ad libitum, similar to the 70% of ad libitum that was used for ShamDR. We also measured hemolymph parameters of physiology in these same individuals. Hemolymph levels of vitellogenin (the egg yolk-precursor protein) were increased 5-fold by OVX, but were not affected by DR. In addition, hemolymph total anti-oxidant activity (per μg protein) was significantly reduced by OVX, but was not affected by DR. We show that OVX and DR produce different physiological responses in grasshoppers, despite life extensions and feeding levels that were not significantly different. These data suggest that OVX and DR might extend life span via distinct pathways.

  9. Effect of Feed Restriction and Realimentation with Monensin Supplementation on Placental Structure and Ultrastructure in Anglo-Nubian Goats

    PubMed Central

    Cristofolini, A. L.; Turiello, M. P.; Sanchis, E. G.; Cufré, G.; Merkis, C. I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction followed by a realimentation with monensin supplementation on morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic characteristics in the term placenta of Anglo-Nubian does. Treatments were a control group (C = 5), a group fed at 0.70 of that consumed by controls (R = 7), and the same as R with monensin (M = 7). After parturition, 27 placentas were gathered, C: 7, M: 10, and R: 10. No differences were detected between treatments in relation to morphological and ultrastructural analysis. The greatest values of binucleate cells were detected in placentas from R, and it could be due to the need to compensate and satisfy nutritional differences of restriction. We detected the highest apoptotic index in R as a consequence of nutritional treatment. We describe for the first time the structural and ultrastructural morphology and remodeling by apoptosis of Anglo-Nubian placenta at term of goats subjected to nutritional restriction during peripubertal period and the use of monensin as a growth promoter. PMID:23762584

  10. Increasing longevity through caloric restriction or rapamycin feeding in mammals: common mechanisms for common outcomes?

    PubMed

    Cox, Lynne S; Mattison, Julie A

    2009-09-01

    Significant extension of lifespan in important mammalian species is bound to attract the attention not only of the aging research community, but also the media and the wider public. Two recent papers published by Harrison et al. (2009) in Nature and by Colman et al. (2009) in Science report increased longevity of mice fed with rapamycin and of rhesus monkeys undergoing caloric restriction, respectively. These papers have generated considerable debate in the aging community. Here we assess what is new about these findings, how they fit with our knowledge of lifespan extension from other studies and what prospects this new work holds out for improvements in human longevity and human health span.

  11. A 3-week feed restriction after weaning as an alternative to a medicated diet: effects on growth, health, carcass and meat traits of rabbits of two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Alabiso, M; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Vitale, F; Bonanno, A

    2016-12-21

    Feed restriction after weaning is widely used in meat rabbit farms to promote health and reduce mortality, but this practice impacts negatively on rabbit growth and slaughter performance. This study compared a 3-week post-weaning feed restriction with ad libitum medicated feeding, evaluating effects on feed intake, growth, health, carcass and meat quality of rabbits of two genotypes: Italian White pure breed and Hycole hybrid×Italian White crossbred. A total of 512 rabbits at 36 days of age, of both sexes and two genotypes, were divided into four homogeneous groups assigned, from 36 to 57 days of age, to different feeding programmes (FP): restricted non-medicated (R-N), ad libitum non-medicated (L-N), restricted medicated (R-M) and ad libitum medicated (L-M). The diets were medicated with oxytetracycline (1540 mg/kg) and colistin sulphate (240 mg/kg). The restriction, performed by giving 70, 80 and 90 g/day of feed for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week, was followed by ad libitum feeding in the successive 5 weeks, up to slaughter at 92 days of age. Restricted feeds were ingested at a level of 64% of the feed intake recorded in the ad libitum fed rabbits; it was significantly associated, regardless of medication and rabbit genotype, with a lower feed intake (-22 to -24 g dry matter/day) during the entire experiment, compensatory growth and a lower feed conversion ratio in the ad libitum period, and a lower final live weight (-150 g) than ad libitum feeding (P<0.001). During restriction, mortality was lower in the restricted rabbits (6.25%, 5.47% v. 12.5%, 14.8% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M; P<0.05), whereas in the ad libitum period mortality did not differ among the groups (9.23%, 9.90%, 11.0% and 4.59% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M). Dressing out percentage was not affected by FP or genotype; heavier carcasses were produced by rabbits fed ad libitum (+100 g; P<0.001) and crossbred rabbits (+122 g; P<0.001). Restriction did not alter meat quality, except for a tendency towards a

  12. Assessing carcass and meat characteristics of Damara, Dorper and Australian Merino lambs under restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    Almeida, André M; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Araújo, Susana S; Milton, John; Oldham, Chris; Greeff, Johan C

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most pressing constraint in ruminant production systems in tropical climates. SWL is controlled using supplementation, which is costly and difficult to implement in extensive systems, or using breeds adapted to tropical hot dry climates, like the Damara and Dorper. Albeit 15 years in Australia, little is known on how these sheep compare to Australian Merino. Here, the responses of the Damara, Dorper and Merino breeds to nutritional stress were compared. Seventy-two 6-month-old ram lambs, 24 from each breed, were allocated to growth (gaining 100 g/day) or restricted diets (losing 100 g/day, 85% of maintenance needs). Animals were weighed and carcass and meat characteristics determined. Results point out to the existence of important differences between the three genotypes, in particular between the Merino and the Southern African breeds. Additionally, Merino ram lambs seem to have been more influenced by SWL than the other two, with consequences on meat characteristics.

  13. Daytime restricted feeding modifies the daily regulation of fatty acid β-oxidation and the lipoprotein profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Zavala, J B; Molina-Aguilar, C; Pérez-Mendoza, M; Olguín-Martínez, M; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Báez-Ruiz, G A; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    2017-04-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator. An increased localisation of phosphorylated α-subunit of AMPK in the periportal hepatocytes was also observed. Liver hepatic lipase C, important for lipoprotein transformation, showed a change of daily phase with a peak at the time of food access. In serum, there was an increase of LDL, which was responsible for a net elevation of circulating cholesterol. We conclude that our results indicate an enhanced fasting response in the liver during daily synchronisation to food access, which involves altered metabolic and cellular control of fatty acid oxidation as well a significant elevation of serum LDL. These adaptations could be part of the metabolic input that underlies the expression of the food-entrained oscillator.

  14. Effect of feeding restriction on growth and dressing percentages in Mexican hairless pig.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, L A; Trejo-Lizama, W; Santos-Ricalde, R H

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-four male Mexican hairless pigs, weighing 16 ± 1.12 kg, were used to evaluate growth performance and carcass yield in pigs fed 2 (L), 3 (M) and 4 (H) times the Metabolizable Energy (ME) required for maintenance. The pigs were assigned randomly to two experimental rearing systems (indoors and outdoors). They were fed daily according to their respective feeding regimen (FR). The indoor pigs were fed ad libitum with chopped star grass forage (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The outdoor pigs had access during 16 h to a paddock of star grass. The pigs were slaughtered when they achieve 70 kg of live weight. No significant differences between indoors and outdoors were observed in any of the variables evaluated (P > 0.05). A significant reduction of daily live weight gain (P < 0.05) was observed conforming to FR reductions (0.501, 0.438 and 0.300 kg/day for H, M and L, respectively). Days to achieve 70 kg of live weight increase (P < 0.05) as FR reduces (110, 124 and 180 days for H, M and L, respectively) were recorded. Forage consumption in pigs reared indoors reduces (P < 0.05) conforming to FR increases (0.092, 0.121 and 0.307 kg DM/day for H, M and L respectively). Fat carcass yield reduces significantly (P < 0.05) according FR reductions (24.5, 22.8 y 18.9 kg, for H, M and L respectively). Also, carcass meat yield was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs from L regimen (25.0 kg) than in pigs from M and H regimen (22.0 and 22.8 kg, respectively). Results obtained indicate a reduction in daily live weight gain conforming to daily feed intake reductions; however, improvement in carcass meat yield, accompanied with a reduction in carcass fat yield, was observed.

  15. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  16. Serotonin suppresses food anticipatory activity and synchronizes the food-entrainable oscillator during time-restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    Rozenblit-Susan, Sigal; Chapnik, Nava; Genzer, Yoni; Froy, Oren

    2016-01-15

    The serotonergic and circadian systems are intertwined as serotonin modulates the response of the central brain suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) clock to light. Time-restricted feeding (RF) is characterized by increased food anticipatory activity (FAA) and controlled by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) rather than the SCN. Our objective was to test whether serotonin affects the FEO. Mice were treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine (FLX) or the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and locomotor activity under ad libitum feeding, RF and different lighting conditions was monitored. Under AL, FLX administration did not affect 24-h locomotor activity, while mice treated with PCPA exhibited increased activity. RF-FLX-treated mice showed less FAA 2h before food availability (ZT2-ZT4) compared to RF- or RF-PCPA-fed mice. Under DD, RF-PCPA-treated mice displayed increased activity, as was seen under LD conditions. Surprisingly, RF-PCPA-treated mice showed free running in the FAA component. These results emphasize the role of serotonin in SCN-mediated activity inhibition and FEO entrainment and activity.

  17. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yibo; Yang, Yunxia; Cai, Fasheng

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0 29.0°C for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  18. Lifelong exercise and mild (8%) caloric restriction attenuate age-induced alterations in plantaris muscle morphology, oxidative stress and IGF-1 in the Fischer-344 rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Lawler, John M

    2008-04-01

    Muscle atrophy is a highly prevalent condition among older adults, and results from reduced muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area. Resistive exercise training and moderate (30-40%) caloric restriction may reduce the rate of sarcopenia in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that lifelong, voluntary exercise combined with mild (8%) caloric restriction would attenuate the reduction of muscle fiber cross-sectional area in the rat plantaris. Fischer-344 rats were divided into: young adults (6 mo) fed ad libitum (YAL); 24 mo old fed ad libitum (OAL); 24 mo old on 8% caloric restriction (OCR); lifelong wheel running with 8% CR (OExCR). Plantaris fiber cross-sectional area was significantly lower in OAL than YAL (-27%), but protected in OCR and OExCR, while mass/body mass ratio was preserved in OExCR only. Furthermore, 8% CR and lifelong wheel running attenuated the age-induced increases in extramyocyte space and connective tissue. Citrate synthase activity decreased with age, but was not significantly protected in OCR and OExCR. Total hydroperoxides were higher in OAL than YAL, but were not elevated in OExCR, with out a change in MnSOD. IGF-1 levels were lower in OAL (-57%) than YAL, but partially protected in the OExCR group (+51%).

  19. Rats made cirrhotic by chronic CCl4 treatment still exhibit anticipatory activity to a restricted feeding schedule.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carolina; Mendoza, Jorge Y; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto; Avila, José; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl

    2002-11-01

    Food entrainment of clock genes in the liver suggests that this organ may underlie a food entrained oscillator (FEO), which manifests under restricted feeding schedule (RFS). In order to test the importance of a functional liver for the expression of FEO, chronic CCl4-treated cirrhotic rats and oil-treated controls were entrained to RFS and drinking behavior was continuously monitored. After 20 d of free-running conditions, food access was restricted to 2 h, followed by a refeeding-fasting protocol to test persistence of anticipatory drinking. Present data show no differences between groups for the onset and intensity of anticipation during RFS. After RFS, however, cirrhotic rats exhibited a significantly longer free-running period and a delay and lower intensity of the persistence of activity under fasting conditions. Histology confirmed injury of the liver chronically treated with CCl4. Present data indicate that a dysfunctional liver due to chronic CCl4 does not prevent animals from exhibiting anticipatory activity but may promote metabolic derangement of the clock mechanisms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the FEO.

  20. Establishment of the biochemical and endocrine blood profiles in the Majorera and Palmera dairy goat breeds: the effect of feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Capote, Juan; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Araújo, Susana S; Saco, Yolanda; Bassols, Anna; Almeida, André M

    2015-11-01

    Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to feed restriction of putative use in animal selection. Two indigenous breeds from the Canary Islands, Palmera and Majorera, are commonly used by dairy goat farmers and, interestingly, have different phenotype characteristics albeit with a common ancestry. Indeed, Majorera is well adapted to feed restriction whereas the Palmera is susceptible to feed restriction. In addition, regardless of their importance in dairy production, there are only a limited number of reports relating to these breeds and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no description of their blood metabolite standard values under control conditions or as affected by feed restriction. In this study we analysed the blood metabolite profiles in Majorera and Palmera goats aiming to establish the differential responses to feed restriction between the two breeds and to characterise their metabolite standard values under control conditions. We observed significant differences in creatinine, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, IGF-1 and T3 due to underfeeding. Furthermore, a PCA analysis, revealed that animals submitted to undernutrition could be distinguished from the control groups, with the formation of three separate clusters (Palmera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (PE22); Majorera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (ME22) and animals assigned to control conditions (MC0, MC22, PC0 and PC22)), highlighting different responses of the two breeds to undernutrition.

  1. Neonatal feed restriction modulates circulating levels of corticosterone and expression of glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock protein 70 in aged Japanese quail exposed to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, A F; Zulkifli, I; Omar, A R; Raha, A R

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of neonatal feed restriction on plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in aged male Japanese quail subjected to acute heat stress. Equal numbers of chicks were subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). At 21 (young) and 270 (aged) d of age, birds were exposed to 43 ± 1°C for 1 h. Blood and hippocampus samples were collected to determine CORT and Hsp 70 and GR expressions before heat stress and following 1 h of heat stress, 1 h of post-heat stress recovery, and 2 h of post-heat stress recovery. With the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, we examined the hippocampal expression of GR and Hsp 70 and CORT. The GR expression of the young birds increased following heat stress and remained consistent throughout the period of recovery. Conversely, no significant changes were noted on GR expression of aged birds. Although both young and aged birds had similar CORT before and during heat stress, the latter exhibited greater values following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Within the young group, feeding regimens had no significant effect on Hsp 70 expression. However, neonatal feed restriction improved Hsp 70 expression in aged birds. Neonatal feed restriction, compared with the AL group, resulted in higher CORT on d 21 but the converse was noted on d 270. Neonatal feed restriction appears to set a robust reactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response allowing the development of adaptive, healthy, and resilient phenotypes in aged quail as measured by a higher hippocampal Hsp 70 expression along with lower CORT.

  2. Effects of early feed restriction and cold temperature on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites morbidity in broilers under normal and cold temperature.

    PubMed

    Pan, J Q; Tan, X; Li, J C; Sun, W D; Wang, X L

    2005-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early feed restriction on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites incidence in broilers under normal and low ambient temperature. In experiment 1, the restricted birds were fed 8h per day either from 7 to 14 d or from 7 to 21 d, while the controlled birds were fed ad libitum. In experiment 2, the restricted birds were fed 80 or 60% of the previous 24-h feed consumption of full-fed controls for 7 d from 7 to 14 d. On d 14, half of the birds in each treatment both in experiment 1 and experiment 2 were exposed to low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. The incidences of ascites and other disease were recorded to determine ascites morbidity and total mortality. Blood samples were taken on d 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 to measure the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). On d 42, samples were taken to determine the right/total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV), vessel wall area/vessel total area ratio (WA/TA) and mean media thickness in pulmonary arterioles (mMTPA). Low-temperature treatment increased plasma MDA concentration. When broilers were exposed to a cool environment for 3 weeks, plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity were decreased compared with normal-temperature chicks. RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA on d 42 were increased in birds exposed to cold, consistent with the increased pulmonary hypertension and ascites morbidity. Early feed restriction markedly decreased plasma MDA concentration. The plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity of feed-restricted birds were markedly higher than those fed ad libitum on d 35 and d 42. All early feed restriction treatments reduced ascites morbidity and total mortality. On d 42, the RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA of feed-restricted broilers were lower than that of the ad libitum-fed broilers. The results suggested that early feed restriction alleviated the lipid

  3. Restricted temporal access to food and anorexia in mice: Microstructure of eating within feeding opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Neil E; Cervantez, Melissa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Intake and body weight were recorded in a closed economy as male and female C57BL/6 mice progressed through either fixed interval (FI) or fixed unit price (FUP) schedules of cost for 20-mg food pellets. Access to food was constrained to four 40 min food opportunities (FOs) per day, spaced 4-h apart through the dark phase. Nose poke responses and pellet deliveries were collected at 10-s resolution to allow pellet-by-pellet analysis. In the FI protocol, mice maintained adequate food intake and body weight through the study, even though at the highest FI (50-s) they spent the entire 40-min FOs engaged in eating at or near the maximum rate allowed by the schedule. In the FUP protocol, mice greatly reduced their intake and lost weight at the highest FUP (50 responses/pellet). The analysis of response and pellet distributions showed these mice were not filling the FOs with responding and ate less at dusk (FO #1) and dawn (FO #4) than at FOs #2 and 3 in the middle of the night. The principal, and unexpected, sex difference was that females tended to eat more than males despite lower body weight, but behavioral changes as a function of feeding cost or schedule were qualitatively similar in both sexes. These results show that slow eating as imposed by an FI is not sufficient to produce hypophagia and, in the FUP protocol, hypophagia cannot be explained by slowed eating due to response requirements. We discuss the role of effort or time in FUP-induced anorexia, and suggest this murine model may emulate some aspects of human anorexia nervosa better than current activity-based protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feed-borne Outbreak of Salmonella Cubana in Swedish Pig Farms: Risk Factors and Factors Affecting the Restriction Period in Infected Farms

    PubMed Central

    Österberg, J; Vågsholm, I; Boqvist, S; Lewerin, S Sternberg

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a feed-borne outbreak of Salmonella Cubana occurred in Sweden as a result of contamination in a feed plant. Salmonella Cubana was detected in 49 out of 77 pig farms having received possibly contaminated feed. In this study, potential risk factors for farms being salmonella positive were examined, and a survival analysis was performed to investigate risk factors affecting the restriction period for salmonella positive farms. The median restriction time for all 49 farms was 17 weeks. An increased risk for farms being salmonella infected (positive in feed and/or faeces) was seen for fattening farms and farms feeding soy. The survival analysis showed that herds with a low level of infection and farms with a high hygiene level had shorter restriction times. This study is unique as it investigates a real outbreak of feed-borne salmonella, where the source of infection was reliably identified, the period of exposure could be defined and data were collected from all exposed farms. PMID:16722302

  5. Feed-borne outbreak of Salmonella cubana in Swedish pig farms: risk factors and factors affecting the restriction period in infected farms.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, J; Vågsholm, I; Boqvist, S; Lewerin, S Sternberg

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a feed-borne outbreak of Salmonella Cubana occurred in Sweden as a result of contamination in a feed plant. Salmonella Cubana was detected in 49 out of 77 pig farms having received possibly contaminated feed. In this study, potential risk factors for farms being salmonella positive were examined, and a survival analysis was performed to investigate risk factors affecting the restriction period for salmonella positive farms. The median restriction time for all 49 farms was 17 weeks. An increased risk for farms being salmonella infected (positive in feed and/or faeces) was seen for fattening farms and farms feeding soy. The survival analysis showed that herds with a low level of infection and farms with a high hygiene level had shorter restriction times. This study is unique as it investigates a real outbreak of feed-borne salmonella, where the source of infection was reliably identified, the period of exposure could be defined and data were collected from all exposed farms.

  6. Short communication: The diurnal intake and behavior of dairy cows when access to a feed of consistent nutritive value is restricted.

    PubMed

    John, A J; Garcia, S C; Kerrisk, K L; Freeman, M J; Islam, M R; Clark, C E F

    2017-09-06

    The diurnal variation in pasture nutritive value adds a confounding factor to studies elucidating the effect of time of day on behavior. Our work separates the effect of time of day on both feeding and lying patterns for cows outdoors to enable the alignment of feeding behavior with feed management. We determined the diurnal intake patterns and behavior of dairy cows when the nutritive value of feed remained constant throughout 24 h in an outdoor environment, and when feed access was restricted. Nine nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows (live weight 626 ± 53 kg, age 96 ± 33 mo; mean ± SD) were split into 3 groups of 3 and offered lucerne hay cubes (cube volume 32 mm(3)) ad libitum according to 3 treatments: full access (FA, feed access 24 h), day access (DA, feed access between 0600 and 1800 h), and night access (NA, feed access between 1800 and 0600 h). Treatments were applied to individual cows in a crossover design with 7-d periods. During the last 4 d of each period, data were collected on feed intake, as well as feeding and lying behaviors. Total daily intake was greater for cows on the FA treatment (3.5% of BW) compared with the DA and NA treatments at 3.1 and 2.9% of BW, respectively. The cows with FA consumed 69% of their total intake during the day (0600-1800 h), with the greatest intake (39%) occurring during 1200 to 1800 h and only 12% of intake occurring during 2400 to 0600 h. Cows with DA consumed 56% of feed during 0600 to 1200 h and 44% during 1200 to 1800 h. In contrast, NA cows consumed more feed (74%) during the first 6 h period (1800-2400 h), thus maximizing lying time between 2400 and 0600 h. The time spent lying throughout daylight periods varied between treatments; however, total daily lying time was similar across the 3 treatments. This experiment shows the feeding and lying behaviors of cows when feed quality remains constant throughout 24 h, which will assist the formulation of variable feed allocation strategies for future testing in

  7. Mild caloric restriction reduces blood pressure and activates endothelial AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, C F; Pulido-Olmo, H; Ruiz-Hurtado, G; Gil-Ortega, M; Aranguez, I; Rubio, M A; Ruiz-Gayo, M; Somoza, B; Fernández-Alfonso, M S

    2015-01-01

    Genetic obesity models exhibit endothelial dysfunction associated to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dysregulation. This study aims to assess if mild short-term caloric restriction (CR) restores endothelial AMPK activity leading to an improvement in endothelial function. Twelve-week old Zucker lean and obese (fa/fa) male rats had access to standard chow either ad libitum (AL, n=8) or 80% of AL (CR, n=8) for two weeks. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in fa/fa AL rats versus lean AL animals, but was normalized by CR. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) was reduced in fa/fa AL compared to control lean AL rats (p<0.001), and restored by CR. The AMPK activator AICAR (10(-5) to 8·10(-3) M) elicited a lower relaxation in fa/fa AL rings that was normalized by CR (p<0.001). Inhibition of PI3K (wortmannin, 10(-7) M), Akt (triciribine, 10(-5) M), or eNOS (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) markedly reduced AICAR-induced relaxation in lean AL, but not in fa/fa AL rats. These inhibitions were restored by CR in Zucker fa/fa rings. These data show that mild short-term CR improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure in obesity due to the activation of the AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway.

  8. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, Nathalie; Deblanc, Céline; Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  9. Effect of Feed Restriction on Performance and Postprandial Nutrient Metabolism in Pigs Co-Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed. PMID:25101681

  10. Effects of high-fat high-sucrose feeding, energy restriction, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on visfatin and apelin in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Macarulla, María Teresa; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the effects of high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) feeding, energy restriction, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on visfatin and apelin. A randomized dietary intervention study. Free-living individuals studied in metabolic cages. Thirty-two male Syrian Golden hamsters (82.6 +/- 1.4 g). Standard and HFHS feeding for 7 weeks. After that, some hamsters fed the HFHS diet were submitted for 3 weeks to a 25% energy restriction with or without trans-10,cis-12 CLA supplementation (0.5%). Feeding animals an HFHS diet resulted in increased body fat and reduced insulin sensitivity. No changes were observed in the expression and serum levels of visfatin and apelin, or in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma and Sirt1 expression. Energy restriction reduced body fat and normalized insulin sensitivity. Visfatin showed increased serum levels without changes in expression. No modifications were found as far as apelin was concerned. Sirt1 expression was increased, and PPARgamma remained unchanged. With regard to trans-10,cis-12 CLA, no changes were induced by its addition to the restricted diet. Insulin function impairment induced by HFHS feeding is not mediated by visfatin and apelin. However, visfatin can play a role in improving insulin sensitivity associated with energy restriction. These results suggest that visfatin may not have evolved as a molecule that reserves the action of insulin when food is widely available, but rather that its function seems to be associated with energy restriction adaptation. In general terms, trans-10,cis-12 CLA did not modify changes induced by energy restriction.

  11. Restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces spontaneous metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that consumption of a high-fat diet enhances metastasis in mice (Yan, Clin Exp Metastasis 2010). The present study investigated the effects of restricted feeding of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) i...

