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Sample records for milde edyta sienkiewicz

  1. [How a Warsaw physician helped Sienkiewicz in his literary debut].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1999-01-01

    This article is on the borderline between history of medicine and history of literature. The life and works are presented of Konrad Dobrski (1849-1915), with description of his works in Warsaw and scientific visits to Vienna. He was a well-known Warsaw's physician, especially in laryngology and pulmonology. His friendly relations with Henryk Sienkiewicz, a famous Polish writer, in adolescence are described in more details. The Dobrski's participation in origin of first Sienkiewicz's novel "Na marne" is presented with full particulars. The Józef Ignacy Kraszewski's assistance in this matter is also depicted.

  2. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  3. Mild balanoposthitis.

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, C V; Calabrŏ, A; Miglietta, A; Tarantello, M; Biasinutto, C; Peserico, A

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To identify and study cases of mild balanoposthitis (MBP) with penile pathology among patients observed at a dermatology clinic over an 18-month period. MATERIALS--The study included 321 patients with penile pathology. The term MBP was used to describe balanoposthitis of a localised, inflammatory nature with few, non-specific symptoms and a tendency to become chronic or recur. Two hundred and seventy had diseases clearly identifiable by clinical examination or laboratory tests; 51 cases were diagnosed as MBP and these patients had blood tests (to evaluate immune status) and microbiological examination; when these proved negative, a series of patch tests was also used. RESULTS--Of the 51 patients diagnosed as having MBP, the cause was ascertained in 34 cases (infection, mechanical trauma, contact irritation, contact allergy, etc.), whereas no specific aetiological factor was detected to explain the symptoms in the remaining 17 cases. PMID:8001949

  4. Mild typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Topley, J M

    1986-01-01

    A series of 100 Zimbabwean children aged between 5 months and 13 years with culture positive typhoid fever is presented. The disease was found to be fairly mild with a low prevalence of complications, and no patient in the series died. Possible explanations for the relative mildness of typhoid in this paediatric population are discussed. PMID:3954441

  5. Mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Boll, T J; Barth, J

    1983-01-01

    The pathology of mild head injury, its common behavioral sequelae, the nature of the recovery process, and the psychosocial consequences are reviewed. Acceleration-deceleration head trauma, causing brief unconsciousness, and leaving no frank neurological deficit, is associated in primates with axonal and terminal degenerative changes in brain stem nuclei. Although the presence of clinical demonstrable neurological abnormality increases the likelihood of subsequent deficits, their absence does not guarantee full recovery. Among mildly injured children, the relationships between persistent behavioral deficits and their age of onset correspond closely with those observed in children with overt damage, making it unlikely that psychological-behavioral deficits are attributable to non-neurological aspects of the injury. Deficits observed include distractability, irritability, headaches, inability to maintain a prior level of cognitive competence, and impulsivity. Although longer periods of unconsciousness are associated with permanent memory deficits, minimal unconsciousness is also followed by consistent deficits in complex memory tasks. Detailed neuropsychological testing of mildly injured children has revealed persisting deficits even after 5 years. Furthermore, deficits arising from repeated injuries are cumulative. The importance of adequate neuropsychological assessment and accurate information to the patient are stressed as important in helping satisfactory adjustment.

  6. Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs along a continuum from normal cognition to dementia. A roadblock to earlier diagnosis and potential treatment is the lack of consistency with screening for MCI. Universal screening would be ideal, but is limited. Once a diagnosis of MCI is made, it is important for the clinician to evaluate for reversible causes. At present time, there are no pharmacologic treatments proven to slow or cure progression of MCI to dementia; nonetheless, there is evidence that lifestyle modifications including diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation may be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  8. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Tammisto, T.; Tigerstedt, I.

    1980-01-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days. PMID:7437275

  9. Physical Exercise And Cognitive Engagement Outcomes for Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Memory Disorders; Mild Dementia; Impaired Cognition; Mild Cognitive Disorder; Amnestic Disorder; Dementia and Amnestic Conditions; Poor Short-term Memory; Memory Impairment; Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

  10. "White Privilege": A Mild Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    White privilege analysis has been influential in philosophy of education. I offer some mild criticisms of this largely salutary direction--its inadequate exploration of its own normative foundations, and failure to distinguish between "spared injustice", "unjust enrichment" and "non-injustice-related" privileges; its inadequate exploration of the…

  11. Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

  12. Teaching Adolescents with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Olson, Judy L.

    This textbook provides information on how to teach middle and high school students with mild disabilities both in school settings and in out-of-school settings and how to prepare these adolescents for future postsecondary and work environments. Part 1, "The Student and the Secondary School Environment," addresses the following topics:…

  13. Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

  14. Mildly Handicapped: Reading, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 107 materials for teaching reading, with emphasis on reading comprehension skills and high interest low vocabulary formats, to mildly handicapped (learning…

  15. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  16. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  17. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  18. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  19. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  20. Mild head injury: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Tellier, A; Della Malva, L C; Cwinn, A; Grahovac, S; Morrish, W; Brennan-Barnes, M

    1999-07-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the concept of mild head injury (MHI), it is becoming evident that even a head trauma termed 'mild' may result in significant behavioural sequelae. The present study was an attempt at documenting structural cerebral damage, by way of computerized tomography, in a group of patients having suffered a MHI as defined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. A 1-year retrospective chart review identified 80 MHI patients who presented to the Emergency department of a lead hospital for trauma. Sixty-six per cent of these MHI patients were scanned. Evidence of intracranial abnormalities was obtained in 31% of the overall sample. Patients with a lower GCS score had a higher percentage of abnormal scans than those with a GCS score of either 14 or 15. The present findings suggest that a MHI can be associated with significant morbidity, and that a MHI group does not constitute a homogeneous pool of patients.

  1. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  2. Simulation of mildly unsaturated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letha, J.; Elango, K.

    1994-02-01

    In the study of unsaturated flow in the soil profile, the soil characteristic functions, one relating the pressure head to water saturation and the other relating the permeability to water saturation, are usually established with data covering a wide range. The application of these functions to situations with a mildly unsaturated range, such as encountered in a wet irrigation setting in a coarse soil, has been investigated. Certain shortcomings in using these soil characteristic functions directly have been identified, and modifications to the procedure of determining the characteristic functions have been proposed and tested. The improvements have been quantified in terms of the goodness of fit to published field measurements on the soil characteristics and also in terms of simulation results for an idealized test situation corresponding to irrigation practice in a relatively coarse soil. The special features of the C language have been utilized in developing a computer program for finite element modelling of the nonlinear Richards' equation describing unsaturated subsurface water flow. A weighted least-squares procedure improves the fit of the Brooks and Corey characteristic functions for pressure head vs. degree of saturation. A numerical integration procedure improves the fit of the Van Genuchten characteristic functions for permeability vs. degree of saturation. The present study indicates that even for sandy soil, the conventional Van Genuchten and Brooks and Corey soil characteristic functions need to be modified to yield acceptable results for the mildly unsaturated regime.

  3. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  4. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  5. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma. PMID:3981170

  6. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  7. Mild head injury: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Machamer, J; Temkin, N

    2001-12-01

    While most would agree that mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with early neuropsychological problems, disagreement exists regarding their persistence and whether they are the cause of the disabilities experienced by some people. The aim of this study was to examine how the criteria used to define mild TBI and how the pre-injury characteristics of people affect their neuropsychological outcome. A total of 157 unselected hospitalized cases with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 13-15 and 109 trauma controls were prospectively recruited and administered a number of cognitive measures at 1 month and 12 months after injury. The results indicated early impairments that decreased with time and the stringency of the definition of 'mild' TBI. The contribution of demographics was usually significant and often stronger than the mild TBI effect. Subtle variation of the demographics of the brain injured or the comparison subjects can be sufficient to mimic or mask mild brain injury effects.

  8. Postsecondary Continuing Education for Mildly Retarded Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, David; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews postsecondary education programs for mildly mentally handicapped adults. Considerations are given to the rationale for such programs, a report of existing programs, and a proposed comprehensive model for educational development beyond the twelfth grade. (Author)

  9. Classification and management of mild head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Almir F; Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; De Amorim, Robson LO; Tavares, Wagner M; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Mild head trauma had been defined in patients with direct impact or deceleration effect admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15. It is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in emergency medicine. Although common, several controversies persist about its clinical management. In this paper, we describe the Brazilian guidelines for mild head trauma, based on a critical review of the relevant literature. PMID:21475628

  10. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) in mild TBI and develop criteria for assessing which patients with a mild TBI are at risk for...project occurs. 20 subjects were found to have hypopituitarism . Further details are in the body of this report 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic... hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT

  11. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) in mild TBI and develop criteria for assessing which patients with a mild TBI are...Introduction: The purpose of this project will be to study the diagnosis of post traumatic hypopituitarism after MTBI. We will determine the incidence...of hypopituitarism following MTBI and develop criteria for assessing which MTBI patients are at high risk for developing posttraumatic

  12. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB. PMID:27774333

  13. Antidepressants are not overprescribed for mild depression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gregory E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Beck, Arne; Waitzfelder, Beth E; Coleman, Karen J; Stewart, Christine; Operskalski, Belinda; Penfold, Robert B; Shortreed, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate overprescribing of antidepressant medication for minimal or mild depression. Electronic records data from 4 large health care systems identified outpatients aged 18 years or older starting a new episode of antidepressant treatment in 2011 with an ICD-9 diagnosis of depressive disorder (296.2, 296.3, 311, or 300.4). Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression severity scores at time of treatment initiation were used to examine the distribution of baseline severity and the association between baseline severity and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 19,751 adults beginning treatment in 2011, baseline PHQ-9 scores were available for 7,051. In those with a baseline score, 85% reported moderate or severe symptoms (PHQ-9 score of 10 or more), 12% reported mild symptoms (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 9), and 3% reported minimal symptoms (PHQ-9 score of less than 5). The proportion reporting minimal or mild symptoms when starting treatment increased with age, ranging from 11% in those under age 65 years to 26% in those aged 65 and older. The proportion with minimal or mild symptoms was also moderately higher among patients living in wealthier neighborhoods and those treated by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, across all subgroups defined by sex, race/ethnicity, prescriber specialty, and treatment history, the proportions with minimal or mild symptoms did not exceed 18%. Secondary analyses, including weighting and subgroup analyses, found no evidence that estimates of baseline severity were biased by missing PHQ-9 scores. In these health systems, prescribing of antidepressant medication for minimal or mild depression is much less common than suggested by previous reports. Given that this practice may sometimes be clinically appropriate, our findings indicate that overprescribing of antidepressants for mild depression is not a significant public health concern. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. A comparison of emotional decoding abilities in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, very mild and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Krzywoszanski, Lukasz; Spisak, Karolina; Donohue, Bryan E; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in emotional decoding abilities were described in patients with Alzheimer's dementia and amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). However the pattern of decline and its dependency on the type of emotional stimuli has not been investigated so far. In our study, 5 sets of cartoon-like drawings portraying various human emotions of increasing complexity were presented to patients with very mild and mild Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI and control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI and control subjects decoded emotions with similar accuracy. The pattern of decoding abilities was similar in Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI patients and healthy control subjects. Decoding abilities depended on a manner the emotional stimuli were presented.

  15. Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels. These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy. Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. PMID:25063228

  16. [Mild head injuries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Thaler, Heinrich W; Jung-Schmidsfeld, Jochen; Pienaar, Simon

    2017-07-01

    In the elderly, particularly those over 80 years old, head injuries often occur as a result of falls. The majority suffer from mild head injury. After clarification of the initial symptoms in these patients, the main aim is to recognize or exclude intracranial injuries (bleeding). Demonstration of intracranial bleeding is possible with cranial computed tomography (CCT), which in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quickly carried out in most cases; however, most patients with mild head injury show no intracranial bleeding. The performance of CCT and the often necessary hospital admission place a severe physical and psychological burden on the elderly. The plasma parameter S100B, combined with the clinical findings, is a valuable instrument for decision making in the management of elderly patients with mild head injury.

  17. Automatic Prosodic Analysis to Identify Mild Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Moreira, Eduardo; Torres-Boza, Diana; Kairuz, Héctor Arturo; Ferrer, Carlos; Garcia-Zamora, Marlene; Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Hernandez-Gómez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory technique to identify mild dementia by assessing the degree of speech deficits. A total of twenty participants were used for this experiment, ten patients with a diagnosis of mild dementia and ten participants like healthy control. The audio session for each subject was recorded following a methodology developed for the present study. Prosodic features in patients with mild dementia and healthy elderly controls were measured using automatic prosodic analysis on a reading task. A novel method was carried out to gather twelve prosodic features over speech samples. The best classification rate achieved was of 85% accuracy using four prosodic features. The results attained show that the proposed computational speech analysis offers a viable alternative for automatic identification of dementia features in elderly adults. PMID:26558287

  18. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  19. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  20. [Teaching of Mathematics to Mildly Handicapped Students].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, John

    1987-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter focuses on the teaching of mathematics to mildly handicapped students. The feature article reviews the theory of generalization and its application to specific practices in teaching arithmetic. A set of six-step guidelines is offered for the teacher to follow in ensuring that generalization of arithmetic skills takes…

  1. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    clearly will produce a scientific publication on this. Due to the enormous number of mild TBis (approximately 1 million every year in the US), we... scientific publication from our results with recognition of the Consortium and CDMRP. If those results are positive, we will seek funding for a much

  2. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  3. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Pocket Guide (CONUS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Persistent Symptoms. The information within each algorithm, summarized in the following pages, helps identify the best interventions and timing of...pharmacologic interventions . Comorbid psychiatric problems may include, but are not limited to: `y Major depressive episode `y Anxiety disorders...y Develop treatment plan that includes severity and urgency for treatment interventions `y Discuss with patient the general concept of mild TBI

  4. Identifying Concussion / Mild TBI in Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    paresis/plegia, sensory loss, aphasia , etc.) that may or may not be transient o Intracranial lesion DoD Definition of TBI 8  External forces may...mild TBI including: o Evidence-based recommendations o ICD-9 coding guidance o Clinical recommendations for cognitive rehabilitation o Clinical

  5. Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Judith; Morrow, Lisa; Eschman, Amy; Archer, Gretchen; Luther, James; Zuccolotto, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Many older individuals experience cognitive decline with aging. The causes of cognitive dysfunction range from the devastating effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to treatable causes of dysfunction and the normal mild forgetfulness described by many older individuals. Even mild cognitive dysfunction can impact medication adherence, impair decision making, and affect the ability to drive or work. However, primary care physicians do not routinely screen for cognitive difficulties and many older patients do not report cognitive problems. Identifying cognitive impairment at an office visit would permit earlier referral for diagnostic work-up and treatment. The Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI) is a self-administered, user-friendly computer test that scores automatically and can be completed independently in a quiet space, such as a doctor’s examination room. The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the CAMCI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 524 nondemented individuals > 60 years old who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and clinical assessment together with the CAMCI and MMSE. We hypothesized that the CAMCI would exhibit good sensitivity and specificity and would be superior compared with the MMSE in these measures. The results indicated that the MMSE was relatively insensitive to MCI. In contrast, the CAMCI was highly sensitive (86%) and specific (94%) for the identification of MCI in a population of community-dwelling nondemented elderly individuals. PMID:19332976

  6. Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costeff, H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and familial, had a strikingly higher prevalence of disturbances than a control group of retarded individuals with consanguineous parents…

  7. Mildly Handicapped: Consumer Education, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on specil education materials--the bibliography covers 82 materials for teaching consumer education to mildly handicapped (learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, or educable mentally handicapped) students at the…

  8. Educating Students with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the history of educating students with mild mental retardation and includes discussion of general demographic trends, contextual factors that influenced this process, assessment and instructional practices, and teacher roles and preparation. It then examines these same features currently and offers recommendations for…

  9. Mortality associated with mild, untreated xerophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, A

    1983-01-01

    The high mortality rate among children with severe corneal xerophthalmia is well recognized. The present study investigates, for the first time, mortality among the very much larger number of otherwise healthy free-living children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and Bitot's spots). An average of 3481 children (under 6 years of age) living in six Indonesian villages were reexamined by an ophthalmologist, pediatrician, and nutritionist every 3 months for 18 months. The overall prevalence of mild xerophthalmia was 4.9%. During the 18 months of observation, 132 children died. Of these, 24 had mild xerophthalmia and 108 had normal eyes at the 3-monthly examination preceding their death. Mortality rates were calculated for each 3-month interval by classifying all children by their ocular status at the start of the interval, and then dividing the number of deaths within the interval by the number of children of the same ocular status followed up for that interval. Mortality rates for the six 3-month intervals were then added together, and the results expressed as deaths per 1000 "child-intervals" of follow-up. Overall mortality rates for children with mild xerophthalmia and for children with normal eyes were 23.3 and 5.3, respectively, a ratio of 4 to 1. Excess mortality among the mildly xerophthalmic children increased with the severity of their xerophthalmia. Mortality rates for children with night blindness, with Bitot's spots, and with the two conditions concurrently were 2.7, 6.6, and 8.6 times the mortality rate of non-xerophthalmic children. This direct, almost linear relation between mortality and the severity of mild xerophthalmia was still present after standardizing for age and for the presence or absence of respiratory infection and protein-energy malnutrition. In the population studied, 16% of all deaths in children 1 to 6 years of age were directly related to vitamin A deficiency identified by the presence of mild xerophthalmia. These results

  10. Mild Alzheimer's disease: a "position paper".

    PubMed

    Delrieu, J; Voisin, T; Andrieu, S; Belliard, S; Belmin, J; Blanchard, F; Ceccaldi, M; Dartigues, J F; Defontaines, B; Lehericy, S; Mekies, C; Moreaud, O; Naccache, L; Nourhashemi, F; Ousset, P J; Pasquier, F; Payoux, P; Puisieux, F; Robert, P; Touchon, J; Vellas, B; Dubois, B

    2009-06-01

    Under the auspices of the Societe Francaise de Geriatrie et Gerontologie, a multi-disciplinary group of specialists in geriatrics, neurology, epidemiology, psychiatry, neuroradiology and nuclear medicine met with the aim of drawing up references on the methods for diagnosing and treating mild Alzheimer's disease. The critical analysis of international literature, conducted by Professor Bruno Vellas for the scientific committee, has served to support study of the latest knowledge in 2008. The multi-disciplinary group met on 14 and 15 May 2008 in order to set out the questions that this study must answer and to allocate draft studies. Thus, it has been possible to conduct a study focused on mild Alzheimer's disease, giving particular attention to diagnostic procedure, specific methods of treatment and the benefits of making a diagnosis.

  11. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hemorrhagic lesions including intraparenchymal, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding. Blast injury also induces a variety of histological effects...and microscopic intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage , severity related to proximity of explosion to head Decreased rotarod and grip...tensor imaging study. J Neurosurg 2005;103:298-303. 66. Wilde EA, McCauley SR, Hunter JV, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging of acute mild traumatic brain

  12. [Mild type of the Ebstein anomaly].

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Waśniewski, Michał; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a congenital malformation of the heart that is characterised by apical displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets, leading to atrialisation of the right ventricle with a variable degree of malformation and displacement of the anterior leaflet. We present a case of a mild type Ebstein anomaly leading to moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation and some degree of right ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  14. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    modalities. We recruited to the project Margaret A. Parsley to carry out the Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (MTBIs) under the supervision of Doug DeWitt...abstracts: Hulsebosch CE, Johnson KM, Dewitt DS, Dash PK, Grill R, Parsley MA, Unabia G, Rea H, Perez-Polo JR. Role of IL-1 and TNF receptor activation in...neurological deficits after TBI National Neurotrauma Society, 2010 Johnson KM, Dewitt DS, Dash PK, Grill R, Parsley MA, Unabia G, Rea H, Perez-Polo

  15. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  16. Micronutrient supplementation in mild Alzheimer disease patients.

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Conde, M; Audivert, S; Pérez-Portabella, C; Burgos, R; Chacón, P; Rossello, J; Boada, M; Tàrraga, L L

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate if nutritional supplementation with or without micronutrient enhancement prevent weight loss and the progression of the disease in mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. Mild AD patients were recruited from an Alzheimer Day Centre. Subjects received oral liquid supplements with (Study-group: S) or without (Control-group: C) micronutrient enhancement. Intake assessment, nutritional status, biochemical parameters, cognitive function, and eating behaviour disorders were determined at baseline and at 6 months of treatment. At baseline both groups were not different in any variable measured. They were norm nourished, with normal biochemical parameters. Blandford scale demonstrated a mild alteration of feeding behaviour, the cognitive scale classified the patients as impaired and there was presence of memory complaints. After 6 months of nutritional supplements, a similar increase in energy consumption was observed in both groups of patients (P<0.05). In the within-group analysis, we found a trend (P=0.05) to increase body mass index; a significant increase in triceps skin fold thickness, mid-upper-arm circumference and serum magnesium, zinc and selenium, and a significant reduction in serum vitamin E (P<0.001, each). Serum cholesterol decreased substantially only in the S-group (P=0.025). No significant differences at baseline, within-group, neither between-group analysis in feeding behaviour nor in cognitive function were observed. According to our results no benefits in the progression of the disease was observed with micronutrient enhancement supplements. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements in preventing weight loss in mild AD patients showed a similar behaviour as observed in other populations. Due to the beneficial evolution of serum cholesterol in the S-group, this intervention deserves further investigation.

  17. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin.

  18. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) in mild TBI and...begun. 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...this project will be to study the diagnosis of post traumatic hypopituitarism after MTBI. We will determine the incidence of hypopituitarism

  19. Update in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Freire-Aragón, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José

    2017-08-10

    There has been concern for many years regarding the identification of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) at high risk of developing an intracranial lesion (IL) that would require neurosurgical intervention. The small percentage of patients with these characteristics and the exceptional mortality associated with mild TBI with IL have led to the high use of resources such as computerised tomography (CT) being reconsidered. The various protocols developed for the management of mild TBI are based on the identification of risk factors for IL, which ultimately allows more selective indication or discarding both the CT application and the hospital stay for neurological monitoring. Finally, progress in the study of brain injury biomarkers with prognostic utility in different clinical categories of TBI has recently been incorporated by several clinical practice guidelines, which has allowed, together with clinical assessment, a more accurate prognostic approach for these patients to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Rehabilitation interventions after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2005-12-01

    This review examines current management and rehabilitation strategies for mild traumatic brain injury, with emphasis on the need to address multiple potential causative factors in order to enhance outcomes and to conduct more controlled efficacy studies. Whilst most individuals who sustain mild traumatic brain injury make a good recovery, a proportion experience significant ongoing disability. In some cases this is due to diffuse axonal injury and cognitive impairment, but in others symptoms are exacerbated by factors such as pain, stress, personality issues or litigation, or in children, previous head injury, behavioural or learning difficulties. Provision of information early after injury results in reduced symptom reporting in adults and children. There is also a need, however, to address these other factors in treatment. Psychological therapy using a cognitive behavioural approach may be helpful, but controlled evaluations of such interventions have been lacking. Recent uncontrolled studies have examined the impact of computer-mediated interventions to remediate visual and verbal processing and oculomotor problems and the impact of quantitative electroencephalography. More rigorous efficacy studies of these approaches are needed. Guidelines for management of sports-related concussion and timing of return to play also require a more solid scientific basis. The evidence base for management of mild traumatic brain injury is still very limited. There is a need to conduct more carefully controlled prospective studies and examine the influence of factors not directly related to the brain injury as a basis for formulating more uniform management guidelines.