  12. Feed restriction regime in a rabbit line selected for growth rate alters oocyte maturation manifested by alteration in MSY2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Naturil-Alfonso, C; Peñaranda, D S; Vicente, J S; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2017-06-18

    Young rabbit females selected for growth rate may have nutritional needs, which may not be met with the common practice of feed restriction during rearing in commercial rabbit production. The aim of this study was to analyse whether two different feeding programmes: ad libitum or restricted (130 g/day) feeding, applied in young rabbit females for 1 month at the end of rearing, could modulate the origin of ovulation process and the quality of the oocytes. At 16 weeks of age, 34 females were randomly assigned to restricted or ad libitum feeding, maintaining these conditions for a month. Then, in an initial experiment, transcriptional profiling of hypothalamus-hypophysis tissue was performed to assess failure to ovulate. In the second experiment, the gene expression analysis of some candidate genes related to oocytes quality was performed. Our results demonstrated that neither of the two feeding programmes modified the transcription of hypothalamus-hypophysis tissue, while the only differences in MSYR expression were found in in vivo mature oocytes ready for successful fertilization. Specifically, MSYR was over-expressed in oocytes from females fed ad libitum. MSYR is one of the most abundant proteins in the oocyte and has proven to be a key regulator of maternal RNA transcription and translation. This finding suggests that MSYR gene is a promising gene in our understanding of the relationship between high growth rate and reproductive performance decline. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  14. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  15. The effects of feed restriction and ambient temperature on growth and ascites mortality of broilers reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, S; Takma, C; Yahav, S; Sögüt, B; Türkmut, L; Erturun, H; Cahaner, A

    2010-05-01

    The development of ascites was investigated in broilers at low versus high altitudes, cold versus normal ambient temperatures (AT), and 3 feeding regimens. One-day-old chicks obtained at sea level were reared at high altitude (highA; 1,720 m; n = 576) with 2 AT treatments, low AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/cold) and normal AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/norm), or at sea level (normal AT from 3 wk onward at low altitude, lowA/norm; n = 540). Under highA/cold, AT ranged between 16 to 17 degrees C in the fourth week, 17 to 19 degrees C in the fifth week, and 19 to 21 degrees C thereafter. Under highA/norm and lowA/norm, AT was 24 degrees C in the fourth week and ranged between 22 to 24 degrees C thereafter. Broilers in each condition were divided into 3 groups: feed restriction (FR) from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d, and ad libitum (AL). Ascites mortality and related parameters were recorded. Low mortality (0.4%) occurred under lowA/norm conditions. Under highA/norm, mortality was lower in females (8.6%) than in males (13.8%) and was not affected by the feeding regimen. The highA/cold treatment resulted in higher mortality but only in males; it was 44.2% among highA/cold AL-fed males and only about 26% under the FR regimens, suggesting that FR helped some males to better acclimatize to the highA/cold environment and avoid ascites. However, mortality was only 13.3% in AL-fed males at highA/norm and FR did not further reduce the incidence of ascites under these conditions. Thus, avoiding low AT in the poultry house by slight heating was more effective than FR in reducing ascites mortality at highA. Compared with FR from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d did not further reduce mortality and reduced growth. At 47 d, the majority of surviving broilers at highA had high levels of hematocrit and right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio (>0.29), but they were healthy and reached approximately the same BW as their counterparts at low altitude. This finding may

  16. Feed restriction and subsequent realimentation in Holstein Friesian bulls: I. Effect on animal performance; muscle, fat, and linear body measurements; and slaughter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keogh, K; Waters, S M; Kelly, A K; Kenny, D A

    2015-07-01

    Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 75) were used to evaluate the effect of restricted and subsequent compensatory growth on muscular and skeletal growth as well as the recovery of carcass and noncarcass components. Fifteen bulls were slaughtered on Day 0 to provide baseline parameters for carcass and noncarcass measurements. Of the remaining 60 bulls, 30 were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) and 30 were fed a restricted (RES) diet to grow at 0.6 kg/d for 125 d, denoted as Period 1. After 125 d of differential feeding, 15 bulls from each group were slaughtered. The remaining bulls in both treatment groups were then offered ad libitum access to feed for a further 55 d (realimentation), denoted as Period 2, after which they were also slaughtered. All animals received the same diet composed of 70% concentrate and 30% grass silage throughout the experimental trial. As planned, feed intake was greater for ADLIB bulls in Period 1 (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in feed intake during realimentation (P > 0.05). During Period 1, RES bulls gained 0.6 kg/d whereas ADLIB bulls grew at 1.9 kg/d. During realimentation in Period 2, RES bulls displayed accelerated growth, gaining 2.5 kg/d compared with 1.4 kg/d for ADLIB bulls (P < 0.001). This amounted to a live weight difference between treatment groups of 161 kg at the end of Period 1 after restricted feeding, which was then reduced to 84 kg at the end of Period 2 (P < 0.001). Restricted animals achieved a compensatory growth (or recovery) index of 48% within 55 d of realimentation. During Period 2, RES bulls displayed a better feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) than ADLIB bulls, indicating better feed efficiency. Ultrasonically measured longissmus dorsi growth was greater for ADLIB bulls compared with RES bulls during Period 1; however, this was reversed during Period 2 (P < 0.001). Metabolically active organs such as the liver and components of the gastrointestinal tract were lighter in RES bulls at the end of Period 1, with no

  17. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  18. Effect of daytime-restricted feeding in the daily variations of liver metabolism and blood transport of serotonin in rat

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Fuentes, Marlen; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Miranda, María Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and nervous tissue. In nervous system, serotonin and its metabolites are under the control of the circadian timing system, but it is not known if daily variations of serotonin exist in the liver. To explore this possibility, we tested if the rhythmic pattern of serotonin metabolism was regulated by daytime restricted feeding (DRF) which is a protocol associated to the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). The DRF involved food access for 2 h each day for 3 weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum (AL) as well as acute fasting and refeeding. Serotonin-related metabolites were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography, the anabolic and catabolic enzymes were evaluated by western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry to generate 24-h profiles. The results showed in the AL group, liver serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 activity, and protein abundance as well as serotonin in plasma and serum were rhythmic and coordinated. The DRF protocol disrupted this coordinated response and damped the rhythmic profile of these parameters. We demonstrated the daily synthesis and the degradation of serotonin as well as its transport in blood. This rhythm could influence the physiological role played by serotonin in peripheral organs. DRF caused an uncoordinated response in the liver and blood serotonin rhythm. This modification could be a part of the physiology of the FEO PMID:25948822

  19. Enhanced withdrawal from chickens of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) by colestipol, mineral oil, and/or restricted feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Olson, B.; Bursian, S.; Lehning, E.

    1986-01-01

    Young chickens fed hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or pentachlorophenol (PCP) for 14 d at 10 ppm in the diet contained body burdens of 573 or 362 micrograms, respectively. These diets were withdrawn (d 0) and replaced for 21 d with diets containing 5% mineral oil (MO), or 5% colestipol (CO), a bile-acid-binding resin, or the chickens were restricted in feed intake to 50% of controls (50-RF), fed MO plus 50-RF, or CO plus 50-RF. Without any treatment during withdrawal, body burdens were reduced to 63% and 70% of the d 0 values for HCB and PCP, respectively. MO, CO, or 50-RF reduced body burdens of HCB to 37% of d 0 burdens, but the combination treatments with 50-RF reduced body burdens to 19% of d 0 values. PCP was at 35% of the d 0 burdens from 50-RF, while all other treatments had reduced body burdens to nondetectable amounts of less than 0.7 micrograms/bird by d 21 of withdrawal. Body fat was not reduced by mineral oil, but was reduced to some extent by CO, and was markedly reduced by 50-RF. 50-RF always reduced body burdens of PCP or HCB alone or in combination with MO or CO. These data are discussed in relationship to the nonbiliary excretion of xenobiotics.

  20. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NEL). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a(+), an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that were

  1. Feed restriction and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) affect the oocyte maturation in matrinxã Brycon amazonicus.

    PubMed

    Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2017-02-01

    The feeding and nutrition of breeders are crucial aspects in the reproductive process. During the maturation period, metabolic changes occur aiming at mobilizing energy for growth and follicular development. The involvement of IGF-1 in metabolic and reproductive events is important. The aim of this work was to evaluate if alternate feed restriction and re-feeding have permissive effects on in vitro actions of IGF-1 on oocytes development of matrinxã. In vivo experiments were performed during vitellogenesis period. Females (n = 60) were fed with a commercial feed (2% of biomass) and they were divided into two treatments: fish receiving food daily (control - fed), and fish submitted to cycles of 3 days of feed restriction and 2 days of re-feeding (no-fed group). For the in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 20) were obtained from the ovaries removed at the end of the in vivo experiment and were divided into four groups: fed -IGF-1; fed +IGF-1; no-fed -IGF-1 and no-fed +IGF-1. Fish under restriction had lower body weights, decreased plasma glucose, increased triglycerides levels, and their final maturation and mature oocyte were reduced and the atresic ones were in higher number. Moreover, IGF-1, in vitro, increased the percentage of mature oocytes in fed females and decreased the atresic ones. In no-fed females, IGF-1 increased the final maturation and mature oocytes and reduced the atresic ones. This study demonstrates the importance of the feeding management of female breeders of matrinxã during the vitellogenesis period.

  2. Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Preterm Intrauterine Growth Restricted Neonates with Antenatal Doppler Abnormalities: An Open-Label Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Vishal Vishnu; Dubey, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Reema; Vardhan, Shakti; Sreedhar, C M; Gupta, Girish

    2017-03-24

    Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI). Open-label randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit and fetal-maternal medicine unit in India. Preterm intrauterine growth restricted neonates' ≤32 weeks with AREDF on UA Doppler enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. Randomized to receive early or late feeding using mothers own or donor breast milk as per a feed initiation and advancement protocol. Time in days required to attain sufficient feed volume allowing discontinuation of PN and incidence of NEC in neonates fed early versus late. There were 77 eligible neonates. Sixty-two neonates were included and stratified as extreme preterm (27-29 weeks) ( n  = 20) and very preterm (30-32 weeks) ( n  = 42). Ten extreme preterm and 21 very preterm neonates were randomized to each early feeding and late feeding arm. There was a significantly faster attainment of sufficient feeds in the early feeding arm of both the stratified groups [extreme preterm: median 14 days (Interquartile range IQR: 12-15) compared with 18 days (IQR: 18-20), hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% CI: 0.626-4.078; very preterm: 12 days (IQR: 10-14) as compared with 16 days (IQR 15-17), HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.011-3.555]. There was no difference in the incidence of NEC, FI and combined outcome of NEC and FI. Early feeding in preterm IUGR neonates with AREDF on antenatal UA Doppler allowed earlier discontinuation of PN, allowing birth weight to be regained earlier and did not increase the incidence of NEC and

  3. Mild and Short-Term Caloric Restriction Prevents Obesity-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Young Zucker Rats without Changing in Metabolites and Fatty Acids Cardiac Profile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; García-Prieto, Concha F; Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Velasco-Martín, Juan P; Villa-Valverde, Palmira; Fernández-Valle, María E; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández-Velasco, María; Regadera, Javier; Somoza, Beatriz; Fernández-Alfonso, María S

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) ameliorates cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. However, most of the studies have been performed under severe CR (30-65% caloric intake decrease) for several months or even years in aged animals. Here, we investigated whether mild (20% food intake reduction) and short-term (2-weeks) CR prevented the obese cardiomyopathy phenotype and improved the metabolic profile of young (14 weeks of age) genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Heart weight (HW) and HW/tibia length ratio was significantly lower in fa/fa rats after 2 weeks of CR than in counterparts fed ad libitum. Invasive pressure measurements showed that systolic blood pressure, maximal rate of positive left ventricle (LV) pressure, LV systolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure were all significantly higher in obese fa/fa rats than in lean counterparts, which were prevented by CR. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the increase in LV end-systolic volume, stroke volume and LV wall thickness observed in fa/fa rats was significantly lower in animals on CR diet. Histological analysis also revealed that CR blocked the significant increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in obese fa/fa rats. High resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of the LV revealed a global decrease in metabolites such as taurine, creatine and phosphocreatine, glutamate, glutamine and glutathione, in obese fa/fa rats, whereas lactate concentration was increased. By contrast, fatty acid concentrations in LV tissue were significantly elevated in obese fa/fa rats. CR failed to restore the LV metabolomic profile of obese fa/fa rats. In conclusion, mild and short-term CR prevented an obesity-induced cardiomyopathy phenotype in young obese fa/fa rats independently of the cardiac metabolic profile.

  4. Mild and Short-Term Caloric Restriction Prevents Obesity-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Young Zucker Rats without Changing in Metabolites and Fatty Acids Cardiac Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; García-Prieto, Concha F.; Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; Villa-Valverde, Palmira; Fernández-Valle, María E.; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández-Velasco, María; Regadera, Javier; Somoza, Beatriz; Fernández-Alfonso, María S.

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) ameliorates cardiac dysfunction associated with obesity. However, most of the studies have been performed under severe CR (30–65% caloric intake decrease) for several months or even years in aged animals. Here, we investigated whether mild (20% food intake reduction) and short-term (2-weeks) CR prevented the obese cardiomyopathy phenotype and improved the metabolic profile of young (14 weeks of age) genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Heart weight (HW) and HW/tibia length ratio was significantly lower in fa/fa rats after 2 weeks of CR than in counterparts fed ad libitum. Invasive pressure measurements showed that systolic blood pressure, maximal rate of positive left ventricle (LV) pressure, LV systolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure were all significantly higher in obese fa/fa rats than in lean counterparts, which were prevented by CR. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the increase in LV end-systolic volume, stroke volume and LV wall thickness observed in fa/fa rats was significantly lower in animals on CR diet. Histological analysis also revealed that CR blocked the significant increase in cardiomyocyte diameter in obese fa/fa rats. High resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of the LV revealed a global decrease in metabolites such as taurine, creatine and phosphocreatine, glutamate, glutamine and glutathione, in obese fa/fa rats, whereas lactate concentration was increased. By contrast, fatty acid concentrations in LV tissue were significantly elevated in obese fa/fa rats. CR failed to restore the LV metabolomic profile of obese fa/fa rats. In conclusion, mild and short-term CR prevented an obesity-induced cardiomyopathy phenotype in young obese fa/fa rats independently of the cardiac metabolic profile. PMID:28203206

  5. Diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal IgA and faecal corticosterone in rats subjected to restricted feeding using the diet board.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, Iiris; Inhilä, Katja; Savontaus, Eriika; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Õkva, Kai; Mering, Satu; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hau, Jann; Laaksonen, Sakari; Nevalainen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory rats are generally fed ad libitum, although this method is associated with obesity and an increased frequency of spontaneous tumours. It has been challenging looking for ways to limit feed consumption in group-housed rats without any setbacks to animal welfare and scientific results. The diet board, as a method of dietary restriction, was used in the present study. Diet board feeding allows group housing and should result in enhanced welfare compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction. With respect to animal model robustness and translatability of results it is important that the feeding regime does not affect diurnal rhythmicity of biological parameters. In the present study the effects of diet board feeding on diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and faecal corticosterone were assessed. The diet board did not alter diurnal rhythms, and adds weight to the use of this method for dietary restriction which should benefit animal health and the validity of scientific results generated from the animals.

  6. Enhanced withdrawal of polychlorinated biphenyls: A comparison of colestipol, mineral oil, propylene glycol, and petroleum jelly with or without restricted feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Underwood, M.; Lehning, E.; Olson, B.; Bursian, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Meat type chickens were fed a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254, at 10 ppm for 14 days, then treated for 21 days to hasten the withdrawal of PCB with either mineral oil (MO), petroleum jelly (PJ), propylene glycol (PG), or colestipol (CO) at 5% of the diet, or at 10% of the diet when restricted to 50% of control intake (50% FR). Whole carcass analyses for PCB revealed that MO + 50% FR reduced PCB to 1.91 mg/bird, or 32% of the body burden (5.96 mg) in nontreated chickens previously fed PCB, whereas those restricted in feed intake by 50% (50% FR) had almost no change (6.44 mg/bird) in body burdens. The PJ, PG, and CO in combination with 50% FR reduced body burdens of PCB to 47, 57, and 77%, respectively, of the control value. When treated with MO, PJ, PG, or CO alone (no 50% FR), chickens had body burdens reduced to only 67 to 90% of control, depending on th compound. Thus, feed restriction was necessary for the MO and PJ to have their greatest effect. Carcass lipid values and body weight gains were markedly reduced by the feed restriction. The CO reduced carcass lipid in nonrestricted chickens by 30%.

  7. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF

  8. Feed restriction and realimentation in Holstein-Friesian bulls: II. Effect on blood pressure and systemic concentrations of metabolites and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    Keogh, K; Waters, S M; Kelly, A K; Wylie, A R G; Sauerwein, H; Sweeney, T; Kenny, D A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the endocrine response and metabolic rate in Holstein–Friesian bulls during restricted feeding and realimentation. Sixty bulls were allocated to 1 of 2 feeding regimes: 1) restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) or 2) ad libitum feeding (ADLIB; n = 30) for 125 d (Period 1). The bulls in both treatment groups were then offered ad libitum access to feed for a further 55 d (Period 2). Five and 4 blood samples were collected during periods 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 30), respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for hormones and metabolites including insulin, IGF-1, leptin, thyroid hormones, albumin, β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), creatinine, glucose, NEFA, total protein, triglycerides, and urea. Blood pressure measurements were determined on all animals at the beginning and end of each period as an indicator of metabolic rate. During Period 1, RES bulls gained 0.6 kg/d whereas ADLIB bulls grew at 1.9 kg/d. Following realimentation in Period 2, RES bulls displayed accelerated growth, gaining 2.5 kg/d compared with 1.4 kg/d for ADLIB bulls (P < 0.001). Treatment × period interactions (P < 0.05) were evident for all plasma analytes assayed. During Period 1, RES bulls had lower concentrations of glucose and insulin, reflecting their lower feed intake. Adipose and protein tissue mobilization was evident through greater concentrations of triglycerides, NEFA, BHB, creatinine, albumin, and total protein in RES animals in Period 1. Additionally, the effect of restricted feeding on growth was apparent through lower concentrations of IGF-1. A lower metabolic rate was also apparent through lower concentrations of thyroid hormones and fewer beats per minute in RES bulls during Period 1. During the initial stage of realimentation in Period 2, IGF-1, insulin, thyroid hormones, creatinine, glucose, total protein, and triglycerides followed the same pattern as per Period 1 with divergence maintained between RES and ADLIB bulls (P < 0.05), whereas

  9. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Preziosa, Elena; Liu, Shikai; Terova, Genciana; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g) for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05), clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05), and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05), whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01) after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  10. Supplementary feeding with locally-produced Ready-to-Use Food (RUF) for mildly wasted children on Nias Island, Indonesia: comparison of daily and weekly program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Purwestri, Ratna C; Scherbaum, Veronika; Inayati, Dyah A; Wirawan, Nia N; Suryantan, Julia; Bloem, Maurice A; Pangaribuan, Rosnani V; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Volker; Qaim, Matin; Biesalski, Hans K; Bellows, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    Ready-to-Use Foods (RUFs) in the form of fortified cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits (±500 kcal and 8-10% protein per 100 g) were tested among mildly wasted children from October 2007 to June 2008, and were labelled as RUF-Nias biscuits. This study reports on a comparison of supplementary feeding program outcomes of mildly wasted children with weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) >=-2 to <-1.5 SD aged >=6 to <60 months old given locally produced RUF-Nias biscuits within daily (in semi-urban areas) and weekly (in rural remote regions) distribution and supervision program settings. In the Church World Service project area, all eligible children were recruited continuously from monthly community-based screening programs and admitted into existing nutrition centers managed by the community on Nias Island, Indonesia. Individual discharge criterion of the programs was WHZ >=-1.5 SD. Of the index children admitted in daily programs (n=51), 80.4% reached target WHZ, which was higher than in weekly programs (72.9%; n=48) by a similar length of stay of about 6 weeks. Weight gain of the children in daily programs was higher (3.1±3.6 g/kg body weight/day) than in weekly programs (2.0±2.1 g/kg body weight/day), and they achieved significantly higher WHZ at discharge. However, the majority of caretakers preferred weekly programs due to lower time constraints. Locally produced RUF in the form of biscuits for treatment of mild wasting among children demonstrated promising results both in daily and weekly community-based intervention programs.

  11. Effect of feed restriction and initial body weight on growth performance, body composition, and hormones in male pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor.

    PubMed

    Moore, K L; Mullan, B P; Kim, J C; Payne, H G; Dunshea, F R

    2016-09-01

    Pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) have increased carcass fatness compared to entire males; however, the timing of this increase in fatness after the second immunization against GnRF has not been determined. An experiment was conducted to identify and compare the growth performance, body composition, and physiological changes in immunocastrated males (IC males) at different BW and feeding levels. A total of 64 pigs were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the treatments being 1) sex (entire males or IC males), 2) initial BW (45.9 kg [light] or 78.3 kg [heavy]), and 3) feeding regime (2.5 times maintenance [restricted] or ad libitum). The pigs were individually housed, and the diets were fed for 4 wk after the second immunization against GnRF until slaughter at either 68.4 kg BW (light) or 105.8 kg BW (heavy). Immunocastrated males on a restricted feed intake had a lower ADG compared to entire males from d 15 to 28 and d 0 to 28 ( 0.011 and 0.011, respectively). Fat deposition was not affected by sex from d 0 to 14, but from d 15 to 28 IC males deposited 45 g/d more fat than entire males ( = 0.025). Immunocastrated male pigs fed ad libitum deposited 87 g/d more fat from d 15 to 28 than entire males fed ad libitum ( = 0.036). However, there was no difference in fat deposition between IC males and entire males when feed intake was restricted from d 15 to 28. Plasma urea nitrogen levels were greater in IC males compared to entire males from d 7 after the second immunization against GnRF ( 0.05 for d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28). Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were lower for IC males compared to entire males on d 3, 7, 10, and 28 ( 0.05 for all days). The following conclusions were made: 1) when pigs are immunized at a light BW (50 kg) and/or are on a restricted feed intake, they have a reduced propensity to deposit fat; however, the restriction in feed intake adversely affects growth rate. 2) The majority of fat deposition for males

  12. Effect of supplementary feeding on the prevention of mild-to-moderate wasting in conditions of endemic malnutrition in Guatemala.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Juan A.; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of supplementary feeding on the prevention of wasting in preschool children in a rural area of Guatemala with a high prevalence of malnutrition. METHODS: Children aged 6-48 months, with a weight-for-length exceeding 90% of that of the median NCHS/WHO/CDC reference population, received either Atole, a drink with a high protein and moderate energy content, or Fresco, a drink with no protein and a low energy content. Children consuming amounts of Atole equivalent to more than 10% of the age-adjusted recommended dietary intake for energy were termed "supplemented." A comparable group of children consuming Fresco was termed "non-supplemented". The energy intake in the supplemented group was higher than that in the non-supplemented group by 16-18% of the recommended daily intake. The corresponding difference in protein intake was 45-80% of the recommended daily intake. The children were followed up at intervals of three or six months in order to evaluate their weight-for-length development. The difference between supplemented and non-supplemented children in the proportions maintaining their weight-for-length category at the end of the study intervals represented the prevention of wasting attributable to supplementary feeding (attributable prevention). Households were used as units of analysis in order to avoid cluster effects. FINDINGS: The attributable prevention in children aged 6-24 months with weight-for-length between 90% and 99.9% of the reference population at entry ranged from 0.21 to 0.26 and was statistically significant after three and six months of supplementation. However, it was not significant in children at or above 100% weight-for-length or in older children. Children above 100% weight-for-length did not become overweight as a result of supplementation. CONCLUSION: Supplementary feeding of children aged 6-24 months in populations with inadequate dietary intakes can prevent the onset of wasting in a large proportion of

  13. The role of heat shock protein 70 in resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in broiler chickens subjected to neonatal feed restriction and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, A F; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Raha, A R

    2012-02-01

    Environmental stressors may influence chicken performance and susceptibility to pathogens, such as Salmonella enteritidis. This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat shock protein (Hsp)70 expression on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in broiler chickens subjected to heat exposure. Chicks were divided into 3 feeding regimens: ad libitum feeding (control); 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR60); and 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 plus 1,500 mg/kg of quercetin (FR60Q). On d 35, all of the chickens were individually inoculated with 1 mL of Salmonella enteritidis (1.5 × 10(8) cfu/bird) and exposed to an ambient temperature of 37 ± 1°C and 70% RH for 3 h/d. The FR60 and FR60Q chickens had significantly lower Salmonella enteritidis colonization and lower Hsp70 expression than that of the control chickens following the heat exposure period. The least colonization was observed in the FR60Q group (1.38 log(10) cfu/g in the spleen and 1.96 log(10) cfu/g in the cecal content) and the highest was in the control group (2.1 log(10) cfu/g in the spleen and 4.42 log(10) cfu/g in the cecal content). It appears that neonatal feed restriction can enhance resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization in heat-stressed broiler chicks, and the underlying mechanism could be associated with the lower expression of Hsp70.

  14. Suitability of live yeast addition to alleviate the adverse effects due to the restriction of the time of access to feed in sheep fed only pasture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2013-12-01

    The effect of yeast addition on intake and digestive utilization of pasture was studied in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. Eighteen wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) were randomly assigned to three treatments: forage available all day (AD); forage available only 6 h/day (R) and forage available only 6 h/day plus live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (RY). Feed intake and digestibility, feeding behaviour, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNS) were determined in vivo, and ruminal liquor activity of animals was evaluated in vitro. Restricted animals consumed less than those fed all day but achieved more than 75% of the intake and spent less time ruminating (p = 0.014). Although animals without restriction consumed more feed, they had a lower rate of passage (p = 0.030). The addition of yeast did affect neither intake nor feeding behaviour, but increased digestibility. Organic matter digestibility tended to increase 11% by yeast addition (p = 0.051), mainly by a rise in NDF (27%, p = 0.032) and ADF digestibility (37%, p = 0.051). Ingested and retained N was lower in restricted animals, as MNS (p ≤ 0.045). The use of yeasts did not significantly change the N balance or MNS, but retained N tended to be higher in supplemented animals (p = 0.090). Neither ruminal pH nor ammonia concentrations were affected by the restriction, but restricted animals had a lower ruminal activity evidenced by a lower volume of gas (p = 0.020). The addition of yeast overcame this limitation, noted by a higher volume of gas of inocula from supplemented animals (p = 0.015). Yeast addition emerged as a useful tool to improve digestibility of forage cell walls in ovines under restricted time of access to forage. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Modelling the time at which overcrowding and feed interruption emerge on the swine premises under movement restrictions during a classical swine fever outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weng, H Y; Yadav, S; Olynk Widmar, N J; Croney, C; Ash, M; Cooper, M

    2017-03-01

    A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the time elapsed before overcrowding (TOC) or feed interruption (TFI) emerged on the swine premises under movement restrictions during a classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak in Indiana, USA. Nursery (19 to 65 days of age) and grow-to-finish (40 to 165 days of age) pork production operations were modelled separately. Overcrowding was defined as the total weight of pigs on premises exceeding 100% to 115% of the maximum capacity of the premises, which was computed as the total weight of the pigs at harvest/transition age. Algorithms were developed to estimate age-specific weight of the pigs on premises and to compare the daily total weight of the pigs with the threshold weight defining overcrowding to flag the time when the total weight exceeded the threshold (i.e. when overcrowding occurred). To estimate TFI, an algorithm was constructed to model a swine producer's decision to discontinue feed supply by incorporating the assumptions that a longer estimated epidemic duration, a longer time interval between the age of pigs at the onset of the outbreak and the harvest/transition age, or a longer progression of an ongoing outbreak would increase the probability of a producer's decision to discontinue the feed supply. Adverse animal welfare conditions were modelled to emerge shortly after an interruption of feed supply. Simulations were run with 100 000 iterations each for a 365-day period. Overcrowding occurred in all simulated iterations, and feed interruption occurred in 30% of the iterations. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) TOC was 24 days (10, 43) in nursery operations and 78 days (26, 134) in grow-to-finish operations. Most feed interruptions, if they emerged, occurred within 15 days of an outbreak. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) time at which either overcrowding or feed interruption emerged was 19 days (4, 42) in nursery and 57 days (4, 130) in grow-to-finish operations. The study findings suggest that

  16. Effect of short-term feed restriction on temporal changes in milk components and mammary lipogenic gene expression in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Abdelatty, A M; Iwaniuk, M E; Garcia, M; Moyes, K M; Teter, B B; Delmonte, P; Kadegowda, A K G; Tony, M A; Mohamad, F F; Erdman, R A

    2017-02-22

    Investigations of the temporal changes in mammary gene expression that occur during sudden diet change have been limited by the use of mammary tissue as the source of RNA because of the invasive nature of mammary biopsy procedures. However, the cytosolic crescent, present in 1% of the largest milk fat globules, contains mammary epithelial cell RNA that has become trapped between the inner and outer milk fat globule membranes during final formation and secretion of milk fat into the lumen of the mammary alveoli. We hypothesized that cytosolic crescent RNA extracted from milk fat could be used as an alternative source of mammary epithelial cell RNA to measure the immediate temporal changes in gene expression as a result of changes in diet. In this experiment, feed restriction was used to mimic the state of negative energy balance observed in early lactation and induce a rapid change in milk fat yield and lipogenic gene expression. Ten multiparous Holstein dairy were fed a basal diet ad libitum during a 14-d preliminary period followed by a 4-d experimental period where 5 cows remained on ad libitum feeding and 5 cows were fed at 60% of their d 8-14 intakes (restricted) on d 15 to 18 and then returned to ad libitum feeding on d 19 to 21. Milk samples were collected from each milking on d 13 to 20 and the milk fat was immediately isolated, mixed with Trizol LS, and stored at -80°C for subsequent extraction of RNA that was used for measurement of gene expression. Feed restriction tended to increase milk fat percentage. However, total milk and milk fat production were reduced by 21 and 18%, respectively. Consistent with increased use of body fat for milk synthesis, serum nonesterified fatty acids increased 6-fold (0.78 mEq/L in the feed restriction vs. 0.13 mEq/L ad libitum group), whereas the milk fatty acids

  17. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  18. Mothers' restrictive eating and food neophobia and fathers' dietary quality are associated with breast-feeding duration and introduction of solid foods: the STEPS study.

    PubMed

    Vaarno, Jenni; Niinikoski, Harri; Kaljonen, Anne; Aromaa, Minna; Lagström, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental eating behaviours and dietary patterns and feeding practices of infants and young children. Data on infant-feeding practices were collected from each infant's birth via parentally self-administered follow-up diaries. Three questionnaires, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Food Neophobia Scale and the Index of Diet Quality, were administered when the children were aged 4 and 13 months. South-western Finland. Families participating in the STEPS longitudinal cohort study (n 1797). Mean duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 2.4 months and total duration of breast-feeding averaged 8.1 months. The first solid food was introduced into children's diets at the age of 3.9 months, on average. Mothers with highly restrictive eating were more likely to introduce solid foods sooner than mothers who ranked lower in these behaviours (3.8 months v. 4.0 months, P = 0.012). Neophobic mothers breast-fed exclusively (2.0 v. 2.6 months, P = 0.038) and in total (7.2 v. 8.5 months, P = 0.039) for shorter times than average mothers, even after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. Fathers' diet quality was associated with total breast-feeding duration and with introduction of complementary foods in unadjusted analyses and with total breast-feeding duration also after adjusting for confounding factors. Mothers' and fathers' eating patterns and practices are associated with the feeding practices of infants and young children. Health promotion interventions seeking to improve parents' eating patterns might lead to more favourable feeding practices for infants and young children.

  19. Parent feeding restriction and child weight. The mediating role of child disinhibited eating and the moderating role of the parenting context.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Jessica L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2009-06-01

    We had two aims in this study of parenting and young children's eating and weight. The first aim was to test whether the association of parental restriction with young children's higher BMI is dependent on the intervening (i.e., mediating) role of their disinhibited eating. The second aim was to test how the parenting context may change the influence of parent restriction on children's eating. Parenting dimensions of supportiveness and structure were expected to attenuate the positive association between parent restriction and child disinhibited eating, whereas parenting dimensions of coerciveness and chaos were expected to strengthen this association. Caregivers of children aged 4-8 years (N=230, 48% female) completed questionnaires and children's height and weight were measured to calculate BMI z-scores. Structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Children's disinhibited eating partially mediated the association between parent restriction and children's BMI. However, restriction was found to be directly associated with children's BMI, and this direct association was stronger than the indirect one. Associations between restriction and children's disinhibited eating differed depending on the parenting context in the feeding domain, including supportiveness, coerciveness and chaotic parenting.

  20. Feed restriction reduces short-chain fatty acid absorption across the reticulorumen of beef cattle independent of diet.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, R I; Aschenbach, J R; Barreda, D R; Penner, G B

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) of diets fed before and during short-term feed restriction (FR) on rumen fermentation, absorptive capacity of the reticulorumen, and apparent total tract digestibility. Twenty ovariectomized and ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford heifers were blocked by BW and individually penned in box stalls (9 m(2)), having free access to water throughout the study. Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments, receiving either a high forage diet (HF; F:C of 92:8) or a moderate forage diet (MF; F:C of 60:40). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d before 5 d of baseline measurements (BASE) followed by 5 d of FR where heifers were restricted to 25% of ad libitum DMI relative to BASE. Dry matter intake was measured daily and ruminal pH was recorded every 2 min throughout the study. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected on d 3 of BASE and FR whereas short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption was assessed in vivo using the isolated washed reticulorumen technique on d 5 of BASE and FR. Indigestible NDF was used as a marker to estimate apparent total tract digestibility. Diet × period interactions (P = 0.030 and 0.025) were detected for DMI and ruminal SCFA concentration, respectively. The interaction was the result of greater DMI and numerically greater SCFA concentration for MF than HF during BASE, with a reduction observed for both during FR, although treatment effects were no longer present. Period effects (BASE vs. FR) but not treatment effects (P > 0.05) were detected for mean ruminal pH (P < 0.001) and the total SCFA absorption rate (mmol/h; P = 0.038). During BASE, mean pH was reduced (6.4 vs. 6.9) and the SCFA absorption rate was greater relative to FR (674.5 vs. 554.8 mmol/h). Diet (P < 0.001) and period (P < 0.001) effects were detected for DM and OM digestibility with greater digestibility occurring for heifers fed MF than HF (70.5 vs. 63.3% for DM and 73

  1. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding), intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days) and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding) groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) (P<0.05) and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) (P<0.05), and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P<0.05) and of TRα was lower (P<0.01) than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P<0.05), indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (P<0.001) or RF (P<0.05) cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these

  3. Effects of dumb-bell exercise with and without energy restriction on resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and body composition in mildly obese women.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Suzuki, M

    1999-06-01

    The effects of dumb-bell exercise (aerobic-resistance exercise) with and without low calorie diet (LCD) therapy on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in 12 mildly obese women aged 19-20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: dumb-bell exercise with LCD (DEx + LCD group), and dumb-bell exercise only (DEx group). The subjects performed dumb-bell exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb-bells every day after dinner for approximately 20 min. In the DEx + LCD group, subjects also received a liquid-formula diet based on a commercially available diet supplement, Micro Diet, for two of their three daily meals. Thus, they were restricted to approximately 4.18 MJ of energy intake per day for 12 weeks. Subjects underwent several measurements (body composition, RMR and DIT tests) before commencing the experiment and again after 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12 week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in both the DEx + LCD and the DEx groups without reducing fat free mass (FFM). The decreases in body weight and body fat were significantly larger in the LCD + DEx group than in the DEx group. These results suggest that dumb-bell exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT. Micro Diet LCD may strengthen the effect of dumb-bell exercise on body weight and body fat, but weaken the effects on RMR and DIT.

  4. Characterization of a sustained-release estrogen implant on oviduct development and plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder chicks: modulation by feed restriction and thyroid state.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Blauwiekel, R; Qin, X; Russell, R W

    1992-06-01

    The effect of estradiol-17 beta (E2) given as a sustained-release implant (Compudose 200) on concentrations of plasma calcium (Ca) and the development of the chick shell gland has been investigated in food-restricted and thyroid hormone-treated 6- to 8-week-old broiler breeder pullets. Chicks implanted with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 Compudose pellets for 24 days (n = 6/group) revealed a dose-response relationship between plasma E2 and Ca and on oviduct growth. Plasma E2 concentrations were characterized by an initial burst phase for approximately 17 days, followed by a constant release phase. Histologic examination of shell gland tissue confirmed the dose related E2-induced development of microvilliated epithelium and tubular glands over time. Feed restriction initiated at 2 weeks of age markedly increased the response to the E2 implants. Birds (n = 8/group) implanted with 2 pellets and feed restricted had increased plasma concentrations of E2 and Ca, and increased growth of the oviduct (P less than 0.01) as compared to ad libitum implanted birds. In a separate study birds (n = 6/group) had restricted access to feed from 8 weeks of age and were implanted with 0, 2, 4, or 8 pellets. At intervals from 9 to 45 days after implantation one bird from each group was killed. Although concentrations of plasma Ca were significantly greater in feed-restricted birds (P less than 0.01), oviduct growth was only marginally increased by the food restriction program. Plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder pullets (n = 8/group) implanted with 1 or 3 pellets and injected with T3/T4 (100 micrograms/day) were significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). Injection of thyroid hormone also marginally decreased shell gland epithelial cell height (P less than 0.05) and development of microvilli (P less than 0.05). There was no effect of the administration of the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (10 micrograms/day im), on the E2 induced development of the shell gland.

  5. Diurnal and nutritional adjustments of intracellular Ca2+ release channels and Ca2+ ATPases associated with restricted feeding schedules in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracellular calcium is a biochemical messenger that regulates part of the metabolic adaptations in the daily fed-fast cycle. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24-h variations of the liver ryanodine and IP3 receptors (RyR and IP3R) as well as of the endoplasmic-reticulum and plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA and PMCA) in daytime restricted feeding protocol. Methods A biochemical and immunohistochemical approach was implemented in this study: specific ligand-binding for RyR and IP3R, enzymatic activity (SERCA and PMCA), and protein levels and zonational hepatic-distribution were determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry respectively under conditions of fasting, feeding, and temporal food-restriction. Results Binding assays and immunoblots for IP3R1 and 2 showed a peak at the light/dark transition in the ad-libitum (AL) group, whereas in the restricted-feeding (RF) group the peak shifted towards the food-access time. In the case of RyR binding experiments, both AL and RF groups showed a modest elevation during the dark period, with the RF rats exhibiting increased binding in response to feeding. The AL group showed 24-h rhythmicity in SERCA level; in contrast, RF group showed a pronounced amplitude elevation and a peak phase-shift during the light-period in SERCA level and activity. The activity of PMCA was constant along day in both groups; PMCA1 levels showed a 24-h rhythmicity in the RF rats (with a peak in the light period), meanwhile PMCA4 protein levels showed rhythmicity in both groups. The fasted condition promoted an increase in IP3R binding and protein level; re-feeding increased the amount of RyR; neither the activity nor expression of SERCA and PMCA protein was affected by fasting–re-feeding conditions. Histochemical experiments showed that the distribution of the Ca2+-handling proteins, between periportal and pericentral zones of the liver, varied with the time of day and the feeding protocol. Conclusions Our findings

  6. Diurnal and nutritional adjustments of intracellular Ca2+ release channels and Ca2+ ATPases associated with restricted feeding schedules in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Báez-Ruiz, Adrián; Cázares-Gómez, Karina; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2013-08-20

    Intracellular calcium is a biochemical messenger that regulates part of the metabolic adaptations in the daily fed-fast cycle. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24-h variations of the liver ryanodine and IP3 receptors (RyR and IP3R) as well as of the endoplasmic-reticulum and plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA and PMCA) in daytime restricted feeding protocol. A biochemical and immunohistochemical approach was implemented in this study: specific ligand-binding for RyR and IP3R, enzymatic activity (SERCA and PMCA), and protein levels and zonational hepatic-distribution were determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry respectively under conditions of fasting, feeding, and temporal food-restriction. Binding assays and immunoblots for IP3R1 and 2 showed a peak at the light/dark transition in the ad-libitum (AL) group, whereas in the restricted-feeding (RF) group the peak shifted towards the food-access time. In the case of RyR binding experiments, both AL and RF groups showed a modest elevation during the dark period, with the RF rats exhibiting increased binding in response to feeding. The AL group showed 24-h rhythmicity in SERCA level; in contrast, RF group showed a pronounced amplitude elevation and a peak phase-shift during the light-period in SERCA level and activity. The activity of PMCA was constant along day in both groups; PMCA1 levels showed a 24-h rhythmicity in the RF rats (with a peak in the light period), meanwhile PMCA4 protein levels showed rhythmicity in both groups. The fasted condition promoted an increase in IP3R binding and protein level; re-feeding increased the amount of RyR; neither the activity nor expression of SERCA and PMCA protein was affected by fasting-re-feeding conditions. Histochemical experiments showed that the distribution of the Ca2+-handling proteins, between periportal and pericentral zones of the liver, varied with the time of day and the feeding protocol. Our findings show that RF influences mainly the phase

  7. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( < 0.01) in forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( < 0.05) in the forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( < 0.05) the postweaning numbers of monocytes and lymphocytes. Overall, there was no interaction between milk feeding methods and forage provision with

  8. Changes in the 24 h Rhythmicity of Liver PPARs and Peroxisomal Markers When Feeding Is Restricted to Two Daytime Hours

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Zavala, Julieta B.; Báez-Ruiz, Adrián; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Restricted feeding (RF) during daytime is associated with anticipatory activity before feeding, marked hyperphagia after mealtime, adjustments in hepatic metabolism, and the expression of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). 24 h rhythmicity of liver PPARα, β, and γ, peroxisomal markers (PMP70, AOX, and catalase), and free fatty acids (FFAs) during RF was evaluated. The effect of fasting-refeeding was also studied. Results showed (1) higher levels of FFA before feeding, (2) a shift of PPARα and PPARγ before and of PPARβ peaks after feeding, (3) an increase in peroxisomal markers, (4) a shift of PMP70 and AOX peaks before feeding, and of maximal catalase activity in the dark period, (5) changes in the fasting-refeeding response, and (6) high correlations (>0.9) of serum corticosterone with PPARα and PPARγ and of PMP70 with PPARβ. In conclusion, 24 h rhythmicity of FFA, liver PPARs, and peroxisomal markers are biochemical adaptations associated with daytime RF and FEO expression. PMID:21822420

  9. Changes in the 24 h Rhythmicity of Liver PPARs and Peroxisomal Markers When Feeding Is Restricted to Two Daytime Hours.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Zavala, Julieta B; Báez-Ruiz, Adrián; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Restricted feeding (RF) during daytime is associated with anticipatory activity before feeding, marked hyperphagia after mealtime, adjustments in hepatic metabolism, and the expression of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). 24 h rhythmicity of liver PPARα, β, and γ, peroxisomal markers (PMP70, AOX, and catalase), and free fatty acids (FFAs) during RF was evaluated. The effect of fasting-refeeding was also studied. Results showed (1) higher levels of FFA before feeding, (2) a shift of PPARα and PPARγ before and of PPARβ peaks after feeding, (3) an increase in peroxisomal markers, (4) a shift of PMP70 and AOX peaks before feeding, and of maximal catalase activity in the dark period, (5) changes in the fasting-refeeding response, and (6) high correlations (>0.9) of serum corticosterone with PPARα and PPARγ and of PMP70 with PPARβ. In conclusion, 24 h rhythmicity of FFA, liver PPARs, and peroxisomal markers are biochemical adaptations associated with daytime RF and FEO expression.

  10. Effect of a negative energy balance induced by feed restriction in lactating sows on hepatic lipid metabolism, milk production and development of litters.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Gröne, Birthe; Rosenbaum, Susann; Most, Erika; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, forced activation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) by administration of exogenous PPARα activators during lactation leads to a reduction of milk triacylglycerol (TAG) production. Herein, we investigated whether a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction (about 18% lower feed and energy intake) during lactation by increasing the release of fatty acids, which act as PPARα agonists, causes a disruption of hepatic lipid metabolism and thereby impairs milk TAG production in sows. Nutrient and energy content of the milk on day 20 of lactation and gains of litters during the first 14 d and the whole 21 d suckling period did not differ between Control and feed-restricted sows. The mRNA concentrations of several sterol regulatory element-binding protein target genes involved in lipid synthesis in the liver and the plasma concentration of TAG were reduced in the feed-restricted sows, whereas the mRNA concentrations of PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle were not different between groups. In conclusion, it was shown that an NEB during lactation does not adversely affect milk composition and gains of litters, despite inhibiting hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and reducing plasma TAG concentration. The finding that PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid utilisation in liver and muscle of sows are not induced by the NEB during lactation may explain that fatty acid availability in the mammary gland is sufficient to maintain milk TAG production and to allow normal litter gain.

  11. Effects on transcriptional regulation and lipid droplet characteristics in the liver of female juvenile pigs after early postnatal feed restriction and refeeding are dependent on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm(2)) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life.

  12. Restricting feeding to the active phase in middle-aged mice attenuates adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Smith, J T; Narbaiza, J; Mueez, F; Bustle, L B; Qureshi, S; Fieseler, C; Legan, S J

    2016-12-01

    Time-restricted feeding ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on body weight and metabolism in young adult mice. Because obesity is highly prevalent in the middle-aged population, this study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding alleviates the adverse effects of a high-fat diet in male middle-aged (12months) mice. C57BL6/J mice were fed one of three diets for 21-25weeks: 1) high-fat diet (60% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (HFD-AL), 2) HFD, time-restricted feeding (HFD-TRF), and 3) low-fat diet (10% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (LFD-AL) (n=15 each). HFD-TRF mice only had food access for 8h/day during their active period. HFD-TRF mice gained significantly less weight than HFD-AL mice (~20% vs 55% of initial weight, respectively). Caloric intake differed between these groups only during the first 8weeks and accounted for most but not all of their body weight difference during this time. TRF of a HFD lowered glucose tolerance in terms of incremental area under the curve (iAUC) (p<0.02) to that of LFD-AL mice. TRF of a HFD lowered liver weight (p<0.0001), but not retroperitoneal or epididymal fat pad weight, to that of LFD-AL mice. Neither HFD-AL nor HFD-TRF had any effect on performance in the novel object recognition or object location memory tests. Circulating corticosterone levels either before or after restraint stress were not affected by diet. In conclusion, TRF without caloric restriction is an effective strategy in middle-aged mice for alleviating the negative effects of a HFD on body weight, liver weight, and glucose tolerance.

  13. Effects on Transcriptional Regulation and Lipid Droplet Characteristics in the Liver of Female Juvenile Pigs after Early Postnatal Feed Restriction and Refeeding Are Dependent on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Hammon, Harald M.; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm2) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life. PMID:24260100

  14. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: III. Digestion and excretion of nitrogen and minerals.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Bannelier, C; Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Chemit, M L; Segura, M; Benitez, F; Richard, F; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2017-03-01

    Two rabbit lines have been created to result in better feed efficiency: the ConsoResidual line was selected for a lower residual feed intake under ad libitum feeding, and the ADGrestrict line was selected for higher ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of ad libitum). The present study aimed to analyze the digestion and excretion of N and minerals from 29 to 63 d of age of these 2 lines compared with an unselected control line (G0) under 2 feeding levels (ad libitum or restricted). The ADGrestrict line had greater digestibility compared with G0 (+1.3% for OM and N; < 0.05), and the ConsoResidual line had intermediate values. There was no genetic line effect on the digestibility of N and P and on minerals concentrations (P, Zn, and Cu) in the feces and in the urine. The N balance was improved for the 2 selected lines (+5%; < 0.05), leading to a reduced N output through the feces (0.06 g/d compared with G0; < 0.001) and the urine (-0.07 g/d; < 0.05) and to an improved N retention ratio (+3% compared with G0). Over the whole fattening period (d 29-63), significant differences were observed among lines only when fed ad libitum, with 13% greater DM fecal output and 5% greater N fecal output for G0. The N excretion in urine was 2 g less in the 2 selected lines, leading to a reduction of total N release of 4.4 g (compared with G0). The P excretion in feces (12 g) or urine (0.1 g) did not differ among the 3 lines. Over the whole fattening period and for ad libitum-fed rabbits, the 5% improvement in feed efficiency ( < 0.01) for the 2 selected lines corresponded to 400 g less feed intake (-8%) and to 20 g less N intake. The fecal excretion of the ADGrestrict and ConsoResidual lines were reduced by 200 g DM ( < 0.01), corresponding to 417 g fresh matter and 5 g of N. The excretion in minerals (P, Zn, and Cu) was not affected by the line. The feeding level strongly reduced the fecal and urine outputs (-50 and -60%, respectively; < 0.001). Higher digestibility coefficients ( < 0

  15. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadalipour, R; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, R; Riasi, A; Mohammadalipour, M; Nili, N

    2017-02-01

    Intensive selection of broilers for faster growth and better feed efficiency resulted in greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome, which is one of the major causes of mortality and economic loss in broiler industry. Whereas cool temperature is one of the primary triggers for ascites, early feed restriction (FDR) significantly alleviates its incidence and mortality. However, little is known about effects of FDR, cold environmental temperature and their interaction on physiological responses in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old male broilers were divided into two treatment groups of Ad libitum (Ad) and feed restricted (FR) with eight pen replicates each. Chickens in FR group underwent feed access limitation from days 7 to 14 of age. On day 21 half of the birds (four pens) in each group exposed to the cold temperature (CT) and the other half (four pens) continued at normal temperature (NT). Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. At 39 and 46 days of age two chicks with a BW around the pen average were selected from each pen and slaughtered after collecting blood samples. Then, relative weight of internal organs and right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV : TV) ratio were calculated. Compared with NT group, CT birds had higher daily feed intake and FCR (P<0.05) from day 28 to 42. Cumulative ascites mortality in CT chickens was higher (P<0.001) than NT chicks. Within the CT group, ascites mortality in FR chickens was reduced (P<0.001) to 1.25% compared with 8.75% in Ad chicks. Birds in CT group had significantly (P<0.05) thicker right ventricle and greater relative weight of heart, hematocrit and triiodothyronine concentration. However, none of these parameters were affected by FDR. Under cold stress conditions, FDR reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.05). Serum triglyceride

  16. Restricting the intake of a cereal-based feed in free-range-pastured poultry: effects on performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Gama, L T; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-10-01

    Pastures are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and other bioactive compounds. In this study, we evaluated the effects of restricting the intake of a cereal-based feed on the consumption of a legume-based pasture, and consequently on poultry performance and meat quality. Broilers of the RedBro Cou Nu x RedBro M genotype were fed a cereal-based feed at different intake restriction levels (100, 75, or 50% of ad libitum intake) in portable floorless pens located on a subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) pasture. Control birds were maintained at the same site in identical pens but had no access to pasture. The results revealed that, although the growth rate achieved was below the levels expected for the genotype, restriction of cereal-based feed intake had a significant impact on broiler weight gain and feed conversion while leading to an increase in relative leguminous pasture intake (from 1.6 to 4.9% of the total intake, on a DM basis). In addition, bird performance was positively influenced by pasture consumption. The capacity of ingested pasture to modulate carcass characteristics, broiler meat fatty acid profiles, and the meat content of total cholesterol, tocopherols, and to-cotrienols was investigated in broiler chickens slaughtered on d 64. Pasture intake decreased carcass yield (P < 0.05) and meat pH (P < 0.001) and improved breast skin pigmentation (P < 0.001). Consumption of the leguminous pasture had a marginal effect in the vitamin E profiles and cholesterol contents of broiler meat (P < 0.05), although it significantly affected the meat fatty acid profile. Although pasture intake did not influence the linoleic acid content of poultry meat, the levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast meat [ALA (P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.001), docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.001), and docosahexaenoic acid (P < 0.001)] were significantly greater in birds consuming the leguminous biomass. Overall, the data suggest an

  17. Dietary protein quality and feed restriction influence abundance of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Li, Huifeng; Emmerson, Derek A; Webb, Kenneth E; Wong, Eric A

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary protein quality on intestinal peptide transporter (PepT1), amino acid transporter [Na+-independent cationic and zwitterionic amino acid transporter (b(o,+)AT), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), Na+-independent cationic and Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (y+ LAT2), and Na+-independent cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2)], glucose transporter [Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter 2 (GLUT2)], and digestive enzyme [aminopeptidase N (APN)] mRNA abundance in 2 lines of broilers (A and B). At day of hatch (doh), chicks from both lines were randomly assigned to corn-based diets containing 24% crude protein with either soybean meal (SBM) or corn gluten meal (CGM) as the supplemental protein source. Chicks were given unlimited access to feed and water. Groups of chicks from both lines were also assigned to the SBM diet at a quantity restricted to that consumed by the CGM group (SBM-RT). Intestinal transporter and enzyme mRNA abundance was assayed by real-time PCR using the absolute quantification method. Abundance of PepT1, EAAT3, and GLUT2 mRNA was greater in Line B (P < 0.03), whereas APN and SGLT1 were greater in Line A (P < 0.04). When feed intake was equal (CGM vs. restricted SBM), a greater abundance of PepT1 and b(o,+)AT mRNA was associated with the higher quality SBM (P < 0.04), whereas a greater abundance of EAAT3 and GLUT2 mRNA was associated with the lower quality CGM (P < 0.01). When feed intake was restricted (SBM vs. SBM-RT), a greater abundance of PepT1 mRNA was associated with the restricted intake (P < 0.04). These data demonstrate that both dietary protein quality and feed restriction influence expression of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chicks.