  1. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu

  2. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment.

  3. Repetition priming in mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia: Impact of educational attainment.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Deirdre M; De Wit, Liselotte; Yutsis, Maya; Castro, Melissa; Smith, Glenn E

    2017-07-03

    To examine the role of education on repetition priming performances in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild dementia. A total of 72 participants (healthy = 27, with MCI = 28, with mild dementia = 17) took part in the present study. Priming was assessed using the Word Stem Completion Test, and delayed and recognition memory was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. A multinomial regression analysis was used to examine whether years of education moderated priming and declarative memory performances in predicting group membership. Priming performances discriminated between individuals with MCI and mild dementia but not between MCI and healthy. Additionally, this effect was most salient in individuals with low levels of education. Education did not moderate explicit memory performances in predicting group membership. Little is known about the impact of education on priming in verbal memory. Our findings indicate that formal years of education impact priming performances in MCI and individuals with mild dementia, which may have implications for designing interventions targeting "intact" cognitive abilities in these groups.

  4. Review on intrauterine programming: Consequences in rodent models of mild diabetes and mild fat overfeeding are not mild.

    PubMed

    Jawerbaum, A; White, V

    2017-04-01

    An adverse intrauterine programming occurs in diabetes and obesity as the consequence of an adverse maternal environment that affects the appropriate fetoplacental development and growth. Experimental models of diabetes and fat overfeeding have provided relevant tools to address putative mechanisms of the adverse intrauterine programming. The current knowledge far extends from the original thoughts of the resulting intrauterine programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases to a full range of alterations that affect multiple tissues, organs, and systems that will compromise the long-life health of the offspring. This review examines the postnatal effects of rodent models of mild diabetes and fat overfeeding, identifying the multiple organ derangements in the offspring resulting from mild maternal adverse conditions. In addition, the comparison of experimental models of severe diabetes and fat overfeeding and the crucial role of the placenta are discussed, providing an update of the actual scenario of the putative mechanisms and adverse consequences of maternal metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of mild hypertension in adults.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Hawes, Emily M

    2016-11-21

    Elevated blood pressure is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects one in three adults. Blood pressure lowering drugs substantially reduce the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and premature death, but most clinical trials showing benefits have primarily included patients with moderate to severe hypertension, known cardiovascular disease, or elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. The benefits of treating mild hypertension in patients without cardiovascular disease are less clear, but recent meta-analyses offer some insights. Pooled data from trials that include a large percentage of participants with mild hypertension show significant reductions in stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, and total mortality. Meta-analyses comparing lower blood pressure targets also suggest a benefit of treating patients with mild hypertension, although net benefits are greater for patients at higher absolute levels of cardiovascular disease risk. Before starting drug treatment, most patients should have out-of-office monitoring to confirm hypertension. Lifestyle modifications for reducing blood pressure are appropriate for all patients and may be recommended while delaying drug treatment for those at lower absolute levels of cardiovascular disease risk. Patient level control of blood pressure is supported by home monitoring and by once daily, low cost drug. Control of blood pressure for a population of patients is enhanced by system level interventions such as registries, implementation of evidence based protocols, drug titration visits, and performance metrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Three-Dimensional Gray Matter Atrophy Mapping in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Steiner, Calen A.; Akopyan, Gohar G.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the recent terminology for patients with cognitive deficiencies in the absence of functional decline. Most patients with MCI harbor the pathologic changes of AD and demonstrate transition to dementia at a rate of 10% to 15% per year. Patients with AD and MCI experience progressive brain atrophy. Objective To analyze the structural magnetic resonance imaging data for 24 patients with amnestic MCI and 25 patients with mild AD using an advanced 3-dimensional cortical mapping technique. Design Cross-sectional cohort design. Patients/Methods We analyzed the structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 24 amnestic MCI (mean MMSE, 28.1; SD, 1.7) and 25 mild AD patients (all MMSE scores, >18; mean MMSE, 23.7; SD, 2.9) using an advanced 3-dimensional cortical mapping technique. Results We observed significantly greater cortical atrophy in patients with mild AD. The entorhinal cortex, right more than left lateral temporal cortex, right parietal cortex, and bilateral precuneus showed 15% more atrophy and the remainder of the cortex primarily exhibited 10% to 15% more atrophy in patients with mild AD than in patients with amnestic MCI. Conclusion There are striking cortical differences between mild AD and the immediately preceding cognitive state of amnestic MCI. Cortical areas affected earlier in the disease process are more severely affected than those that are affected late. Our method may prove to be a reliable in vivo disease-tracking technique that can also be used for evaluating disease-modifying therapies in the future. PMID:17923632

  7. Analytical galactic models with mild stellar cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler-Daller, T.

    2009-06-01

    In the past two decades, it has been established by high-resolution observations of early-type galaxies that their nuclear surface brightness and corresponding stellar mass densities are characterized by cusps. In this paper, we present a new spherical analytical model family describing mild cuspy centres. We study isotropic and anisotropic models of Osipkov-Merritt type. It is shown that the associated distribution functions and intrinsic velocity dispersions can be represented analytically in a unified way in terms of hypergeometric series, allowing thus a straightforward comparison of these important global quantities for galaxies having underlying mass densities which may differ significantly in their degree of central cuspiness or radial falloff.

  8. Mild Neurocognitive Disorder: An Old Wine in a New Bottle

    PubMed Central

    Stokin, Gorazd B.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders” has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as “Neurocognitive Disorders” (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined mild NCD based on a single criterion, whereas DSM-5 defines mild NCD by using several cognitive and related criteria. The main difference between mild NCD and the Key International Symposium criteria of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is that the research work that led to the construct of MCI primarily involved elderly study participants (even though age was not part of the definition of MCI), whereas mild NCD includes acquired cognitive disorders of all age groups. DSM-5 essentially discusses the epidemiology and diagnostic markers of mild NCD by drawing congruence between MCI and mild NCD. The DSM-5 definition of mild NCD is anchored on four criteria and two specifiers. The four criteria refer to cognitive changes, functional activities, and exclusion of delirium and competing mental disorders. The two specifiers are the presumed etiologies of mild NCD and the presence or absence of behavioral problems. While the category “mild NCD” may improve reliability of diagnoses, it has yet to withstand scientific scrutiny to be considered a valid construct. This article reviews the DSM-5 criteria for mild NCD, compares them with the Key International Symposium MCI criteria, and discusses the pros and cons of the mild NCD construct. PMID:26332219

  9. Formability of Aluminum Mild Detonating Fuse

    SciTech Connect

    HALL, AARON C.

    2002-10-01

    Mild detonating fuse is an extruded aluminum tube that contains explosive material. Fuse prepared by a new supplier (Company B) exhibited a formability problem and was analyzed to determine the source of that formability problem. The formability problem was associated with cracking of the aluminum tube when it was bent around a small radius. Mild detonating fuse prepared by the existing supplier of product (Company A) did not exhibit a formability problem. The two fuses were prepared using different aluminum alloys. The microstructure and chemical composition of the two aluminum alloys were compared. It was found that the microstructure of the Company A aluminum exhibited clear signs of dynamic recrystallization while the Company B aluminum did not. Recrystallization results in the removal of dislocations associated with work hardening and will dramatically improve formability. Comparison of the chemical composition of the two aluminum alloys revealed that the Company A aluminum contained significantly lower levels of impurity elements (specifically Fe and Si) than the COMPANY B aluminum. It has been concluded that the formability problem exhibited by the COMPANY B material will be solved by using an aluminum alloy with low impurity content such as 1190-H18 or 1199-0.

  10. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  11. Enhanced tumorigenicity by mitochondrial DNA mild mutations.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Alberto; Vallejo, Carmen G; Vicente-Blanco, Ramiro J; Gallardo, María Esther; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Ángel; Quintanilla, Miguel; Garesse, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    To understand how mitochondria are involved in malignant transformation we have generated a collection of transmitochondrial cybrid cell lines on the same nuclear background (143B) but with mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants with different degrees of pathogenicity. These include the severe mutation in the tRNALys gene, m.8363G>A, and the three milder yet prevalent Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutations in the MT-ND1 (m.3460G>A), MT-ND4 (m.11778G>A) and MT-ND6 (m.14484T>C) mitochondrial genes. We found that 143B ρ0 cells devoid of mtDNA and cybrids harboring wild type mtDNA or that causing severe mitochondrial dysfunction do not produce tumors when injected in nude mice. By contrast cybrids containing mild mutant mtDNAs exhibit different tumorigenic capacities, depending on OXPHOS dysfunction.The differences in tumorigenicity correlate with an enhanced resistance to apoptosis and high levels of NOX expression. However, the final capacity of the different cybrid cell lines to generate tumors is most likely a consequence of a complex array of pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic factors associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.Our results demonstrate the essential role of mtDNA in tumorigenesis and explain the numerous and varied mtDNA mutations found in human tumors, most of which give rise to mild mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón, José-Francisco; Meléndez, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-01

    There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of MCI, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed light on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCI. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant samples were those formed by two MCI groups differing in age and an Alzheimer's disease group (AD), which were compared with two control groups. Whereas one of the control groups served to assess the performance of the MCI and AD people, the other one, composed of young healthy participants, served the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the experimental tasks used in the evaluation of the different components of recognition memory. We used an associative recognition task as a direct index of recollection and a choice task on a pair of stimuli, one of which was perceptually similar to those studied in the associative recognition phase, as an index of familiarity. Our results indicate that recollection decreases with age and neurological status, and familiarity remains stable in the elderly control sample but it is deficient in MCI. This research shows that a unique encoding situation generated deficits in recollective and familiarity mechanisms in mild cognitive impaired individuals, providing evidence for the existence of deficits in both retrieval processes in recognition memory in a MCI stage.

  13. Enhanced tumorigenicity by mitochondrial DNA mild mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Alberto; Vallejo, Carmen G.; Vicente-Blanco, Ramiro J.; Gallardo, María Esther; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Ángel; Quintanilla, Miguel; Garesse, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    To understand how mitochondria are involved in malignant transformation we have generated a collection of transmitochondrial cybrid cell lines on the same nuclear background (143B) but with mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants with different degrees of pathogenicity. These include the severe mutation in the tRNALys gene, m.8363G>A, and the three milder yet prevalent Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutations in the MT-ND1 (m.3460G>A), MT-ND4 (m.11778G>A) and MT-ND6 (m.14484T>C) mitochondrial genes. We found that 143B ρ0 cells devoid of mtDNA and cybrids harboring wild type mtDNA or that causing severe mitochondrial dysfunction do not produce tumors when injected in nude mice. By contrast cybrids containing mild mutant mtDNAs exhibit different tumorigenic capacities, depending on OXPHOS dysfunction. The differences in tumorigenicity correlate with an enhanced resistance to apoptosis and high levels of NOX expression. However, the final capacity of the different cybrid cell lines to generate tumors is most likely a consequence of a complex array of pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic factors associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results demonstrate the essential role of mtDNA in tumorigenesis and explain the numerous and varied mtDNA mutations found in human tumors, most of which give rise to mild mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25909222

  14. Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter includes the investigation of the mild pyrolysis of unoxidized coals plus a selection of selectively oxidized coals. In addition the effect of particle size and extent of oxidation on pyrolysis was investigated. Some preliminary data concerning pyrolysis under vacuum and ambient pressure was also obtained. Work completed this quarter supports the following conclusions: (1) Desulfurization of unoxidized coals increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and correlates with the loss of volatile matter. (2) Particle size did not influence the extent of desulfurization significantly. (3) Removing pyrite prior to pyrolysis helps to achieve a lower sulfur product beyond that expected from the removal of pyrite alone. (4) The extent of selective oxidation in teh pretreatment step did not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (5) Up to 84% of the sulfur has been removed from the IBC 101 coal by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (6) Evidence for regressive reactions between volatilized sulfur compounds and partially desulfurized products was obtained by studying how changes in pyrolysis pressure effected the product sulfur content.

  15. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  16. Craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Strahinja; Dhamo, Brunilda; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia using conventional and principal component (PC) analysis. We used radiographic images of 124 children (8-12 years old) with up to 4 missing teeth (55 boys, 69 girls) and of 676 reference children (365 boys, 311 girls) from the Rotterdam Generation R Study and the Nijmegen Growth Study in The Netherlands. Fifteen cephalometric measurements of children with hypodontia were compared with those of the reference children. Moreover, cephalometric parameters were combined into standardized PC scores using PC analysis, and the components were compared between the 2 groups. PC analysis showed common dental characteristics for all types of hypodontia: a significant increase of the interincisal angle, and decreases of the maxillary and mandibular incisor angles. Other findings were consistent when both methods were applied: (1) anterior hypodontia was significantly associated with the high-angle (hyperdivergent) craniofacial pattern, (2) the tendency toward a Class III malocclusion was identified in maxillary hypodontia, and (3) we observed a significant reduction of lower posterior facial height in children with posterior and mandibular hypodontia. Our findings suggest that children with mild hypodontia have distinctive skeletal and dental features. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  18. A mild Grave's ophthalmopathy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abbouda, Alessandro; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Bruscolini, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a complication most commonly associated with Grave's disease. The disease course ranges from mild to severe, with severe cases resulting in major visual impairment. A complete ophthalmic examination in a 35-year-old secundigravida to 14 weeks of gestation presented to the hospital for a routine ophthalmological examination with eyelid retraction in the right eye was made. We studied the course of ocular disease through the gestation with orbit ecography and a 3T MRI. A diagnosis of Grave's Ophthalmopathy was made. This case presents an unusual course of the GD during pregnancy and a normal post-partum relapse, according to the Th1/Th2 balance. The frequent follow-up and the use of MRI allowed a prompt identification and complete control of the disease.

  19. Mildly Recycled Pulsars at High-Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzoni, A.

    2011-08-01

    Mildly recyled pulsars (MRP), conventionally defined as neutron star having spin period in the 20-100 ms range and surface magnetic field <1011 Gauss, probably rise from binary systems (disrupted or not) with an intermediate or an high mass companion. Despite their relatively low spin-down energies compared to the ``fully'' recycled millisecond pulsars (arising from common low mass X-ray binaries), nearby MRPs can be detected by deep X-ray observations and by timing analysis of the very long data span provided by gamma-ray space detectors. The discovery of peculiar timing and spectral properties, possibly transitional, of the MRPs can be of the utmost importance to link different classes of neutron stars and study their evolution.

  20. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  1. Pressure passivation of mild pyrolysis char

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.; Summers, C.; Schroeder, K.; Sands, W.

    1999-07-01

    Low-rank coals that have been thermally dried in the mild pyrolysis process have a tendency to spontaneously combust. The spontaneous combustion of coals and chars has been linked to their affinity for oxygen. The USDOE has developed a method for the passivation of mild pyrolysis char derived from a low-rank coal using pressure differentials to control the oxidation of the active sites in the char rapidly and safely. Initial experiments performed by the USDOE show that the affinity of the coal for oxygen uptake (residual oxygen demand, ROD) is reduced by exposure of the coal-char to high-pressure gas mixtures including air or oxygen-enriched air. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the ROD can be rapidly reduced by cycling the active coals between low-pressure (atmospheric pressure or less) and high-pressure (500 psi to 1,500 psi) regimes. Cycling the pressure of the treatment gas provides rapid passivation resulting from two effects: The high-pressure cycle forces fresh oxygen into the pores which have been purged of adsorbed gases and reaction products. The pores of coal are small enough to prohibit free convection and force oxygen exchange to take place by way of diffusion under ambient conditions. The forced introduction of fresh process gas under high pressure overcomes the restrictions due to diffusion limits while the removal of adsorbed products clears the way to active surface sites. The high pressure increases the number of oxygen molecules with sufficient energy to overcome the activation barrier of the passivation reaction, due to the increased number of molecules per unit volume of the high-pressure gas. Combined, the two effects rapidly produce a coal with a significantly reduced ROD.

  2. Has mildness replaced cleanliness next to godliness?

    PubMed

    Wolf, R

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 30 years we have witnessed a change in our approach to soaps. The turning point was, in fact, the publication of an article by Frosch and Kligman in 1979, in which they described a new method for assessing the irritancy of soaps. They maintained that the chief weakness of the usage tests in the past was that the reactions under normal usage conditions were weak and did not discriminate adequately between different soaps. They proposed a test, called the soap chamber test, which was conducted under extreme conditions, on people known to have a sensitive skin, thereby resulting in strong reactions that emphasized the slight differences between the various soaps. Frosch and Kligman's work opened up a whole new era in the field of assessment of soap quality. Following their initial studies, many other studies were conducted, including the exaggerated use tests, often in conjunction with instrumental methods of evaluation, such as measurement of transepidermal water loss, electrical conductance, skin color and blood flow, and other tests designed to evaluate the irritation potential of various soaps. All those tests had a common purpose: to achieve extreme conditions which would provide greater sensitivity and discriminating power and would accentuate and emphasize the differences between soaps as much as possible: the greater the discrimination and the differences between the products, the more efficient and useful the test. The introduction and publication of tests such as those completely changed out approach to soaps. The sought-after qualities in a soap became safety, mildness, gentleness, less irritation, less drying--in particular, gentleness and mildness were emphasized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Postpartum depression after mild and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J; Habbema, J Dik F; Steegers, Eric A P; Raat, Hein

    2011-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Women diagnosed with preeclampsia (n=161) completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6, 12, or 26 weeks postpartum. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between severity of preeclampsia, contributing factors and postpartum depression (PPD) (1) at any time during the first 26 weeks postpartum and (2) accounting for longitudinal observations at three time points. After mild preeclampsia, 23% reported postpartum depressive symptoms at any time up to 26 weeks postpartum compared to 44% after severe preeclampsia (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-6.05) for depression at any time up to 26 weeks postpartum (unadjusted OR 2.57, 95% CI, 1.14-5.76) while accounting for longitudinal observations. Admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (adjusted OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.15-8.89) and perinatal death (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.03) contributed to this difference. It appears that not the severity of preeclampsia itself but rather the consequences of the severity of the disease (especially admission to the NICU and perinatal death) cause postpartum depressive symptoms. Obstetricians should be aware of the high risk of postpartum depressive symptoms after severe preeclampsia, particularly among women whose infant has been admitted to the NICU or has died.

  4. MILD combustion for hydrogen and syngas at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingming; Zhang, Zhedian; Shao, Weiwei; Xiong, Yan; Lei, Fulin; Xiao, Yunhan

    2014-02-01

    As gas recirculation constitutes a fundamental condition for the realization of MILD combustion, it is necessary to determine gas recirculation ratio before designing MILD combustor. MILD combustion model with gas recirculation was used in this simulation work to evaluate the effect of fuel type and pressure on threshold gas recirculation ratio of MILD mode. Ignition delay time is also an important design parameter for gas turbine combustor, this parameter is kinetically studied to analyze the effect of pressure on MILD mixture ignition. Threshold gas recirculation ratio of hydrogen MILD combustion changes slightly and is nearly equal to that of 10 MJ/Nm3 syngas in the pressure range of 1-19 atm, under the conditions of 298 K fresh reactant temperature and 1373 K exhaust gas temperature, indicating that MILD regime is fuel flexible. Ignition delay calculation results show that pressure has a negative effect on ignition delay time of 10 MJ/Nm3 syngas MILD mixture, because OH mole fraction in MILD mixture drops down as pressure increases, resulting in the delay of the oxidation process.

  5. Mild Hyperthermia Worsens the Neuropathological Damage Associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Atkins, Coleen M.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Bramlett, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The effects of slight variations in brain temperature on the pathophysiological consequences of acute brain injury have been extensively described in models of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, limited information is available regarding the potential consequences of temperature elevations on outcome following mild TBI (mTBI) or concussions. One potential confounding variable with mTBI is the presence of elevated body temperature that occurs in the civilian or military populations due to hot environments combined with exercise or other forms of physical exertion. We therefore determined the histopathological effects of pre- and post-traumatic hyperthermia (39°C) on mTBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia, post-traumatic hyperthermia alone for 2 h, and normothermia (37°C). The pre/post-hyperthermia group was treated with hyperthermia starting 15 min before mild parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.4–1.6 atm), with the temperature elevation extending for 2 h after trauma. At 72 h after mTBI, the rats were perfusion-fixed for quantitative histopathological evaluation. Contusion areas and volumes were significantly larger in the pre/post-hyperthermia treatment group compared to the post-hyperthermia and normothermic groups. In addition, pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia caused the most severe loss of NeuN-positive cells in the dentate hilus compared to normothermia. These neuropathological results demonstrate that relatively mild elevations in temperature associated with peri-traumatic events may affect the long-term functional consequences of mTBI. Because individuals exhibiting mildly elevated core temperatures may be predisposed to aggravated brain damage after mTBI or concussion, precautions should be introduced to target this important physiological variable. PMID:22026555

  6. Mild hyperthermia worsens the neuropathological damage associated with mild traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Atkins, Coleen M; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2012-01-20

    The effects of slight variations in brain temperature on the pathophysiological consequences of acute brain injury have been extensively described in models of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, limited information is available regarding the potential consequences of temperature elevations on outcome following mild TBI (mTBI) or concussions. One potential confounding variable with mTBI is the presence of elevated body temperature that occurs in the civilian or military populations due to hot environments combined with exercise or other forms of physical exertion. We therefore determined the histopathological effects of pre- and post-traumatic hyperthermia (39°C) on mTBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia, post-traumatic hyperthermia alone for 2 h, and normothermia (37°C). The pre/post-hyperthermia group was treated with hyperthermia starting 15 min before mild parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.4-1.6 atm), with the temperature elevation extending for 2 h after trauma. At 72 h after mTBI, the rats were perfusion-fixed for quantitative histopathological evaluation. Contusion areas and volumes were significantly larger in the pre/post-hyperthermia treatment group compared to the post-hyperthermia and normothermic groups. In addition, pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia caused the most severe loss of NeuN-positive cells in the dentate hilus compared to normothermia. These neuropathological results demonstrate that relatively mild elevations in temperature associated with peri-traumatic events may affect the long-term functional consequences of mTBI. Because individuals exhibiting mildly elevated core temperatures may be predisposed to aggravated brain damage after mTBI or concussion, precautions should be introduced to target this important physiological variable.

  7. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  8. Utility of the functional activities questionnaire for distinguishing mild cognitive impairment from very mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Teng, Edmond; Becker, Brian W; Woo, Ellen; Knopman, David S; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Lu, Po H

    2010-01-01

    Current criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) require "essentially intact" performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), which has proven difficult to operationalize. We sought to determine how well the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), a standardized assessment of instrumental ADLs, delineates the clinical distinction between MCI and very mild Alzheimer disease (AD). We identified 1801 individuals in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set with MCI (n=1108) or very mild AD (n=693) assessed with the FAQ and randomized them to the development or test sets. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis of the development set identified optimal cut-points that maximized the sensitivity and specificity of FAQ measures for differentiating AD from MCI and were validated with the test set. ROC analysis of total FAQ scores in the development set produced an area under the curve of 0.903 and an optimal cut-point of 5/6, which yielded 80.3% sensitivity, 87.0% specificity, and 84.7% classification accuracy in the test set. Bill paying, tracking current events, and transportation (P's<0.005) were the FAQ items of greatest diagnostic utility. These data suggest that the FAQ exhibits adequate sensitivity and specificity when used as a standardized assessment of instrumental ADLs in the diagnosis of AD versus MCI.

  9. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Liana G; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral symptoms are common in both mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3,456 MCI and 2,641 mild AD National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination, functional impairment, marital status and family history on the presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with a higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed a higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI patients had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI patients. Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had an effect on selected behaviors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Reduced interhemispheric inhibition in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Hamada, Masashi; Shirota, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Terao, Yasuo; Ohminami, Shinya; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the corpus callosum is known to be affected structurally. We evaluated callosal function by interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in MCI patients. We investigated 12 amnestic MCI patients and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects. The IHI was studied with a paired-pulse TMS technique. The conditioning TMS was given over the right primary motor cortex (M1) and the test TMS over the left M1. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle. We also studied other motor cortical circuit functions; short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Both the amount of IHI and SAI were significantly reduced in MCI patients as compared with control subjects, whereas SICI or ICF did not differ between them. The degree of IHI significantly correlated with neither the mini-mental state examination score nor the degree of SAI. Our results suggest that transcallosal connection between bilateral M1 is primarily involved in MCI, regardless of SAI dysfunction.

  11. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

  12. Cerebrovascular pathophysiology following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Len, T K; Neary, J P

    2011-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or sport-induced concussion has recently become a prominent concern not only in the athletic setting (i.e. sports venue) but also in the general population. The majority of research to date has aimed at understanding the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes of injury as well as return-to-play guidelines. Remaining relatively unexamined has been the pathophysiological aspect of mTBI. Recent technological advances including transcranial Doppler ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy have allowed researchers to examine the systemic effects of mTBI from rest to exercise, and during both asymptomatic and symptomatic conditions. In this review, we focus on the current research available from both human and experimental (animal) studies surrounding the pathophysiology of mTBI. First, the quest for a unified definition of mTBI, its historical development and implications for future research is discussed. Finally, the impact of mTBI on the control and regulation of cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reactivity, cerebral oxygenation and neuroautonomic cardiovascular regulation, all of which may be compromised with mTBI, is discussed. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept in evolution.

    PubMed

    Petersen, R C; Caracciolo, B; Brayne, C; Gauthier, S; Jelic, V; Fratiglioni, L

    2014-03-01

    The construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has evolved over the past 10 years since the publication of the new MCI definition at the Key Symposium in 2003, but the core criteria have remained unchanged. The construct has been extensively used worldwide, both in clinical and in research settings, to define the grey area between intact cognitive functioning and clinical dementia. A rich set of data regarding occurrence, risk factors and progression of MCI has been generated. Discrepancies between studies can be mostly explained by differences in the operationalization of the criteria, differences in the setting where the criteria have been applied, selection of subjects and length of follow-up in longitudinal studies. Major controversial issues that remain to be further explored are algorithmic versus clinical classification, reliability of clinical judgment, temporal changes in cognitive performances and predictivity of putative biomarkers. Some suggestions to further develop the MCI construct include the tailoring of the clinical criteria to specific populations and to specific contexts. The addition of biomarkers to the clinical phenotypes is promising but requires deeper investigation. Translation of findings from the specialty clinic to the population setting, although challenging, will enhance uniformity of outcomes. More longitudinal population-based studies on cognitive ageing and MCI need to be performed to clarify all these issues. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Clinically mild infantile encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Nozomi; Yoshimaru, Daisuke; Moriyama, Yoko; Honda, Takafumi; Yasukawa, Kumi; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-02-15

    Acute infectious encephalopathy is very frequently observed in children in East Asia including Japan. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common subtype in Japan; however, more than 40% of the patients remain unclassified into specific syndromes. To investigate the underlying pathomechanism in those with unclassified acute encephalopathy, we evaluated brain metabolism by MR spectroscopy. Among 20 patients with acute encephalopathy admitted to our hospital during January 2015 to May 2016, 12 could not be classified into specific syndromes. MR spectroscopy was performed in 8 of these 12 patients with unclassified encephalopathy. MR spectroscopy showed an increase of glutamine with a normal N-acetyl aspartate level on days 3 to 8 in three of the 8 patients, which had normalized by follow-up studies. The three patients clinically recovered completely. This study suggests that excitotoxicity may be the underlying pathomechanism in some patients with unclassified mild encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial phosphating of mild (unalloyed) steel.

    PubMed

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Müller, B; Repphun, G; Wanner, O; Zehnder, A J

    2000-10-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached -510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at -510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion.

  16. Bacterial Phosphating of Mild (Unalloyed) Steel

    PubMed Central

    Volkland, Hans-Peter; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Beat; Repphun, Gernot; Wanner, Oskar; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached −510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at −510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion. PMID:11010888

  17. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  18. Aortic Valve Calcification in Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Shinichi; Walker, Marcella Donovan; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Hyodo, Eiichi; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Sacco, Ralph L.; Homma, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Context: It is unclear whether cardiovascular disease is present in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Objective: Aortic valve structure and function were compared in PHPT patients and population-based controls. Design: This is a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital metabolic bone disease unit. Participants: We studied 51 patients with PHPT and 49 controls. Outcome Measures: We measured the aortic valve calcification area and the transaortic pressure gradient. Results: Aortic valve calcification area was significantly higher in PHPT (0.24 ± 0.02 vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 cm2, p<0.01), although there was no difference in the peak transaortic pressure gradient, a functional measure of valvular calcification (5.6 ± 0.3 vs. 6.0 ± 0.3 mm Hg, P = 0.39). Aortic valve calcification area was positively associated with PTH (r = 0.34; P < 0.05) but not with serum calcium, phosphorus, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels or with calcium-phosphate product. Serum PTH level remained an independent predictor of aortic valve calcification area after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, history of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Mild PHPT is associated with subclinical aortic valve calcification. PTH, but not serum calcium concentration, predicted aortic valve calcification. PTH was a more important predictor of aortic valve calcification than well-accepted cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22031523

  19. Defective Artemis causes mild telomere dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yasaei, Hemad; Slijepcevic, Predrag

    2010-05-26

    Repair of DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) requires several proteins including Ku, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4, Ligase IV and XLF. Two of these proteins, namely Ku and DNA-PKcs, are also involved in maintenance of telomeres, chromosome end-structures. In contrast, cells defective in Ligase IV and XRCC4 do not show changes in telomere length or function suggesting that these proteins are not involved in telomere maintenance. Since a mouse study indicated that defective Artemis may cause telomere dysfunction we investigated the effects of defective Artemis on telomere maintenance in human cells. We observed significantly elevated frequencies of telomeric fusions in two primary fibroblast cell lines established from Artemis defective patients relative to the control cell line. The frequencies of telomeric fusions increased after exposure of Artemis defective cells to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, we observed increased incidence of DNA damage at telomeres in Artemis defective cells that underwent more than 32 population doublings using the TIF (Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci) assay. We have also inhibited the expression levels of DNA-PKcs in Artemis defective cell lines by either using synthetic inhibitor (IC86621) or RNAi and observed their greater sensitivity to telomere dysfunction relative to control cells. These results suggest that defective Artemis causes a mild telomere dysfunction phenotype in human cell lines.

  20. Defective Artemis causes mild telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Repair of DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) requires several proteins including Ku, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4, Ligase IV and XLF. Two of these proteins, namely Ku and DNA-PKcs, are also involved in maintenance of telomeres, chromosome end-structures. In contrast, cells defective in Ligase IV and XRCC4 do not show changes in telomere length or function suggesting that these proteins are not involved in telomere maintenance. Since a mouse study indicated that defective Artemis may cause telomere dysfunction we investigated the effects of defective Artemis on telomere maintenance in human cells. Results We observed significantly elevated frequencies of telomeric fusions in two primary fibroblast cell lines established from Artemis defective patients relative to the control cell line. The frequencies of telomeric fusions increased after exposure of Artemis defective cells to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, we observed increased incidence of DNA damage at telomeres in Artemis defective cells that underwent more than 32 population doublings using the TIF (Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci) assay. We have also inhibited the expression levels of DNA-PKcs in Artemis defective cell lines by either using synthetic inhibitor (IC86621) or RNAi and observed their greater sensitivity to telomere dysfunction relative to control cells. Conclusion These results suggest that defective Artemis causes a mild telomere dysfunction phenotype in human cell lines. PMID:20678254

  1. Mild Photochemical Biofunctionalization of Glass Microchannels.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui Rijo; Pujari, Sidharam P; Gahtory, Digvijay; Vrouwe, Elwin X; Albada, Bauke; Zuilhof, Han

    2017-01-10

    The ability to locally modify the inside of microfluidic channels with bioactive molecules is of ever-rising relevance. In this article, we show the direct photochemical coupling of a N-hydroxysuccinimide-terminated ω-alkene onto hydrogen-terminated silicon oxide, and its subsequent functionalization with a catalytically active DNAzyme. To achieve this local attachment of a DNAzyme, we prepared hydrogen-phenyl-terminated glass (H-Φ-glass) by the reaction of glass with H-SiPhCl2. The presence of a radical-stabilizing substituent on the Si atom (i.e., phenyl) enabled the covalent modification of bare glass substrates and of the inside of glass microchannels with a functional organic monolayer that allowed direct reaction with an amine-functionalized biomolecule. In this study, we directly attached an NHS-functionalized alkene to the modified glass surface using light with a wavelength of 328 nm, as evidenced by SCA, G-ATR, XPS, SEM, AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Using these NHS-based active esters on the surface, we performed a direct localized attachment of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking hemin/G-quadruplex (hGQ) DNAzyme complex inside a microfluidic channel. This wall-coated hGQ DNAzyme effectively catalyzed the in-flow oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) [ABTS] in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This proof-of-concept of mild biofunctionalization will allow the facile preparation of modified microchannels for myriad biorelevant applications.

  2. Neuroprotective Strategies after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    of nicotinamide (NAD). Scope: In rat model of a repetitive mild cortical controlled injury, we investigated the neuropathological profile of two...mild traumatic brain injury, HBO, nicotinamide , intranasal, MRI, rat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...prophylactically or therapeutically in combination with intranasal delivery of nicotinamide would improve the outcomes in a rodent model subjected to

  3. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  4. Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

    Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

  5. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  6. Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) leads to spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Dawish, Hala; Mahmood, Asim; Schallert, Timothy; Chopp, Michael; Therrien, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Primary objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mild and severe TBI on young male Wistar rats' spatial learning. Research design Randomized repeated measure experimental design was used to examine spatial learning in three independent animal groups. Methods and procedures Twenty-four (severe n = 9, mild n = 8, sham n = 7) male rats were included in the study. Animals received controlled mild (1.5 mm), severe (2.5 mm) cortical impact injury or sham surgery. Spatial learning was assessed daily using a modified Morris water maze test, 20 days post-trauma, for 5 consecutive days. Percentage time travelled within each quadrant and escape latency were calculated. All animals' hippocampal brain regions were examined post-injury using neuron (MAP2) and pre-synaptic protein (Synaptophysin) biomarkers. Main outcomes and results It took the animals with mild injury until day 3 to reach the platform; and animals with mild and severe injury spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than the sham. The hippocampal neuron numbers differed proportionately between animals with severe and mild injury, but the percentage of synaptophysin density was significantly less in the dentate gyrus of both animals with mild and severe injury than sham group. Conclusion Persistent spatial learning deficits exist after mild TBI; these deficits appear equivalent to deficits exhibited after a more severe injury. PMID:22360521

  7. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  8. Mainstreaming Students with Mild Handicaps: Academic and Social Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Nancy A.; Slavin, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Research contrasting special class placement, partial mainstreaming, and complete mainstreaming of students with mild academic handicaps is critically reviewed. Also reviewed is recent research on programs designed to improve the outcomes of mainstreaming, particularly programs directed at diminishing the rejection of students with mild academic…

  9. Students with Mild Mental Retardation Participating in Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of a student with mild mental retardation in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with mild mental retardation and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the…

  10. Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

    Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

  11. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  12. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  13. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  14. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  15. Multimorbidity and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Vassilaki, Maria; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Cha, Ruth H.; Kremers, Walter K.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Machulda, Mary M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association of multiple chronic conditions with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. DESIGN Prospective cohort study SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Cognitively normal individuals (N=2,176) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA). MEASUREMENTS Participants were randomly selected from the community and evaluated by a study coordinator, a physician, and underwent neuropsychometric testing at baseline and at 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. We electronically captured information on International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes for chronic conditions in the five years prior to enrollment using the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system. We defined multimorbidity as having two or more chronic conditions and examined the association of multimorbidity with MCI/dementia using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS Among 2,176 cognitively normal participants (mean [±SD] age 78.5 [±5.2] years; 50.6% men), 1,884 (86.6%) had multimorbidity. The risk of MCI/dementia was elevated in persons with multimorbidity (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.82). The HR was stronger in persons with ≥4 conditions (HR: 1.61; 95%CI, 1.21–2.13) compared to persons with only 0 or 1 conditions, and for men (HR: 1.53, 95% CI, 1.01– 2.31) than for women (HR: 1.20, 95% CI, 0.83– 1.74). CONCLUSION In older adults, having multiple chronic conditions is associated with an increased risk of MCI/dementia. This is consistent with the hypothesis that multiple etiologies may contribute to MCI and late-life dementia. Preventing chronic diseases may be beneficial in delaying or preventing MCI or dementia. PMID:26311270

  16. Amyloid imaging in mild cognitive impairment subtypes.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Price, Julie C; Saxton, Judy A; Snitz, Beth E; James, Jeffrey A; Lopez, Oscar L; Aizenstein, Howard J; Cohen, Ann D; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E; De-Kosky, Steven T; DeKoskym, Steven T

    2009-05-01

    We utilized the amyloid imaging ligand Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) to determine the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in different mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and to relate increased PiB binding to other markers of early AD and longitudinal outcome. Twenty-six patients with MCI (13 single-domain amnestic-MCI [a-MCI], 6 multidomain a-MCI, and 7 nonamnestic MCI) underwent PiB imaging. Twenty-three had clinical follow-up (21.2 +/- 16.0 [standard deviation] months) subsequent to their PiB scan. Using cutoffs established from a control cohort, we found that 14 (54%) patients had increased levels of PiB retention and were considered "amyloid-positive." All subtypes were associated with a significant proportion of amyloid-positive patients (6/13 single-domain a-MCI, 5/6 multidomain a-MCI, 3/7 nonamnestic MCI). There were no obvious differences in the distribution of PiB retention in the nonamnestic MCI group. Predictors of conversion to clinical AD in a-MCI, including poorer episodic memory, and medial temporal atrophy, were found in the amyloid-positive relative to amyloid-negative a-MCI patients. Longitudinal follow-up demonstrated 5 of 13 amyloid-positive patients, but 0 of 10 amyloid-negative patients, converted to clinical AD. Further, 3 of 10 amyloid-negative patients "reverted to normal." These data support the notion that amyloid-positive patients are likely to have early AD, and that the use of amyloid imaging may have an important role in determining which patients are likely to benefit from disease-specific therapies. In addition, our data are consistent with longitudinal studies that suggest a significant percentage of all MCI subtypes will develop AD.

  17. Diagnostic transitions in mild cognitive impairment subtypes.

    PubMed

    Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Diniz, Breno Satler; Nunes, Paula Villela; Memória, Claudia Maia; Yassuda, Monica Sanches; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

    2009-12-01

    At least for a subset of patients, the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. Nevertheless, the patterns of transition of cognitive states between normal cognitive aging and MCI to dementia are not well established. In this study we address the pattern of transitions between cognitive states in patients with MCI and healthy controls, prior to the conversion to dementia. 139 subjects (78% women, mean age, 68.5 +/- 6.1 years; mean educational level, 11.7 +/- 5.4 years) were consecutively assessed in a memory clinic with a standardized clinical and neuropsychological protocol, and classified as cognitively healthy (normal controls) or with MCI (including subtypes) at baseline. These subjects underwent annual reassessments (mean duration of follow-up: 2.7 +/- 1.1 years), in which cognitive state was ascertained independently of prior diagnoses. The pattern of transitions of the cognitive state was determined by Markov chain analysis. The transitions from one cognitive state to another varied substantially between MCI subtypes. Single-domain MCI (amnestic and non-amnestic) more frequently returned to normal cognitive state upon follow-up (22.5% and 21%, respectively). Among subjects who progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common diagnosis immediately prior conversion was multiple-domain MCI (85%). The clinical diagnosis of MCI and its subtypes yields groups of patients with heterogeneous patterns of transitions between one given cognitive state to another. The presence of more severe and widespread cognitive deficits, as indicated by the group of multiple-domain amnestic MCI may be a better predictor of AD than single-domain amnestic or non-amnestic deficits. These higher-risk individuals could probably be the best candidates for the development of preventive strategies and early treatment for the disease.

  18. Sleep Habits in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tamara L.; Riley, Thomas; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling seniors. Recent evidence suggests that sleep habits are differentially compromised in different subtypes of MCI, but the relationship between sleep disruption and MCI remains poorly understood. We gathered daily objective measures of sleep disturbance from 45 seniors, including 16 with MCI (mean age 86.9 ± 4.3 years), over a six month period. We also collected self-report measures of sleep disturbance. Although there were no differences between groups in any of our self-report measures, we found that amnestic MCI (aMCI) volunteers had less disturbed sleep than both non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and cognitively intact volunteers, as measured objectively by movement in bed at night (F2,1078=4.30, p=0.05), wake after sleep onset (F2,1078=41.6, p<0.001), and times up at night (F2,1078=26.7, p<0.001). The groups did not differ in total sleep time. In addition, the aMCI group had less day-to-day variability in these measures than the intact and naMCI volunteers. In general, the naMCI volunteers showed a level of disturbed sleep that was intermediate to that of aMCI and intact volunteers. These differences in sleep disruption between aMCI and naMCI may be related to differences in the pathology underlying these MCI subtypes. PMID:24145694

  19. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Claudia S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in service members and veterans. Despite differences in mechanism of injury, there is evidence for similar effects of acceleration-deceleration and blast mechanisms of mTBI on cognition. Investigation of repetitive mTBI suggests that the effects may be cumulative and that repeated mTBI and repeated subconcussive head trauma may lead to neurodegenerative conditions. Although animal models of mTBI using cortical impact and fluid percussion injury in rodents have been able to reproduce some of the cognitive deficits frequently exhibited by patients after mTBI, modeling post-concussion symptoms is difficult. Recent use of closed head and blast injury animal models may more closely approximate clinical mTBI. Translation of interventions that are developed in animal models to patients with mTBI is a priority for the research agenda. This Special Issue on mTBI integrates basic neuroscience studies using animal models with studies of human mTBI, including the cognitive sequelae, persisting symptoms, brain imaging, and host factors that facilitate recovery. PMID:23046349

  20. Inverse Compton Scattering in Mildly Relativistic Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inverse Compton scattering in mildly relativistic static and moving plasmas with low optical depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculated the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the cosmic background radiation. Our semi-analytic method is based on a separation of photon diffusion in frequency and real space. We use Monte Carlo simulation to derive the intensity and frequency of the scattered photons for a monochromatic incoming radiation. The outgoing spectrum is determined by integrating over the spectrum of the incoming radiation using the intensity to determine the correct weight. This method makes it possible to study the emerging radiation as a function of frequency and direction. As a first application we have studied the effects of finite optical depth and gas infall on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (not possible with the extended Kompaneets equation) and discuss the parameter range in which the Boltzmann equation and its expansions can be used. For high temperature clusters (k(sub B)T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 keV) relativistic corrections based on a fifth order expansion of the extended Kompaneets equation seriously underestimate the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at high frequencies. The contribution from plasma infall is less important for reasonable velocities. We give a convenient analytical expression for the dependence of the cross-over frequency on temperature, optical depth, and gas infall speed. Optical depth effects are often more important than relativistic corrections, and should be taken into account for high-precision work, but are smaller than the typical kinematic effect from cluster radial velocities.

  1. Neuropsychological outcome from uncomplicated mild, complicated mild, and moderate traumatic brain injury in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; French, Louis M; Merritt, Victoria C; Bhagwat, Aditya; Pancholi, Sonal; Iverson, Grant L

    2012-08-01

    This study compared the neuropsychological outcome in military personnel following mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 83 service members divided into three injury severity groups: uncomplicated mild TBI (MTBI; n = 24), complicated MTBI (n = 17), and moderate TBI (n = 42). Participants were evaluated within 6 months following injury (73% within 3 months) using neurocognitive testing and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). There were no significant differences between the three groups on the majority of neurocognitive measures. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the three groups on the majority of PAI clinical scales (all p > .05), with the exception of two scales. The uncomplicated MTBI group had significantly higher scores on the Anxiety-Related Disorders and Aggression scales compared with the complicated MTBI group, but not the moderate TBI group. Overall, these results suggest that within the first 6 months post injury, there were few detectable differences in the neuropsychological outcome following uncomplicated MTBI, complicated MTBI, or moderate TBI in this military sample.

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Stern, Yaakov; Mayeux, Richard; Manly, Jennifer; Schupf, Nicole; Luchsinger, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may protect from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but its association with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has not been explored. Objective To investigate the association between MeDi and MCI. Design, Setting, Patients, Outcomes In a multiethnic community study in New York, we used Cox proportional hazards to investigate the association between adherence to the MeDi (0 – 9 scale; higher scores higher adherence) and (1) incidence of MCI and (2) progression from MCI to AD. All models were adjusted for cohort, age, gender, ethnicity, education, APOE genotype, caloric intake, body mass index and time duration between baseline dietary assessment and baseline diagnosis. Results There were 1393 cognitively normal participants, 275 of whom developed MCI during 4.5 (± 2.7, 0.9–16.4) years of follow-up. Compared to subjects in the lowest MeDi adherence tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had 17 % (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62 – 1.12; p=0.24) less risk of developing MCI, while those at the highest MeDi adherence tertile had 28 % (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 – 1.00; p=0.05) less risk of developing MCI (trend HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 – 1.00; p for trend= 0.05). There were 482 subjects with MCI, 106 of whom developed AD during 4.3 (± 2.7, 1.0 – 13.8) years of follow-up. Compared to subjects in the lowest MeDi adherence tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi adherence tertile had 45 % (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34 – 0.90; p=0.01) less risk of developing AD, while those at the highest MeDi adherence tertile had 48 % (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30 – 0.91; p=0.02) less risk of developing AD (trend HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53 – 0.95; p for trend= 0.02). Conclusions Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a trend for reduced risk for developing MCI and with reduced risk for MCI conversion to AD. PMID:19204158

  3. Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean? Page Content Article Body ... is when assessed at follow-up visits. Intermittent Asthma A child who has symptoms of wheezing and ...

  4. Emotion-discrimination deficits in mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Christian G; Anselmo-Gallagher, Gerri; Bilker, Warren; Karlawish, Jason; Gur, Raquel E; Clark, Christopher M

    2005-11-01

    Mild Alzheimer disease (AD) preferentially affects temporal lobe regions, which represent important structures in memory and emotional processes. This study investigated emotion discrimination in people with mild AD, versus Caretakers. Twenty AD subjects and 22 caretakers underwent computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Performances between groups were compared, controlling for possible effects of age and cognitive abilities. AD subjects showed diminished recognition of happy, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions. They also exhibited decreased differentiation between happy and sad expressions. Controlling for effects of cognitive dysfunction, AD subjects differed on recognition of happy and sad, and differentiation of sad facial expressions, and in error patterns for fearful and neutral faces. Diminished abilities for emotion discrimination are present in persons with mild AD. In persons with mild AD, who frequently reside in their own home or with close family, this diminished ability may adversely affect social functioning and quality of life.