  18. Changes in heat shock protein 70 expression and blood characteristics in transported broiler chickens as affected by housing and early age feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqil, A; Zulkifli, I

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32 degrees C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23 degrees C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24 degrees C; maximum, 34 degrees C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 expression than their CH counterparts. Within the CH, the FR chicks showed higher hsp 70 density than those of the ad libitum-fed group. Except for glucose, housing system had a negligible effect on serum levels of cholesterol, potassium, and chloride. Collectively, the results suggest that the improved tolerance to transport stress in OH and FR chicks could be associated with better hsp 70 expression.

  19. Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Matthew Sean; Cormican, Paul; Keogh, Kate; O’Connor, Aaron; O’Hara, Eoin; Palladino, Rafael Alejandro; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinéad Mary

    2015-01-01

    Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10-20) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10-20) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10-20) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10-20) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction. PMID:26226343

  20. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  1. Inhibition of Lipolysis in the Novel Transgenic Quail Model Overexpressing G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 in the Adipose Tissue during Feed Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sangsu; Choi, Young Min; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the issue of obesity in humans, the production of low-fat meat from domestic animals is important in the agricultural industry to satisfy consumer demand. Understanding the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue could advance our knowledge to potentially solve both issues. Although the G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) was recently identified as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in vitro, its role in vivo has not been fully clarified. This study was conducted to investigate the role of G0S2 gene in vivo by using two independent transgenic quail lines during different energy conditions. Unexpectedly, G0S2 overexpression had a negligible effect on plasma NEFA concentration, fat cell size and fat pad weight under ad libitum feeding condition when adipose lipolytic activity is minimal. A two-week feed restriction in non-transgenic quail expectedly caused increased plasma NEFA concentration and dramatically reduced fat cell size and fat pad weight. Contrary, G0S2 overexpression under a feed restriction resulted in a significantly less elevation of plasma NEFA concentration and smaller reductions in fat pad weights and fat cell size compared to non-transgenic quail, demonstrating inhibition of lipolysis and resistance to loss of fat by G0S2. Excessive G0S2 inhibits lipolysis in vivo during active lipolytic conditions, such as food restriction and fasting, suggesting G0S2 as a potential target for treatment of obesity. In addition, transgenic quail are novel models for studying lipid metabolism and mechanisms of obesity. PMID:24964090

  2. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  3. Impact of feed restriction and housing hygiene conditions on specific and inflammatory immune response, the cecal bacterial community and the survival of young rabbits.

    PubMed

    Combes, S; Massip, K; Martin, O; Furbeyre, H; Cauquil, L; Pascal, G; Bouchez, O; Le Floc'h, N; Zemb, O; Oswald, I P; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-17

    Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive disorders, whereas a degradation of its housing hygiene is assumed to have a negative impact on its health. This study aims at providing insights into the mechanism of digestive health preservation regarding both host (growth and immune response) and its symbiotic digestive microbiota. A 2×2 factorial design from weaning (day 28) to day 64 was set up: ad libitum intake or restricted intake at 70% of ad libitum, and high v. low hygiene of housing (n=105 per group). At day 36 and day 45, 15 animals/group were subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) to assess their specific immune response. Blood was sampled at 36, 45, 57 and 64 days of age to determine total and anti-OVA immunoglobulin type G (IgG) and haptoglobin levels. The cecal bacterial community was explored (18 per group) by 454 pyrosequencing of genes coding for the 16S ribosomal RNA, whereas cecal pH, NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured to characterize fermentative activity. A 30% reduction in feed intake reduced the growth by only 17% (P<0.001), and improved the feed conversion ratio by 15% (P<0.001), whereas the degradation of hygiene conditions slightly decreased the feed intake in ad libitum fed rabbits (-3.5%, P<0.02). As poor hygiene conditions did not affect weight gain, feed conversion was improved from day 42 (P<0.05). Restricted feeding led to a lower mortality between day 28 and day 40 (P=0.047), whereas degraded hygiene conditions decreased overall morbidity (7.8% v. 16.6%; P<0.01). Both a reduced intake and low hygiene conditions of housing affected microbiota composition and especially dominant genera belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family (P<0.01). Moreover, low hygiene was associated with a higher Ruminococcaceae/Lachnospiraceae ratio (3.7 v. 2.4; P<0.05). Cecal total VFA and pH were increased (+19%; P<0.001) and decreased (-0.1 pH unit; P<0.05), respectively

  4. Effects of restricted vs. step up dietary adaptation for 6 or 9 days on feedlot performance, feeding behaviour, ruminal and blood variables of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, A; Millen, D D; Brichi, A L C; Vicari, D V F; Franzói, M C S; Barducci, R S; Martins, C L; Estevam, D D; Cesar, M T; Arrigoni, M D B

    2017-03-06

    This study was designed to determine effects of quantitatively restricted intake of the final finishing diet as a means of dietary adaptation compared with diets increasing in concentrate (step up) over periods of 6 and 9 days on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behaviour, blood gas profile and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. One hundred twenty 22-month-old Nellore bulls (352 ± 20 kg) were randomly allocated in 24 pens and fed for 84 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: adaptation using either step up protocol for 6 days or 9 days or restriction protocol for 6 days or 9 days, where the pen (five bullocks/pen; six pens/treatment) was considered the experimental unit. Cattle adapted by step up protocol had significantly greater average daily gain throughout the study when compared to those adapted by restriction protocol, regardless of adaptation length. During the adaptation period, a greater dry matter intake fluctuation was observed for animals maintained on restriction programme when compared to those adapted to the finishing diets using step up protocol. In addition, a protocol × length interaction for rumenitis scores was observed, where the level of injuries to the ruminal wall was significantly higher for the cattle adapted by restriction protocol for 9 days and lower for animals submitted for 9 days to the step up programme. Likewise, a protocol × length interaction for mitotic index was observed, in which cattle adapted by step up protocol for 9 days had lower numbers of cells in mitosis. Thus, the step up protocol led to better feedlot performance, and based on this fact, the length of 9 days promoted better rumen epithelium adaptation of Nellore cattle to high-concentrate diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Francesco; Spera, Anna Maria; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Capasso, Letizia

    2012-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates may develop severe intolerance to standard preterm formula especially if they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that these infants may tolerate an elemental, amino acid-based formula as a rescue feeding strategy. In a prospective, case-control pilot study, we enrolled VLBW IUGR infants enterally fed with standard preterm formula (SPF) at daily increments of 16 mL/kg. If gastric residuals accounted for >70% of milk feed in the previous 24 hours, then feedings were temporarily withheld and then resumed with amino acid formula (AAF) increased at the same speed. Cases on AAF were compared to controls on SPF and with cases themselves while on SPF. Primary outcome was the time to reach full enteral feedings. Secondary outcomes were time on parenteral nutrition, time on central venous catheter, and formula tolerability based on the amount of gastric residual volume. Sixty-four infants (22 cases) were enrolled. Although during the total duration of nutrition, cases had worse primary and secondary outcomes, when on AAF, cases were comparable to controls in time to full enteral feeding (14.4 vs 14 days), time on parenteral nutrition, and time on central venous catheter. Cases on AAF and controls had similar gastric residual volumes. At day 3 after AAF introduction, cases had a significantly reduced number (%) of gastric residual volume >5 mL/kg over total number of feedings (5.6 vs 1.5%; P < 0.05) and the mean gastric residual volume (2.7 vs 0.6 mL; P < 0.05) compared to themselves while on SPF. No difference was detected in weight at 21 and 28 days, in main serum parameters and outcome at discharge. Growth at 12 months of corrected age was also comparable. In our population of VLBW IUGR newborns with severe feeding intolerance, a short course on AAF was a safe and effective means of nutritional rescue.

  6. Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, A; Bellaiche, M; Berman, E; Ben David, A; Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

    1998-09-01

    A hypothesis that the ionic composition of drinking water might affect development of the ascites syndrome in broilers was investigated in two trials. The first trial comprised four groups of 650 male chicks. A control treatment was normal tap water and the other three treatments comprised the addition to the tap water of 1,000 mg/L sodium as NaCl, 5,000 mg/L NH4Cl, or 5,000 mg/L KHCO3, supplied from age 2 to 47 d. At Day 28, equally sized subsets of these groups were moved to individual cages, where they received a severe exposure to ambient cold. The development of the ascites syndrome was monitored by measurements of hematocrit and arterial blood oxygen saturation (PaO2) by oximetry, body weight, and examination of dead birds for cause of death. Mortality from ascites in cold-exposed birds from Days 28 to 47 was 28, 48, 40, and 16% in the tap water, NaCl, NH4Cl, and KHCO3 groups, respectively; only the NaCl mortality was significantly different from the tap water mortality. The KHCO3 treatment increased PaO2 (compared with tap water treatment) at Day 28 by 5.5% and at Day 35 by 10.5%, but not at Day 42. The KHCO3 caused a reduction in body weight, which was 13% less than the tap water group at Day 42, probably due to a chronic toxicity. The second trial specifically examined the same parameters with lower water levels of KHCO3 (3,000 and 1,000 mg/L), in comparison to a 10% feed restriction protocol, in order to clarify whether the increased PaO2 was due to a specific effect of the KHCO3 or was a metabolic manifestation of a reduced growth rate. The 3,000 mg/L KHCO3 treatment had no effect on PaO2, but the 1,000 mg/L treatment augmented PaO2 by 5.3% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), without reducing the final body weight. The feed restriction group showed an elevated PaO2 of 5.4% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), with no reduction in the final body weight. The inclusion of 1,000 mg/L of KHCO3 into the drinking water of broilers or a temporary 10% feed

  7. Daily variations in concentration of vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in hypothalamic nuclei of rats rendered diurnal by restricted-schedule feeding.

    PubMed

    Morin, A J; Denoroy, L; Jouvet, M

    1993-04-02

    We previously described that in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), peri-(PeVN) and paraventricular (PaVN) nuclei of normal rats, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) accumulates during the night period and decreases during the day. In order to determine whether these variations are linked to the light-dark cycle or are a consequence of sleep-wake rhythm expression, we dissociated these two parameters by restricting feeding to diurnal hours. In these conditions which inverse the paradoxical sleep rhythm, the VIP-LI pattern is perturbed and its minimum advanced by 4 h in the SCN. In the PeVN, the daily pattern is maintained but the minimum is also advanced by 4 h. Finally, the rhythm is abolished in the PaVN. These circadian fluctuations indicate that the hypothalamic VIP-LI rhythm is not linked to the paradoxical sleep rhythm but could be sensitive to photic and non-photic Zeitgeber.

  8. Leucine-enriched protein feeding does not impair exercise-induced free fatty acid availability and lipid oxidation: beneficial implications for training in carbohydrate-restricted states.

    PubMed

    Impey, Samuel G; Smith, Dominic; Robinson, Amy L; Owens, Daniel J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Smith, Kenneth; Limb, Marie; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2015-02-01

    Given that the enhanced oxidative adaptations observed when training in carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted states is potentially regulated through free fatty acid (FFA)-mediated signalling and that leucine-rich protein elevates muscle protein synthesis, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that leucine-enriched protein feeding enhances circulating leucine concentration but does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise. Nine males cycled for 2 h at 70% VO2peak when fasted (PLACEBO) or having consumed a whey protein solution (WHEY) or a leucine-enriched whey protein gel (GEL), administered as 22 g 1 h pre-exercise, 11 g/h during and 22 g 30 min post-exercise. Total leucine administration was 14.4 g and 6.3 in GEL and WHEY, respectively. Mean plasma leucine concentrations were elevated in GEL (P = 0.001) compared with WHEY and PLACEBO (375 ± 100, 272 ± 51, 146 ± 14 µmol L(-1), respectively). No differences (P = 0.153) in plasma FFA (WHEY 0.53 ± 0.30, GEL 0.45 ± 0.25, PLACEBO 0.65 ± 0.30, mmol L(-1)) or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise (WHEY 0.37 ± 0.26, GEL 0.36 ± 0.24, PLACEBO 0.34 ± 0.24 g/min) were apparent between trials, despite elevated (P = 0.001) insulin in WHEY and GEL compared with PLACEBO (38 ± 16, 35 ± 16, 22 ± 11 pmol L(-1), respectively). We conclude that leucine-enriched protein feeding does not impair FFA availability or whole body lipid oxidation during exercise, thus having practical applications for athletes who deliberately train in CHO-restricted states to promote skeletal muscle adaptations.

  9. Performance and energy metabolism in restrictively fed weanling pigs are not affected by feeding either fermented cereals or their end-products.

    PubMed

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; Zandstra, T; Heetkamp, M J W; Van Der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J

    2010-12-01

    To study the effects of feeding fermented cereals or just fermentation end-products on performance and energy metabolism, 18 restrictedly fed groups of eight pigs each were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (i) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat; or (ii) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% fermented barley and wheat; or (iii) a liquid diet as C with the addition of some important fermentation end-products (FP; organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented F-diet. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and performance traits were measured during two consecutive periods (days 1-5 and days 6-14). There was a considerable increase in average dry matter intake that tended (p = 0.06) to be higher in the FP-group than in the other groups. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, nitrogen and energy during period 2 were not affected (p > 0.1). Averaged over both periods, none of the energy metabolism parameters were affected by the diets (p > 0.1). However, there were diet × period interactions for metabolizable energy-intake (p = 0.07), energy retention (p < 0.05), the respiratory quotient (RQ; p < 0.01) and activity-related heat production (H(ACT,) p = 0.05). Additionally, there were some differences between the diets in the average hourly patterns in RQ and H(ACT). In conclusion, restricted feeding of either 40% fermented cereals nor their fermentation end-products affected performance and energy metabolism traits in weanling pigs. Nevertheless, lower postprandial activity-related heat production by pigs given the fermented cereals suggest a stimulating effect of fermented cereals on short term satiety that was not seen in pigs given fermentation end-products only.

  10. Differential responses of circadian Per2 expression rhythms in discrete brain areas to daily injection of methamphetamine and restricted feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Natsubori, Akiyo; Honma, Ken-ichi; Honma, Sato

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral rhythms induced by methamphetamine (MAP) and daily restricted feeding (RF) in rats are independent of the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and have been regarded to share a common oscillatory mechanism. In the present study, in order to examine the responses of brain oscillatory systems to MAP and RF, circadian rhythms in clock gene, Period2, expression were measured in several brain areas in rats. Transgenic rats carrying a bioluminescence reporter of Period2-dLuciferase were subjected to either daily injection of MAP or RF of 2 h at a fixed time of day for 14 days. As a result, spontaneous movement and wheel-running activity were greatly enhanced following MAP injection and prior to daily meal under RF. Circadian Per2 rhythms were measured in the cultured brain tissues containing one of the following structures: the olfactory bulb; caudate-putamen; parietal cortex; substantia nigra; and SCN. Except for the SCN, the circadian Per2 rhythms in the brain tissues were significantly phase-delayed by 1.9 h on average in MAP-injected rats as compared with the saline-controls. On the other hand, the circadian rhythms outside the SCN were significantly phase-advanced by 6.3 h on average in rats under RF as compared with those under ad libitum feeding. These findings indicate that the circadian rhythms in specific brain areas of the central dopaminergic system respond differentially to MAP injection and RF, suggesting that different oscillatory mechanisms in the brain underlie the MAP-induced behavior and pre-feeding activity under RF.

  11. Incidence of ascites syndrome and related hematological response in short-term feed-restricted broilers raised at low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Kamely, Mohammad; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2015-09-01

    Ascites is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in modern broiler production. Reduction of early growth, followed by compensatory gain, seems a practical and viable method to minimize losses caused by ascites. An experiment was conducted to determine if early feed restriction can reduce the incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to cool temperatures. Ross 308 cockerels (N=180) were assigned to 5 diet treatments and 2 temperature regimes, with 3 replicate pens of 6 birds per treatment and temperature. A standard grower diet was diluted by adding rice hulls at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60% by weight from 7 to 14 d of age. On d 21 through 42, the temperature was maintained at 20 to 25°C (thermoneutral), or at 11 to 15°C (cool). Broilers exposed to cool temperatures developed higher right ventricle (RV) to total ventricle (TV) and RV to BW ratios, increased plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations, and elevated blood values for hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and hematocrit (P<0.05) but did not develop clinical ascites. Diluting the feed with rice hulls from d 7 to 14 resulted in proportional reductions in BW by d 14 (P<0.001) that tended to persist through d 28 (P=0.005), after which compensatory growth eliminated all differences in BW between diet treatment groups by d 35 (P=0.099) and d 42 (P>0.1). Exposure to cool temperatures increased key indices of ascites susceptibility, and these preascitic changes were partially prevented by diluting the feed to reduce growth performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Metabolic changes in dairy cows with ketonemia in response to feed restriction and dietary 1,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Richard, M J; Beitz, D C; Young, J W

    1992-06-01

    The objective was to measure progressive changes in metabolism of cows during a protocol that induced subclinical ketosis. From d 14 to 42 postpartum, 13 Holstein cows were in either a control group (6 cows) or a ketosis induction group (7 cows) that was restricted to 80% of ad libitum intake and fed 1,3-butanediol (7% of DM). Six ketosis induction cows developed ketonemia but not clinical ketosis; cow 7 developed clinical ketosis. Milk production was less, but fat content was greater, for ketonemic cows. Energy balance reached a nadir of -7.2 Mcal/d at d 21 for ketonemic cows, whereas controls reached energy equilibrium at d 28. Concentrations of NEFA in plasma and of beta-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood increased during ketonemia. Dextran sulfate-precipitable cholesterol and triglyceride in serum were increased only at d 21 and not at d 28, 35, 42, or 49. Concentrations of glycogen, total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol in liver increased during ketonemia. Oxidation of palmitate to CO2 was greater at d 21 in liver slices from ketonemic cows, whereas oxidation to acid-soluble products remained constant for those cows but decreased for controls. The ketonemic cows had lower weight ratios of triglyceride to glycogen in liver during pretreatment than those that became clinically ketotic in earlier studies (.5 vs. greater than or equal to 1.8). Susceptibility to clinical ketosis, therefore, may be indicated by increased hepatic triglyceride to glycogen ratios during the peripartal period.

  13. Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese.

    PubMed

    Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P < 0.05). Experimental geese showed compensatory growth during the oat fattening period and the BW of geese from both groups was similar at the end of the study (17 wk, 7,675.1 vs. 7,467.9 g; P > 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P < 0.05) and shorter shanks (10.0 vs. 9.4 cm, P < 0.05) at 8 wk, and significantly smaller chest circumference (54.7 vs. 51.9 cm, P < 0.05) at the end of 14 wk. At the end of oat feeding (17 wk), geese receiving silage had significantly longer trunk and drumstick compared with geese fed commercial diets alone. The carcasses of 17-wk-old experimental geese contained more breast and leg muscles (%), and less skin with subcutaneous fat from breast and legs compared with control birds. Significant differences were only noted between the groups in dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P < 0.05) and proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat from breast (8.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.05). Dilution of the diet for young fattening geese with whole-crop corn silage had a positive effect on production economics and carcass composition. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Body composition and reproductive performance at entry into lay of anno 1980 versus anno 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Y; Lipkin, Ehud; Soller, M

    2014-05-01

    During the 1990s, various disturbances arose affecting broiler breeder females at entry into lay. These disturbances were associated with even slight overfeeding during release of feed restriction in this critical maturation period. The present experiment was carried out to gain some insight into the causes of these disturbances by comparing the effect of fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction at entry into lay in 2 broiler breeder populations: B1980, representing the genetic level of 1980, and B2000, the genetic level of 2000. Under the FF treatment, B1980 entered lay 19.2 d earlier than B2000; this increased to 37.4 d earlier under SF. The B1980 population entered lay at virtually the same mean age for SF and FF, whereas B2000 entered lay 15.7 d earlier under the FF. Body weight at first egg were 2,621 g for the B1980 and 3,591 g for B2000. Differences in BW at first egg between feeding treatments within lines were minor. As a percentage of BW, ovary, oviduct, and follicle weights were the same for B1980 and B2000; breast weight was 14.9% for B1980 and 21.2% for B2000; abdominal fat pad weight was 5.37% for B1980 and 2.67% for B2000. Follicle weight and absolute difference in weight between successive follicles was greater in B2000 than in B1980. It is concluded that body fat content does not limit entry into lay, and that threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity of broiler breeder hens increased by about 1,000 g between 1980 and 2000, indicating a tight association between juvenile growth rate and threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity. It is also concluded that disturbances at entry into lay due to overfeeding are not due to smaller differences between successive follicles in B2000 compared with B1980. There are hints, however, that overfeeding may contribute to these disturbances by decreasing differences between successive follicles.

  15. Delayed muscle development in small pig fetuses around birth cannot be rectified by maternal early feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding during gestation.

    PubMed

    Perruchot, M H; Lefaucheur, L; Louveau, I; Mobuchon, L; Palin, M F; Farmer, C; Gondret, F

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine variations in nutrient allowance can alter body composition and tissue features of the porcine offspring around birth. This study aimed to determine the effects of fetal weight variations between littermates and of maternal dietary regimen during gestation on fetal muscle traits just before birth. Fourteen pregnant gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n=7) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n=7) dietary regimen during gestation. The dietary treatment provided 70% of the protein and digestible energy contents of the CTL diet during the first 70 days of gestation and then, 115% of the protein and digestible energy contents up to farrowing. At 110 days of gestation, sows were sacrificed and one fetus having a low (824±140 g) and one having a normal (1218±192 g) BW per litter were sampled. Irrespective of maternal dietary regimen, the longissimus muscle of the small fetuses exhibited higher expression levels of DLK1/Pref1 and NCAM1/CD56, two genes known to be downregulated during normal skeletal muscle development. Expression levels of the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC), both at the mRNA and at the protein levels, were also higher in small fetuses. In addition, the ratios of perinatal to embryonic and of adult fast to developmental MyHC isoforms were generally lower in light fetuses compared with their medium-weight littermates. These modifications suggest a delayed myofiber development in spontaneous growth-retarded fetuses. Finally, GLUT1 was expressed to a lesser extent in the muscle of small v. normal fetuses, suggesting decreased ability for glucose uptake in muscle. Initial feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding of sows during gestation led to a lower expression of the myogenic factor MYOD1, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation in skeletal muscle. This maternal strategy was also associated with a lower expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR) but an upregulation of IGF2. This

  16. Effects of feed restriction and prolactin-release inhibition at drying off on metabolism and mammary gland involution in cows.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Zhao, X; Lacasse, P

    2014-01-01

    A cow's risk of acquiring a new intramammary infection during the dry period increases with milk production at drying off and decreases as mammary gland involution progresses. A method commonly used to reduce milk production is a drastic reduction in feed supply in the days that precede drying off. Milk production can also be reduced by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin (PRL). This study aimed to compare the effects of these 2drying-off procedures on metabolism, immunity, and mammary gland involution in cows. A total of 24Holstein cows in late lactation were assigned to 1 of 3treatments based on milk yield, somatic cell count, and parity. The cows were fed a lactation diet until drying off (control; n=8), only dry hay during the last 5d before drying off (DH; n=8), or the same lactation diet as the control cows but with twice-daily i.m. injections of 4mg of quinagolide, a specific inhibitor of PRL release, from 5d before drying off until 13d after (QN; n=8). Quinagolide induced a decrease in PRL concentration in blood and in milk and mammary secretions on all the injection days. Interestingly, PRL was also depressed in the blood and milk of the hay-fed cows before drying off. Both the QN and DH treatments induced a decrease in milk production, which averaged 17.9 and 10.1kg/d for the QN and DH cows, respectively, at drying off in comparison with 24.8kg/d for the control cows. Both BSA concentration and Na(+)-to-K(+) ratio increased faster in the mammary secretions of both the DH and QN cows than in those of the control cows, whereas citrate-to-lactoferrin ratio, another indicator of involution rate, decreased faster. The DH treatment decreased blood concentrations of glucose and most amino acids and increased blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids. Quinagolide increased blood glucose but did not affect the other metabolites. The serum harvested on d-1 from the hay-fed cows reduced peripheral blood mononuclear

  17. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M Denise; Russell-Jones, David; Umpleby, A Margot; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-02-01

    Evidence for a causal relationship between sleep-loss and metabolism is derived primarily from short-term sleep deprivation studies in the laboratory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether small changes in sleep duration over a three week period while participants are living in their normal environment lead to changes in insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters. Nineteen healthy, young, normal-weight men were randomised to either sleep restriction (habitual bedtime minus 1.5h) or a control condition (habitual bedtime) for three weeks. Weekly assessments of insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, anthropometry, vascular function, leptin and adiponectin were made. Sleep was assessed continuously using actigraphy and diaries. Assessment of sleep by actigraphy confirmed that the intervention reduced daily sleep duration by 01:19 ± 00:15 (SE; p<0.001). Sleep restriction led to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin which varied during the three week period. There was no effect on plasma adiponectin or vascular function. Even minor reductions in sleep duration lead to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and other metabolic parameters which vary during the exposure period. Larger and longer longitudinal studies of sleep restriction and sleep extension are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term feed restriction impairs the absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Albornoz, R I; Aschenbach, J R; Barreda, D R; Penner, G B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether different severities of short-term feed restriction (FR) affect the absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle. Eighteen ruminally cannulated and ovariectomized Angus × Hereford heifers were blocked by BW into 3 blocks, with blocks conducted sequentially. Treatments were imposed during the 5-d FR period by restricting heifers to 75 (FR75), 50 (FR50) or 25% (FR25) of the ad libitum feed intake measured during a 5-d baseline period (BASE) occurring immediately before FR. Throughout the study, heifers were housed in individual pens (9 m(2)) and were fed the same diet (60% forage:40% concentrate) with free access to water. Dry matter intake was measured daily and ruminal pH was measured every 2 min throughout the study. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected on d 3 of the BASE and FR periods, and the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen technique was used to evaluate short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption on d 5 of the BASE and FR periods. Total tract barrier function was evaluated starting on d 2 of the BASE and FR periods using a pulse dose of Cr-EDTA followed by 48 h of total urine collection. Data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of SAS with the fixed effects of block, treatment, period, and the treatment × period interaction, the random effect of cow nested in block with period included as a repeated measure. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments during BASE but, as imposed by the experimental model, DMI during FR relative to BASE equated to 70, 49, and 25%, which was close to the targeted values of 75, 50, and 25% (treatment × period, P < 0.001). A treatment × period interaction (P < 0.001) was also detected for ruminal SCFA concentration with the concentration decreasing as the severity of FR increased, whereas there were no differences during BASE. Mean ruminal pH increased during FR with increasing severity of FR

  19. Effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat feeding on diet-induced thermogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Sellayah, Dyan; Dib, Lea; Anthony, Frederick W; Watkins, Adam J; Fleming, Tom P; Hanson, Mark A; Cagampang, Felino R

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal undernutrition followed by postweaning feeding of a high-fat diet results in obesity in the adult offspring. In this study, we investigated whether diet-induced thermogenesis is altered as a result of such nutritional mismatch. Female MF-1 mice were fed a normal protein (NP, 18% casein) or a protein-restricted (PR, 9% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both groups were fed either a high-fat diet (HF; 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 7% kcal fat) to generate the NP/C, NP/HF, PR/C and PR/HF adult offspring groups (n = 7-11 per group). PR/C and NP/C offspring have similar body weights at 30 weeks of age. Postweaning HF feeding resulted in significantly heavier NP/HF offspring (P < 0.01), but not in PR/HF offspring, compared with their chow-fed counterparts. However, the PR/HF offspring exhibited greater adiposity (P < 0.01) v the NP/HF group. The NP/HF offspring had increased energy expenditure and increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1 and β-3 adrenergic receptor in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) compared with the NP/C mice (both at P < 0.01). No such differences in energy expenditure and iBAT gene expression were observed between the PR/HF and PR/C offspring. These data suggest that a mismatch between maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation, and the postweaning diet of the offspring, can attenuate diet-induced thermogenesis in the iBAT, resulting in the development of obesity in adulthood.

  20. Feeding history and obese-prone genotype increase survival of rats exposed to a challenge of food restriction and wheel running.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Heth, C Donald; Russell, James C; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that obese-prone genotype and history of food restriction confer a survival advantage to genetically obese animals under environmental challenge. Male juvenile JCR:LA-cp rats, obese-prone and lean-prone, were exposed to 1.5 h daily meals and 22.5-h voluntary wheel running, a procedure inducing activity anorexia (AA). One week before the AA challenge, obese-prone rats were freely fed (obese-FF), or pair fed (obese-PF) to lean-prone, free-feeding rats (lean-FF). Animals were removed from protocol at 75% of initial body weight (starvation criterion) or after 14 days (survival criterion). AA challenge induced weight loss in all rats, but percent weight loss was more rapid and sustained in lean-FF rats than in obese-FF or obese-PF animals (P < 0.04). Weight loss was significantly higher in obese-FF rats than obese-PF rats, 62% of which achieved survival criterion and stabilized with zero weight loss. Obese-PF rats survived longer, on average (12.0 ± 1.1 day) than obese-FF (8.2 ± 1.1 day) and lean-FF rats (3.5 ± 0.2 day) (P < 0.02). Wheel running increased linearly in all groups; lean-FF increased more rapidly than obese-FF (P < 0.05); obese-PF increased at an intermediate rate (P < 0.02), and those rats that survived stabilized daily rates of wheel running. Prior food restriction of juvenile obese-prone rats induces a survival benefit beyond genotype, that is related to achievement of homeostasis. This metabolic adaptive process may help explain the development of human obesity in the presence of an unstable food environment which subsequently transitions to an abundant food supply.

  1. Development of nitrogen and methane losses in the first eight weeks of lactation in Holstein cows subjected to deficiency of utilisable crude protein under restrictive feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Franz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Low-protein diets are increasingly being used in dairy cow nutrition to minimise noxious nitrogen (N) emissions. However, at parturition, the lower milk yield at that time may mask deficiency in dietary utilisable crude protein (uCP; equivalent to metabolisable protein). Under restrictive feeding conditions, farmers would limit the feed allowance to match the lower measured milk yield, thereby exacerbating the deficiency. The consequences for N emission intensity per kg milk yield and methane emissions are unknown. In this study, two diets were fed to nine Holstein cows each from parturition onwards. One diet was complete and the other was calculated as 20% deficient in uCP. Feed allowance was always oriented towards the measured milk yield. In each of the first eight lactation weeks, intake and excretion were measured for 5 d. On the last 2 d of this period, methane emission was measured in respiration chambers. The statistical model included treatment, week and interaction as effects. The real levels of uCP and energy supply across the 8 weeks were 33% and 15% below requirements, respectively, in the Deficient cows. In addition, the Deficient cows consumed 18% less dry matter (caused by substantial refusals in week 1, where energy supply was according to requirements) and produced 25% less milk (26 vs. 34 kg/d). Cows in both groups used dietary N with similar efficiency for milk protein synthesis and excreted similar proportions of the N ingested via urine and faeces. This resulted in both treatments having similar N emission intensities per kg milk N and similar urinary N as a proportion of total excreta N, suggesting a similar potential for gaseous N emissions from the manure per kg of milk. The Deficient cows emitted 22% less methane overall but had similar methane yield and emission intensity to the Controls. In conclusion, a reduction in crude protein intake immediately after parturition does not reduce N emission per unit of milk when associated with u

  2. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Mikayla F A; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Yang, Yichao; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3-5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg); shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h); using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software's optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results.

  3. Multiparous cows categorized by milk protein concentration and energy-corrected milk yield during early lactation--metabolism, productivity and effect of a short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Sigl, T; Gellrich, K; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M; Wiedemann, S

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study milk productivity, metabolic adaptation and effect of a short-term feed restriction (FR) on key performance indicators during early lactation in cows classified according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and milk protein concentration. Twenty-three multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were categorized in four groups according to respective averaged values on Days 23-25 postpartum: high ECM yield and high protein concentration; low ECM yield and low protein concentration; high ECM yield and low protein concentration and low ECM yield and high protein concentration. Dry matter intake was reduced to 68.3% for three subsequent days. Our results showed that short-time FR in early lactation succeeded in enhancing energy deficit of cows in all groups. Milk fat, milk protein and lactose concentrations as well as milk fat yield were not influenced by FR. Several hepatic genes encoding for enzymes involved in catabolism of amino acids, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as well as mRNA encoding for insulin receptor showed increased transcript abundances after FR, primarily in cows with high milk yield and low milk protein concentration.

  4. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  5. Episodic Sucrose Intake During Food Restriction Increases Synaptic Abundance of AMPA Receptors in Nucleus Accumbens and Augments Intake of Sucrose Following Restoration of Ad Libitum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xing-Xiang; Lister, Amanda; Rabinowitsch, Ariana; Kolaric, Rhonda; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Ziff, Edward B.; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic “breakthrough” intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for ten occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-hour chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  6. Time-restricted feeding of rapidly digested starches causes stronger entrainment of the liver clock in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, Misa; Hirao, Akiko; Nagahama, Hiroki; Otsuka, Makiko; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Hirao, Kazuko; Hatta, Tamao; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-02-01

    Restricting feeding to daytime can entrain circadian clocks in peripheral organs of rodents, and nutrients that rapidly increase the blood glucose level are suitable for inducing entrainment. However, dietetic issues, for example, whether or not the diet comprises heated food, have not been fully explored. We therefore hypothesized that rapidly digested starch causes stronger entrainment than slowly digested starch. The entrainment ability of the liver clock in PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and acute changes in liver clock gene expression were compared between a β-starch (native)-substituted AIN-93M standard diet and an α-starch (gelatinized)-substituted diet. β-Corn and β-rice starch induced larger phase delays of the liver clock, larger blood glucose increases, and higher Per2 gene expression in the liver compared with β-potato starch. Starch granule size, as examined by electron microscopy, was larger for β-potato starch than for β-corn or β-rice starch. After heating, we obtained gelatinized α-potato, α-corn, and α-rice starch, which showed destruction of the crystal structure and a high level of gelatinization. No difference in the increase of blood glucose or insulin levels was observed between β-corn and α-corn starch, or between β-rice and α-rice starch. In contrast, α-potato starch caused higher levels of glucose and insulin compared with β-potato starch. An α-potato starch-substituted diet induced larger phase delays of the liver clock than did β-potato starch. Therefore, rapidly digested starch is appropriate for peripheral clock entrainment. Dietetic issues (heated vs unheated) are important when applying basic mouse data to humans.

  7. Global Metabolic Profiling of Plasma Shows that Three-Year Mild-Caloric Restriction Lessens an Age-Related Increase in Sphingomyelin and Reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The three-year MCD intervention resulted in weight loss (-8.87%) and significant decreases in HOMA-IR and TG. The three-year follow-up of the MCD group showed reductions in the following 13 metabolites: L-leucine; L-phenylalanine; 9 lysoPCs; PC (18:0/20:4); and SM (d18:0/16:1). The three-year MCD group follow-up identified increases in palmitic amide, oleamide, and PC (18:2/18:2). Considering the age-related alterations in the identified metabolites, the MCD group showed a greater decrease in L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, and SM (d18:0/16:1) compared with those of the control group. Overall, the change (Δ) in BMI positively correlated with the ΔTG, ΔHOMA-IR, ΔL-leucine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The ΔHOMA-IR positively correlated with ΔTG, ΔL-leucine, ΔL-phenylalanine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The weight loss resulting from three-year mild-caloric restriction lessens the age-related increase in SM and reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in overweight and obese subjects. These changes were coupled with improved insulin resistance (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02081898). PMID:28053823

  8. Global Metabolic Profiling of Plasma Shows that Three-Year Mild-Caloric Restriction Lessens an Age-Related Increase in Sphingomyelin and Reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjoo; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-12-01

    The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The three-year MCD intervention resulted in weight loss (-8.87%) and significant decreases in HOMA-IR and TG. The three-year follow-up of the MCD group showed reductions in the following 13 metabolites: L-leucine; L-phenylalanine; 9 lysoPCs; PC (18:0/20:4); and SM (d18:0/16:1). The three-year MCD group follow-up identified increases in palmitic amide, oleamide, and PC (18:2/18:2). Considering the age-related alterations in the identified metabolites, the MCD group showed a greater decrease in L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, and SM (d18:0/16:1) compared with those of the control group. Overall, the change (Δ) in BMI positively correlated with the ΔTG, ΔHOMA-IR, ΔL-leucine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The ΔHOMA-IR positively correlated with ΔTG, ΔL-leucine, ΔL-phenylalanine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The weight loss resulting from three-year mild-caloric restriction lessens the age-related increase in SM and reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in overweight and obese subjects. These changes were coupled with improved insulin resistance (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02081898).

  9. Level of maternal winter supplement and feed restriction during postweaning development influences circulating concentrations of IGF-I in heifers during the peripartum and rebreeding period.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective of this research was to evaluate effects of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their daughters during postweaning development on circulating concentrations of IGF-I in the daughters before calving, after calving and before ...

  10. Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Calves From Dams With Different Levels of Winter Supplementation Developed With or Without Feed Restriction During the Postweaning Period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvested feedstuffs are a major input cost for beef cattle production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot ...

  11. Level of maternal winter supplement and feed restriction during postweaning development influence circulating concentrations of IGF-I in heifers during the peripartum and rebreeding period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective of this research was to evaluate effects of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their daughters during postweaning development on circulating concentrations of IGF-I in the daughters before calving, after calving and before ...

  12. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of calves from dams with different levels of winter supplementation developed with or without feed restriction during the postweaning period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Bull calves (n = 56) were born ...

  13. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-09

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of <8% in 95% of all cases. This included the error of the method (measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk.

  14. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  15. No effects of short-term sleep restriction, in a controlled feeding setting, on lipid profiles in normal-weight adults.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L; Kelleman, Michael; Roychoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Short sleep has been associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short-term sleep restriction on lipid profiles and resting blood pressure factors in young, normal-weight individuals (14 men, 13 women). Participants were randomized to five nights of either habitual (9 h) or short (4 h) sleep in a cross-over design separated by a 3-week washout period. There was no sleep × day interaction on lipid profile and blood pressure. Short-term sleep restriction does not alter lipid profiles and resting blood pressure in healthy, normal-weight individuals. The association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk reported in the epidemiological literature may be the result of long-term sleep restriction and poor lifestyle choices. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Lipid metabolism and mitochondrial energy production are key pathways involved in adipose tissue of cows transitioning from feed restriction to ad libitum diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. The majority of the nutrients are used to support the cow’s maintenance requirements and substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward this type of energy expenditure. The objective of ...

  17. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    PubMed Central

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  18. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liew, P K; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Israf, D A

    2003-12-01

    The effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, antibody production, resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD), and growth of heat-stressed male broiler chickens were investigated. Chicks were divided into 4 groups: 60% feed restriction on d 4,5, and 6 (FR); exposure to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 1 h from d 1 to 21 (HT); combination of FR and HT (FRHT); and control. From d 35 to 50, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% RH for 2 h/d. On d 36, each bird was administered 10 times the normal dose of live IBD vaccine. After heat exposure, the FRHT birds had higher HSP 70 density (d 41) and weight gain (from d 35 to 49) and lower bursal histological score (BHS) (d 51) than their HT and control counterparts. The HSP 70 expression and BHS of FR birds were not significantly different from those of the other 3 groups during the heat exposure period. Heat shock protein 70 and BHS data were negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P = 0.0008). We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response.

  19. Early postnatal feed restriction reduces liver connective tissue levels and affects H3K9 acetylation state of regulated genes associated with protein metabolism in low birth weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Nebendahl, Constance; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Krüger, Ricarda; Martens, Karen; Giller, Katrin; Hammon, Harald M; Rimbach, Gerald; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with metabolic consequences in adulthood. Since our previous data indicate birth weight-dependent effects of feed restriction (R) on protein degradation processes in the liver, it should be investigated whether effects on connective tissue turnover are obvious and could be explained by global changes of histone H3K9me3 and H3K9ac states in regulated genes. For this purpose, female littermate pigs with low (U) or normal (N) birth weight were subjected to 3-week R (60% of ad libitum fed controls) with subsequent refeeding (REF) for further 5 weeks. The 3-week R-period induced a significant reduction of connective tissue area by 43% in the liver of U animals at 98 d of age, which was not found in age-matched N animals. Of note, after REF at 131 d of age, in previously feed-restricted U animals (UR), the percentage of mean connective tissue was only 53% of ad libitum fed controls (UK), indicating a persistent effect. In U animals, R induced H3K9 acetylation of regulated genes (e.g. XBP1, ERLEC1, GALNT2, PTRH2), which were inter alia associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, REF was mostly accompanied by deacetylation in U and N animals. Thus, our epigenetic data may give a first explanation for the observed birth weight-dependent differences in this connective tissue phenotype.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Restrictive Fluid Management in Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Trasande, Leonardo; Holzman, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of mild fluid restriction on the hospital course of neonates with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Study design This is a pilot prospective randomized controlled trial of 64 late preterm and term neonates diagnosed with TTN at a single tertiary-care hospital in the United States. Patients were randomized to receive standard fluid management or mild fluid restriction. Primary outcome was duration of respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were duration of admission to the ICU, time to first enteral feed, and total and composite hospital charges. Results were analyzed by t-test, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier estimation and proportional hazards regression. Results Fluid restriction did not cause adverse events or unsafe dehydration. Fluid management strategy did not affect primary or secondary outcomes in the broad study population. Fluid restriction significantly reduced duration of respiratory support (p=0.008) and hospitalization costs (p=0.017) for neonates with severe TTN. Conclusions Mild fluid restriction appears safe in late preterm and term neonates with uncomplicated TTN. Fluid restriction may be of benefit in decreasing duration of respiratory support and hospitalization charges in term and late preterm neonates with uncomplicated severe TTN. PMID:21839467

  1. Improvement in the high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and adiponectin levels by fish oil feeding combined with food restriction in obese KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Wakutsu, Masaki; Tsunoda, Nobuyo; Mochi, Yasuki; Numajiri, Mitsuki; Shiba, Sachiko; Muraki, Etsuko; Kasono, Keizo

    2012-01-01

    The effect on weight reduction of fish oil combined with food restriction in comparison with that of beef tallow was investigated in high-fat diet-induced obese KKAy mice. Although the reduction of body and white adipose tissue weight was similar in the two groups, fish oil increased adiponectin levels in the plasma, improved dyslipidemia accompanied by suppression of lipid synthesis in the liver when compared with beef tallow.

  2. comment="please make the changes marked up in the attached pdf"Sex-Dependent Effects of Caloric Restriction on the Ageing of an Ambush Feeding Copepod.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene

    2017-10-04

    Planktonic copepods are a very successful group in marine pelagic environments, with a key role in biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the genus Oithona is one of the more abundant and ubiquitous. We report here on the effects of caloric (food) restriction on the ageing patterns of the copepod Oithona davisae. The response of O. davisae to caloric restriction was sex dependent: under food limitation, females have lower age-specific mortality rates and longer lifespans and reproductive periods; male mortality rates and life expectancy were not affected. Males are more active swimmers than females, and given their higher energetic demands presumably generate reactive oxygen species at higher rates. That was confirmed by starvation experiments, which showed that O. davisae males burn through body reserves much faster, resulting in shorter life expectancy. Compared with common, coastal calanoid copepods, the effects of caloric restriction on O. davisae appeared less prominent. We think this difference in the magnitude of the responses is a consequence of the distinct life-history traits associated with the genus Oithona (ambush feeder, egg-carrier), with much lower overall levels of metabolism and reproductive effort.

  3. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  4. [Effect of ad lib and restricted milk feeding on the course of illness and body weight in young calves with diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Hinderer, A; Seemann, G; Klee, W

    1999-01-01

    Two different feeding regimens for calves (age up to 21 days) suffering from acute diarrhea were evaluated with respect to course of illness and change in body weight. The patients of the experimental group were given whole milk ad libitum three times a day. The patients of the control group were offered whole milk at a rate of 13% their body mass per day divided into three meals. In addition, both groups were offered an oral rehydration solution at a rate 9.5% of body mass per day, also divided into three portions. Data from 60 calves (30 in both groups) were available for statistical analysis. The duration of illness in the experimental group was 10.9 +/- 6.0 days vs. 10.0 +/- 5.2 days in the control group. The daily increase of body mass in the experimental group averaged 0.607 +/- 0.452 kg, the one in the control group 0.230 +/- 0.231 kg (p = 0.0002). The calves of the experimental group required 13.16 +/- 11.18 I milk per kg weight gain, the calves of the control group 21.39 +/- 12.80 I. Six calves of the experimental group and two calves of the control group subsequently had a relapse. On the basis of the results obtained, a feeding regimen for calves suffering from acute diarrhea is suggested.

  5. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mild balanoposthitis.

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, C V; Calabrŏ, A; Miglietta, A; Tarantello, M; Biasinutto, C; Peserico, A

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To identify and study cases of mild balanoposthitis (MBP) with penile pathology among patients observed at a dermatology clinic over an 18-month period. MATERIALS--The study included 321 patients with penile pathology. The term MBP was used to describe balanoposthitis of a localised, inflammatory nature with few, non-specific symptoms and a tendency to become chronic or recur. Two hundred and seventy had diseases clearly identifiable by clinical examination or laboratory tests; 51 cases were diagnosed as MBP and these patients had blood tests (to evaluate immune status) and microbiological examination; when these proved negative, a series of patch tests was also used. RESULTS--Of the 51 patients diagnosed as having MBP, the cause was ascertained in 34 cases (infection, mechanical trauma, contact irritation, contact allergy, etc.), whereas no specific aetiological factor was detected to explain the symptoms in the remaining 17 cases. PMID:8001949

  7. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.2 General restrictions. (a) No person shall feed or permit the feeding of garbage to swine unless the garbage is treated to... to the feeding or the permitting of the feeding to swine of garbage only because the garbage consists...

  8. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.2 General restrictions. (a) No person shall feed or permit the feeding of garbage to swine unless the garbage is treated to... to the feeding or the permitting of the feeding to swine of garbage only because the garbage consists...

  9. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.2 General restrictions. (a) No person shall feed or permit the feeding of garbage to swine unless the garbage is treated to... to the feeding or the permitting of the feeding to swine of garbage only because the garbage consists...

  10. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.2 General restrictions. (a) No person shall feed or permit the feeding of garbage to swine unless the garbage is treated to... to the feeding or the permitting of the feeding to swine of garbage only because the garbage consists...

  11. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  12. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    PubMed

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  13. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in cats.

    PubMed

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

  14. Extensive Reorganization of Primary Afferent Projections into the Gustatory Brainstem Induced by Feeding a Sodium-Restricted Diet during Development: Less Is More

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Jamie E.; Hill, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Neural development is especially vulnerable to environmental influences during periods of neurogenesis and rapid maturation. In fact, short periods of environmental manipulations confined to embryonic development lead to significant changes in morphology and function. A guiding principal emerging from studies of sensory systems is that experimentally induced effects are most dramatic in higher neural levels (e.g., cortex) and primarily involve postnatal synaptic refinements. In contrast to other sensory systems, the gustatory system is particularly susceptible to the effects of deprivation much earlier and with profound changes evident in the brainstem. Here we show that feeding pregnant rats a custom diet featuring a low-sodium content for 9 d before the tongue appears in the fetus produces extensive restructuring of the gustatory brainstem. Rats born to mothers fed the custom diet from embryonic day 3 (E3) to E12 have terminal field volumes of the greater superficial petrosal, chorda tympani, and glossopharyngeal nerves at adulthood that are expanded as much as 10 times beyond that found in rats fed a standard rat chow. The widespread alterations are not attributable to increased numbers of nerve cells, increased target size, or obvious changes in peripheral taste function. Moreover, we show that the limited period of feeding the custom diet has much larger effects than if rats were fed the diet to postweaning ages. Our results suggest that early periods of altered experience, especially during nucleus of the solitary tract neurogenesis, leads to a restructuring of the gustatory brainstem, which in turn may impact the control of sensory and homeostatic processes. PMID:17460078

  15. Differential effects of chronic hypoxia and feed restriction on the expression of leptin and its receptor, food intake regulation and the endocrine stress response in common carp.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nicholas J; Gorissen, Marnix; Flik, Gert

    2012-07-01

    Appetite suppression is a common response to hypoxia in fish that confers significant energy savings. Yet little is known about the endocrine signals involved in the regulation of food intake during chronic hypoxia. Thus, we assessed the impact of chronic hypoxia on food intake, the expression of the potent anorexigenic signal leptin and its receptor (lepr), the mRNA levels of key hypothalamic appetite-regulating genes, and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish exposed to 10% O(2) saturation for 8 days were chronically anorexic and consumed on average 79% less food than normoxic controls. Hypoxia also elicited gradual and parallel increases in the expression of liver leptin-a-I, leptin-a-II, lepr and erythropoietin, a known hypoxia-responsive gene. In contrast, the liver mRNA levels of all four genes remained unchanged in normoxic fish pair-fed to the hypoxia treatment. In the hypothalamus, expression of the appetite-regulating genes were consistent with an inhibition and stimulation of hunger in the hypoxic and pair-fed fish, respectively, and reduced feed intake led to a decrease in lepr. Although both treatments elicited similar delayed increases in plasma cortisol, they were characterized by distinct HPI axis effector transcript levels and a marked differential increase in pituitary lepr expression. Together, these results show that a reduction in O(2) availability, and not feed intake, stimulates liver leptin-a expression in common carp and suggest that this pleiotropic cytokine is involved in the regulation of appetite and the endocrine stress response during chronic hypoxia.