  5. Mildly Low Thyroid Function in Pregnancy Not a Threat

    MedlinePlus

    ... even mildly low thyroid function (so-called subclinical hypothyroidism) during pregnancy could also pose a threat to ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Hypothyroidism Pregnancy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  6. [Mild dementia syndrome in middle and old age].

    PubMed

    Zharikov, G A

    1998-01-01

    95 elderly and senile patients with mild dementia were followed up: 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 25 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), 25 patients with vascular dementia (VD), 25 patients with combined vascular and Alzheimer's type of dementia (DAT/VD). Follow-up of patients for 1 and 3 years demonstrated that the diagnosis of mild dementia according to CDR and ICD-10 criteria had a differential-diagnostic specificity and reliability. It was also noticed that the nosologic qualification of mild dimentia syndrome was difficult or even impossible in patients with DAT/VD in conditions of a single examination. Only follow-up studies (during 3 years as a rule) may give a chance to define the diagnostic belonging of mild dementia syndrome more precisely.

  7. Postconcussive symptoms in children with mild closed head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yeates, K O; Luria, J; Bartkowski, H; Rusin, J; Martin, L; Bigler, E D

    1999-08-01

    To examine the incidence and neuropsychological, behavioral, and neuroimaging correlates of postconcussive symptoms (PCS) in children with mild closed head injuries (CHI). 26 Children with mild CHI and 8 of their uninjured siblings, from 8 to 15 years old, were recruited prospectively and assessed at baseline (ie, within 7 days of injury) and at 3 months postinjury. Parents rated PCS, motivation and affective lability, and behavioral adjustment. Baseline ratings assessed premorbid functioning retrospectively, and follow-up ratings assessed postinjury status. On both occasions, children completed neuropsychological testing, and those with mild CHI also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Children with mild CHI did not differ from siblings in baseline ratings of premorbid PCS but displayed higher ratings on several PCS at 3 months postinjury. Thirty-five percent of children with mild CHI showed increases in PCS, compared with baseline premorbid ratings, but none of the siblings did so. Children with mild CHI whose PCS increased from premorbid levels showed poorer neuropsychological functioning at baseline than did children whose PCS did not increase, although the differences had partially resolved by 3 months. They also displayed decreased motivation over time. Their behavioral adjustment was poorer and they had smaller white matter volumes on MRI, but the latter differences were present at baseline and did not change over time, suggesting that they existed prior to the injury. Postinjury increases in PCS occur in a sizable minority of children with mild CHI and more often than among uninjured siblings. Increases in PCS following mild CHI are associated with premorbid neurological and psychosocial vulnerability, but also with postinjury decrements in neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning.

  8. T1 mapping for diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tirkes, Temel; Lin, Chen; Fogel, Evan L; Sherman, Stuart S; Wang, Qiushi; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the T1 relaxation time of the pancreas can detect parenchymal changes in mild chronic pancreatitis (CP). This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study analyzed 98 patients with suspected mild CP. Patients were grouped as normal (n = 53) or mild CP (n = 45) based on history, presenting symptomatology, and concordant findings on both the secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). T1 maps were obtained in all patients using the same 3D gradient echo technique on the same 3T scanner. T1 relaxation times, fat signal fraction (FSF), and anterior-posterior (AP) diameter were correlated with the clinical diagnosis of CP. There was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the T1 relaxation times between the control (mean = 797 msec, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 730, 865) and mild CP group (mean = 1099 msec, 95% CI: 1032, 1166). A T1 relaxation time threshold value of 900 msec was 80% sensitive (95% CI: 65, 90) and 69% specific (95% CI: 56, 82) for the diagnosis of mild CP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.81). Multiple regression analysis showed that T1 relaxation time was the only statistically significant variable correlating with the diagnosis of CP (P < 0.0001). T1 relaxation times showed a weak positive correlation with the pancreatic FSF (ρ = 0.33, P = 0.01) in the control group, but not in the mild CP group. The T1 relaxation time of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly increased in patients with mild CP. Therefore, T1 mapping might be used as a practical quantitative imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected mild CP. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1171-1176. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Brain perfusion correlates of visuoperceptual deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Montserrat; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Boada, Mercè; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Cuberas, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Roca, Isabel; Hernández, Isabel; Valero, Sergi; Rosende-Roca, Maitée; Mauleón, Ana; Becker, James T.; Tárraga, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Background Visuoperceptual processing is impaired early in the clinical course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The 15-Objects Test (15-OT) detects such subtle performance deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild AD. Reduced brain perfusion in the temporal, parietal and prefrontal regions have been found in early AD and MCI patients. Objectives To confirm the role of the 15-OT in the diagnosis of MCI and AD, and to investigate the brain perfusion correlates of visuoperceptual dysfunction (15-OT) in subjects with MCI, AD and normal aging. Methods Forty-two AD, 42 MCI and 42 healthy elderly control (EC) subjects underwent a brain Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and separately completed the 15-OT. An analysis of variance compared 15-OT scores between groups. SPM5 was used to analyse the SPECT data. Results 15-OT performace was impaired in the MCI and AD patients. In terms of the SPECT scans, AD patients showed reduced perfusion in temporal-parietal regions, while the MCI subjects had decreased perfusion in the middle and posterior cingulate. When MCI and AD groups were compared, a significant brain perfusion reduction was found in temporo-parietal regions. In the whole sample, 15-OT performance was significantly correlated with the clinical dementia rating scores, and with the perfusion in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the right temporal pole, with no significant correlation in each separate group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the 15-OT performance provides a useful gradation of impairment from normal aging to AD, and it seems to be related to perfusion in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the right temporal pole. PMID:20555146

  10. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  11. Neurocognitive testing supports a broader concept of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G

    2005-01-01

    The narrow concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as an early form of Alzheimer s disease has been broadened by research that established the existence of alternative forms of the condition that may presage other forms of dementia. The research presented here was a naturalistic, cross-sectional study of patients in a community referral clinic-patients with MCI and mild dementia-compared to normal controls. A comprehensive, computerized neurocognitive screening battery developed by one of the authors (CNS Vital Signs) was administered to all of the subjects. Participants consisted of 36 patients with MCI and 53 patients with mild dementia, diagnosed by standard criteria, and 89 matched normal controls. Multivariate analysis indicated significant differences among the three groups for all 15 primary test variables and for all five of the domain scores. Tests of memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were the most cogent discriminators between normal controls and MCI patients, and between MCI patients and patients with mild dementia. The same three tests also had the greatest sensitivity and specificity. The results of this study indicate that computerized testing can differentiate among normal controls, MCI patients, and patients with mild dementia. Also, in a diverse group of MCI and mild dementia patients, impairments in memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were the most prominent observed deficits.

  12. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P < .05). Mean magnetization transfer ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting

  13. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  14. Mild Bleeders: Diagnosis is Elusive in Large Number of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotru, Mrinalini; Mutereja, Deepti; Purohit, Abhishek; Tyagi, Seema; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu; Pati, Hara Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Bleeding is a common clinical presentation. Even patients with mild bleeding disorders are extensively investigated for ascertaining the cause. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the extent of the possibility of diagnosis in mild bleeding disorders. Material and Methods This was a prospective study of patients referred for work up of mild bleeding for a period of 13 months. A complete blood count, peripheral smear examination, Prothrombin time, Partial Thromboplastin time and Thrombin Time, Platelet Aggregometry test, tests for von Willebrand’s disease and Platelet Factor 3 availability were measured. Results 164 patients presented with mild bleeding, in 114 of the patients a single site of bleeding was present. Epistaxis was the most common presentation (39%). Cutaneous bleeding (petechiae and purpura) was the next common site. History of a major bleeding tendency in the family was present only in 11 patients. The investigations showed that VWD (17/164), followed by clotting disorders (CD) mainly mild hemophilia (15/164) were the most common diagnosable cause. There were also 4 cases of hypofibrinogenemia. The disorders of platelets (Platelet function defects/PFD) were the least common (9/164). Rest 123 (75%) patients could not be diagnosed on the basis of these investigations and were labeled as Bleeding disorders – Unclassified (BDC). Conclusion n our study, 75% of the patients with mild bleeding remained undiagnosed even after extensive laboratory workup, thus raising a very pertinent question that is it necessary that all mild bleeders submit to a broad battery of investigations, as the diagnosis continues to be elusive despite extensive workup. PMID:27872729

  15. Effects of Mild Chronic Intermittent Cold Exposure on Rat Organs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Che, Honglei; Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Jiye; Ke, Tao; Cao, Rui; Meng, Shanshan; Li, Dan; Weiming, Ouyang; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Cold adaptation is a body's protective response to cold stress. Mild chronic intermittent cold (CIC) exposure has been used to generate animal models for cold adaptation studies. However, the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs are not completely characterized. In the present study, we exposed rats to mild CIC for two weeks, and then measured the body weights, the weights of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the levels of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brains, livers, hearts, muscles and BATs. Rats formed cold adaptation after exposure to CIC for two weeks. Compared to rats of the control group that were hosted under ambient temperature, rats exposed to mild CIC showed a lower average body weight, but a higher weight of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Rats exposed to CIC for two weeks also exhibited higher levels of ATP and ROS in all examined organs as compared to those of the control group. In addition, we determined the expression levels of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (Cirbp) and thioredoxin (TRX) in rat tissues after 2 weeks of CIC exposure. Both Cirbp and TRX were increased, suggesting a role of these two proteins for establishment of cold adaptation. Together, this study reveals the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs of rats during CIC exposure. PMID:26327811

  16. Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Gago, Belén; Navalpotro-Gomez, Irene; Jiménez-Urbieta, Haritz; Rodriguez-Oroz, María C

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most frequent and disabling nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease. Around 30% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience mild cognitive impairment, a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia. However, mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous entity that involves different types and extents of cognitive deficits. Because it is not currently known which type of mild cognitive impairment confers a higher risk of progression to dementia, it would be useful to define biomarkers that could identify these patients to better study disease progression and possible interventions. In this sense, the identification among patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment of biomarkers associated with dementia would allow the early detection of this process. This review summarizes studies from the past 25 years that have assessed the potential biomarkers of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Despite the potential importance, no biomarker has as yet been validated. However, features such as low levels of epidermal and insulin-like growth factors or uric acid in plasma/serum and of Aß in CSF, reduction of cerebral cholinergic innervation and metabolism measured by PET mainly in posterior areas, and hippocampal atrophy in MRI might be indicative of distinct deficits with a distinct risk of dementia in subgroups of patients. Longitudinal studies combining the existing techniques and new approaches are needed to identify patients at higher risk of dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Does mild COPD affect prognosis in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects independence and survival in the general population, but it is unknown to which extent this conclusion applies to elderly people with mild disease. The aim of this study was to verify whether mild COPD, defined according to different classification systems (ATS/ERS, BTS, GOLD) impacts independence and survival in elderly (aged 65 to 74 years) or very elderly (aged 75 years or older) patients. Methods We used data coming from the Respiratory Health in the Elderly (Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano, SaRA) study and compared the differences between the classification systems with regards to personal capabilities and 5-years survival, focusing on the mild stage of COPD. Results We analyzed data from 1,159 patients (49% women) with a mean age of 73.2 years (SD: 6.1). One third of participants were 75 years or older. Mild COPD, whichever was its definition, was not associated with worse personal capabilities or increased mortality after adjustment for potential confounders in both age groups. Conclusions Mild COPD may not affect survival or personal independence of patients over 65 years of age if the reference group consists of patients with a comparable burden of non respiratory diseases. Comorbidity and age itself likely are main determinants of both outcomes. PMID:20529281

  18. Socioeconomic disparities in work performance following mild stroke

    PubMed Central

    Brey, Joseph K.; Wolf, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among the factors that influence return to work for young individuals with mild stroke from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Prospective cohort study of working adults with mild stroke (N = 21). Participants completed an assessment battery of cognitive, work environment, and work performance measures at approximately three weeks and seven months post mild stroke. Individuals were placed in “skilled” and “unskilled’ worker categories based on the Hollingshead Index. Results Unskilled workers had significantly poorer scores on the majority of the cognitive assessments. Unskilled workers also perceived less social support (p = 0.017) and autonomy (p = 0.049) in work responsibilities than individuals in the skilled worker group and also reported significantly poorer work productivity due to stroke than those in the skilled group (p = 0.015). Conclusions Individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds have more difficulty returning to work following mild stroke than individuals from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Future work is needed to identify factors that can increase long-term work success and quality of work performance following a mild stroke that specifically targets the needs of individuals who have a lower socioeconomic status. PMID:24745916

  19. Prenatal natural history of isolated fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Pereira, Gustavo; Bunduki, Victor; Hase, Eliane Azeka; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prenatal outcomes in a cohort of fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis and determine whether performing serial ultrasounds is a good follow-up strategy. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 62 fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis. Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis was considered when the renal pelvis measured (in millimeters) ≥5.0 to 10.0, ≥7.0 to 10.0, and ≥10.0 to 15 at ≤23 weeks 6 days, 24 to 31 weeks 6 days, and ≥32 weeks, respectively, with no uretero-calyceal dilatation. Ultrasounds were performed every 3 weeks to assess whether the mild bilateral pyelectasis regressed, remained unchanged (Group 1) or progressed (Group 2). RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 53 fetuses (85.4%), and progression was observed in 9 cases (Group 2, 14.6%). The initial renal pelvis diameter was significantly larger in fetuses with progression (p=0.028). Statistically significant differences in the renal pelvis diameter were also found at weeks 31 and 35 for both kidneys (p<0.05). The cases requiring intrauterine procedures or early delivery were not observed. CONCLUSION: Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis with no calyceal dilatation is a benign condition that can be managed in the postnatal period. The initial renal pelvis diameter and the diameter in week 31 or 35 were valuable parameters for identifying cases that would eventually need specific postnatal procedures. PMID:27652832

  20. Sustained attention following mild closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mutter, S A; Molloy, R

    1991-09-01

    The sustained-attention performance of patients with mild closed-head injury (CHI) was examined within one month of injury using a high-event rate, digit-discrimination vigilance task with two levels of stimulus degradation (undegraded, highly degraded). Under undegraded stimulus conditions, vigilance performance for mild CHI subjects, uninjured case-matched control subjects, and college students was highly accurate and remained so across the entire task period. When stimuli were presented in degraded fashion, however, all three groups showed a similar decline over time (i.e., vigilance decrement) in hit rates and d' scores. Although mild CHI did not lead to a greater rate of deterioration in vigilance performance in the degraded stimulus condition, it did produce lower overall levels of sensitivity (d') in target detection. These results suggest that, during the first month after mild CHI, vigilance performance is unimpaired under normal task conditions, but may fall short under task conditions that require sustained effortful processing. These findings join a growing body of evidence showing that mild CHI can lead to measurable deficits in cognitive functioning.

  1. The neuropsychological similarities of mild and more severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Reitan, R M; Wolfson, D

    2000-07-01

    Reports in the literature have suggested that the neuropsychological effects of mild head injury are selective, represented by impairment of attention, information processing, and memory, and that evaluations with comprehensive and standard test batteries are likely to miss such deficits. The present study compared groups of individuals with mild head injuries, more severe head injuries, and non-brain-damaged controls using 19 tests from the Halstead-Reitan Battery. The results indicated that the group with mild head injuries performed significantly poorer than the controls, and that the group with more severe head injuries scored significantly more poorly than either of the other groups. Comparisons of the pattern of test scores for the two head-injured groups were remarkably similar across the 19 tests, yielding a rank difference correlation of 0.87. The findings yielded no evidence of selective or delimited impairment in the group with mild head injuries, but instead, showed them to have test results that were very similar, though showing less neuropsychological impairment, to the group of subjects with more severe head injuries. These findings suggest that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is necessary to detect the broad range of deficits that may result from mild head injury.

  2. Diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, Harvey S; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2015-05-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are interchangeable terms to describe a common disorder with substantial effects on public health. Advances in brain imaging, non-imaging biomarkers, and neuropathology during the past 15 years have required researchers, clinicians, and policy makers to revise their views about mild TBI as a fully reversible insult that can be repeated without consequences. These advances have led to guidelines on management of mild TBI in civilians, military personnel, and athletes, but their widespread dissemination to clinical management in emergency departments and community-based health care is still needed. The absence of unity on the definition of mild TBI, the scarcity of prospective data concerning the long-term effects of repeated mild TBI and subconcussive impacts, and the need to further develop evidence-based interventions to mitigate the long-term sequelae are areas for future research that will improve outcomes, reduce morbidity and costs, and alleviate delayed consequences that have only recently come to light.

  3. Neurobiology of chronic mild stress: Parallels to major depression

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Hellemans, Kim G.C.; Verma, Pamela; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The chronic mild (or unpredictable/variable) stress (CMS) model was developed as an animal model of depression more than 20 years ago. The foundation of this model was that following long-term exposure to a series of mild, but unpredictable stressors, animals would develop a state of impaired reward salience that was akin to the anhedonia observed in major depressive disorder. In the time since its inception, this model has also been used for a variety of studies examining neurobiological variables that are associated with depression, despite the fact that this model has never been critically examined to validate that the neurobiological changes induced by CMS are parallel to those documented in depressive disorder. The aim of the current review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of chronic mild stress on neurobiological variables, such as neurochemistry, neurochemical receptor expression and functionality, neurotrophin expression and cellular plasticity. These findings are then compared to those of clinical research examining common variables in populations with depressive disorders to determine if the changes observed following chronic mild stress are in fact consistent with those observed in major depression. We conclude that the chronic mild stress paradigm: (1) evokes an array of neurobiological changes that mirror those seen in depressive disorders and (2) may be a suitable tool to investigate novel systems that could be disturbed in depression, and thus aid in the development of novel targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:22776763

  4. Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

    2013-01-01

    Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Mild cognitive impairment. Survey of attitudes of specialists and general physicians. mild].

    PubMed

    Serrano, Cecilia M; Allegri, Ricardo F; Caramelli, Paulo; Taragano, Fernando E; Camera, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to persons who are slightly cognitively impaired for age but do not meet the criteria for dementia. MCI has been related to a pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, other possible diagnoses such as cerebro-vascular disease, frontotemporal dementia or normal aging have been considered. Diagnosis, etiology and conversion to dementia are a source of ambiguity in MCI. The aim was to evaluate the opinion of experts on dementia and of general practitioners concerning MCI. A total of 24 experts from Argentina and Brazil (16 neurologists and 8 psychiatrists) and 30 general practitioners agreed to reply to a questionnaire on MCI (adapted from Dubois inventory, 2003). Of these, 92% of experts considered MCI as an ambiguous entity, not necessarily as a "pre-dementia" stage; 63% confirmed a tendency to worsen over the time and 83% of experts decided to initiate treatment using cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and vitamin E. The opinion on MCI was that a priori it is not only an Alzheimer disease pre-dementia stage, but most of them consider the treatment against AD. MCI is a heterogeneous entity that should be classified as an open category and making it necessary to standardize definitions and design diagnosis guides to better understand Alzheimer disease pre-dementia stage.

  6. The Risk of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progression to Dementia Considering Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Tzeyu L.; Su, Dejun; Siahpush, Mohammad; Murman, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background It remains unclear how demographic and clinical characteristics are related to the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by its subtypes. Moreover, the contribution of the subtypes of incident MCI to the progression to dementia remains puzzling. Methods We used data collected by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center. Our analysis sample included cognitively normal subjects at baseline. The associations were examined using competing-risks survival regression models and Cox proportional hazards models. Results About 16.3% of subjects developed incident MCI of whom 15.8% progressed to Alz­heimer disease (overall mean follow-up of 4.3 years). The risk of incident amnestic MCI (aMCI) was greater in subjects with 1 copy (subhazard ratio [SHR]: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00–1.50) or 2 copies (SHR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.49–3.05) of the APOE ε4 allele than in those who had no ε4 allele. Multiple-domain aMCI patients were more likely to progress to dementia than single-domain aMCI patients (hazard ratio: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.28–3.58). Conclusions Cognitively normal subjects with an APOE ε4 allele had a higher likelihood of developing aMCI and the MCI subtype was associated with the dementia subtype. Our findings provide important information about practical indicators for the prediction of cognitive decline. PMID:28413413

  7. Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantam, K.; Brar, N. S.; Bajaj, D.; Hill, S.

    2006-07-28

    Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from {approx}10-3/s to {approx}1800/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234 MPa, n = 0.643 and C = 0.076 and for DP590 steel are A = 430 MPa, B = 824 MPa, n = 0.510 and C = 0.017. Higher value of strain rate sensitivity constant C for mild steel (0.076) compared to DP 590 (0.017) is also reflected in the stress- strain data at various strain rates.

  8. Mild intrauterine hypoperfusion reproduces neurodevelopmental disorders observed in prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Makiko; Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Otani, Kentaro; Hattori, Yorito; Ogawa, Yuko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ihara, Masafumi; Tsuji, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Severe intrauterine ischemia is detrimental to the developing brain. The impact of mild intrauterine hypoperfusion on neurological development, however, is still unclear. We induced mild intrauterine hypoperfusion in rats on embryonic day 17 via arterial stenosis with metal microcoils wrapped around the uterine and ovarian arteries. All pups were born with significantly decreased birth weights. Decreased gray and white matter areas were observed without obvious tissue damage. Pups presented delayed newborn reflexes, muscle weakness, and altered spontaneous activity. The levels of proteins indicative of inflammation and stress in the vasculature, i.e., RANTES, vWF, VEGF, and adiponectin, were upregulated in the placenta. The levels of mRNA for proteins associated with axon and astrocyte development were downregulated in fetal brains. The present study demonstrates that even mild intrauterine hypoperfusion can alter neurological development, which mimics the clinical signs and symptoms of children with neurodevelopmental disorders born prematurely or with intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:27996031

  9. Cognitive outcomes of multiple mild head injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Bijur, P E; Haslum, M; Golding, J

    1996-06-01

    This study assessed cumulative effects of multiple mild head injuries on cognitive functioning in children. Subjects included 1586 children with one mild head injury, 278 with two, and 51 with three or more head injuries between birth and age 10 years and controls without head injuries matched on gender and total number of injuries. The number of head injuries and injuries not to the head was associated with decreasing performance on measures of intelligence (p < .01), reading (p < .01), and math (p = .02). There was no interaction between case-control status and number of injuries, indicating a similar relationship between cognitive outcomes and number of injuries in head-injured cases and controls. After adjustment for covariates, the relationship between number of injuries and cognitive outcomes became nonsignificant. This study suggests that cognitive deficits associated with multiple mild head injury are due to social and personal factors related to multiple injuries and not to specific damage to the head.

  10. Mild hypoxia and visual performance with night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Leber, L L; Roscoe, S N; Southward, G M

    1986-04-01

    Military night vision goggles (NVGs) are image intensifiers normally used when the human operator's visual capabilities are unimpaired by oxygen deprivation. However, mountain search team members and aviators sometimes operate with NVG augmentation at altitudes where hypoxic visual decrement is documented. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on monocular visual performance with NVGs. It was found that mild oxygen deprivation significantly affects unaided square-wave grating visual acuity but does not significantly affect NVG-augmented performance. Large differences between visual sensitivities at different spatial frequencies were not differentially affected by mild hypoxia. Supplemental oxygen did significantly improve naked-eye but not NVG-augmented night resolution acuity up to a simulated altitude of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) above sea level (ASL).