  16. Neuroendocrine-immune correlates of circadian physiology: studies in experimental models of arthritis, ethanol feeding, aging, social isolation, and calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2007-08-01

    Virtually all neuroendocrine and immunological variables investigated in animals and humans display biological periodicity. Circadian rhythmicity is revealed for every hormone in circulation as well as for circulating immune cells, lymphocyte metabolism and transformability, cytokines, receptors, and adhesion molecules. Clock genes, notably the three Period (Per1/Per2/Per3) genes and two Cryptochrome (Cry1/Cry2) genes, are present in immune and endocrine cells and are expressed in a circadian manner in human cells. This review discusses the circadian disruption of hormone release and immune-related mechanisms in several animal models in which circulating cytokines are modified including rat adjuvant arthritis, social isolation in rats and rabbits and alcoholism, the aging process and calorie restriction in rats. In every case the experimental manipulation used perturbed the temporal organization by affecting the shape and amplitude of a rhythm or by modifying the intrinsic oscillatory mechanism itself.

  17. Effect of a negative energy balance induced by feed restriction on pro-inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Gröne, Birthe; Rosenbaum, Susann; Most, Erika; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    High-producing sows develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver during lactation. At present, it is unknown whether a negative energy balance (NEB) is causative for this. Therefore, an experiment with lactating sows, which were either restricted in their feed intake to 82% of their energy requirement (Group FR) or were fed to meet their energy requirement (Control), was performed and the effect on ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signalling in the liver was evaluated. Relative mRNA concentrations of several genes involved in ER stress-induced UPR, NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signalling were reduced in the liver of Group FR compared to the Control group. Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were 13% and 37%, respectively, lower in Group FR than in the Control group, but these differences were not significant. In conclusion, feed restriction in lactating sows inhibits pro-inflammatory and ER stress signalling pathways in the liver, which suggests that not the NEB per se is causative for inflammation and ER stress induction in the liver of lactating sows. Rather it is likely that ER stress during lactation is the consequence of the presence of potent pro-inflammatory and ER stress-inducing stimuli, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species and microbial components, which enter the circulation as a result of infectious diseases that frequently occur in sows after farrowing.

  18. The contrasting effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding of a diet very high in saturated fats on sex ratio and metabolic hormones in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexenko, Andrei P; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Davis, Angela M; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-10-01

    Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss mice were placed on the VHF diet either ad libitum (VHF) or in a restricted manner (VHF-R). The VHF-R mice gained weight at a similar rate to controls fed a standard chow diet. Mice were bred at 15 wk and subsequently at 26 wk and 35 wk of age. Overall, the VHF, VHF-R, and control groups delivered 244, 242, and 274 pups, respectively, with male proportions of 0.60, 0.43, and 0.48, respectively. The pup sex ratios of the VHF group (favoring males) and VHF-R group (favoring females) each differed from 0.5 (P < 0.01). The sex ratios also differed (P < 0.0001) between the VHF and control groups, and between the VHF and VHF-R groups. Within the diet groups, maternal body weight had no effect on sex ratio. Serum leptin concentrations among the dams were similar in the VHF and VHF-R groups but higher than in the control group, while the IGF1 and corticosterone levels were comparable in all three groups. Therefore, the atypical sex ratios of offspring born to dams on the VHF diet seem to be influenced by the amount of fat consumed. Since males fed the VHF diet had neither more Y-sperm nor sired more sons than daughters, the dietary effects are manifested exclusively through the female.

  19. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is of normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does ...

  20. Effects of feed restriction and prolactin-release inhibition at drying-off on susceptibility to new intramammary infection in cows.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Zhao, X; Lacasse, P

    2015-01-01

    A cow's risk of acquiring a new intramammary infection during the dry period increases with milk production at drying-off. A method commonly used to reduce milk production is a drastic reduction in feed supply in the days that precede drying-off. Milk production can also be reduced by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin (PRL). This study aimed to compare the effects of these 2 drying-off procedures on milk production, metabolism, and susceptibility to intramammary infection in cows. A total of 21 Holstein cows in late lactation were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments based on milk yield, somatic cell count, and parity. The cows were fed a lactation diet until drying-off (control), only dry hay during the last 5 d before drying-off (DH), or the same diet as the control cows but with twice-daily i.m. injections of 4mg of quinagolide, a specific inhibitor of PRL release, from 5 d before drying-off until 13 d after (QN). On d 1 to 7 after the last milking, the cows were challenged by daily teat dipping in a solution containing Streptococcus agalactiae at 5×10(7) cfu/mL. Quinagolide induced a decrease in PRL concentration in blood on all the injection days. Blood PRL was also depressed in the hay-fed cows before drying-off. Both the QN and DH treatments induced a decrease in milk production, which at drying-off averaged 12.0, 10.0, and 21.7kg/d for the QN, DH, and control cows, respectively. The DH treatment decreased blood concentration of glucose and increased blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids before drying-off. Somatic cell count at drying-off was greater in the milk of the QN cows than in that of the control cows but after drying-off was greater in the mammary secretions of the control cows than in those of the QN cows. The number of S. agalactiae colonies found in mammary secretions on d 8 and 14 after the last milking was lower for the QN cows than for the control cows. The percentage of S. agalactiae

  1. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  2. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  3. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  4. Impact of aspen furniture and restricted feeding on activity, blood pressure, heart rate and faecal corticosterone and immunoglobulin A excretion in rats (Rattus norvegicus) housed in individually ventilated cages.

    PubMed

    Kemppinen, N; Hau, J; Meller, A; Mauranen, K; Kohila, T; Nevalainen, T

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of adding different items in individually ventilated rat cages on the animal's activity, cardiovascular parameters and faecal stress indicators. The following three cage items made of aspen were compared: a cross made of two intersecting boards, a similar cross where drilled holes were loaded with food pellets (restricted feeding) and a rectangular tube. Male rats of the strains BN and F344 (n = 12) were housed in groups of three; one rat in each group was implanted with a telemetric transponder to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). In a crossover design, each group spent 14 days with each type of cage furniture, thereafter faecal pellets were collected for faecal analyses. The means of activity and means and coefficient of variation for MAP and HR were calculated for days 2, 6, 10 and 14. As a way of determining which of the statistically significant MAP and HR mean changes were biologically meaningful, the night-day differences of the controls on day 14 were used. Both board types lowered MAP of F344 rats; hence dividing walls seem beneficial for F344 welfare. None of the MAP or HR differences in BN rats were biologically significant. No statistically significant differences in faecal corticosterone or IgA excretion were detected. In conclusion, provision of general recommendations with respect to cage furniture for rat cages is complicated because there is a clear genetic component involved in how animals respond to these structures.

  5. Perioperative Fluid Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua I.S.; Aarons, Cary B.

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management of the colorectal surgical patient has evolved significantly over the last five decades. Older notions espousing aggressive hydration have been shown to be associated with increased complications. Newer data regarding fluid restriction has shown an association with improved outcomes. Management of perioperative fluid administration can be considered in three primary phases: In the preoperative phase, data suggests that avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation and avoidance of undue preoperative dehydration can improve outcomes. Although the type of intraoperative fluid given does not have a significant effect on outcome, data do suggest that a restrictive fluid regimen results in improved outcomes. Finally, in the postoperative phase of fluid management, a fluid-restrictive regimen, coupled with early enteral feeding also seems to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24436675

  6. Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males.

    PubMed

    Moro, Tatiana; Tinsley, Grant; Bianco, Antonino; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Pacelli, Quirico Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Palma, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Neri, Marco; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-10-13

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to time-restricted feeding (TRF) or normal diet group (ND). TRF subjects consumed 100 % of their energy needs in an 8-h period of time each day, with their caloric intake divided into three meals consumed at 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. The remaining 16 h per 24-h period made up the fasting period. Subjects in the ND group consumed 100 % of their energy needs divided into three meals consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution (TRF 2826 ± 412.3 kcal/day, carbohydrates 53.2 ± 1.4 %, fat 24.7 ± 3.1 %, protein 22.1 ± 2.6 %, ND 3007 ± 444.7 kcal/day, carbohydrates 54.7 ± 2.2 %, fat 23.9 ± 3.5 %, protein 21.4 ± 1.8). Subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of the assigned diet and standardized resistance training program. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscle area of the thigh and arm were measured using an anthropometric system. Total and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Bench press and leg press maximal strength, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory

  7. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q

    2002-08-01

    Ctenophores are thoroughly modern animals whose ancestors are derived from a separate evolutionary branch than that of other eumetazoans. Their major longitudinal body axis is the oral-aboral axis. An apical sense organ, called the apical organ, is located at the aboral pole and contains a highly innervated statocyst and photodetecting cells. The apical organ integrates sensory information and controls the locomotory apparatus of ctenophores, the eight longitudinal rows of ctene/comb plates. In an effort to understand the developmental and evolutionary organization of axial properties of ctenophores we have isolated a forkhead gene from the Brain Factor 1 (BF-1) family. This gene, ctenoBF-1, is the first full-length nuclear gene reported from ctenophores. This makes ctenophores the most basal metazoan (to date) known to express definitive forkhead class transcription factors. Orthologs of BF-1 in vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans are expressed in anterior neural structures. Surprisingly, in situ hybridizations with ctenoBF-1 antisense riboprobes show that this gene is not expressed in the apical organ of ctenophores. CtenoBF-1 is expressed prior to first cleavage. Transcripts become localized to the aboral pole by the 8-cell stage and are inherited by ectodermal micromeres generated from this region at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Expression in subsets of these cells persists and is seen around the edge of the blastopore (presumptive mouth) and in distinct ectodermal regions along the tentacular poles. Following gastrulation, stomodeal expression begins to fade and intense staining becomes restricted to two distinct domains in each tentacular feeding apparatus. We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals.

  8. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenophores are thoroughly modern animals whose ancestors are derived from a separate evolutionary branch than that of other eumetazoans. Their major longitudinal body axis is the oral-aboral axis. An apical sense organ, called the apical organ, is located at the aboral pole and contains a highly innervated statocyst and photodetecting cells. The apical organ integrates sensory information and controls the locomotory apparatus of ctenophores, the eight longitudinal rows of ctene/comb plates. In an effort to understand the developmental and evolutionary organization of axial properties of ctenophores we have isolated a forkhead gene from the Brain Factor 1 (BF-1) family. This gene, ctenoBF-1, is the first full-length nuclear gene reported from ctenophores. This makes ctenophores the most basal metazoan (to date) known to express definitive forkhead class transcription factors. Orthologs of BF-1 in vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans are expressed in anterior neural structures. Surprisingly, in situ hybridizations with ctenoBF-1 antisense riboprobes show that this gene is not expressed in the apical organ of ctenophores. CtenoBF-1 is expressed prior to first cleavage. Transcripts become localized to the aboral pole by the 8-cell stage and are inherited by ectodermal micromeres generated from this region at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Expression in subsets of these cells persists and is seen around the edge of the blastopore (presumptive mouth) and in distinct ectodermal regions along the tentacular poles. Following gastrulation, stomodeal expression begins to fade and intense staining becomes restricted to two distinct domains in each tentacular feeding apparatus. We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals.

  9. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenophores are thoroughly modern animals whose ancestors are derived from a separate evolutionary branch than that of other eumetazoans. Their major longitudinal body axis is the oral-aboral axis. An apical sense organ, called the apical organ, is located at the aboral pole and contains a highly innervated statocyst and photodetecting cells. The apical organ integrates sensory information and controls the locomotory apparatus of ctenophores, the eight longitudinal rows of ctene/comb plates. In an effort to understand the developmental and evolutionary organization of axial properties of ctenophores we have isolated a forkhead gene from the Brain Factor 1 (BF-1) family. This gene, ctenoBF-1, is the first full-length nuclear gene reported from ctenophores. This makes ctenophores the most basal metazoan (to date) known to express definitive forkhead class transcription factors. Orthologs of BF-1 in vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans are expressed in anterior neural structures. Surprisingly, in situ hybridizations with ctenoBF-1 antisense riboprobes show that this gene is not expressed in the apical organ of ctenophores. CtenoBF-1 is expressed prior to first cleavage. Transcripts become localized to the aboral pole by the 8-cell stage and are inherited by ectodermal micromeres generated from this region at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Expression in subsets of these cells persists and is seen around the edge of the blastopore (presumptive mouth) and in distinct ectodermal regions along the tentacular poles. Following gastrulation, stomodeal expression begins to fade and intense staining becomes restricted to two distinct domains in each tentacular feeding apparatus. We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals.

  10. Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Kraus, William E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE While the impact of caloric restriction on human health is not fully understood, there is strong evidence to support further studies of its influence on cardiovascular health. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the science by examining the relevant literature regarding calorie restriction effects on aging and cardiovascular health and to discuss the possible role(s) of calorie restriction in preserving cardiovascular function in humans. METHODS For purpose of this review, we have defined calorie restriction as a reduction in energy intake well below the amount of calories that would be consumed ad libitum (≥ 10% in humans, ≥20% in animals). We examined the relevant literature on calorie restriction effects on longevity and cardiovascular health, with an emphasis on the state of the science regarding calorie restriction in humans. We have emphasized the importance of the preliminary and expected findings from the Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effect of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial. RESULTS Evidence from animal studies and a limited number of human trials indicates that calorie restriction has the potential to both delay cardiac aging and help prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory processes, and potentially other mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS Based upon its known benefits to cardiometabolic health, including modest calorie restriction in a combined lifestyle program is likely to improve heart health and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events in overweight and obese individuals. Additional study is needed to further illuminate its long-term applicability for older adults and for those with significant comorbidities such as heart failure. PMID:23748374

  11. Meta-Analysis of Early Nutrition: The Benefits of Enteral Feeding Compared to a Nil Per Os Diet Not Only in Severe, but Also in Mild and Moderate Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Márta, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Szabó, Imre; Illés, Anita; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Szemes, Kata; Pécsi, Dániel; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-10-20

    The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome. There were 717 articles found in Embase, 831 in PubMed, and 10 in the Cochrane database. Altogether, seven SAP and six MAP articles were suitable for analyses. In SAP, forest plots were used to illustrate three primary endpoints (mortality, multiorgan failure, and intervention). In MAP, 14 additional secondary endpoints were analyzed (such as CRP (C-reactive protein), WCC (white cell count), complications, etc.). After pooling the data, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences. Funnel plots were created for testing heterogeneity. All of the primary endpoints investigated showed that EN is beneficial vs. NPO in SAP. In MAP, all of the six articles found merit in EN. Analyses of the primary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups; however, analyzing the 17 endpoints together showed a significant difference in favor of EN vs. NPO. EN is beneficial compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate AP.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Early Nutrition: The Benefits of Enteral Feeding Compared to a Nil Per Os Diet Not Only in Severe, but Also in Mild and Moderate Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Márta, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Szabó, Imre; Illés, Anita; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Szemes, Kata; Pécsi, Dániel; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome. There were 717 articles found in Embase, 831 in PubMed, and 10 in the Cochrane database. Altogether, seven SAP and six MAP articles were suitable for analyses. In SAP, forest plots were used to illustrate three primary endpoints (mortality, multiorgan failure, and intervention). In MAP, 14 additional secondary endpoints were analyzed (such as CRP (C-reactive protein), WCC (white cell count), complications, etc.). After pooling the data, the Mann–Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences. Funnel plots were created for testing heterogeneity. All of the primary endpoints investigated showed that EN is beneficial vs. NPO in SAP. In MAP, all of the six articles found merit in EN. Analyses of the primary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups; however, analyzing the 17 endpoints together showed a significant difference in favor of EN vs. NPO. EN is beneficial compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate AP. PMID:27775609

  13. Restrictive cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Dawson, David

    2009-12-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathies constitute a heterogenous group of heart muscle conditions that all have, in common, the symptoms of heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function is often the only echocardiographic abnormality that may be noted, although systolic dysfunction may also be an integral part of some specific pathologies, particularly in the most advanced cases such as amyloid infiltration of the heart. By far, the majority of restrictive cardiomyopathies are secondary to a systemic disorder such as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, haemochromatosis, eosinophilic heart disease, or as a result of radiation treatment. The much more rare diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is supported only by the absence of specific pathology on either endomyocardial biopsies or at post-mortem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is diagnosed based on medical history, physical examination, and tests: such as blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With its wide availability, echocardiography is probably the most important investigation to identify the left ventricular dysfunction and should be performed early and by groups that are familiar with the wide variety of aetiologies. Finally, on rare occasions, the differential diagnosis from constrictive pericarditis may be necessary.

  14. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any infectious or communicable disease of animals and unless the facility is so constructed that swine... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.2 General restrictions. (a) No person shall feed or permit the feeding of garbage to swine unless the garbage is treated to...

  15. The Benefits of Calorie Restriction and Calorie Restriction Mimetics as Related to the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Anekonda, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of calorie restriction without malnutrition seem to possess many beneficial effects in numerous disease states. Recently, studies related to calorie restriction mimetics that biochemically mimic the effects of calorie restriction are also becoming increasingly popular. Both calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics trigger an adaptive response reminiscent of mild-stress or low-dose toxic response, which is frequently referred to as hormesis in the toxicology literature. Although some benefits of calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics have been studied, the role of hormesis-related pathways in the eye has not been given a special attention. This review will present the current literature on calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics as related to most prominent eye diseases and provide insights on the therapeutic role of hormesis in eye diseases. PMID:20844606

  16. Mild typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Topley, J M

    1986-01-01

    A series of 100 Zimbabwean children aged between 5 months and 13 years with culture positive typhoid fever is presented. The disease was found to be fairly mild with a low prevalence of complications, and no patient in the series died. Possible explanations for the relative mildness of typhoid in this paediatric population are discussed. PMID:3954441

  17. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  18. Sexual dimorphic evolution of metabolic programming in non-genetic non-alimentary mild metabolic syndrome model in mice depends on feed-back mechanisms integrity for pro-opiomelanocortin-derived endogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Stefano; Vella, Stefano; Loizzo, Alberto; Fortuna, Andrea; Di Biase, Antonella; Salvati, Serafina; Frajese, Giovanni V; Agrapart, Vincent; Ramirez Morales, Rafael; Spampinato, Santi; Campana, Gabriele; Capasso, Anna; Galietta, Gabriella; Guarino, Irene; Carta, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Seghieri, Giuseppe; Renzi, Paolo; Franconi, Flavia

    2010-08-01

    Previously, we showed that our post-natal handling model induces pro-opiomelanocortin-derived (POMC) endogenous systems alterations in male mice at weaning. These alterations last up to adult age, and are at the basis of adult hormonal and metabolic conditions similar to mild metabolic syndrome/type-2 diabetes. Here, we evaluate how sex influences post-natal programming in these metabolic conditions. Subjects are adult control (non-handled) female (NHF) and male (NHM) CD-1 mice; adult post-natal handled female (HF) and male (HM) mice. Handling consists of daily maternal separation (10 min) plus sham injection, from birth to weaning (21 days). In adult handled males (90-days old) we find not only POMC-derived hormones alterations (enhanced basal plasma corticosterone (+91%) and ACTH (+109%)) but also overweight (+5.4%), fasting hyperglycemia (+40%), hypertriglyceridemia (+21%), enhanced brain mRNA expression of hydroxysteroid(11-beta)dehydrogenase type-1 (HSD11B1) (+49%), and decreased mRNA-HSD11B2 (-39%). Conversely, uric acid, creatinine, HDL(C), total cholesterol, glucose and insulin incremental area under-the-curve are not affected. In females, post-natal handling does not produce both hormonal and dysmetabolic diabetes-like changes; but handling enhances n3- and n6-poly-unsaturated, and decreases saturated fatty acids content in erythrocyte membrane composition in HF versus NHF. In conclusion, for the first time we show that female sex in mice exerts effective protection against the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal homeostasis disruption induced by our post-natal handling model on POMC cleavage products; endocrine disruption is in turn responsible for altered metabolic programming in male mice. The role of sex hormones is still to be elucidated.

  19. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  20. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  1. Caloric restriction, caloric restriction mimetics, and healthy aging in Okinawa: controversies and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the role of two nutritional factors implicated in the healthy aging of the Okinawans: caloric restriction; and traditional foods with potential caloric restriction-mimetic properties. Caloric restriction is a research priority for the US National Institute on Aging. However, little is known regarding health effects in humans. Some caloric restriction-related outcomes, such as cause-specific mortality and lifespan, are not practical for human clinical trials. Therefore, epidemiological data on older Okinawans, who experienced a caloric restriction-like diet for close to half their lives, are of special interest. The nutritional data support mild caloric restriction (10-15%) and high consumption of foods that may mimic the biological effects of caloric restriction, including sweet potatoes, marine-based carotenoid-rich foods, and turmeric. Phenotypic evidence is consistent with caloric restriction (including short stature, low body weight, and lean BMI), less age-related chronic disease (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and dementia), and longer lifespan (mean and maximum). Both caloric restriction and traditional Okinawan functional foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties likely had roles in the extended healthspan and lifespan of the Okinawans. More research is needed on health consequences of caloric restriction and foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties to identify possible nutritional interventions for healthy aging.

  2. Micronutrient supplementation in mild Alzheimer disease patients.

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Conde, M; Audivert, S; Pérez-Portabella, C; Burgos, R; Chacón, P; Rossello, J; Boada, M; Tàrraga, L L

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate if nutritional supplementation with or without micronutrient enhancement prevent weight loss and the progression of the disease in mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. Mild AD patients were recruited from an Alzheimer Day Centre. Subjects received oral liquid supplements with (Study-group: S) or without (Control-group: C) micronutrient enhancement. Intake assessment, nutritional status, biochemical parameters, cognitive function, and eating behaviour disorders were determined at baseline and at 6 months of treatment. At baseline both groups were not different in any variable measured. They were norm nourished, with normal biochemical parameters. Blandford scale demonstrated a mild alteration of feeding behaviour, the cognitive scale classified the patients as impaired and there was presence of memory complaints. After 6 months of nutritional supplements, a similar increase in energy consumption was observed in both groups of patients (P<0.05). In the within-group analysis, we found a trend (P=0.05) to increase body mass index; a significant increase in triceps skin fold thickness, mid-upper-arm circumference and serum magnesium, zinc and selenium, and a significant reduction in serum vitamin E (P<0.001, each). Serum cholesterol decreased substantially only in the S-group (P=0.025). No significant differences at baseline, within-group, neither between-group analysis in feeding behaviour nor in cognitive function were observed. According to our results no benefits in the progression of the disease was observed with micronutrient enhancement supplements. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements in preventing weight loss in mild AD patients showed a similar behaviour as observed in other populations. Due to the beneficial evolution of serum cholesterol in the S-group, this intervention deserves further investigation.

  3. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  4. Mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Boll, T J; Barth, J

    1983-01-01

    The pathology of mild head injury, its common behavioral sequelae, the nature of the recovery process, and the psychosocial consequences are reviewed. Acceleration-deceleration head trauma, causing brief unconsciousness, and leaving no frank neurological deficit, is associated in primates with axonal and terminal degenerative changes in brain stem nuclei. Although the presence of clinical demonstrable neurological abnormality increases the likelihood of subsequent deficits, their absence does not guarantee full recovery. Among mildly injured children, the relationships between persistent behavioral deficits and their age of onset correspond closely with those observed in children with overt damage, making it unlikely that psychological-behavioral deficits are attributable to non-neurological aspects of the injury. Deficits observed include distractability, irritability, headaches, inability to maintain a prior level of cognitive competence, and impulsivity. Although longer periods of unconsciousness are associated with permanent memory deficits, minimal unconsciousness is also followed by consistent deficits in complex memory tasks. Detailed neuropsychological testing of mildly injured children has revealed persisting deficits even after 5 years. Furthermore, deficits arising from repeated injuries are cumulative. The importance of adequate neuropsychological assessment and accurate information to the patient are stressed as important in helping satisfactory adjustment.

  5. Teaching Social Studies to Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2005-01-01

    For a generation, national legislation has moved "vigorously" to compel schools to place students with disabilities in the "least restrictive environment." For students with mild disabilities, this placement usually means including them in general education classrooms and teaching them according to the general curriculum. Over the same period,…

  6. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison with trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (<0.1 mg kg(-1) DON). In a second experiment, trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in feed intake as well as weight gain after 4 weeks. Respiratory burst of head-kidney leucocytes isolated from rainbow trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ).