  11. Mild Hypothermia Attenuates the Anesthetic Isoflurane-Induced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Dong, Yuanlin; Chen, Dan; Xie, Zhongcong; Zhang, Yiying

    2017-01-01

    The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce DNA damage and cytotoxicity. However, the methods to attenuate these effects remain largely to be determined. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to assess whether mild hypothermia could protect the isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we investigated the underlying mechanisms by assessing the effects of mild hypothermia on the isoflurane-induced changes in ATP levels. H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with 2% isoflurane for 3 or 6 h with and without mild hypothermia (35°C). We assessed the cell viability by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. We determined DNA damage by measuring levels of phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A variant X at Ser139 (γH2A.X), the marker of DNA damage. We also measured ATP levels in the cells. Here we showed that the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 6 h induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in the cells. Moreover, the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 3 h decreased ATP levels without inducing cytotoxicity. Mild hypothermia attenuated the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and ATP reduction in the cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels occurred before the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity. Isoflurane may induce DNA damage and cause cytotoxicity through reducing ATP levels. Mild hypothermia would ameliorate isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by attenuating the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels. These pilot studies have established a system and will promote the future investigations of anesthesia neurotoxicity. PMID:28228717

  12. Mild Hypothermia Attenuates the Anesthetic Isoflurane-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Dong, Yuanlin; Chen, Dan; Xie, Zhongcong; Zhang, Yiying

    2017-01-01

    The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce DNA damage and cytotoxicity. However, the methods to attenuate these effects remain largely to be determined. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to assess whether mild hypothermia could protect the isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we investigated the underlying mechanisms by assessing the effects of mild hypothermia on the isoflurane-induced changes in ATP levels. H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with 2% isoflurane for 3 or 6 h with and without mild hypothermia (35°C). We assessed the cell viability by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. We determined DNA damage by measuring levels of phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A variant X at Ser139 (γH2A.X), the marker of DNA damage. We also measured ATP levels in the cells. Here we showed that the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 6 h induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in the cells. Moreover, the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 3 h decreased ATP levels without inducing cytotoxicity. Mild hypothermia attenuated the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and ATP reduction in the cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels occurred before the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity. Isoflurane may induce DNA damage and cause cytotoxicity through reducing ATP levels. Mild hypothermia would ameliorate isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by attenuating the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels. These pilot studies have established a system and will promote the future investigations of anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  13. Evidence for Different Trajectories of Delay Discounting in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Myriam V; Maercker, Andreas; Forstmeier, Simon

    2016-02-19

    To examine whether delay discounting (DD) develops differently within individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). We set out to study trajectories of DD in N = 111 older adults (Mage = 75.2 years, range: 55-94, 53% female) with MCI (n = 64) or mild AD (n = 47). Data were repeatedly assessed on three measurement times over a period of 2 years. Results indicated a meaningful difference in the trajectories of DD between MCI and mild AD (t = 2.99, p = .004), with AD patients displaying higher DD rates compared with MCI. Lower intelligence (t = -2.50, p = .013) was related to higher DD. We also found reward-dependent group differences in DD (small: p = .079; medium: p = .258; large: p = .007). Age, functional ability, general cognitive ability, living situation, and marital status were not meaningfully linked to DD (all non significant). Further explorative analyses revealed an increase in DD in patients whose cognitive symptoms had progressed at time 2, compared with more stable courses of mild AD or MCI (diagnosed at time 2). Our results point toward an increase in DD as a function of advanced cognitive decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Combining three mild stresses in Drosophila melanogaster flies does not have a more positive effect on resistance to a severe cold stress than combining two mild stresses.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2017-04-01

    Among other positive effects, mild stresses can increase resistance to severe stresses. Previous studies combining two mild stresses showed that when each mild stress had positive effects their combination had more positive effects than each mild stress. The present study tested whether combining three mild stresses could still provide positive additive effects, or whether this combination has negative effects because it is no longer a mild stress but rather a strong stress with negative effects. Flies were subjected to either fasting, hypergravity for one or two weeks, or cold shocks, to combinations of two or of the three mild stresses, and survival to a severe cold stress was observed at 13 or 20 days of age. Positive effects of each mild stress and of combining two stresses could be observed, but combining the three stresses provided a similar survival or a lower survival than the combination of two stresses. Thus, combining three stresses was not more efficient than combining two stresses.

  15. Recent Analysis of UCAPs in Mild Hybrids (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of ultracapacitors for mild/moderate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) review the fuel economy improvement trends of today's HEVs with respect to degree of hybridization; (2) perform analysis to see the extent of fuel economy improvement possible with various strategies in mild/moderate HEVs, with no engine downsizing, using either batteries or ultracapacitors; (3) identify energy requirements of various driving events/functions--what matches a limited ucap's energy; and (4) discuss potential roles for high-voltage ultracapacitors in HEVs, if any.

  16. Depression and cognitive complaints following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jonathan M; McAllister, Thomas W; Arciniegas, David B

    2009-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence with multiple possible neuropsychiatric sequelae, including problems with cognition, emotion, and behavior. While many individuals experience significant improvement over the first months following mild TBI, a nontrivial minority will develop persistent, functionally impairing post-TBI symptoms. Depression and cognitive impairment are among the most common such symptoms, and they may respond to a combination of rehabilitative and pharmacologic treatments. This article discusses the clinical approach to treating an individual with depression and cognitive complaints following mild TBI. Recommendations regarding the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of these problems are offered.

  17. Cumulative effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Julian E; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Petraglia, Anthony L; Turner, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    The majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the USA are mild in severity. Sports, particularly American football, and military experience are especially associated with repetitive, mild TBI (mTBI). The consequences of repetitive brain injury have garnered increasing scientific and public attention following reports of altered mood and behavior, as well as progressive neurological dysfunction many years after injury. This report provides an up-to-date review of the clinical, pathological, and pathophysiological changes associated with repetitive mTBI, and their potential for cumulative effects in certain individuals.

  18. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  19. Effect of physical activity on memory function in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-10-01

    It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (<1 m/s or >1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Airway Hyperreactivity is Delayed After Mild Neonatal Hyperoxic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    H, Onugha; PM, MacFarlane; CA, Mayer; A, Abrah; A, Jafri; RJ, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Wheezing disorders are prominent in former preterm infants beyond the neonatal period. Objectives We used a neonatal mouse model to investigate the time course of airway hyperreactivity in response to mild (40% O2) or severe (70% O2) neonatal hyperoxia. Methods After hyperoxic exposure during the first week of postnatal life we measured changes in airway reactivity using the in vitro living lung slice preparation at the end of exposure (P8) and 2 weeks later (P21). This was accompanied by measures of ∀ smooth muscle actin, myosin light chain [MLC] and alveolar morphology. Results Neither mild nor severe hyperoxia exposure affected airway reactivity to methacholine at P8 compared to normoxic controls. In contrast, airway reactivity was enhanced at P21, in mice exposed to mild (but not severe) hyperoxia, two weeks after exposure ended. This was associated with increased airway α smooth muscle actin expression at P21 after 40% oxygen exposure without significant increase in MLC. Alveolar morphology via radial alveolar counts was comparably diminished by both 40% and 70% oxygen at both P8 and P21. Conclusions These data demonstrate that early mild hyperoxia exposure causes a delayed augmentation of airway reactivity, suggesting a long-term alteration in the trajectory of airway smooth muscle development and consistent with resultant symptomatology. PMID:26021677

  1. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  2. Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive…

  3. Congenital Syndromes and Mildly Handicapped Students: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra M.

    1989-01-01

    Many learning disabilities or cases of mild retardation are due to medically diagnosable, congenital syndromes, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, sex chromosome abnormalities, multiple anomaly syndromes, phenylketonuria, and Tourette Syndrome. These syndromes are discussed, and suggestions are given for special education management. (Author/JDD)

  4. Auditory Processing of Older Adults with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Lister, Jennifer J.; Elias, Maya N.; Tetlow, Amber M.; Sardina, Angela L.; Sadeq, Nasreen A.; Brandino, Amanda D.; Bush, Aryn L. Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studies suggest that deficits in auditory processing predict cognitive decline and dementia, but those studies included limited measures of auditory processing. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults with and without probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) across two domains of auditory processing (auditory performance in…

  5. FAST Science: Teaching Science to Adolescents with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Joyce; Serna, Loretta A.

    1995-01-01

    FAST I (Foundational Approach to Science Teaching I) is an inquiry and inductive-reasoning approach to learning physical science, ecology, and relational study. The program was successfully adapted for middle school students with mild disabilities. Teacher preparation, classroom groupings, behavior management procedures, evaluation, and…

  6. Subjective rating of executive functions in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Almklov, Erin; Borrie, Michael; Wells, Jennie; Roth, Robert M

    2017-11-01

    Subjective cognitive decline is considered to be a core feature of pre-Alzheimer's disease (AD) conditions, the vast majority of literature having focused on memory concerns. Neuropsychological studies have implicated executive dysfunction on objective performance measures in AD, but no research has evaluated whether individuals with AD have concerns about their executive functions and whether it differs from their caregiver's concerns. In the present study, we sought to evaluate self- and informant ratings of executive functioning in patients with mild AD. Participants were 23 patients with mild AD and 32 healthy elderly controls (HC) and their informants who completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult version. Patients with AD and their informants reported greater executive dysfunction than the HC group and their informants, respectively, and patients reported greater difficulty than their informants. The largest effect size for both self- and informant ratings was obtained for the Working Memory scale. These findings indicate that subjective cognitive concerns in mild AD extend beyond the memory domain to executive functions. That greater difficulty was endorsed by patients than their informants suggests that at least in the mild stage of AD some awareness of executive dysfunction may be maintained in some patients. Implications for clinical care are discussed.

  7. Mild Intellectual Deficits in a Child with 49,XXXXY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Joseph H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Although most males with a 49,XXXXY karyotype will have significant mental retardation, the case of an affected boy having mild-cognitive and motor delays and age-appropriate adaptive skills at 59 months is presented. Guarded optimism may be justified in affected males demonstrating close to or age-appropriate developmental skills through early…

  8. Teaching Area and Volume to Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Casey; Xin, Yan Ping

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, teachers are required to find methods to give all students, including students with mild intellectual disability, access to the general education curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of the concrete-semiconcrete-abstract instructional sequence and model-based problem…

  9. Defining Mild Disabilities with Language-Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of special education placement of language-minority students with mild disabilities focuses on current eligibility criteria, proposing that problems in assessment, diagnosis, and placement reflect problems with larger issues in special education, especially continuing reliance on the psychometric paradigm. Reform attempts are…

  10. Caffeine Attenuates the Afterdrop in Rectal Temperature After Mild Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-26

    cold exposure, we examined whether caffeine might influence rewarming after mild cooling. Seven male subjects were given either warm decaffeinated ...after removal from the immersion bath, each subject was orally administered either caffeine (3.5 mg/kg) mixed in 500 ml of warm (49-500C) decaffeinated

  11. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  12. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  13. Review of Monitoring Procedures with Mildly Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of special and remedial education practice in formative evaluation of goal attainment among mildly handicapped students. First, the relationship of formative evaluation to the range of special education assessment practice and its importance to the field are described. Then, four critical issues in…

  14. Congenital Syndromes and Mildly Handicapped Students: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra M.

    1989-01-01

    Many learning disabilities or cases of mild retardation are due to medically diagnosable, congenital syndromes, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, sex chromosome abnormalities, multiple anomaly syndromes, phenylketonuria, and Tourette Syndrome. These syndromes are discussed, and suggestions are given for special education management. (Author/JDD)

  15. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  16. Reliability of peak treadmill exercise tests in mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Gajewski, Byron J; Donnelly, Joseph E; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of treadmill peak exercise testing in people with very mild-to-mild Alzheimer disease (AD). Sixteen subjects with very mild-to-mild AD performed graded peak treadmill exercise tests twice within a 14-day period. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were continuously monitored. Peak values were analyzed for absolute level of agreement. Fourteen participants (87.5%) completed testing. Reliability was excellent with total peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) (ml/kg/min) highly correlated across the two tests (r = 0.94, p < .001) with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[3,1]) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78, 0.97). The standard error of measurement (SEM) for VO2peak was 1.29 (95% CI = 0.88, 1.89). These results indicate that peak exercise testing on a treadmill is reliable in the early stages of AD.

  17. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  18. Characteristics of Mild Dengue Virus Infection in Thai Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    clinically mild DENV infections have not been as well described; informa- tion that is available has been obtained from prospective cohort studies and not...from cluster studies, which can poten- tially detect milder illnesses than cohort studies as well as pre- symptomatic infections.10–15 Symptomatic DENV

  19. Human Capability, Mild Perfectionism and Thickened Educational Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for a mild perfectionism in applying Amartya Sen's capability approach for an education transformative of student agency and well-being. Key to the paper is the significance of education as a process of being and becoming in the future, and education's fundamental objective of a positively changed human being. The capability…

  20. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  1. Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive…

  2. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  3. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  4. Late Diagnosis in Severe and Mild Intellectual Disability in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verri, A. P.; Maraschio, P.; Uggetti, C.; Pucci, E.; Ronchi, G.; Nespoli, L.; Destefani, V.; Ramponi, A.; Federico, A.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) is highly dependent on a comprehensive personal and family medical history, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the patient. Our study intended to: (1) classify the aetiology of mild and severe ID in an adult population of 140 Italian subjects; (2) evaluate the…

  5. Ancillary Staff Members' Mainstreaming Recommendations for Students with Mild Exceptionalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.; Myles, Brenda Smith

    1991-01-01

    Examined mainstreaming modifications judged to be important by ancillary professionals in recommending mainstreaming of students with mild exceptionalities. Data revealed that no significant differences were noted in number of selected modifications as function of diagnostic category. Ancillary staff members indicated, however, that substantial…

  6. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  7. Teaching Social Studies to Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2005-01-01

    For a generation, national legislation has moved "vigorously" to compel schools to place students with disabilities in the "least restrictive environment." For students with mild disabilities, this placement usually means including them in general education classrooms and teaching them according to the general curriculum. Over the same period,…

  8. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  9. Career Planning Guidelines for Parents of Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Andrew V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a guide for parents of children with mild disabilities to help those children plan and qualify for competitive employment. Presents suggestions in an elementary-middle-high school sequence to help parents decide what they can do with and for their children as they go through school and through the normal career development stages. (SR)

  10. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  11. Everyday Cognition among Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults: An Ethnographic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)

  12. Factors influencing outcome following mild traumatic brain injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, J; Willmott, C; Rothwell, A; Cameron, P; Kelly, A M; Nelms, R; Curran, C; Ng, K

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate outcome in adults with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 week and 3 months postinjury and to identify factors associated with persisting problems. A total of 84 adults with mild TBI were compared with 53 adults with other minor injuries as controls in terms of postconcussional symptomatology, behavior, and cognitive performance at 1 week and 3 months postinjury. At 1 week postinjury, adults with mild TBI were reporting symptoms, particularly headaches, dizziness, fatigue, visual disturbance, and memory difficulties. They exhibited slowing of information processing on neuropsychological measures, namely the WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest and the Speed of Comprehension Test. By 3 months postinjury, the symptoms reported at 1 week had largely resolved, and no impairments were evident on neuropsychological measures. However, there was a subgroup of 24% of participants who were still suffering many symptoms, who were highly distressed, and whose lives were still significantly disrupted. These individuals did not have longer posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration. They were more likely to have a history of previous head injury, neurological or psychiatric problems, to be students, females, and to have been injured in a motor vehicle accident. The majority were showing significant levels of psychopathology. A range of factors, other than those directly reflecting the severity of injury, appear to be associated with outcome following mild TBI.

  13. Late Diagnosis in Severe and Mild Intellectual Disability in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verri, A. P.; Maraschio, P.; Uggetti, C.; Pucci, E.; Ronchi, G.; Nespoli, L.; Destefani, V.; Ramponi, A.; Federico, A.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) is highly dependent on a comprehensive personal and family medical history, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the patient. Our study intended to: (1) classify the aetiology of mild and severe ID in an adult population of 140 Italian subjects; (2) evaluate the…

  14. Management of women with mild and moderate cervical dyskaryosis.

    PubMed Central

    Flannelly, G.; Anderson, D.; Kitchener, H. C.; Mann, E. M.; Campbell, M.; Fisher, P.; Walker, F.; Templeton, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcomes in women with mild and moderate dyskaryosis after increasing periods of surveillance and thereby to define a rational protocol for managing such women. DESIGN--Prospective study with randomisation of women to one of four treatment groups, each with a different period of surveillance; one group in which the women were given immediate treatment and three other groups in which the women were under surveillance for six, 12, and 24 months. SETTING--A dedicated colposcopy clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland. SUBJECTS--902 women who presented with a mildly or moderately dyskaryotic smear for the first time. INTERVENTIONS--Cytological and colposcopic examinations at intervals of six months until the allocated period of surveillance was completed, at which time biopsy was performed. Women with severe dyskaryosis were withdrawn from surveillance and a biopsy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The histological findings after punch biopsy or large loop excision of the transformation zone, and the trends in cytological appearances of serial cervical smears. RESULTS--793 women completed the study. In all, 769 women had an adequate final smear, of which 197 were normal cytologically, 328 were still mildly or moderately dyskaryotic, and 244 were severely dyskaryotic. Seventeen of the 67 (25%) women with one repeat smear showing non-dyskaryosis had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III compared with only one of the 31 (3%) women with no dyskaryosis in four repeat cervical smears (P < 0.0001). None of the women had invasive cancer. Of 158 women whose index smear showed mild dyskaryosis and who were allocated to the group under surveillance for two years, only 40 had not defaulted or still had dyskaryotic smears by the end of the two years. CONCLUSION--Cytological surveillance, although safe, is not an efficient strategy for managing women with mildly abnormal smears. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis in a smear should be referred for

  15. Neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kashluba, Shauna; Hanks, Robin A; Casey, Joseph E; Millis, Scott R

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the extent to which neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) parallels that of moderate TBI recovery. A longitudinal study comparing neuropsychologic and functional status of persons with complicated mild TBI and moderate TBI at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1 year postinjury. Rehabilitation hospital with a Traumatic Brain Injury Model System. Persons with complicated mild TBI (n=102), each with an intracranial brain lesion documented through neuroimaging and a highest Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score in the emergency department between 13 and 15, and 127 persons with moderate TBI. Not applicable. FIM instrument, Disability Rating Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Wechsler Memory Scale logical memory I and II, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail-Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and block design. Few differences in neuropsychologic performance existed between the TBI groups. Less severely impaired information processing speed and verbal learning were seen in the complicated mild TBI group at rehabilitation discharge and 1 year postinjury. Despite overall improvement across cognitive domains within the complicated mild TBI group, some degree of impairment remained at 1 year postinjury on those measures that had identified participants as impaired soon after injury. No differences on functional ability measures were found between the TBI groups at either time period postinjury, with both groups exhibiting incomplete recovery of functional status at the 1-year follow-up. When classifying severity of TBI based on GCS scores, consideration of a moderate injury designation should be given to persons with an intracranial bleed and a GCS score between 13 and 15.

  16. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We compare and discuss abundances and trends in normal giants, mild barium, and barium stars, searching for differences and similarities between barium and mild barium stars that could help shed some light on the origin of these similar objects. Also, we search for nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process that were observed in the literature for elements like Cu in other types of s-process enriched stars. Methods: High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the Fe i and Fe ii lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant ɛ Vir as the standard star. Results: The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence of barium and mild barium having a different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclassified as mild barium stars. The relevance of this finding is discussed. Concerning the suggested nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process, for elements like Cu, Mn, V and Sc, we found no evidence for an anomalous behavior in any of the s-process enriched stars analyzed here. However, further work is still needed since a clear [Cu/Fe] vs. [Ba/Fe] anticorrelation exists for other s-process enriched objects. Observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, within the ON/ESO agreements. Tables 8-10 are only

  18. [Mild solvent extraction technique for the evaluation of PAHs bioavailability].

    PubMed

    Lü, Zheng-Yong; Yang, Xing-Lun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Jiang, Xin

    2011-08-01

    n-butanol and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) were used to extract polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 9 aged agricultural fields and to assess the PAHs bioavailability to earthworm (Eisenia fetida). It was demonstrated that the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (> or = 4 rings) contribute the largest proportions (4-ring PAHs: 34.06%, 5-6 rings: 34.09%) to the contaminants in long-term aged field soils. Moreover, the light molecular weight PAHs were easily accumulated in the earthworm,while the high molecular weight PAHs were hard to accumulate. The extraction by mild solvent correlated well with the 3 ring PAHs (r2 0.77-0.79) but not for the other rings PAHs (r2 <0.35), indicating that mild extraction may not serve as a good predictor of PAHs bioavailability to earthworm.

  19. Developing Personally Relevant Goals for People with Mild Dementia.

    PubMed

    Khayum, Becky; Wynn, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Many speech-language pathologists work in the skilled nursing facility setting and frequently treat patients in subacute rehabilitation who are experiencing mild cognitive deficits as a result of dementia. Treatment of these individuals needs to be carefully differentiated from rehabilitative treatment of a stroke or traumatic brain injury. A "habilitation" approach should be considered, focusing on an individual's preserved strengths and developing patient-centered goals that focus upon the integration of personally relevant stimuli into the care plan. Environmental modification, the use of visual memory aids, counseling, and ongoing family education are also essential components of this approach. This case study is a thorough example of how the habilitation approach can be used to provide intervention for a person with mild dementia. The case study will explain indication for treatment, assessment, goal selection, and research to support the treatment plan.

  20. Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Margetts, B M; Beilin, L J; Vandongen, R; Armstrong, B K

    1986-01-01

    In a randomised crossover trial 58 subjects aged 30-64 with mild untreated hypertension were allocated either to a control group eating a typical omnivorous diet or to one of two groups eating an ovolactovegetarian diet for one of two six week periods. A fall in systolic blood pressure of the order of 5 mm Hg occurred during the vegetarian diet periods, with a corresponding rise on resuming a meat diet. The main nutrient changes with the vegetarian diet included an increase in the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats and intake of fibre, calcium, and magnesium and a decrease in the intake of protein and vitamin B12. There were no consistent changes in urinary sodium or potassium excretion or body weight. In untreated subjects with mild hypertension, changing to a vegetarian diet may bring about a worthwhile fall in systolic blood pressure. PMID:3026552

  1. Differential Patterns of Hypoperfusion in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Concari, Letizia; Venneri, Annalena

    2008-01-01

    In this study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern of three Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subtypes was measured with SPECT in 60 patients (nineteen with an amnestic deficit, sixteen with disexecutive deficits, and twenty five with mild multidomain deficits) and compared with that of 15 healthy matched older adults. The amnestic MCI subgroup showed significant hypoperfusion in the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and fronto-parieto-temporal areas. The disexecutive subgroup had significant hypoperfusion of the left superior, medial frontal and cingulate cortex. The multidomain subgroup had similar perfusion deficits to the amnestic subgroup, with an additional deficit in the left posterior cingulate gyrus. This study found differential patterns of hypoperfusion in MCI subtypes. Since all patients who progressed to dementia converted to probable Alzheimer’s disease, the different rCBF patterns most likely reflect the neuropathological heterogeneity at onset and differences in disease stage. PMID:19018314

  2. Mild hypothermia, blood loss and complications in elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guest, James D; Vanni, S; Silbert, L

    2004-01-01

    Spinal surgery carries risks of incidental spinal cord and nerve root injury. Neuroprotection, to minimize the extent of such injuries, is desirable. However, no neuroprotective strategies have been conclusively validated in nonvascular spinal surgery. Mild hypothermia resulting from general anesthesia is a readily achievable potential neuroprotective strategy. Mild hypothermia, however, has been associated with wound infection, increased operative blood loss and other complications. No previous studies have specifically evaluated whether mild hypothermia is associated with an increased risk of these complications in elective spinal surgery. We investigated the association between incidental mild hypothermia, perioperative complications and operative blood loss. This is a retrospective study employing cohort analysis, rank analysis and single and multivariate linear regression. The setting was the Veterans Administration Medical Center, a teaching hospital of the University of Miami. Data on a total of 70 adult veterans aged 23 to 81 years undergoing complex spinal procedures in which passive cooling was employed during surgical decompression. The variables measured were temperature, blood loss, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and duration of anesthesia. The outcome measured was the presence or absence of complications. After 70 patients had been acquired, regression and rank analyses were performed to test for a link between mild hypothermia and blood loss. In addition, two cohorts, patients who experienced complications, and those who did not experience complications in the perioperative period, were compared for several variables including three measures of exposure to hypothermia. Surgical procedures included 60 cervical, 1 occipitocervical, 1 cervicothoracic, 7 thoracic and 1 thoracolumbar procedure. Hypothermia followed induction of anesthesia; esophageal or bladder temperature was monitored. Cooling was passive; warming utilized a forced air blanket

  3. Mild Campomelic Dysplasia: Report on a Case and Review

    PubMed Central

    Corbani, S.; Chouery, E.; Eid, B.; Jalkh, N.; Abou Ghoch, J.; Mégarbané, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a 10.5-year-old girl with a mild form of campomelic dysplasia. She presented with short stature of prenatal onset, dysmorphic facial features, limitation of supination and pronation of the forearms, dysplastic nails, and bone abnormalities consisting especially of cone-shaped epiphyses of the middle phalanx of the 2nd fingers, brachydactyly and clinodactyly of the middle phalanx of both 5th fingers, short 4th metacarpals, radial and femoral head subluxation, hypoplastic scapulae, humeral and ulnar epiphyseal abnormalities, unossified symphysis pubis, and a significant delay in bone age. Molecular analysis of the SOX9 gene revealed the presence of a de novo missense mutation: p.P170L (c.509C>T). Mild and surviving cases of campomelic dysplasia are reviewed. PMID:21373255

  4. Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Dementia with Insufficient Neuropathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E.; Blacker, Deborah; Gómez-lsla, Teresa; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith; Frosch, Matthew P.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, ∼16% of participants in an anti-Aβ passive immunotherapy trial for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) had a negative baseline amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Whether they have AD or are AD clinical phenocopies remains unknown. We examined the 2005-2013 National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center autopsy database and found that ∼14% of autopsied subjects clinically diagnosed with mild-to-moderate probable AD have no or sparse neuritic plaques, which would expectedly yield a negative amyloid PET scan. More than half of these “Aβ-negative” subjects have low neurofibrillary tangle Braak stages. These findings support the implementation of a positive amyloid biomarker as an inclusion criterion in future anti-Aβ drug trials. PMID:24585367

  5. Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J.; Rajan, V.B.

    1997-02-01

    Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used and when the flange is the mild steel part of the T-joint. A flux that adds chromium to the weld can somewhat alleviate this tendency. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) polarity greatly reduces this tendency by limiting dilution. Fillet weld compositions and dilutions are obtained for a number of welding conditions and fluxes.

  6. Exercise for Mild Balance Dysfunction: Research into Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Meyer, Claudia; Batchelor, Frances; Hill, Keith

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether improved balance outcomes achieved in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using balance screening to identify mild balance dysfunction and home exercises could be translated into community settings. Community-dwelling people aged over 65 who expressed concerns about their balance, had less than two falls in the preceding 12 months, and who had mild balance impairment on screening were given an individualized home-based balance and strengthening exercise program with intermittent home-visit support by a physiotherapist. Of 71 participants assessed (mean age 77.3 years, 76% female), 58 (82%) completed the six-month intervention. Twenty six percent of participants regained balance performance within normal limits--similar to those achieved in the previous RCT. Successful results from a previous RCT were able to be translated into community settings, with a similar magnitude of effect on balance and mobility.

  7. Chronic impairment of prospective memory after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tay, Sze Yan; Ang, Beng Ti; Lau, Xin Yin; Meyyappan, Amutha; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2010-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM), the ability to recall future intentions, is crucial for independent living. Impairment of PM is a common complaint following head injury and is a significant impediment to good recovery, yet no studies have explored PM in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In this study, prospective memory was examined in 31 mTBI patients and matched controls within a month of injury and 3 months after. mTBI patients performed more poorly than controls on the MIST task (Raskin, 2004) within the first month following injury, indicating that PM impairment is part of the acute cognitive sequelae of mTBI. These problems persisted beyond 3 months post-injury, suggesting that PM may be a sensitive indicator of cerebral compromise in mild brain injuries.

  8. Imaging modalities in mild traumatic brain injury and sports concussion.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Peter G; Walker, Matthew T

    2011-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a significant public health issue that has been gaining considerable attention over the past few years. After injury, a large percentage of patients experience postconcussive symptoms that affect work and school performance and that carry significant medicolegal implications. Conventional imaging modalities (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are insensitive to microstructural changes and underestimate the degree of diffuse axonal injury and metabolic changes. Newer imaging techniques have attempted to better diagnose and characterize diffuse axonal injury and the metabolic and functional aspects of traumatic brain injury. The following review article summarizes the currently available imaging studies and describes the novel and more investigational techniques available for mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested algorithm is offered.

  9. Eye movements and conservation acceleration in mildly retarded children.

    PubMed

    Boersma, F J; Wilton, K M

    1976-05-01

    Thirty mildly retarded elementary-school children, 15 of whom had received perceptual/attentional training, were tested on four Piagetian conservation tasks (number, length, and continuous quantity solid/liquid) presented on 16 mm movie film with taped instructions. Eye movements were recorded during the response period for each task. Subsequent analyses of eye-movement patterns showed clear differences between the training and control groups. Trained conservers showed more visual exploratory activity and less perceptual centration than control group subjects. Moreover the eye-movement patterns of trained conservers closely approximated those shown by natural (i.e., untrained) retarded conservers in a previous study. The findings were discussed in terms of possible cognitive structural changes resulting from training and possible cognitive structural differences between mildly retarded and nonretarded children.

  10. Occupational therapy for service members with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Mary Vining; Davidson, Leslie; Voydetich, Deborah; Erickson, Mary W

    2009-01-01

    More occupational therapists are needed to provide client-centered, evidence-based rehabilitation to the large numbers of service members who sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Proponency for Rehabilitation and Reintegration tasked a team of occupational and physical therapists to assemble evidence-based best practices specific to mTBI. Despite the fact that evidence-based reviews, guidelines, and research regarding occupational therapy for mTBI are sparse, the team developed the Clinical Practice Guidance: Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Occupational therapy practice recommendations specific to client education, vision, cognition, resumption of roles, and emotional well-being are summarized for civilians and characterized as practice standards or practice options. By using evidence-informed and holistic services, occupational therapists have the potential to lead rehabilitation and reintegration efforts for service members with mTBI and advance changes in the profession itself.

  11. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rosie C; Rose, Meredith C; Skeaff, Sheila A; Gray, Andrew R; Morgan, Kirstie M D; Ruffman, Ted

    2009-11-01

    The effects of severe iodine deficiency during critical periods of brain development are well documented. There is little known about the consequences of milder forms of iodine deficiency on neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether supplementing mildly iodine-deficient children with iodine improves cognition. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 184 children aged 10-13 y in Dunedin, New Zealand. Children were randomly assigned to receive a daily tablet containing either 150 microg I or placebo for 28 wk. Biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected from each child at baseline and after 28 wk. Cognitive performance was assessed through 4 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. At baseline, children were mildly iodine deficient [median urinary iodine concentration (UIC): 63 microg/L; thyroglobulin concentration: 16.4 microg/L]. After 28 wk, iodine status improved in the supplemented group (UIC: 145 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 8.5 microg/L), whereas the placebo group remained iodine deficient (UIC: 81 microg/L; thyroglobulin: 11.6 microg/L). Iodine supplementation significantly improved scores for 2 of the 4 cognitive subtests [picture concepts (P = 0.023) and matrix reasoning (P = 0.040)] but not for letter-number sequencing (P = 0.480) or symbol search (P = 0.608). The overall cognitive score of the iodine-supplemented group was 0.19 SDs higher than that of the placebo group (P = 0.011). Iodine supplementation improved perceptual reasoning in mildly iodine-deficient children and suggests that mild iodine deficiency could prevent children from attaining their full intellectual potential. The trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register as ACTRN12608000222347.

  12. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Dynamic Simulated Shooting Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    USAARL Report No. 2016-16 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Dynamic Simulated Shooting Performance By Ben Lawson1, Bethany Ranes1, Amanda...Kelley1, Bradley Erickson1, Lana Milam1, Melody King1, Catherine Wrobel1, Jim Chiaramonte1, Timothy Cho1, Brain Laskowski1, John Campbell1,2, Linda... Human Use The USAARL Determination Official determined that the USAARL studies did not constitute research as defined under the human subjects

  13. Mild ciguatera poisoning: Case reports with neurophysiological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Butera, R; Prockop, L D; Buonocore, M; Locatelli, C; Gandini, C; Manzo, L

    2000-10-01

    Ciguatera poisoning causes mainly gastrointestinal and neurological effects of variable severity. However, symptoms of peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and paradoxical disturbance of thermal sensation are the hallmark. Electrophysiological studies are often normal, except in severe cases. We report four people who developed mild ciguatera poisoning after barracuda ingestion. Electrophysiological studies documented normocalcemic latent tetany. These findings are consistent with ciguatoxin's mechanism of toxicity, which involves inactivation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and eventually increases nerve membrane excitability.

  14. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  15. Deep intronic variations may cause mild hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Castaman, G; Giacomelli, S H; Mancuso, M E; D'Andrea, G; Santacroce, R; Sanna, S; Santagostino, E; Mannucci, P M; Goodeve, A; Rodeghiero, F

    2011-08-01

    In about 10% of patients with mild hemophilia A, no candidate gene mutations are apparent after complete gene sequencing. To analyze factor VIII gene (F8) mRNA for mutations in five families with mild hemophilia A with no apparent genomic mutation and a reduced response to desmopressin. In four cases, mRNA studies revealed the presence of an abnormal mRNA transcript in addition to normal F8 mRNA. Sequencing of the abnormal transcripts revealed complex abnormalities, which allowed the identification of three different intronic variations (c.2113+1152delA, c.5587-93C>T and c.5999-277G>A) at the DNA level, absent from 387 normal alleles. By in silico analysis, c.2113+1152delA and c.5587-93C>T were strongly predicted to result in the generation of new splice sites with the introduction of premature termination codons, while c.5999-277G>A was predicted to generate a new protein with 30 additional amino acids. However, these predictions were not homogeneous across the different mutations and programs used. The detrimental effect of two mutations was also confirmed by in vitro expression studies. These changes were also identified in related female carriers and in other mild HA patients not included in the original study. No mRNA abnormality was identified in the remaining patient. Although rare, deep intronic variations may be responsible for mild hemophilia A where no other F8 mutations have been identified and may be associated with a reduced biologic response to desmopressin. F8 mRNA analysis is a useful tool for the identification of deep intronic variation not detectable by standard DNA sequencing. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Click and release: fluoride cleavable linker for mild bioorthogonal separation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elia M; Zeltner, Martin; Zlateski, Vladimir; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-01-18

    Herein, we present a water dispersable, magnetic nanoparticle supported "click and release" system. The cleavable linker has been synthesized by using a strain-promoted copper-free "click" reagent to establish the specific link and a fluoride cleavable silane moiety for mild cleavage. Small organic molecules, azide-bearing dyes and functionalized enzymes have been bound to the magnetic particle and released in a bioorthogonal way.

  17. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 minutes. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

  18. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, P<0.001; down slope: 19.0±2.5→13.2±1.3ms/mmHg, P=0.002; transfer function gain in low frequency: 14.4±2.2→10.1±1.1ms/mmHg, P=0.004; transfer function gain in high frequency: 22.2±7.5→12.4±3.5ms/mmHg, P<0.001). Stroke volume decreased significantly (88±5→80±6ml, P=0.025). Moreover, although systolic arterial pressure variability increased, R-R interval variability did not increase. These results suggest that even mild +Gz hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure.

  19. Substantial Genetic Influence on Mild Mental Impairment in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinath, Frank M.; Harlaar, Nicole; Ronald, Angelica; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We report the first major genetic study of mild mental impairment. From a representative sample of 3,886 twins (1,314 monozygotic, 1,296 dizygotic same-sex, and 1,276 dizygotic opposite-sex), the lowest 5% were selected on a composite measure of verbal and nonverbal abilities assessed by parents when the twins were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. Twin…

  20. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Mahesh K.; Muppa, Radhika; Reddy, G. S. Prasad; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery. PMID:23230365

  1. Formamide Synthesis through Borinic Acid Catalysed Transamidation under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dine, Tharwat Mohy El; Evans, David; Rouden, Jacques; Blanchet, Jérôme

    2016-04-18

    A highly efficient and mild transamidation of amides with amines co-catalysed by borinic acid and acetic acid has been reported. A wide range of functionalised formamides was synthesized in excellent yields, including important chiral α-amino acid derivatives, with minor racemisation being observed. Experiments suggested that the reaction rely on a cooperative catalysis involving an enhanced boron-derived Lewis acidity rather than an improved Brønsted acidity of acetic acid.

  2. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael J; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Briggs, Denise I; Viano, David C; Kreipke, Christian W; Kuhn, Donald M

    2012-01-15

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 min. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel.

  3. Mild gestational diabetes mellitus and long-term child health.

    PubMed

    Landon, Mark B; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Varner, Michael W; Casey, Brian M; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Rouse, Dwight J; Biggio, Joseph R; Thorp, John M; Chien, Edward K; Saade, George; Peaceman, Alan M; Blackwell, Sean C; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) confers sustained offspring health benefits, including a lower frequency of obesity. Follow-up study of children (ages 5-10) of women enrolled in a multicenter trial of treatment versus no treatment of mild GDM. Height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured. Five hundred of 905 eligible offspring (55%) were enrolled. Maternal baseline characteristics were similar between the follow-up treated and untreated groups. The frequencies of BMI ≥95th (20.8% and 22.9%) and 85th (32.6% and 38.6%) percentiles were not significantly different in treated versus untreated offspring (P = 0.69 and P = 0.26). No associations were observed for BMI z score, log waist circumference, log triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or log HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The effect of treatment was different by sex for fasting glucose and log HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively) but not by age-group (5-6 and 7-10 years) for any outcomes. Female offspring of treated women had significantly lower fasting glucose levels. Although treatment for mild GDM has been associated with neonatal benefits, no reduction in childhood obesity or metabolic dysfunction in the offspring of treated women was found. However, only female offspring of women treated for mild GDM had lower fasting glucose. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Epigenetic differences in human cartilage between mild and severe OA.

    PubMed

    Moazedi-Fuerst, Florentine C; Hofner, Manuela; Gruber, Gerald; Weinhaeusel, Andreas; Stradner, Martin H; Angerer, Hannes; Peischler, Daniela; Lohberger, Birgit; Glehr, Mathias; Leithner, Andreas; Sonntagbauer, Markus; Graninger, Winfried B

    2014-12-01

    The development of osteoarthritis (OA) depends on genetic and environmental factors, which influence the biology of the chondrocyte via epigenetic regulation. Changes within the epigenome might lead the way to discovery of new pathogenetic pathways. We performed a genome-wide methylation screening to identify potential differences between paired mild and severe osteoarthritic human cartilage. Sixteen female patients suffering from OA underwent total knee joint replacement. Cartilage specimens collected from corresponding macroscopically undamaged and from damaged areas were processed for DNA extraction and histology to evaluate the histological grading of the disease. Paired specimens were analysed for the methylation status of the whole genome using human promoter microarrays (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). Selected target genes were then validated via methylation-specific qPCR. One thousand two hundred and fourteen genetic targets were identified differentially methylated between mild and severe OA. One thousand and seventy of these targets were found hypermethylated and 144 hypomethylated. The descriptive analysis of these genes by Gene Ontology (GO), KEGG pathway and protein domain analyses points to pathways of development and differentiation. We identified a list of genes which are differently methylated in mild and severe OA cartilage. Within the pathways of growth and development new therapeutic targets might arise by improving our understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms in OA. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Musculoskeletal manifestations of mild osteogenesis imperfecta in the adult.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus E

    2005-12-01

    The musculoskeletal manifestations of mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta are not well defined in the adult. The aim of this study was to characterize the musculoskeletal manifestations and resulting impairments reported by adults with mild osteogenesis imperfecta. For this task a survey of musculoskeletal symptoms and impairments was hosted on the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation web site for 6 weeks. Survey responses are reported herein. There were 111 unduplicated, adult respondents (78 female). Mean age was 40.8 years. More than one-quarter of 3,410 lifetime fractures occurred in adulthood. Nearly half of respondents reported an established diagnosis of "arthritis" (usually osteoarthritis), and the majority of these reported some degree of impairment attributable to arthritis. Articular pain, stiffness and instability were dominant in the large, weight-bearing joints of the lower extremities. Back pain and scoliosis were common. Of the respondents, 15% required assistance with light physical tasks and personal care. Two-thirds reported joint hyper-mobility, and one-third reported a previous tendon rupture. Complex regional pain syndrome was rare. Respondents reported frequent use of medications known to have potential adverse skeletal effects. In spite of these concerns the majority rated their overall physical health as good or excellent. Adults with mild osteogenesis imperfecta continue to sustain fractures into adulthood, and the majority reports some functional impairment due to musculoskeletal issues. Significant impairment is not rare.

  6. Effect of Machining Parameters on Oxidation Behavior of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, P.; Shekhar, S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out a correlation between machining parameters, resultant microstructure, and isothermal oxidation behavior of lathe-machined mild steel in the temperature range of 660-710 °C. The tool rake angles "α" used were +20°, 0°, and -20°, and cutting speeds used were 41, 232, and 541 mm/s. Under isothermal conditions, non-machined and machined mild steel samples follow parabolic oxidation kinetics with activation energy of 181 and ~400 kJ/mol, respectively. Exaggerated grain growth of the machined surface was observed, whereas, the center part of the machined sample showed minimal grain growth during oxidation at higher temperatures. Grain growth on the surface was attributed to the reduction of strain energy at high temperature oxidation, which was accumulated on the sub-region of the machined surface during machining. It was also observed that characteristic surface oxide controlled the oxidation behavior of the machined samples. This study clearly demonstrates the effect of equivalent strain, roughness, and grain size due to machining, and subsequent grain growth on the oxidation behavior of the mild steel.

  7. Increased production of inflammatory cytokines in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Mueller, Claudius; Dickson, Cindy; Kirsch, Wolff

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic inflammation plays a pathogenic role in both the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have screened for cytokines differentially produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild AD subjects who had progressed from MCI using a commercially available cytokine array. Following determination of expressed cytokines, we quantified levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using flow cytometry. We have found a significant increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 produced by PBMCs stimulated for 24 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in MCI subjects compared to healthy elderly controls. However, in PBMCs stimulated for 48 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lower TNF-alpha/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, and IL-8/IL-10 ratios were seen in MCI subjects. There were no differences in plasma levels of IL-8 between aged controls, MCI, and mild AD, and the levels of circulating IL-6 and IL-10 were below detection limits. Our data indicate that changes in cytokine production by PBMCs may be detected early in MCI, and an alteration of the immune response may precede clinical AD.

  8. Mathematical modeling of MILD combustion of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffel, N.; Mancini, M.; Weber, R.; Szlek, A.

    2009-09-15

    MILD (flameless) combustion is a new rapidly developing technology. The IFRF trials have demonstrated high potential of this technology also for N-containing fuels. In this work the IFRF experiments are analyzed using the CFD-based mathematical model. Both the Chemical Percolation Devolatilization (CPD) model and the char combustion intrinsic reactivity model have been adapted to Guasare coal combusted. The flow-field as well as the temperature and the oxygen fields have been accurately predicted by the CFD-based model. The predicted temperature and gas composition fields have been uniform demonstrating that slow combustion occurs in the entire furnace volume. The CFD-based predictions have highlighted the NO{sub x} reduction potential of MILD combustion through the following mechanism. Before the coal devolatilization proceeds, the coal jet entrains a substantial amount of flue gas so that its oxygen content is typically not higher than 3-5%. The volatiles are given off in a highly sub-stoichiometric environment and their N-containing species are preferentially converted to molecular nitrogen rather than to NO. Furthermore, there exists a strong NO-reburning mechanism within the fuel jet and in the air jet downstream of the position where these two jets merge. In other words, less NO is formed from combustion of volatiles and stronger NO-reburning mechanisms exist in the MILD combustion if compared to conventional coal combustion technology. (author)

  9. Polysomnographic and Subjective Sleep Markers of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Yañez, Eva; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Growing evidence suggests that sleep disturbances precede by years the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). The goal of the current study is to determine whether changes in polysomnographic (PSG) sleep patterns accompany subjective sleep complaints in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We further examine whether meaningful changes in objective sleep physiology are predicted by self-reported sleep measures in MCI patients, and whether incipient neurodegeneration contributes to exacerbate sleep misperception. Design, Setting, and Participants: Overnight PSG recordings and self-reported sleep measures were obtained from 25 healthy elderly (HE) subjects and 25 patients with MCI at the sleep laboratory. Results: Both PSG and self-reported sleep measures confirmed that sleep is altered in patients with MCI. Whereas subjective sleep responses predicted fragmentation of slow wave sleep (SWS) in HE individuals, this relationship was not evident in MCI patients. Furthermore, patients with MCI showed significant discrepancies in the estimation of sleep onset latency when compared with HE subjects. Conclusions: Sleep is significantly impaired in patients with mild cognitive impairment at both the objective and subjective level, which may be used as a surrogate marker of preclinical Alzheimer disease. Taken together, these findings aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies devoted to improve sleep in the elderly population at risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Citation: Hita-Yañez E; Atienza M; Cantero JL. Polysomnographic and subjective sleep markers of mild cognitive impairment. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1327-1334. PMID:23997365

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperprolactinaemia: a study of mild hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Hung-wen; Chen, Ching-min; Chou, Szu-yuan; Liang, So-jung; Hsu, Chun-sen; Hsu, Ming-i

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinaemia are both common causes of secondary amenorrhoea in reproductive women. The relationship between PCOS and hyperprolactinaemia has been reported with controversial results. To evaluate the clinical and laboratory features of women with mild hyperprolactinaemia and PCOS, we studied 474 Taiwan Chinese women: 101 had mild hyperprolactinaemia, 266 had PCOS and 107 were the control group. In this study, we found that 64% of the women with mild hyperprolactinaemia fulfilled the PCOS diagnostic criteria, regardless of their prolactin levels. Obese women with PCOS had significantly lower luteinising hormone (LH) and LH-to-FSH ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. Obese hyperprolactinaemic women had significantly lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but higher LH-to-FSH ratios than the non-obese hyperprolactinaemic women. For women with PCOS, the BMIs were significantly negative with LH (γ = -0.253, p < 0.001), but not with FSH (γ = -0.061, p = 0.319). For the hyperprolactinaemic women, the BMIs were significantly negative with FSH (γ = -0.353, p < 0.001), but not with LH (γ = -0.021, p = 0.837). Although PCOS-related syndrome was very prevalent in women with hyperprolactinaemia, the patterns of disturbance in gonadotropin secretion were different between the PCOS and the hyperprolactinaemia patients.