  7. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  8. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  9. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs along a continuum from normal cognition to dementia. A roadblock to earlier diagnosis and potential treatment is the lack of consistency with screening for MCI. Universal screening would be ideal, but is limited. Once a diagnosis of MCI is made, it is important for the clinician to evaluate for reversible causes. At present time, there are no pharmacologic treatments proven to slow or cure progression of MCI to dementia; nonetheless, there is evidence that lifestyle modifications including diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation may be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.

  12. Salmonella Montevideo outbreak in military kennel dogs caused by contaminated commercial feed, which was only recognized through monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schotte, Ulrich; Borchers, Dorit; Wulff, Christiane; Geue, Lutz

    2007-01-31

    A large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in military watch dogs due to Salmonella Montevideo and/or Salmonella Give was only recognized through a monitoring program, implemented by the military forces. In 51 out of 80 exposed dogs (63.8%) from four kennels Salmonella was isolated from fecal samples. The prevalence per sampling day ranged from 5.6 to 77.8%. Clinical disease with mild diarrhea but without fever appeared only in nine dogs (11.3% of study population, 16.9% of cases) from one kennel (***P < 0.001). Risk analysis identified "dog food A" (odds ratio 3.33 [1.12 < OR < 10.06] *P < 0.05) and "dog food C" (odds ratio 3.40 [1.07 < OR < 11.22] *P < 0.05), two commercial dehydrated dog feeds, as suspected infectious sources. Feeding "dog food C" alone or together with "dog food A" was significantly associated with clinical disease (***P < 0.001). S. Montevideo and S. Give with similar plasmid profiles and PFGE-restriction patterns were isolated from the suspected dog feeds and fecal samples. This outbreak demonstrates not only that Salmonella infections in dogs occur without clinical symptoms but also that large outbreaks occur after feeding dehydrated dog feeds. Especially in households with known risk group patients this finding demonstrates a particular risk for their owners, as they often live in close contact with their animals.

  13. Fetal growth restriction: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Caetano, Ana Carolina Rabachini; Zamarian, Ana Cristina Perez; Mazzola, Jaqueline Brandão; Silva, Carolina Pacheco; Marçal, Vivian Macedo Gomes; Lobo, Thalita Frutuoso; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition that affects 5-10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal mortality. This review presents the most recent knowledge on FGR and focuses on the etiology, classification, prediction, diagnosis, and management of the condition, as well as on its neurological complications. The Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases were searched using the term "fetal growth restriction". Fetal growth restriction (FGR) may be classified as early or late depending on the time of diagnosis. Early FGR (<32 weeks) is associated with substantial alterations in placental implantation with elevated hypoxia, which requires cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high. Late FGR (≥32 weeks) presents with slight deficiencies in placentation, which leads to mild hypoxia and requires little cardiovascular adaptation. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are lower. The diagnosis of FGR may be clinical; however, an arterial and venous Doppler ultrasound examination is essential for diagnosis and follow-up. There are currently no treatments to control FGR; the time at which pregnancy is interrupted is of vital importance for protecting both the mother and fetus. Early diagnosis of FGR is very important, because it enables the identification of the etiology of the condition and adequate monitoring of the fetal status, thereby minimizing risks of premature birth and intrauterine hypoxia.

  14. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING.... (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2) Beeswax for beekeeping; and (3) Honey for bee feed. (b) Restricted articles may only be imported into...

  15. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING.... (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2) Beeswax for beekeeping; and (3) Honey for bee feed. (b) Restricted articles may only be imported into...

  16. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING.... (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2) Beeswax for beekeeping; and (3) Honey for bee feed. (b) Restricted articles may only be imported into...

  17. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING.... (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2) Beeswax for beekeeping; and (3) Honey for bee feed. (b) Restricted articles may only be imported into...

  18. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING.... (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2) Beeswax for beekeeping; and (3) Honey for bee feed. (b) Restricted articles may only be imported into...

  19. Low-income mothers' feeding goals predict observed home mealtime and child feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Pesch, M H; Miller, A L; Appugliese, D P; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K L; Lumeng, J C

    2016-11-01

    Mothers' goals are important for health behavior change, and engagement in child obesity interventions. It is unknown if maternal feeding goals are associated with observed home mealtime or feeding practices. The objective of this study was to examine the association of four common feeding goals (restrict junk food, promote fruit or vegetable intake, promote autonomy in eating and prevent obesity) with mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 265) of children (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview about child feeding. A coding scheme was developed and reliably applied to identify mothers' feeding goals from transcripts. Mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices were reliably coded from home mealtimes and a laboratory eating protocol. Mothers completed a questionnaire and reported demographics. Participant weights and heights were obtained. Regression models were used to test the association of each feeding goal with observed maternal practices, controlling for covariates. The goal of restricting junk food was associated with the child always eating at a table (OR 2.87, 95% CI (1.39-5.96) p = 0.005), but not with the mother restricting junk food. The goal of promoting fruit or vegetable intake was associated with observationally promoting vegetables (OR 1.41, 95% CI (1.09-1.84), p = 0.01). The goals of promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not associated with any observed maternal home mealtime or feeding practices. While mothers' goals to restrict junk food and promote fruit or vegetable intake were associated with observed home mealtime and feeding practices, promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not. Increased understanding of why low-income mothers may not translate certain feeding goals into practices may inform childhood obesity interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of milk feeding level on development of feeding behavior in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    Evidence exists that early life experiences may influence development of characteristic feeding patterns in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of milk feeding level on performance and development of feeding patterns in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were assigned at birth to a milk replacer feeding level, fed via a teat: (1) ad libitum (ADL) or (2) restricted feeding at 5 L/d (0.75 kg of milk replacer) in 2 feedings/d (RES). All calves were offered concentrate ad libitum during the milk feeding stage. Calves were weaned gradually during wk 7 and then fed a pelleted diet ad libitum for 7 wk. Calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed and milk intakes were recorded daily. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 5 d in each of wk 3, 6, 8, 11, and 14. Calves fed ADL consumed 2.6 times more milk, had greater weight gain (1.2 vs. 0.6 kg/d), and consumed less solid feed (45.2 vs. 98.0 g/d) during the milk feeding period than did calves fed RES. As expected, providing milk ADL resulted in more frequent meals (in wk 6, 7.1 vs. 2.0) and more evenly distributed diurnal patterns of feeding activity compared with the RES milk level. When considering all sucking bouts (milk feeding and nonnutritive sucking), no difference was observed between treatments in daily bout frequency or sucking time/bout. Postweaning, calves fed RES had initially greater rate of intake (24.9 vs. 17.8 g/min) and meal size (160.8 vs. 117.2 g/meal). Diurnal feeding patterns also differed in the first week after weaning, with ADL calves feeding less continuously at the time of feed delivery. Meal characteristics and diurnal patterns of feeding activity were similar between calves by the end of the trial. However, milk feeding level had a longer-term effect on variability in feeding behavior, with calves fed RES having greater day-to-day variability in feeding time and meal size. Variability of meal characteristics also decreased over time across treatments

  1. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  2. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  3. Biology of DNA restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H

    1993-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of DNA restriction and modification systems, the control of the expression of the structural genes for the enzymes, and the importance of DNA restriction in the cellular economy has advanced by leaps and bounds in recent years. This review documents these advances for the three major classes of classical restriction and modification systems, describes the discovery of a new class of restriction systems that specifically cut DNA carrying the modification signature of foreign cells, and deals with the mechanisms developed by phages to avoid the restriction systems of their hosts. PMID:8336674

  4. Genetics of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Syrris, Petros; McKenna, William J

    2010-04-01

    Restrictive physiology, a severe form of diastolic dysfunction, is characteristically observed in the setting of constrictive pericarditis and myocardial restriction. The latter is commonly due to systemic diseases, some of which are inherited as mendelian traits (eg, hereditary amyloidosis), while others are multifactorial (eg, sarcoidosis). When restrictive physiology occurs as an early and dominant feature of a primary myocardial disorder, it may be termed restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the past decade, clinical and genetic studies have demonstrated that restrictive cardiomyopathy as such is part of the spectrum of sarcomeric disease and frequently coexists with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in affected families.

  5. Mild intrauterine hypoperfusion reproduces neurodevelopmental disorders observed in prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Makiko; Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Otani, Kentaro; Hattori, Yorito; Ogawa, Yuko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ihara, Masafumi; Tsuji, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Severe intrauterine ischemia is detrimental to the developing brain. The impact of mild intrauterine hypoperfusion on neurological development, however, is still unclear. We induced mild intrauterine hypoperfusion in rats on embryonic day 17 via arterial stenosis with metal microcoils wrapped around the uterine and ovarian arteries. All pups were born with significantly decreased birth weights. Decreased gray and white matter areas were observed without obvious tissue damage. Pups presented delayed newborn reflexes, muscle weakness, and altered spontaneous activity. The levels of proteins indicative of inflammation and stress in the vasculature, i.e., RANTES, vWF, VEGF, and adiponectin, were upregulated in the placenta. The levels of mRNA for proteins associated with axon and astrocyte development were downregulated in fetal brains. The present study demonstrates that even mild intrauterine hypoperfusion can alter neurological development, which mimics the clinical signs and symptoms of children with neurodevelopmental disorders born prematurely or with intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:27996031

  6. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  7. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-01-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency. Images PMID:418417

  8. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Tammisto, T.; Tigerstedt, I.

    1980-01-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days. PMID:7437275

  9. Physiological and behavioral basis for the successful adaptation of goats to severe water restriction under hot environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaliber, M; Koluman, N; Silanikove, N

    2016-01-01

    Among domestic ruminants, goats are renowned for their ability to tolerate water deprivation, water restriction and energy restriction. However, some basic questions regarding their ability to endure water restriction under heat stress are still open. Three levels of water restriction (56%, 73% and 87% of the ad libitum) were imposed on 20 cross-bred 3-year-old female goats (75% German Fawn and 25% Hair Goat) distributed into four groups, with five animals per treatment. The experiment was conducted from the beginning of July to the end of August in a farm located in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey (40 m in altitude; 36 59' N, 35 18'E), in which subtropical weather conditions prevail. The average daily temperature during the experiment was 34.2°C, whereas the highest and lowest temperatures were 42°C and 23.1°C, respectively. The average relative humidity was 68.2% and wind speed was 1.2 km/h. Weekly average thermal heat indexes during the experiment were 78.3 (week 1), 79.1 (week 2), 80.1 (weak 3), 79.8 (weak 4), 81.3 (weak 5) and on average 79.7. Feed intake, heart rate, thermoregulatory responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate), blood plasma concentrations of ions (Na, K), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), metabolites (glucose, cholesterol, creatinine and urea) and behavioral aspects (standing, walking, lying) were studied over 30 days. The responses to water restriction were proportional to the level of restriction. The reductions in feed intake (up to 13%), BW (up to 4.6%) and the increases in rectal temperature (0.5°C) and breath rate (10 respirations/min) were moderate and also were far from responses encountered under severe heat and water stresses. The increase in plasma Na (from 119 to 140 mM) and ADH concentrations (from 12.6 to 17.4 pg/ml) indicates that the physiological response to water restriction was in response to mild dehydration, which also explains the increase in blood plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, creatinine

  10. Restrictive management of neonatal polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Morag, Iris; Strauss, Tzipora; Lubin, Daniel; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Kenet, Gili; Kuint, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    Partial exchange transfusion (PET) is traditionally suggested as treatment for neonates diagnosed with polycythemia. Nevertheless, justification of this treatment is controversial. We evaluated the risk for short-term complications associated with a restrictive treatment protocol for neonatal polycythemia. A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. Three treatment groups were defined and managed according to their degree of polycythemia, defined by capillary tube filled with venous blood and manually centrifuged hematocrit: group 1, hematocrit 65 to 69% and no special treatment was recommended; group 2, hematocrit 70 to 75% and intravenous fluids were given and feedings were withheld until hematocrit decreased to < 70%; and group 3, hematocrit ≥ 76% or symptomatic neonates and PET was recommended. During the study period, 190 neonates were diagnosed with polycythemia. The overall rate of short-term complications was 15% (28 neonates). Seizures, proven necrotizing enterocolitis, or thrombosis did not occur in any participating neonates. PET was performed in 31 (16%) neonates. The groups did not differ in their rate of early neonatal morbidities or length of hospitalization. Restrictive treatment for neonatal asymptomatic polycythemia is not associated with an increased risk of short-term complications.

  11. Physical Exercise And Cognitive Engagement Outcomes for Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Memory Disorders; Mild Dementia; Impaired Cognition; Mild Cognitive Disorder; Amnestic Disorder; Dementia and Amnestic Conditions; Poor Short-term Memory; Memory Impairment; Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

  12. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  13. What is the problem with breast-feeding? A qualitative analysis of infant feeding perceptions.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Knox, B; Gardiner, K; Wright, M

    2003-08-01

    Breast-feeding rates are low in Northern Ireland (NI) compared with other regions of Europe. The aim of this study has therefore been to define and explore factors determining infant feeding decisions with a view to the planning of future research and intervention needs. Participants were approached at convenience from the throughput of women attending a large teaching hospital antenatal clinic to take part in focus group discussion. Dominant themes indicated that the main barriers to breast-feeding are restricted freedom and independence associated with family issues, return to work, societal embarrassment and perceived social isolation. The dialogue suggested that breast-feeding leads to inability to carry out everyday activities and social exclusion. Incompatible social norms make it difficult for mothers to breast-feed successfully. This implies that future promotional efforts should take a societal approach.

  14. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  15. Compensatory responses to food restriction in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Roark, Alison M; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the compensatory responses to food restriction and subsequent increased food availability in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Turtles were fed an ad libitum ration for 12 weeks (AL), a restricted ration for 12 weeks (R), or a restricted ration for 5 weeks and an ad libitum ration for 7 weeks (R-AL). Analysis of covariance was used to test the relationships between (1) growth and body size, (2) intake and body size, and (3) growth and intake for each of the three treatment groups. Body composition of turtles in each group was also evaluated at the beginning of the study and after weeks 5 and 12. After the switch to ad libitum feeding, R-AL turtles consumed comparable amounts of food and grew faster than AL turtles on a size-adjusted basis, but mean body sizes did not converge, although the overlap in their size ranges increased with time. The R-AL turtles also converted food to growth more efficiently and allocated proportionally more nutrients to protein accretion, thereby restoring body composition (except mineral content) to AL levels by the end of the study. Thus, accelerated size-specific growth without hyperphagia restored body condition but not size. These results indicate that (1) intake in juvenile green turtles is maximal when food is readily available and cannot be increased to compensate for a previous period of food limitation, (2) growth rates of ad libitum-fed turtles are only mildly plastic in response to past nutritional history, and (3) priority rules for nutrient allocation favor the attainment of an optimal condition rather than an optimal size. Nutritional setbacks experienced during the vulnerable juvenile stage could therefore have long-lasting consequences for wild turtles in terms of size-specific mortality risk, but these risks may be mitigated by the potential benefits of maintaining sufficient body stores.

  16. Pressure passivation of mild pyrolysis char

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.; Summers, C.; Schroeder, K.; Sands, W.

    1999-07-01

    Low-rank coals that have been thermally dried in the mild pyrolysis process have a tendency to spontaneously combust. The spontaneous combustion of coals and chars has been linked to their affinity for oxygen. The USDOE has developed a method for the passivation of mild pyrolysis char derived from a low-rank coal using pressure differentials to control the oxidation of the active sites in the char rapidly and safely. Initial experiments performed by the USDOE show that the affinity of the coal for oxygen uptake (residual oxygen demand, ROD) is reduced by exposure of the coal-char to high-pressure gas mixtures including air or oxygen-enriched air. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the ROD can be rapidly reduced by cycling the active coals between low-pressure (atmospheric pressure or less) and high-pressure (500 psi to 1,500 psi) regimes. Cycling the pressure of the treatment gas provides rapid passivation resulting from two effects: The high-pressure cycle forces fresh oxygen into the pores which have been purged of adsorbed gases and reaction products. The pores of coal are small enough to prohibit free convection and force oxygen exchange to take place by way of diffusion under ambient conditions. The forced introduction of fresh process gas under high pressure overcomes the restrictions due to diffusion limits while the removal of adsorbed products clears the way to active surface sites. The high pressure increases the number of oxygen molecules with sufficient energy to overcome the activation barrier of the passivation reaction, due to the increased number of molecules per unit volume of the high-pressure gas. Combined, the two effects rapidly produce a coal with a significantly reduced ROD.

  17. "White Privilege": A Mild Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    White privilege analysis has been influential in philosophy of education. I offer some mild criticisms of this largely salutary direction--its inadequate exploration of its own normative foundations, and failure to distinguish between "spared injustice", "unjust enrichment" and "non-injustice-related" privileges; its inadequate exploration of the…

  18. Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

  19. Teaching Adolescents with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Olson, Judy L.

    This textbook provides information on how to teach middle and high school students with mild disabilities both in school settings and in out-of-school settings and how to prepare these adolescents for future postsecondary and work environments. Part 1, "The Student and the Secondary School Environment," addresses the following topics:…

  20. Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

  1. Mildly Handicapped: Reading, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 107 materials for teaching reading, with emphasis on reading comprehension skills and high interest low vocabulary formats, to mildly handicapped (learning…

  2. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  4. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  5. Rotating restricted Schur polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornman, Nicholas; de Mello Koch, Robert; Tribelhorn, Laila

    2017-09-01

    Large N but nonplanar limits of 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be described using restricted Schur polynomials. Previous investigations demonstrate that the action of the one loop dilatation operator on restricted Schur operators, with classical dimension of order N and belonging to the su(2) sector, is largely determined by the su(2) ℛ symmetry algebra as well as structural features of perturbative field theory. Studies presented so far have used the form of ℛ symmetry generators when acting on small perturbations of half-BPS operators. In this paper as a first step towards going beyond small perturbations of the half-BPS operators, we explain how the exact action of symmetry generators on restricted Schur polynomials can be determined.

  6. Feeding in the NICU: A Perspective from a Craniosacral Therapist.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Completing full feedings is a requirement for discharge for babies in the NICU. interaction between the nerves and the muscles of the jaw, tongue, and the soft palate is required for functional sucking and swallowing. Jaw misalignment, compressed nerves, and misshapen heads can interfere with these interactions and create feeding difficulties. craniosacral therapy (CST) is a noninvasive manual therapy that is perfect for the fragile population in the NICU. CST can be used as a treatment modality to release fascial restrictions that are affecting the structures involved in feeding, thereby improving feeding outcomes.

  7. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Josiane L; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-h profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin, and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24 h during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep (P < 0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 kcal (P = 0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (P = 0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). Sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with higher consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method.

    PubMed

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-08-01

    Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  10. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  11. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  12. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  13. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  14. Mild head injury: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Tellier, A; Della Malva, L C; Cwinn, A; Grahovac, S; Morrish, W; Brennan-Barnes, M

    1999-07-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the concept of mild head injury (MHI), it is becoming evident that even a head trauma termed 'mild' may result in significant behavioural sequelae. The present study was an attempt at documenting structural cerebral damage, by way of computerized tomography, in a group of patients having suffered a MHI as defined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. A 1-year retrospective chart review identified 80 MHI patients who presented to the Emergency department of a lead hospital for trauma. Sixty-six per cent of these MHI patients were scanned. Evidence of intracranial abnormalities was obtained in 31% of the overall sample. Patients with a lower GCS score had a higher percentage of abnormal scans than those with a GCS score of either 14 or 15. The present findings suggest that a MHI can be associated with significant morbidity, and that a MHI group does not constitute a homogeneous pool of patients.

  15. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  16. Social Development and Feeding Milestones of Young Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cullen, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    The data revealed that young Down syndrome children attained significantly higher scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and achieved most feeding milestones much earlier if they had no or only mild congenital heart disease, if their parents followed through appropriately with furnished guidance, and if they had "good" muscle tone. (Author)

  17. Social Development and Feeding Milestones of Young Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cullen, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    The data revealed that young Down syndrome children attained significantly higher scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and achieved most feeding milestones much earlier if they had no or only mild congenital heart disease, if their parents followed through appropriately with furnished guidance, and if they had "good" muscle tone. (Author)

  18. Refeeding after caloric restriction reverses altered liver glucose release.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rosângela F; Mariano, Isabela R; Stolarz, Isabela C; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat D

    2017-08-30

    Caloric restriction increases liver glucose release (LGR), but it is not known if this is a permanent condition. To investigate if refeeding after caloric restriction reverses the high LGR. Rats were organised in six-pups litters (GC); 12-pups litters with either 50% caloric restriction from 21 to 80 days of age (GR) or fed at will from 50 to 80 days of age (GRL). Liver perfusion was made at the age of 80 days. LGR was higher in the GR both during basal and adrenaline-stimulated conditions. Refeeding after caloric restriction decreased it to values close to those of GC rats. The altered LGR of GR rats was reversed by refeeding (group GRL). The influence of hypothalamic neuropetides on these hepatic changes is suggested. Enhanced LGR under caloric restriction is not programmed by early feeding; instead, it is determined by the current nutritional conditions.

  19. Parent Feeding Behavior and Child Appetite: Associations Depend on Feeding Style

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396

  20. Parent feeding behavior and child appetite: associations depend on feeding style.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers' appetitive traits. Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3-5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p < .001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p < .001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p < .001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent-child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Calorie restriction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR) or intermittent fasting (IF), extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78); antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke. PMID:21910904

  2. Restricting Grammatical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

  3. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  4. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  5. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  6. Effects of restriction on children’s intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent’s chronic use of restriction.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2014-02-01

    Parents’ use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children’s intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch’s (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children’s (3–5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child’s inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children’s regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children’s consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.

  7. Feedback from Arctic charr: Feed flavour stimulation and re-feeding after feed deprivation stimulate genes encoding both orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Anja; Jørgensen, Even H

    2017-05-15

    Despite vast research attention, the knowledge about central mechanisms of appetite regulation in teleost remains inconclusive. A common strategy in studies on appetite regulating mechanisms is to measure the response to feed restriction or - deprivation, but responses vary between fish species and between experiments, and are also likely dependent on the degree of energy perturbation. The anadromous Arctic charr is an interesting model for studying appetite regulation as its feeding cycle comprises months of winter anorexia, and hyperphagia during summer. Here we studied how the gene expression of putative hypothalamic appetite regulators were affected by two days, one week and one month feed deprivation during summer, and subsequent re-feeding and exposure to feed flavour. Short-term feed deprivation caused only a minor reduction in condition factor and had no effect on hypothalamic gene expression. Long-term feed-deprivation caused a marked reduction in weight and condition factor which contrasted the increase in weight and condition factor seen in ad libitum fed controls. A marked energy perturbation by feed deprivation was also indicated by a lower hypothalamic expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF1 binding protein 5 in the feed deprived charr compared to fed controls. Surprisingly, long-term feed deprivation and energy perturbation did not induce changes in hypothalamic appetite regulators. Unexpectedly, re-feeding and exposure to feed flavour caused an increase in the expression of the genes encoding the orexigenic agouti-related peptide and the anorexigenic melanocortin receptor 4 and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Our study gives strong evidence for a role of these in appetite regulation in Arctic charr, but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. We suggest that changes in gene expression are more likely to be registered during transition phases, e.g. from fasting to feeding and upon stimulatory

  8. Feeding Practices and NEC

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Manimaran

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  11. Maternal psychosocial predictors of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah; Brennan, Leah; Hayes, Louise; Miles, Cara L

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the relative contribution of parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy to the explanation of variance in controlling parental feeding styles and practices. The sample comprised 124 mothers (M=36.80 years, SD=4.62 years) who reported on both themselves and a selected child (59 male, 65 female; M=6.46 years, SD=0.95 years). Mothers completed several questionnaires examining demographic information, parental feeding styles, parental feeding practices, parental depression, anxiety and stress and parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Parenting satisfaction contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice pressure to eat. Parenting satisfaction and parental anxiety contributed significantly to the prediction of the parental feeding practice restriction. The results of this study provide important insight into maternal characteristics associated with the use of controlling parental feeding styles and practices.

  12. Frequencies of restriction sites.

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, M S

    1983-01-01

    Restriction sites or other sequence patterns are usually assumed to occur according to a Poisson distribution with mean equal to the reciprocal of the probability of the given site or pattern. For situations where non-overlapping occurrences of patterns, such as restriction sites, are the objects of interest, this note shows that the Poisson assumption is frequently misleading. Both the case of base composition (independent bases) and of dinucleotide frequencies (Markov chains) are treated. Moreover, a new technique is presented which allows treatment of collections of patterns, where the departure from the Poisson assumption is even more striking. This later case includes double digests, and an example of a five enzyme digest is included. PMID:6324109

  13. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  14. Lateral Hypothalamic Circuits for Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in non-restricted animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing 1000’s of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking, and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has utilized contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala, and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  15. Simulation of mildly unsaturated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letha, J.; Elango, K.

    1994-02-01

    In the study of unsaturated flow in the soil profile, the soil characteristic functions, one relating the pressure head to water saturation and the other relating the permeability to water saturation, are usually established with data covering a wide range. The application of these functions to situations with a mildly unsaturated range, such as encountered in a wet irrigation setting in a coarse soil, has been investigated. Certain shortcomings in using these soil characteristic functions directly have been identified, and modifications to the procedure of determining the characteristic functions have been proposed and tested. The improvements have been quantified in terms of the goodness of fit to published field measurements on the soil characteristics and also in terms of simulation results for an idealized test situation corresponding to irrigation practice in a relatively coarse soil. The special features of the C language have been utilized in developing a computer program for finite element modelling of the nonlinear Richards' equation describing unsaturated subsurface water flow. A weighted least-squares procedure improves the fit of the Brooks and Corey characteristic functions for pressure head vs. degree of saturation. A numerical integration procedure improves the fit of the Van Genuchten characteristic functions for permeability vs. degree of saturation. The present study indicates that even for sandy soil, the conventional Van Genuchten and Brooks and Corey soil characteristic functions need to be modified to yield acceptable results for the mildly unsaturated regime.