  11. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception.

    PubMed

    Lahdelma, Imre; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception.

  12. Paradoxical upregulation of glutamatergic presynaptic boutons during mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Karen F S; Bennett, David A; Cuello, A Claudio

    2007-10-03

    Synaptic integrity is now recognized as a central component of Alzheimer's disease. Surprisingly, however, the structural status of glutamatergic synapses in Alzheimer's disease is unclear, despite the fact that glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the CNS and has key roles in excitotoxicity and long-term potentiation. The identification of specific markers of glutamatergic neurons now allows an assessment of the structural involvement of the glutamatergic system across progressive stages of the Alzheimer's pathology, an opportunity not afforded by previously used neurochemical approaches. Glutamatergic presynaptic bouton density and dystrophic neurite abundance were quantified in midfrontal gyrus brain tissue from subjects with no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or mild- or severe-stage Alzheimer's disease. Our study demonstrates a striking pathology-dependent pattern of glutamatergic synaptic remodeling with disease progression. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment display a paradoxical elevation in glutamatergic presynaptic bouton density, a situation akin to that observed in the cholinergic system, which then depletes and drops with disease progression. This pattern of synaptic remodeling mirrors our previous findings in transgenic animal models and is of major relevance to current transmitter-based therapeutics.

  13. Increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Martin A; Mufson, Elliott J; Wuu, Joanne; Cuello, A Claudio

    2009-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent cholinergic basal forebrain neurons degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Elevated proNGF and reduced levels of the TrkA high-affinity NGF receptor occur in prodromal and advanced stages of AD. We recently described a protease cascade responsible for the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF (mNGF) in which matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades mNGF in the extracellular space. To determine whether this proteolytic cascade is altered during the progression of AD, we examined human frontal and parietal cortex tissues from aged subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment, or no cognitive impairment. The analysis demonstrated greater MMP-9 activity in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared with no cognitive impairment brain samples (p < 0.01), which supports the notion that a metabolic failure in the NGF-maturation/degradation pathway may be associated with an exacerbated degradation of mNGF in the cerebral cortex in early AD. Moreover, there were inverse correlations between Global Cognitive Score and Mini-Mental State Examination score and MMP-9 activity. These findings suggest that a reduction in mNGF as a consequence of MMP-9-mediated degradation may in part underlie the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment and AD.

  14. Current status of fluid biomarkers in mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulbe, Jacqueline R.; Geddes, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of people annually and is difficult to diagnose. Mild injury is insensitive to conventional imaging techniques and diagnoses are often made using subjective criteria such as self-reported symptoms. Many people who sustain a mTBI develop persistent post-concussive symptoms. Athletes and military personnel are at great risk for repeat injury which can result in second impact syndrome or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. An objective and quantifiable measure, such as a serum biomarker, is needed to aid in mTBI diagnosis, prognosis, return to play/duty assessments, and would further elucidate mTBI pathophysiology. The majority of TBI biomarker research focuses on severe TBI with few studies specific to mild injury. Most studies use a hypothesis-driven approach, screening biofluids for markers known to be associated with TBI pathophysiology. This approach has yielded limited success in identifying markers that can be used clinically, additional candidate biomarkers are needed. Innovative and unbiased methods such as proteomics, microRNA arrays, urinary screens, autoantibody identification and phage display would complement more traditional approaches to aid in the discovery of novel mTBI biomarkers. PMID:25981889

  15. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception. PMID:27433333

  16. Dental development in children with mild-to-moderate hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Emine Şen; Bayrak, Sule; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dental development in a group of children with mild-to-moderate hypodontia with a matched group. A study group of 70 children (43 girls, 27 boys) with hypodontia, aged 5.3 to 12.5 years, was matched for race, age, and sex with 140 healthy, normal control subjects. The children's dental ages were calculated by using a modified dental-age estimation method. Differences between dental and chronologic ages were analyzed by t tests, and the correlations between differences in dental and chronologic ages and the numbers of missing teeth were analyzed with the Spearman correlation test. Dental development in children with mild-to-moderate hypodontia was significantly delayed compared with the control group (P <0.05); however, the mean difference did not exceed 0.3 years in either sex. No correlation was observed between the differences in dental and chronologic age and the severity of hypodontia. Children with mild-to-moderate hypodontia had delayed dental development of a few months; this was statistically significant. Because of individual variations, each patient should be carefully examined. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The social adaptation of mainstreamed mildly retarded children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A R; Asher, S R; Williams, G A

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social adaptation of mainstreamed mildly retarded children, comparing them to a matched sample of regular education students. Results indicated that mildly retarded children were quite rejected by their peers, and, compared to nonretarded classmates, they reported significantly more dissatisfaction and anxiety about their peer relations. With respect to behavioral style, there were no group differences in peer- or teacher-reported aggressiveness or disruptiveness. However, retarded children were perceived as more shy and avoidant, as less cooperative, and as less likely to exhibit leadership skills. Further analysis of the behavioral assessment data, via cluster analysis, revealed 2 subtypes of rejected retarded children: an internalizing group perceived as displaying high levels of shy/avoidant behavior and an externalizing group perceived as high in aggressive and/or disruptive behavior. In addition, the internalizing group reported higher social anxiety than did the externalizing group. Implications for school-based intervention research with mildly retarded children are discussed.

  18. Mild perioperative hypothermia and the risk of wound infection.

    PubMed

    Flores-Maldonado, A; Medina-Escobedo, C E; Ríos-Rodríguez, H M; Fernández-Domínguez, R

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial destruction caused by free radicals, which are synthesized by neutrophils in the presence of oxygen, depends on adequate tissue perfusion. Mild perioperative hypothermia causes vasoconstriction, reducing nutrient and oxygen supply to wounds and increasing frequency of surgical wound infection. However, the causal role of hypothermia in surgical wound infection is the subject of controversy. The present work proposes the hypothesis that mild perioperative hypothermia is associated with infection of the surgical wound. A prospective cohort of 290 surgical patients was studied in a second-level hospital; 261 (90%) of the patients concluded the follow-up. The relationship of hypothermia and of other confounding factors, such as diabetes mellitus, antibiotic treatment, and wound drains with infection outcome was evaluated. One physician, blinded to patient hypothermia, gathered the data. Surgical wound infection was defined as the surgeon's diagnosis with positive culture. Twenty subjects (7.6%) showed infection of surgical wound; 18 (11.5%) of 156 hypothermics and two (2%) 105 normothermics (p = 0.004). Hypothermia proved to be a significant independent risk of infection with relative risk of 6.3 (p = 0.01). Mild perioperative hypothermia is associated with infection of the surgical wound and its prevention is therefore justified.

  19. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    The postconcussion syndrome refers to a large number of symptoms and signs that may occur alone or in combination following usually mild head injury. The most common complaints are headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of consciousness and memory, and noise sensitivity. Mild head injury is a major public health concern because the annual incidence is about 150 per 100,000 population, accounting for 75% or more of all head injuries. The postconcussion syndrome has been recognized for at least the last few hundred years and has been the subject of intense controversy for more than 100 years. The Hollywood head injury myth has been an important contributor to persisting skepticism and might be countered by educational efforts and counter-examples from boxing. The organicity of the postconcussion syndrome has now become well documented. Abnormalities following mild head injury have been reported in neuropathologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychologic studies. There are multiple sequelae of mild head injury, including headaches of multiple types, cranial nerve symptoms and signs, psychologic and somatic complaints, and cognitive impairment. Rare sequelae include hematomas, seizures, transient global amnesia, tremor, and dystonia. Neuroimaging and physiologic and psychologic testing should be used judiciously based on the problems of the particular patient rather than in a cookbook fashion. Prognostic studies clearly substantiate the existence of a postconcussion syndrome. Manifestations of the postconcussion syndrome are common, with resolution in most patients by 3 to 6 months after the injury. Persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits are present in a distinct minority of patients for additional months or years. Risk factors for persisting sequelae include age over 40 years; lower educational, intellectual, and socioeconomic level; female gender; alcohol abuse; prior head injury; and multiple trauma. Although a small

  20. Mild and Mild-to-Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Significant Progressive and Enduring Multiple Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiamei; Nelson, Rachel; Wilkie, Zachary; Mustafa, Golam; Tsuda, Shigeharu; Thompson, Floyd J; Bose, Prodip

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce life-long disabilities, including anxiety, cognitive, balance, and motor deficits. The experimental model of closed head TBI (cTBI) induced by weight drop/impact acceleration is known to produce hallmark TBI injuries. However, comprehensive long-term characterization of comorbidities induced by graded mild-to- mild/moderate intensities using this experimental cTBI model has not been reported. The present study used two intensities of weight drop (1.0 m and 1.25 m/450 g) to produce cTBI in a rat model to investigate initial and long-term disability of four comorbidities: anxiety, cognitive, vestibulomotor, and spinal reflex that related to spasticity. TBI and sham injuries were produced under general anesthesia. Time for righting recoveries post-TBI recorded to estimate duration of unconsciousness, revealed that the TBI mild/moderate group required a mean of 1 min 27 sec longer than the values observed for noninjured sham animals. Screening magnetic resonance imaging images revealed no anatomical changes, mid-line shifts, or hemorrhagic volumes. However, compared to sham injuries, significant long-term anxiety, cognitive, balance, and physiological changes in motor reflex related to spasticity were observed post-TBI for both TBI intensities. The longitudinal trajectory of anxiety and balance disabilities tested at 2, 4, 8, and 18 weeks revealed progressively worsening disabilities. In general, disability magnitudes were proportional to injury intensity for three of the four measures. A natural hypothesis would pose that all disabilities would increase incrementally relative to injury severity. Surprisingly, anxiety disability progressed over time to be greater in the mildest injury. Collectively, translational implications of these observations suggest that patients with mild TBI should be evaluated longitudinally at multiple time points, and that anxiety disorder could potentially have a particularly low threshold

  1. Who Do Students with Mild Disabilities Nominate as Cool in Inclusive General Education Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Acker, Richard V.; Pearl, Ruth; Thompson, Jana H.; Fedora, Pledger

    2006-01-01

    Examined the nominations that elementary students with mild disabilities made for peers they perceived as cool. The total sample was comprised of 948 students (496 girls, 452 boys) from the metropolitan Chicago area and North Carolina and included 107 (11.3%) students with mild disabilities. Overall, students with mild disabilities nominated…

  2. Who Do Students with Mild Disabilities Nominate as Cool in Inclusive General Education Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Acker, Richard V.; Pearl, Ruth; Thompson, Jana H.; Fedora, Pledger

    2006-01-01

    Examined the nominations that elementary students with mild disabilities made for peers they perceived as cool. The total sample was comprised of 948 students (496 girls, 452 boys) from the metropolitan Chicago area and North Carolina and included 107 (11.3%) students with mild disabilities. Overall, students with mild disabilities nominated…

  3. The fate of sulfur in mild gasification liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Koncar, G.J.; Babu, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation addresses the determination of sulfur distribution in mild gasification liquids produced from untreated coal and from modified in two ways to reduce sulfur in the products: (a) physical mixing with a sulfur scavenger (CaO), and (b) pretreatment with aqueous alkali followed by mixing with CaO. Coal pyrolysis in the presence of CaO has previously been investigated, (3,5) showing that CaO can be effective in reducing the sulfur content of the fuel gas, and possibly that of the product liquids. Pretreatment of coals with alkaline chemicals has also been studied,(6,7) showing reduced sulfur and other changes in the liquid products.(8) Data on sulfur distribution in the liquid products could be useful for understanding the chemistry of alkali pretreatment and CaO interaction with coal sulfur during pyrolysis. In this work, a pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) technique that simulates mild gasification on a milligram scale was used in conjunction with a carbon-specific flame ionization detector (FID) and a sulfur-specific flame photometric detector (FPD) to determine the sulfur distribution in oils/tars from Illinois No. 6 coal. A low-resolution packed GC column was employed to resolve oils/tars by carbon number, with ranges selected to approximate distillation fractions which might be recovered from a commercial mild gasification process. Oils/tars up to C{sub 18} were also collected from the pyro-probe effluent into dichloromethane for off-line study using a high-resolution GC with atomic emission detector (GC/AED) and with GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to measure specific sulfur compounds. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Mild Hypothermia Alters Midazolam Pharmacokinetics in Normal Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A.; Bies, Robert R.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Empey, Philip E.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Callaway, Clifton W.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4°C saline infusions and 4°C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37°C saline infusions and 37°C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4°C saline + magnesium and 4°C saline infusions were 35.4 ± 0.4 and 35.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1′-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4°C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37°C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5°C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted. PMID:20164112

  5. Characteristics of oesophageal bolus transport in patients with mild oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Gerson R; Winograd, Ron; Lemme, Eponina M; Lammert, Frank; Silny, Jiri; Matern, Siegfried; Nguyen, Huan N

    2005-03-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently have oesophageal motility disturbance. However, detailed data about bolus transport characteristics in these patients are still lacking. In the present study the new technology of concurrent impedance manometry was applied for characterization of oesophageal motor function in patients with mild GORD. Oesophageal motility testing was performed in 25 patients with mild GORD (group 1) as compared to 25 healthy subjects (group 2) employing the technique of concurrent impedancometry and manometry. Oesophageal motility as well as patterns and parameters of bolus transport after the swallowing of saline or yogurt were analysed. According to manometry the velocity of the contraction wave was similar in both groups. Mid-distal contraction amplitude in group 1 was still in the normal range but significantly lower than in group 2 (57.4+/-4.5 mmHg vs 91.4+/-7.5 mmHg for saline, and 47+/-4.1 vs 80.7+/-9.4 mmHg for yogurt). According to impedance measurements, bolus transport was significantly slower (3.6+/-0.1 vs 4.0+/-0.1 cm/s for saline and 3.0+/-0.1 vs 3.2+/-0.1 cm/s for yogurt), and post-deglutitive impedance was significantly lower in group 1: 2110 omega+/-116 omega versus 2542 omega+/-152 omega (P<0.01) with saline and 1862 omega+/-108 omega versus 2348 omega+/-148 omega with yogurt (P<0.01). GORD patients showed several pathological bolus transport patterns, which were not observed in healthy subjects. Gastroesophageal liquid reflux was observed between the swallows. In patients with mild GORD concurrent impedancometry and manometry is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of minor oesophageal dysmotility. Several pathological features have been characterized including delayed bolus transport, impaired propulsive volume clearance, pathological transport patterns and pathological reflux patterns.

  6. Detection of visuoperceptual deficits in preclinical and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alegret, Montse; Boada-Rovira, Mercè; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Espinosa, Ana; Hernández, Isabel; Modinos, Gemma; Rosende-Roca, Maitee; Mauleón, Ana; Becker, James T; Tárraga, Lluís

    2009-10-01

    Exhaustive neuropsychological assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects frequently identifies cognitive deficits other than memory. However, visuoperception has rarely been investigated in MCI. The 15-Objects Test (15-OT), a visual discrimination task based on the Poppelreuter Test, consists of 15 overlapping objects. Poppelreuter-type tests are frequently used to detect visual agnosia. However, more complex tests, such as the 15-OT, are required to detect visuoperceptual signs in those patients who perform correctly on simple tests. The aim of the present study was to investigate visuoperceptual deficits in MCI patients and to assess the usefulness of the 15-OT to discriminate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and MCI patients from controls. The 15-OT, and a neuropsychological battery included in the diagnostic assessment, was administered to 44 healthy controls, 44 MCI patients, and 44 mild AD patients. Performance on the 15-OT was significantly different between groups. MCI scored between AD and controls. When MCI and AD patients had relatively normal performance on simple tests (Poppelreuter), increased significant abnormalities were found by a more difficult visuoperceptual test (15-OT). Regression analyses showed that the 15-OT was a significant predictor of group membership, but the Poppelreuter Test did not significantly contribute to the models. Visuoperceptual processing is impaired early in the clinical course of AD. The 15-OT allows detection of visuoperceptual deficits in the preclinical and mild AD stages, when classical tests are still unable to detect subtle deficits. So, its inclusion in neuropsychological batteries that are nowadays used in the clinical practice would allow increasing their diagnostic potential.

  7. Active cutaneous vasodilation in resting humans during mild heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Lee, Kichang; Mack, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    The role of skin temperature in reflex control of the active cutaneous vasodilator system was examined in six subjects during mild graded heat stress imposed by perfusing water at 34, 36, 38, and 40 degrees C through a tube-lined garment. Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) was recorded from the peroneal nerve with microneurography. While monitoring esophageal, mean skin, and local skin temperatures, we recorded skin blood flow at bretylium-treated and untreated skin sites by using laser-Doppler velocimetry and local sweat rate by using capacitance hygrometry on the dorsal foot. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated by dividing skin blood flow by mean arterial pressure. Mild heat stress increased mean skin temperature by 0.2 or 0.3 degrees C every stage, but esophageal and local skin temperature did not change during the first three stages. CVC at the bretylium tosylate-treated site (CVC(BT)) and sweat expulsion number increased at 38 and 40 degrees C compared with 34 degrees C (P < 0.05); however, CVC at the untreated site did not change. SSNA increased at 40 degrees C (P < 0.05, different from 34 degrees C). However, SSNA burst amplitude increased (P < 0.05), whereas SSNA burst duration decreased (P < 0.05), at the same time as we observed the increase in CVC(BT) and sweat expulsion number. These data support the hypothesis that the active vasodilator system is activated by changes in mean skin temperature, even at normal core temperature, and illustrate the intricate competition between active vasodilator and the vasoconstrictor system for control of skin blood flow during mild heat stress.

  8. Enforced mouth breathing decreases lung function in mild asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Hallani, Mervat; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C

    2008-06-01

    Nasal breathing provides a protective influence against exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesized that enforced oral breathing in resting mild asthmatic subjects may lead to a reduction in lung function. Asymptomatic resting mild asthmatic volunteers (n = 8) were instructed to breathe either nasally only (N; tape over lips) or orally only (O; nose clip) for 1 h each, on separate days. Lung function (% predicted FEV(1)) was measured using standard spirometry at baseline and every 10 min for 1 h. 'Difficulty in breathing' was rated using a Borg scale at the conclusion of the N and O periods. Baseline FEV(1) on the N (101.2 +/- 3.8% predicted) and O (102.7 +/- 3.9% predicted) days was not significantly different (P > 0.3). At 60 min, FEV(1) on the O day (96.5 +/- 4.1% predicted) was significantly less than on the N day (101.0 +/- 3.5% predicted; P < 0.009). On the N day, FEV(1) did not change with time (P > 0.3), whereas on the O day, FEV(1) fell progressively (slope = -0.06 +/- 0.01% FEV(1)/min, P < 0.0001; linear mixed effects modelling). Three subjects experienced coughing/wheezing at the end of the O day but none experienced symptoms at the end of the N day. Subjects perceived more 'difficulty breathing in' at the end of the O day (1.5 +/- 0.4 arbitrary units) than on the N day (0.4 +/- 0.3 arbitrary unit; P < 0.05). Enforced oral breathing causes a decrease in lung function in mild asthmatic subjects at rest, initiating asthma symptoms in some. Oral breathing may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute asthma exacerbations.

  9. Mild hypothermia alters midazolam pharmacokinetics in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A; Bies, Robert R; Rittenberger, Jon C; Empey, Philip E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Callaway, Clifton W; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2010-05-01

    The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4 degrees C saline infusions and 4 degrees C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37 degrees C saline infusions and 37 degrees C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium and 4 degrees C saline infusions were 35.4 +/- 0.4 and 35.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1'-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37 degrees C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5 degrees C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted.

  10. Induced mild hypothermia in post-cardiopulmonary bypass vasoplegia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Singh, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Pant, Kailash Chandra

    2009-01-01

    The state of vasoplegia in immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass period is characterized by severe hypotension, supranormal cardiac output, low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and resistance to vasoconstrictors. We could successfully use induced mild hypothermia to increase SVR, and could avoid very high doses of nor-epinephrine (>0.3 mcg/kg/min) in the background of severe pulmonary hypertension (systolic pulmonary pressure> 90 mmHg). Its effects such as decreased oxygen demand, positive inotropy and better right ventricle performance probably helped to improve oxygenation in presence of pulmonary oedema.

  11. Ethical Implications of the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Riedmüller, Rita; Müller, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental disease with a high mortality rate and severe social consequences. Due to insufficient knowledge about its etiopathogenesis, curative treatments are not available. One of the most promising new research concepts is the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia, developed mainly by Karl Bechter and Norbert Müller. According to this hypothesis, a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients suffer from a mild, but chronic, form of encephalitis with markedly different etiologies ranging from viral infections, traumas to autoimmune diseases. This inflammatory process is thought to occur in the beginning or during the course of the disease. In this article, we investigate the consequences of the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia for the scientific community, and evaluate these consequences ethically. The mild encephalitis hypothesis implies that schizophrenia would no longer be considered an incurable psychiatric disorder. Instead, it would be considered a chronic, but treatable, neurological disease. This paradigm shift would doubtlessly have significant consequences: (1) major reforms would be necessary in the theoretical conceptualization of schizophrenia, which would challenge the psychiatric diagnostic systems, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 and ICD-10. (2) Psychotic patients should be treated in interdisciplinary teams, optimally in neuropsychiatric units; additionally, specialists for endocrinology, diabetology, and cardiology should be consulted for the frequently occuring somatic comorbidities. (3) Current diagnostic procedures and (4) therapies would have to be modified significantly. (5) There might be repercussions for the pharmaceutical industry as well: first, because old drugs with expired patent protection could partly replace expensive drugs and, second, because there would be a demand for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. (6) Legal evaluation of

  12. Behavioral and Histopathological Alterations Resulting from Mild Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Zhao, Jing; Bockhorst, Kurt; Perez, Alec; Moore, Anthony N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of people who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have an injury that can be classified as mild (often referred to as concussion). Although head CT scans for most subjects who have sustained a mild TBI (mTBI) are negative, these persons may still suffer from neurocognitive and neurobehavioral deficits. In order to expedite pre-clinical research and develop therapies, there is a need for well-characterized animal models of mTBI that reflect the neurological, neurocognitive, and pathological changes seen in human patients. In the present study, we examined the motor, cognitive, and histopathological changes resulting from 1.0 and 1.5 atmosphere (atm) overpressure fluid percussion injury (FPI). Both 1.0 and 1.5 atm FPI injury caused transient suppression of acute neurological functions, but did not result in visible brain contusion. Animals injured with 1.0 atm FPI did not show significant motor, vestibulomotor, or learning and memory deficits. In contrast, 1.5 atm injury caused transient motor disturbances, and resulted in a significant impairment of spatial learning and short-term memory. In addition, 1.5 atm FPI caused a marked reduction in cerebral perfusion at the site of injury that lasted for several hours. Consistent with previous studies, 1.5 atm FPI did not cause visible neuronal loss in the hippocampus or in the neocortex. However, a robust inflammatory response (as indicated by enhanced GFAP and Iba1 immunoreactivity) in the corpus callosum and the thalamus was observed. Examination of fractional anisotropy color maps after diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a significant decrease of FA values in the cingulum, an area found to have increased silver impregnation, suggesting axonal injury. Increased silver impregnation was also observed in the corpus callosum, and internal and external capsules. These findings are consistent with the deficits and pathologies associated with mild TBI in humans, and support the use of mild FPI as

  13. Emollient for maintenance therapy after topical corticotherapy in mild psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Seité, S; Khemis, A; Rougier, A; Ortonne, J P

    2009-12-01

    Emollients or moisturizers can act as an important adjunctive therapy of topical treatment in psoriatic patients. However, the interest of emollients has never been clearly demonstrated; i.e. are they able to improve topical treatment efficacy and/or maintain continuous remission of the disease? The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an emollient on patients with mild plaque psoriasis during and after standard local corticosteroid therapy. Results showed that the use of an emollient can limit relapses after the end of corticotherapy, and maintain the improvement obtained after 1 month corticotherapy at clinical level (physician global assessment) and skin dryness.