  16. Fractionator feed section

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, V.R.; Bachmann, D.E.

    1993-07-27

    A fractionator feed section in a fractionator to which is fed a feed mixture comprising a vapor component and a liquid component and which fractionator comprises a tray above said feed section which passes liquid reflux to said feed section, said feed section comprising: (a) a downwardly extending, elongated first baffle; (b) a downwardly extending, elongated second baffle; (c) a seal pan below said first baffle and said second baffle, said seal pan comprising a seal pan mixture of liquids into which a portion of said first baffle and a portion of said second baffle extend to form a mixing zone; (d) a feed nozzle which introduces said liquid component and said vapor component downward into said mixing zone; and, (e) a trough which introduces said liquid reflux to said mixing zone, wherein said liquid component and said liquid reflux mix to form said seal pan mixture of liquids.

  17. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  18. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  19. FEED FORWARD EQUATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and feed forward stabilization) have been implemented. An on-mount gyro system consists of gyroscopes mounted on the radar antenna which sense...antenna motion and send compensating signals back to the antenna servo mechanism. Feed forward stabilization consists of determining antenna angular rates...caused by ships attitude changes, as measured by a stable platform (such as SINS), and feeding compensating signals back to the antenna servo

  20. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  1. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  2. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  3. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  4. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  5. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  6. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  7. APOBECs and Virus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reuben S.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    2015-01-01

    The APOBEC family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases comprises a formidable arm of the vertebrate innate immune system. Pre-vertebrates express a single APOBEC, whereas some mammals produce as many as eleven enzymes. The APOBEC3 subfamily displays both copy number variation and polymorphisms, consistent with ongoing pathogenic pressures. These enzymes restrict the replication of many DNA-based parasites, such as exogenous viruses and endogenous transposable elements. APOBEC1 and activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) have specialized functions in RNA editing and antibody gene diversification, respectively, whereas APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 appear to have different functions. Nevertheless, the APOBEC family protects against both periodic viral zoonoses as well as exogenous and endogenous parasite replication. This review highlights viral pathogens that are restricted by APOBEC enzymes, but manage to escape through unique mechanisms. The sensitivity of viruses that lack counterdefense measures highlights the need to develop APOBEC-enabling small molecules as a new class of anti-viral drugs. PMID:25818029

  8. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2α) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P < 0.001) at the end of restricted feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the

  9. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma. PMID:3981170

  10. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  11. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  12. By-Product Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  13. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  14. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  15. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  16. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  17. Infant feeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M

    1983-08-01

    Ideas on how infants should be fed have changed dramatically over the past ten years. This has led to some confusion, amongst both the public and those concerned with advising mothers, on safe and acceptable infant feeding practices. A contemporary view of infant feeding and its problems is presented.

  18. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  19. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  20. Bottle-feeding legislation in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1980-02-01

    Research in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere in the developing world has indicted the dangers of bottle feeding infants. Following a failure to obtain the voluntary agreement of shopkeepers to restrict sales of infant-feeding bottles and teats, legislation was passed which placed these items on prescription. In order to obtain a prescription certain conditions have to be satisfied. A follow-up survey which was carried out in Port Moresby two years after the introduction of legislation indicated a significant decline in the extent of bottle feeding.

  1. Restrictive chest wall disorders.

    PubMed

    Donath, Joseph; Miller, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Hypoventilation can be caused by diseases of the chest wall. Any anatomical or functional abnormality of the bony thorax increases dead space ventilation and the work of breathing, whether congenital or acquired, acute or chronic, and whether its cause is infectious, traumatic, environmental, iatrogenic, or unknown. In this article, we discuss these heterogeneous disorders from the viewpoint of the practicing nonpediatric pulmonary physician, only briefly touching on surgical, pediatric, rheumatologic, and other nonpulmonary ramifications. Emphasis is on the most common and the best researched forms of chest wall restriction, including kyphoscoliosis, fibrothorax, thoracoplasty, flail chest, and ankylosing spondylitis. Other diseases such as osteoporosis with its less well known pulmonary effects, and some rarely seen entities, are briefly discussed.

  2. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used.

  3. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  4. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  6. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  7. Effects of lactation feed intake and creep feeding on sow and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Jacela, J Y; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2010-09-01

    A total of 84 sows (PIC Line 1050) were blocked according to day of farrowing and parity and allotted in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with lactation feed intake (ad libitum vs. restricted) and creep feeding (no vs. yes) as factors. Sows fed for ad libitum intake (ad libitum-fed) were allowed free access to a common lactation diet (3,503 kcal of ME/kg, 0.97% standardized ileal digestible Lys), and sows with restricted intake (restricted-fed) were fed 25% less than ad libitum-fed sows. A creep diet (3,495 ME/kg, 1.56% standardized ileal digestible Lys) with 1.0% chromic oxide was offered to creep-fed pigs from d 3 to 21. Fecal samples from creep-fed pigs were taken with sterile swabs on d 7, 14, and 21, and color was assessed to categorize pigs as eaters or non-eaters. There were no interactions (P > 0.15) between lactation feed intake and creep feeding. Ad libitum-fed sows had greater (P < 0.01) total feed intake and ADFI (99.4, 4.9 kg) than restricted-fed sows (67.9, 3.6 kg). Ad libitum-fed sows had reduced BW loss (-15 vs. -24 kg; P < 0.01), improved total (46.7 vs. 43.0 kg; P < 0.04) and daily (2.56 vs. 2.36 kg; P < 0.04) BW gains of litters, and increased (90 vs. 71%; P < 0.03) percentage of sows returning to estrus by d 14 compared with restricted-fed sows. Creep feeding for 18 d did not affect (P > 0.34) sow BW and backfat loss but increased days to estrus (5.4 vs. 4.9 d; P < 0.03). Creep feeding had no (P > 0.16) effect on preweaning growth performance. Postweaning performance of creep-fed and non-creep-fed pigs was similar (P > 0.86). When individual pigs were categorized on the basis of creep feed consumption category, eaters had greater (P < 0.05) ADG (393, 376, and 378 g) and total BW gains (11.0, 10.5, and 10.6 kg) than non-eaters or non-creep-fed pigs. In conclusion, creep feeding for 18 d did not affect preweaning and lactating sow performance. Low feed intake during lactation negatively affected sow and litter performance. Creating more

  8. Maternal Feeding Goals Described by Low-Income Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, Alison N.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify maternal feeding goals and examine associations of number and type of goals with mother and child characteristics. Design Qualitative interviews about child feeding and quantitative assessment of goal prevalence and associations with mother and child characteristics. Setting Southeastern Michigan. Participants 287 low-income mothers (31% Hispanic or non-white) and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Main Outcome Measure Maternal feeding goals. Analysis Themes were generated using constant comparative method, individual interviews were coded, and prevalence of feeding goals determined. Regression analyses examined associations of mother and child characteristics with number and type of feeding goals. Results Thirteen maternal feeding goals were identified. The most prevalent were to restrict junk food (60%), promote autonomy around eating (54%), prevent obesity (53%), and promote fruits or vegetables (52%). The child being female and heavier with an older, non-Hispanic white, more educated mother with less chaos in the home predicted more maternal feeding goals (all p’s <.05). Specific maternal and child characteristics were associated with individual feeding goals. Conclusions and Implications Depending on their current goals for child feeding, some mothers may benefit from interventions focused on goal development, whereas other mothers may benefit from interventions designed to facilitate goal implementation. PMID:26003749

  9. Maternal Feeding Goals Described by Low-Income Mothers.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Alison N; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L

    2015-01-01

    To identify maternal feeding goals and examine associations of number and type of goals with mother and child characteristics. Qualitative interviews about child feeding and quantitative assessment of goal prevalence and associations with mother and child characteristics. Southeastern Michigan. A total of 287 low-income mothers (31% Hispanic or non-white) and their children ages 4 to 8 years. Maternal feeding goals. Themes were generated using the constant comparative method, individual interviews were coded, and the prevalence of feeding goals was determined. Regression analyses examined associations of mother and child characteristics with the number and type of feeding goals. Thirteen maternal feeding goals were identified. The most prevalent were to restrict less nutrient-dense food (60%), promote autonomy around eating (54%), prevent obesity (53%), and promote fruits or vegetables (52%). A child who was female and heavier with an older, non-Hispanic white, more educated mother with less chaos in the home predicted more maternal feeding goals (all P < .05). Specific maternal and child characteristics were associated with individual feeding goals. Depending on their current goals for child feeding, some mothers may benefit from interventions focused on goal development, whereas other mothers may benefit from interventions designed to facilitate goal implementation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  11. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake.

  12. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  13. A practical approach to classifying and managing feeding difficulties.

    PubMed

    Kerzner, Benny; Milano, Kim; MacLean, William C; Berall, Glenn; Stuart, Sheela; Chatoor, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Many young children are thought by their parents to eat poorly. Although the majority of these children are mildly affected, a small percentage have a serious feeding disorder. Nevertheless, even mildly affected children whose anxious parents adopt inappropriate feeding practices may experience consequences. Therefore, pediatricians must take all parental concerns seriously and offer appropriate guidance. This requires a workable classification of feeding problems and a systematic approach. The classification and approach we describe incorporate more recent considerations by specialists, both medical and psychological. In our model, children are categorized under the 3 principal eating behaviors that concern parents: limited appetite, selective intake, and fear of feeding. Each category includes a range from normal (misperceived) to severe (behavioral and organic). The feeding styles of caregivers (responsive, controlling, indulgent, and neglectful) are also incorporated. The objective is to allow the physician to efficiently sort out the wide variety of conditions, categorize them for therapy, and where necessary refer to specialists in the field. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  16. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  17. Mild head injury: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Machamer, J; Temkin, N

    2001-12-01

    While most would agree that mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with early neuropsychological problems, disagreement exists regarding their persistence and whether they are the cause of the disabilities experienced by some people. The aim of this study was to examine how the criteria used to define mild TBI and how the pre-injury characteristics of people affect their neuropsychological outcome. A total of 157 unselected hospitalized cases with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 13-15 and 109 trauma controls were prospectively recruited and administered a number of cognitive measures at 1 month and 12 months after injury. The results indicated early impairments that decreased with time and the stringency of the definition of 'mild' TBI. The contribution of demographics was usually significant and often stronger than the mild TBI effect. Subtle variation of the demographics of the brain injured or the comparison subjects can be sufficient to mimic or mask mild brain injury effects.

  18. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  19. Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood.

  20. Retroviral restriction: nature's own solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher E; McKnight, Áine

    2016-12-01

    The present review will discuss recent advances in the development of anti-HIV therapies inspired by studies of the mechanisms of host restriction factor-mediated resistance to HIV infection. Manipulating the interplay between host cell restriction factors and viral accessory factors that overcome them can potentially be therapeutically useful. Preliminarily successful therapies - some of which are entering clinical trials - either inhibit the ability of virus to evade restriction factor-mediated immunity, or promote intracellular levels of restriction factors. These aims are achieved by multiple means, which are discussed. Many restriction factors appear to provide potentially useful targets for anti-HIV therapies, so time and interest should be invested in investigating ways to successfully therapeutically manipulate restriction factor-mediated immunity.

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  2. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  3. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... before use. DO NOT add more formula or solid foods before you talk to your nurse. Feeding ... MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed ...

  5. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NG - infants Images Feeding tube References Kim YS. Nasogastric and nasoenteric tube insertion. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap ...

  6. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  7. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  8. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

  9. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  10. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  11. Breast feeding in IMD.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  12. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  13. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  14. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  15. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal social skills were coded from videotapes of actual social interactions. Results indicate that adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression evidence a profile of maladaptive nonverbal social skills including limited body movement, a restricted range of facial expressions, infrequent smiling, speaking in a flat and quiet voice, and taking a long time to respond to the questions or comments of a social partner. Findings from this study have implications for enhancing the early detection and diagnosis of depression and guiding theories of and treatments for depression in an ID population. PMID:20046932

  16. Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds manufactured in South China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2009-05-13

    Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in fish feeds (including trash fish and compound feed) manufactured in South China, were analyzed. PHHs were ubiquitous in fish feeds, with the concentrations of OCPs, PBDEs, and PCBs at the upper, mid, and lower levels of the global range. Trash fish generally contained higher concentrations of DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU), especially p,p'-DDT and low-brominated PBDEs, while compound feeds had higher concentrations of highly brominated BDEs, e.g., BDE-209. In addition, no concentration difference of HCHs and PCBs was found between trash fish and compound feeds. The habit of direct use of trash fish as fish feeds has induced the accumulation of DDXs in aquatic species in China, and trash fish collected in South China seemed to be slightly hazardous to wildlife because of the concentrations of DDXs. The results from the present study suggest that the use pattern of fish feeds in China may have to be adjusted to minimize contamination of fishery products and wildlife by PHHs. Use of compound feeds produced with controlled procedures should be encouraged, whereas that of trash fish should be restricted, at least for now.

  17. Tobacco and Alcohol-Related Interventions for People with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, S.; Lawrence, M.; Darbyshire, C.; Middleton, A. R.; Fitzsimmons, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The behavioural determinants of health among people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities (ID) are of increasing concern. With the closure of long-stay institutions, more people with ID are living in the community. As they lead more ordinary and less restricted lives, people with ID may be exposed to social and environmental…

  18. Tobacco and Alcohol-Related Interventions for People with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, S.; Lawrence, M.; Darbyshire, C.; Middleton, A. R.; Fitzsimmons, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The behavioural determinants of health among people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities (ID) are of increasing concern. With the closure of long-stay institutions, more people with ID are living in the community. As they lead more ordinary and less restricted lives, people with ID may be exposed to social and environmental…

  19. Postsecondary Continuing Education for Mildly Retarded Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, David; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews postsecondary education programs for mildly mentally handicapped adults. Considerations are given to the rationale for such programs, a report of existing programs, and a proposed comprehensive model for educational development beyond the twelfth grade. (Author)

  20. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  1. Classification and management of mild head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Almir F; Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; De Amorim, Robson LO; Tavares, Wagner M; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Mild head trauma had been defined in patients with direct impact or deceleration effect admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15. It is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in emergency medicine. Although common, several controversies persist about its clinical management. In this paper, we describe the Brazilian guidelines for mild head trauma, based on a critical review of the relevant literature. PMID:21475628

  2. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) in mild TBI and develop criteria for assessing which patients with a mild TBI are at risk for...project occurs. 20 subjects were found to have hypopituitarism . Further details are in the body of this report 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic... hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT

  3. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) in mild TBI and develop criteria for assessing which patients with a mild TBI are...Introduction: The purpose of this project will be to study the diagnosis of post traumatic hypopituitarism after MTBI. We will determine the incidence...of hypopituitarism following MTBI and develop criteria for assessing which MTBI patients are at high risk for developing posttraumatic

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Jennifer; Pappas, Demetra; Welchons, Leah; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker. There was no concern for oral-motor dysfunction. She was also referred to early intervention for feeding therapy. However, her parents terminated participation after 6 months because she became anxious and had tantrum prior to treatment groups.She was seen in another feeding program at 3 years; zinc, folate, thyroid, and a celiac panel were normal, and an endoscopy was negative for eosinophilic esophagitis. She began individual feeding therapy, where concerns for rigidity, difficulty transitioning, and limited peer interactions led to a neuropsychological evaluation. Kendra was diagnosed with an ASD and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Her cognitive skills were average, and expressive and receptive language skills were low average.Her diet consisted of French fries, Ritz crackers, pretzels, and 32 ounces of soy formula daily. She had stopped accepting Cheerios and saltines 2 months prior. She controlled other aspects of feeding, insisting on a specific parking spot at a fast food restaurant and drinking from a particular sippy cup. Her parents accepted these demands with concern about her caloric intake, which they tracked daily.Following diagnosis with ARFID, she resumed feeding therapy using a systematic desensitization approach with rewards. At the first session, she kissed and licked 2 new foods without gagging. Her mother appeared receptive to recommendations that included continuing the "food

  5. Role of feeding time and food amount in the reproduction of spotted Munia.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Malabika

    2002-04-01

    It was observed that food restriction significantly increase gonadal development for about two months indicating that hypothalamo hypophyseal gonadal axis becomes more sensitive to feeding stress during the early breeding period than the other reproductive phases. Normal testicular development was also not seen in the spotted munia in which food was restricted for two times each of 3 hour duration, despite the fact that daily food consumption was not significantly less (only by 6.60%) compared to the control group. This suggests that daily restriction in feeding for a longer period (total 6 h or more) may also alter the reproductive function in wild birds.

  6. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  7. Cytokines and feeding.

    PubMed

    Plata-Salamán, C R

    2001-12-01

    Various categories of cytokines participate in the control of feeding, including interleukin-1 and -6 and other activators of gp 130, leptin (ob protein), interleukin-8 and other chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-alpha. These feeding-inhibitory cytokines may play a role in the regulation of food intake during physiological (eg a role proposed for leptin) and pathophysiological (eg proinflammatory cytokines) conditions. Data show that various cytokines participate in acute and chronic disease-associated anorexia such as during infection, inflammation or malignancy. Food intake suppression (reported as anorexia) is also a common central manifestation observed during cytokine immunotherapy in humans. The concept of local production of various cytokines within specific brain regions in response to peripheral challenges and pathophysiological processes has broad implications for the interpretation of brain cytokines as mediators or participants in CNS modulation of feeding and anorexia.

  8. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  9. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB. PMID:27774333

  10. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  11. Infant-feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Oates, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of mothers attending infant welfare clinics showed that 26% changed their infant's milk in the first two weeks after birth and that multiple changes were common. Twenty-two per cent. were preparing a milk formula more concentrated than the recommended strength by using either heaped or packed scoops instead of level scoops of powder or by giving extra scoops. The commonest age for starting solid feeding was between 3 and 4 weeks and the practice of adding rusk or cereal to the bottle was common. There are obvious dangers of hypernatraemia from taking concentrated milk feeds and problems of obesity which may follow the early introduction of cereals. PMID:4740463

  12. High efficiency multifrequency feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajioka, J. S.; Tsuda, G. I.; Leeper, W. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Antenna systems and particularly compact and simple antenna feeds which can transmit and receive simultaneously in at least three frequency bands, each with high efficiency and polarization diversity are described. The feed system is applicable for frequency bands having nominal frequency bands with the ratio 1:4:6. By way of example, satellite communications telemetry bands operate in frequency bands 0.8 - 1.0 GHz, 3.7 - 4.2 GHz and 5.9 - 6.4 GHz. In addition, the antenna system of the invention has monopulse capability for reception with circular or diverse polarization at frequency band 1.

  13. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  14. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  15. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David

    2014-01-01

    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Dietary restriction studies in humans: focusing on obesity, forgetting longevity.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR: food restriction without malnutrition) is often considered as a nearly universal means to extend longevity in animal species and we could make the hypothesis that DR could increase longevity in humans. Some authors support the opinion that DR has already increased longevity in Okinawa inhabitants, and thus that DR can increase longevity in humans. The purpose of this article is to stress that no data on humans with a normal body mass index (neither overweight nor obese) indicate that DR can increase life span and health span, particularly because the results observed in Okinawa inhabitants can probably be considered as showing mainly deleterious effects of malnutrition rather than positive effects of DR. Since DR does not appear to increase human life span, studies testing for the effect of DR in humans should focus on the health effects of a mild DR in overweight and obese people, rather than in normal-weight people. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Ruhe, Bas; Visser, Bertanne

    2011-12-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these different mechanisms to extension of life span, we study the effect of caloric restriction on longevity and fecundity in two species of sugar-feeding parasitoid wasps. They have a simple diet that consists of carbohydrates only, and they do not resorb eggs, which rules out the proposed alternative explanations for beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Two caloric restriction treatments were applied: first, dietary dilution to investigate the effect of carbohydrate concentration in the diet; and second, intermittent feeding to examine the effect of feeding frequency on longevity and fecundity. Only the dietary dilution treatment showed an effect of caloric restriction with the highest longevity recorded at 80% sucrose (w/v). No effect of dietary regime was found on fecundity. We also measured the weight increase of the parasitoids after feeding to obtain an estimate of consumption. A constant quantity of the sugar solution was consumed in all dietary dilution treatments, hence caloric intake was proportional to sucrose concentrations. Although the present study does not disqualify the relevance of nutrient composition in other species, our data unequivocally demonstrate that caloric restriction alone is sufficient to extend life span and invalidate alternative explanations.

  18. Diet and feeding pattern affect the diurnal dynamics of the gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Zarrinpar, Amir; Chaix, Amandine; Yooseph, Shibu; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-12-02

    The gut microbiome and daily feeding/fasting cycle influence host metabolism and contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases. However, fundamental characteristics of this relationship between the feeding/fasting cycle and the gut microbiome are unknown. Our studies show that the gut microbiome is highly dynamic, exhibiting daily cyclical fluctuations in composition. Diet-induced obesity dampens the daily feeding/fasting rhythm and diminishes many of these cyclical fluctuations. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding is consolidated to the nocturnal phase, partially restores these cyclical fluctuations. Furthermore, TRF, which protects against obesity and metabolic diseases, affects bacteria shown to influence host metabolism. Cyclical changes in the gut microbiome from feeding/fasting rhythms contribute to the diversity of gut microflora and likely represent a mechanism by which the gut microbiome affects host metabolism. Thus, feeding pattern and time of harvest, in addition to diet, are important parameters when assessing the microbiome's contribution to host metabolism.

  19. Antidepressants are not overprescribed for mild depression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gregory E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Beck, Arne; Waitzfelder, Beth E; Coleman, Karen J; Stewart, Christine; Operskalski, Belinda; Penfold, Robert B; Shortreed, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate overprescribing of antidepressant medication for minimal or mild depression. Electronic records data from 4 large health care systems identified outpatients aged 18 years or older starting a new episode of antidepressant treatment in 2011 with an ICD-9 diagnosis of depressive disorder (296.2, 296.3, 311, or 300.4). Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression severity scores at time of treatment initiation were used to examine the distribution of baseline severity and the association between baseline severity and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 19,751 adults beginning treatment in 2011, baseline PHQ-9 scores were available for 7,051. In those with a baseline score, 85% reported moderate or severe symptoms (PHQ-9 score of 10 or more), 12% reported mild symptoms (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 9), and 3% reported minimal symptoms (PHQ-9 score of less than 5). The proportion reporting minimal or mild symptoms when starting treatment increased with age, ranging from 11% in those under age 65 years to 26% in those aged 65 and older. The proportion with minimal or mild symptoms was also moderately higher among patients living in wealthier neighborhoods and those treated by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, across all subgroups defined by sex, race/ethnicity, prescriber specialty, and treatment history, the proportions with minimal or mild symptoms did not exceed 18%. Secondary analyses, including weighting and subgroup analyses, found no evidence that estimates of baseline severity were biased by missing PHQ-9 scores. In these health systems, prescribing of antidepressant medication for minimal or mild depression is much less common than suggested by previous reports. Given that this practice may sometimes be clinically appropriate, our findings indicate that overprescribing of antidepressants for mild depression is not a significant public health concern. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Impact of Dietary Sodium Restriction on Heart Failure Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Doukky, Rami; Avery, Elizabeth; Mangla, Ashvarya; Collado, Fareed M; Ibrahim, Zeina; Poulin, Marie-France; Richardson, DeJuran; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-01-01

    needed to definitively address the role of sodium restriction in HF management. (A Self-management Intervention for Mild to Moderate Heart Failure [HART]; NCT00018005). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  2. Meal schedule influences food restriction-induced locomotor sensitization to methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Amanda L.; Klaus, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Traditional protocols for inducing sensitization to psychostimulants use an intermittent or “binge”-like drug administration, and binge eating behavior is comorbid with drug abuse in humans. Food restriction increases the reinforcing properties and self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Objective The present study tested the hypotheses that (1) food restriction induces sensitization to the locomotor stimulation observed in response to methamphetamine and (2) a binge-like feeding schedule during food restriction produces increased sensitization compared to equally restricted mice fed in three daily meals. Methods Male DBA/2J mice were fed ad libitum or were food restricted to either an 8% or 16% loss of body weight. Additionally, the food-restricted mice were divided into two groups that were fed in either one meal (binge) or three equal-sized meals (meal). After the reduced body weight was stable, mice were tested for locomotor activity following saline and methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) injections. Results Both 16% body weight loss groups exhibited sensitization to methamphetamine. Opposite to our hypothesis, the 8% meal but not the 8% binge food-restricted group demonstrated locomotor sensitization. Serum corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the meal-fed groups when compared to the binge- and ad libitum-fed groups. Conclusions These results support a role for feeding schedule and plasma corticosterone levels in food restriction-induced enhancement of the effects of methamphetamine. PMID:21750897

  3. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum tube ... Q-tip to clean the skin around the J-tube 1 to 3 times a day with ... To flush the J-tube, follow the instructions your nurse gave you. You will use the syringe to slowly push warm water into ...

  4. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…