  14. [Mild dementia and driving ability. Part 1: Fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Wolter, D K

    2014-04-01

    Physiological changes, but most of all diseases, affect driving ability in old age, whereby cognitive and mental performance plays an important part. Impaired health and feeling of unease while driving are the main reasons for driving cessation in the elderly. The causes of crashes and crash development show typical features compared to younger drivers. In the assessment of accident frequency and crash risk, sophisticated analyses are necessary. A person with moderate to severe dementia is certainly no longer fit to drive, whereas driving ability may be maintained in mild dementia for some time. In part 2, comprehensive information on the practice of assessment and judgement of driving ability is provided.

  15. Mild oxidative stress is beneficial for sperm telomere length maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Swetasmita; Kumar, Rajeev; Malhotra, Neena; Singh, Neeta; Dada, Rima

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate telomere length in sperm DNA and its correlation with oxidative stress (normal, mild, severe). METHODS: The study included infertile men (n = 112) and age matched fertile controls (n = 102). The average telomere length from the sperm DNA was measured using a quantitative real time PCR based assay. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-Isoprostane (8-IP) levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: Average sperm telomere length in infertile men and controls was 0.609 ± 0.15 and 0.789 ± 0.060, respectively (P < 0.0001). Seminal ROS levels in infertile was higher [66.61 ± 28.32 relative light units (RLU)/s/million sperm] than in controls (14.04 ± 10.67 RLU/s/million sperm) (P < 0.0001). The 8-IP level in infertile men was significantly higher (421.55 ± 131.29 pg/mL) than in controls (275.94 ± 48.13 pg/mL) (P < 0.001). When correlated to oxidative stress, in normal range of oxidative stress (ROS, 0-21.3 RLU/s/million sperm) the average telomere length in cases was 0.663 ± 0.14, in mild oxidative stress (ROS, 21.3-35 RLU/s/million sperm) it was elevated (0.684 ± 0.12) and in severe oxidative stress (ROS > 35 RLU/s/million sperm) average telomere length was decreased to 0.595 ± 0.15. CONCLUSION: Mild oxidative stress results in lengthening of telomere length, but severe oxidative stress results in shorter telomeres. Although telomere maintenance is a complex trait, the study shows that mild oxidative stress is beneficial in telomere length maintenance and thus a delicate balance needs to be established to maximize the beneficial effects of free radicals and prevent harmful effects of supra physiological levels. Detailed molecular evaluation of telomere structure, its correlation with oxidative stress would aid in elucidating the cause of accelerated telomere length attrition. PMID:27376021

  16. Cognitive bibliotherapy for mild and moderate adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, J; Scogin, F; McKendree-Smith, N; Lyman, R D

    1998-08-01

    The efficacy of cognitive bibliotherapy for adolescents experiencing mild and moderate depressive symptomatology was examined with a group of 22 community-dwelling adolescents. Cognitive bibliotherapy was determined to be superior to a delayed-treatment control condition. The treatment produced both statistically and clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. A significant decrease in dysfunctional thoughts, but not in negative automatic thoughts, was found after treatment. These results contribute to converging evidence on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments for adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms.

  17. [Current approaches to management of patients with mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, V V; Gromova, D O

    2017-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. The prevalence of MCI among elderly people is 12-17% but the risk of progression of cognitive impairment and development of dementia during 5 years is up to 70%. Cerebral vascular diseases and initial stages of neurodegenerative processes are the cause of MCI. Clinical characteristics of MCI depend on the main etiological factor. To decrease the severity of symptoms and prevent the progression of cognitive impairment in MCI patients, pharmacotherapy and non-medication methods, including diet optimization, stimulation of mental and physical activity, are used. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic therapy is most prevalent among pharmacological methods.

  18. Destination Memory in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Le Gall, Didier; Allain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess their destination memory, sixteen patients with probable mild Alzheimer Disease (AD), sixteen older adults and 16 young adults were asked to tell facts to pictures. On a subsequent task, they were asked to remember whether they had previously told that fact to that face or not. AD patients showed poorer destination recall than the older adults, and the older adults showed poorer destination recall than the young adults. Our results suggest that destination memory is highly impaired in AD. PMID:22713427

  19. Agonistic behavior and unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Prasol, Daniel J; Belzung, Catherine; Crusio, Wim E

    2003-09-01

    A significant proportion of patients suffering from major clinical depression exhibit sudden bursts of anger often described as "panic attacks without anxiety or fear" or "irritability." We investigated aggressive behavior in mice from four different inbred strains subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Our results show that UCMS affects self-grooming behavior, as evaluated by the state of an animal's fur, with severity of symptoms differing according to genetic background. Furthermore, UCMS increased aggression both in a resident-intruder test and between cage-mates. UCMS is therefore a valuable model of the problematic aggressive behavior seen in depressive patients.

  20. Mild Form of Treacher Collins Syndrome Imitating Juvenile Otosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeleník, Karol; Komínek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an inherited developmental disorder. More than 40% of individuals with TCS have conductive hearing loss attributed to external and middle ear anomalies. Mild cases of TCS often pass undiagnosed at birth or early childhood. The disease may be manifested as conductive hearing loss in teenagers and may resemble juvenile otosclerosis. Patients could suffer from slight facial variabilities including retrognathia (as in our case) and others, which point out to a possible middle ear anomaly. Surgical corrections of middle ear anomalies including TCS generally lead to poorer outcomes comparing with juvenile otosclerosis, which should be discussed with parents during preoperative counselling. PMID:22953143

  1. CSF cortisol in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Popp, Julius; Schaper, Karsten; Kölsch, Heike; Cvetanovska, Gabriela; Rommel, Fatima; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Dodel, Richard; Wüllner, Ullrich; Jessen, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Hypercortisolaemia occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be involved in the AD related neurodegenerative process. In order to determine whether brain structures are exposed to high cortisol concentrations early in AD, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol in 66 subjects with AD, 33 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 34 control subjects. CSF cortisol concentrations were higher in AD subjects compared to controls (p<0.001) and to MCI subjects (p=0.002). There was no significant increase of cortisol in MCI subjects compared with controls suggesting that the increase of CSF cortisol is not an early event in the course of AD.

  2. An update on topical therapies for mild-moderate psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapies are the mainstream treatment of psoriasis because most patients have mild disease. First-line treatments are vitamin D derivatives and corticosteroids. These treatments are usually given in combination schedules. For topical treatments the selection of the most appropriate vehicle is of major importance, thus improving adherence to the treatment, which frequently is impaired by the complexities of topical therapeutic choices. Evidence for efficacy and safety of topical treatments is readily available for vitamin D treatments and short-term treatment with corticosteroids. However, the scientific evidence for longer-term treatments is limited. Multiple new small molecules are in various stages of development and are reviewed.

  3. Physicians' preference for controller medication in mild persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Bakirtas, Arzu; Kutlu, Ali; Baccioglu, Ayse; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Bavbek, Sevim; Kalayci, Omer

    2017-10-01

    Although the asthma guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids(ICS) or leukotriene receptor antagonists-(LTRAs) for the treatment of mild persistent asthma, factors governing the physicians' preference are unknown. We aimed to investigate the preference of physicians for the controller medication and the factors governing their choice. A self-administered questionnaire composed of 16 questions that aimed to determine the preference of the physicians for the first choice controller medication in mild persistent asthma and physician and patient related factors that may be associated with this selection was e-mailed to the members of the Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and distributed to participants in the 21st congress. Of the 670 questionnaires, there were 51% participants and 336 of them were complete enough to be included in the analysis. Low dose ICS was preferred as the first choice controller medication for mild persistent asthma by 84.5% of the physicians. The reasons for physicians' preference were different for ICS and LTRA. In the logistic regression analysis, use of asthma guidelines (OR:3.5, 95%CI:1.3-9.3, p = 0.01), alignment in guidelines (OR:2.9, 95%CI:1.4-5.8, p = 0.002) and the opinion that it is a more effective (OR:2.3, 95%CI:1.1-4.8, p = 0.02) were independently associated with ICS preference. Being a pediatrician (OR:5.4, 95%CI: 2.7-10.5, p < 0.001) and the opinion that it has better patient compliance (OR:4.4, 95%CI: 1.6-12.0, p = 0.004) were independently associated with LTRA preference. Surveyed Turkish physicians, the majority of whom were specialists, preferred ICS over LTRA as controller medication in mild persistent asthma. Asthma guidelines, training background (pediatrician versus not) and perceived efficacy and patient compliance appeared to influence their preferences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss and Mild Vasculopathy in Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr)-Deficient Mice: A Model of Mild Hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Markand, Shanu; Saul, Alan; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Martin, Pamela; Rozen, Rima; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2015-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) is a key enzyme in homocysteine-methionine metabolism. We investigated Mthfr expression in retina and asked whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia, due to Mthfr deficiency, alters retinal neurovascular structure and function. Expression of Mthfr was investigated at the gene and protein level using quantitative (q) RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/- mice were subjected to comprehensive evaluation using ERG, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), HPLC, and morphometric and IHC analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at 8 to 24 weeks. Gene and protein analyses disclosed widespread retinal expression of Mthfr. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed a significant decrease in positive scotopic threshold response in retinas of Mthfr+/- mice at 24 weeks. Fundus examination in mice from both groups was normal; FA revealed areas of focal vascular leakage in 20% of Mthfr+/- mice at 12 to 16 weeks and 60% by 24 weeks. The SD-OCT revealed a significant decrease in nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/- compared to Mthfr+/+ mice. There was a 2-fold elevation in retinal hcy at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/- mice by HPLC and IHC. Morphometric analysis revealed an approximately 20% reduction in cells in the ganglion cell layer of Mthfr+/- mice at 24 weeks. The IHC indicated significantly increased GFAP labeling suggestive of Müller cell activation. Mildly hyperhomocysteinemic Mthfr+/- mice demonstrate reduced ganglion cell function, thinner NFL, and mild vasculopathy by 24 weeks. The retinal phenotype is similar to that of hyperhomocysteinemic mice with deficiency of cystathionine-β-synthase (Cbs) reported earlier. The data support the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia may be causative in certain retinal neurovasculopathies.

  5. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss and Mild Vasculopathy in Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr)-Deficient Mice: A Model of Mild Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Markand, Shanu; Saul, Alan; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Martin, Pamela; Rozen, Rima; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) is a key enzyme in homocysteine-methionine metabolism. We investigated Mthfr expression in retina and asked whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia, due to Mthfr deficiency, alters retinal neurovascular structure and function. Methods. Expression of Mthfr was investigated at the gene and protein level using quantitative (q) RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice were subjected to comprehensive evaluation using ERG, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), HPLC, and morphometric and IHC analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at 8 to 24 weeks. Results. Gene and protein analyses disclosed widespread retinal expression of Mthfr. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed a significant decrease in positive scotopic threshold response in retinas of Mthfr+/− mice at 24 weeks. Fundus examination in mice from both groups was normal; FA revealed areas of focal vascular leakage in 20% of Mthfr+/− mice at 12 to 16 weeks and 60% by 24 weeks. The SD-OCT revealed a significant decrease in nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/− compared to Mthfr+/+ mice. There was a 2-fold elevation in retinal hcy at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/− mice by HPLC and IHC. Morphometric analysis revealed an approximately 20% reduction in cells in the ganglion cell layer of Mthfr+/− mice at 24 weeks. The IHC indicated significantly increased GFAP labeling suggestive of Müller cell activation. Conclusions. Mildly hyperhomocysteinemic Mthfr+/− mice demonstrate reduced ganglion cell function, thinner NFL, and mild vasculopathy by 24 weeks. The retinal phenotype is similar to that of hyperhomocysteinemic mice with deficiency of cystathionine-β-synthase (Cbs) reported earlier. The data support the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia may be causative in certain retinal neurovasculopathies. PMID:25766590

  6. Evidence for the Therapeutic Efficacy of Either Mild Hypothermia or Oxygen Radical Scavengers after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Takashi; Wei, Enoch P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive brain injury, particularly that occurring with sporting-related injuries, has recently garnered increased attention in both the clinical and public settings. In the laboratory, we have demonstrated the adverse axonal and vascular consequences of repetitive brain injury and have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia and/or FK506 exerted protective effects after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when administered within a specific time frame, suggesting a range of therapeutic modalities to prevent a dramatic exacerbation. In this communication, we revisit the utility of targeted therapeutic intervention to seek the minimal level of hypothermia needed to achieve protection while probing the role of oxygen radicals and their therapeutic targeting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repetitive mTBI by impact acceleration injury. Mild hypothermia (35°C, group 2), superoxide dismutase (group 3), and Tempol (group 4) were employed as therapeutic interventions administered 1 h after the repetitive mTBI. To assess vascular function, cerebral vascular reactivity to acetylcholine was evaluated 3 and 4 h after the repetitive mTBI, whereas to detect the burden of axonal damage, amyloid precursor protein (APP) density in the medullospinal junction was measured. Whereas complete impairment of vascular reactivity was observed in group 1 (without intervention), significant preservation of vascular reactivity was found in the other groups. Similarly, whereas remarkable increase in the APP-positive axon was observed in group 1, there were no significant increases in the other groups. Collectively, these findings indicate that even mild hypothermia or the blunting free radical damage, even when performed in a delayed period, is protective in repetitive mTBI. PMID:24341607

  7. Numerical and experimental investigation of a mild combustion burner

    SciTech Connect

    Galletti, Chiara; Parente, Alessandro; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2007-12-15

    An industrial burner operating in the MILD combustion regime through internal recirculation of exhaust gases has been characterized numerically. To develop a self-sufficient numerical model of the burner, two subroutines are coupled to the CFD solver to model the air preheater section and heat losses from the burner through radiation. The resulting model is validated against experimental data on species concentration and temperature. A 3-dimensional CFD model of the burner is compared to an axisymmetric model, which allows considerable computational saving, but neglects some important burner features such as the presence of recirculation windows. Errors associated with the axisymmetric model are evaluated and discussed, as well as possible simplified procedures for engineering purposes. Modifications of the burner geometry are investigated numerically and suggested in order to enhance its performances. Such modifications are aimed at improving exhaust gases recirculation which is driven by the inlet air jet momentum. The burner is found to produce only 30 ppm{sub v} of NO when operating in MILD combustion mode. For the same air preheating the NO emissions would be of approximately 1000 ppm{sub v} in flame combustion mode. It is also shown that the burner ensures more homogeneous temperature distribution in the outer surfaces with respect to flame operation, and this is attractive for burners used in furnaces devoted to materials' thermal treatment processes. The effect of air excess on the combustion regime is also discussed. (author)

  8. Mild body cooling impairs attention via distraction from skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephen S; Westwood, David A; Knox, Matthew K

    2007-02-01

    Many contemporary workers are routinely exposed to mild cold stress, which may compromise mental function and lead to accidents. A study investigated the effect of mild body cooling of 1.0 degree C rectal temperature (Tre) on vigilance (i.e. sustained attention) and the orienting of spatial attention (i.e. spatially selective processing of visual information). Vigilance and spatial attention tests were administered to 14 healthy males and six females at four stages (pre-immersion, deltaTre = 0, -0.5 and - 1.0 degree C ) of a gradual, head-out immersion cooling session (18-25 deltaC water), and in four time-matched stages of a contrast session, in which participants sat in an empty tub and no cooling took place. In the spatial attention test, target discrimination times were similar for all stages of the contrast session, but increased significantly in the cooling phase upon immersion (deltaTre = 0 degrees C), with no further increases at deltaTre = -0.5 and - 1.0 degree C. Despite global response slowing, cooling did not affect the normal pattern of spatial orienting. In the vigilance test, the variability of detection time was adversely affected in the cooling but not the contrast trials: variability increased at immersion but did not increase further with additional cooling. These findings suggest that attentional impairments are more closely linked to the distracting effects of cold skin temperature than decreases in body core temperature.

  9. Perspectives on depression, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Steffens, David C; Otey, Emeline; Alexopoulos, George S; Butters, Meryl A; Cuthbert, Bruce; Ganguli, Mary; Geda, Yonas E; Hendrie, Hugh C; Krishnan, Ranga R; Kumar, Anand; Lopez, Oscar L; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Mast, Benjamin T; Morris, John C; Norton, Maria C; Peavy, Guerry M; Petersen, Ronald C; Reynolds, Charles F; Salloway, Stephen; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Yesavage, Jerome

    2006-02-01

    The public health implications of depression and cognitive impairment in late life are enormous. Cognitive impairment and late-life depression are associated with increased risk for subsequent dementia; however, investigations of these phenomena appear to be proceeding along separate tracks. OBJECTIVES AND DATA SOURCE: The National Institute of Mental Health organized the conference "Perspectives on Depression, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Cognitive Decline" to consider how the varied perspectives might be better integrated to examine the associations among depression, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline and to illuminate the common or distinct mechanisms involved in these associations. The following 2 broad questions were addressed: (1) What gaps in our knowledge have the greatest public health significance? (2) Can we more efficiently use our research dollars and participant resources to fill these gaps? Meeting participants included grantees from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Aging and program staff from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. One of the most important recommendations to emerge from the meeting discussions is for increased collaboration among clinical and epidemiological investigators whose work focuses in the area of depression with those working primarily in the area of memory disorders. Directions for future research were identified.

  10. Mild cognitive impairment: a subset of minor neurocognitive disorder?

    PubMed

    Geda, Yonas E; Nedelska, Zuzana

    2012-10-01

    The field of aging and dementia is increasingly preoccupied with identification of the asymptomatic phenotype of Alzheimer disease (AD). A quick glance at historical landmarks in the field indicates that the agenda and priorities of the field have evolved over time. The initial focus of research was dementia. In the late 1980s and 1990s, dementia researchers reported that some elderly persons are neither demented nor cognitively normal. Experts coined various terms to describe the gray zone between normal cognitive aging and dementia, including mild cognitive impairment. Advances made in epidemiologic, neuroimaging, and biomarkers research emboldened the field to seriously pursue the avenue of identifying asymptomatic AD. Accurate "diagnosis" of the phenotype has also evolved over time. For example, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Task Force is contemplating to use the terms major and minor neurocognitive disorders. The six papers published in this edition of the journal pertain to mild cognitive impairment, which is envisaged to become a subset of minor neurocognitive disorders. These six studies have three points in common: 1) All of them are observational studies; 2) they have generated useful hypotheses or made important observations without necessarily relying on expensive biomarkers; and 3) Based on the new National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association guidelines, all the studies addressed the symptomatic phase of AD. Questionnaire-based observational studies will continue to be useful until such a time that validated biomarkers, be it chemical or neuroimaging, become widely available and reasonably affordable.

  11. Impaired Object Manipulation in Mildly Involved Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vennila; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Jaric, Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated hand function in mildly involved Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients (N = 16; EDSS 1−5, 9-hole peg test 14−32 s) during static and dynamic manipulation tasks using an instrumented device. When compared with healthy controls (N = 16), the patients revealed impaired task performance regarding their ability to exert prescribed patterns of load force (L; force acting tangentially at the digits-object surface). Regarding the coordination of grip force (G; normal component) and L, the data only revealed elevated G/L ratio, although both the G and L coupling (maximum correlation coefficients and the time lags between them), and G modulation (gain and offset of G with respect to L) remained comparable in the two groups. Finally, most of the data suggested no MS-specific effects of switching from uni- to bimanual tasks, from available visual feedback to deprived feedback conditions. We conclude that the deterioration in the ability for precise control of external forces and overgripping could precede the decoupling of G and L and decreased G modulation in early phases of the disease. The results also suggest that the applied methodology could be sensitive enough to detect mild levels of impairment of hand function in MS and, possibly, other neurological diseases. PMID:18209246

  12. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Woittiez, A J; Wenting, G J; van den Meiracker, A H; Ritsema van Eck, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Zantvoort, F A; Schalekamp, M A

    1986-02-01

    Ketanserin, an antagonist highly selective for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 2 (S2) receptors, was given as monotherapy in a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. to 24 subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its effects were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. The effect on blood pressure in 18 subjects was monitored by 24-hour ambulatory intra-arterial measurements. Systolic and diastolic intra-arterial pressures were significantly lowered by ketanserin both during the day and at night, whereas heart rate was unchanged. Cuff pressure readings (triplicate measurements) with the London School of Hygiene sphygmomanometer and an automatic device (12 measurements in 1 hour) in the outpatient clinic also showed a significant effect on both supine and standing pressures. No postural hypotension was noted. Ketanserin had no effect on endogenous creatinine clearance, serum cholesterol levels, and the plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone. The only side effect that was significantly more common with ketanserin than with placebo treatment was an increase in body weight. Ketanserin may have a place in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

  13. Corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.M.; Gupta, A.

    2000-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) solutions was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The variation in corrosion rate of mild steel with concentrations of CH{sub 3}COOH, evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, showed marked resemblance. From both techniques, the maximum corrosion rate was observed for 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution at all three experimental temperatures (25, 35, and 45 C). Anodic polarization curves showed active-passive behavior at each concentration, except at 80% CH{sub 3}COOH. Critical current density (i{sub c}) passive current density (I{sub n}), primary passivation potential (E{sub pp}), and potential for passivity (E{sub p}) had their highest values in 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution. With an increase in temperature, while the anodic polarization curves shifted toward higher current density region at each concentration, the passive region became progressively less distinguishable. With the addition of sodium acetate (NaCOOCH{sub 3}) as a supporting electrolyte, the passive range was enlarged substantially. However, the transpassive region commenced at more or less the same potential. Cathodic polarization curves were almost identical irrespective of the concentration of CH{sub 3}COOH or temperature.

  14. Cortical asymmetries in normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Jong Weon; Kim, Geon Ha; Roh, Jee Hoon; Kim, Min-Jeong; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Seun; Lee, Jong-Min; Heilman, Kenneth M; Na, Duk L

    2012-09-01

    There are functional and structural neocortical hemispheric asymmetries in people with normal cognition. These asymmetries may be altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) because there is a loss of neuronal connectivity in the heteromodal cortex. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mild AD, and moderate to severe AD have progressive reductions in thickness asymmetries of the heteromodal neocortex. Right-handed elderly volunteers including normal cognition (NC), aMCI, and AD underwent 3-D volume imaging for cortical thickness. Although the cortical asymmetry pattern observed in normal cognition brains was generally maintained in aMCI and AD, there was a progressive decrease in the degree of asymmetry, especially in the inferior parietal lobule. A reduction of neocortical asymmetries may be a characteristic sign that occurs in patients with AD. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this loss is specific to AD and if measurements of asymmetry can be used as diagnostic markers and for monitoring disease progression.

  15. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Verd, Sergio; de Sotto, Diego; Fernández, Consuelo; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45). Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF. PMID:27869777

  16. [Indications for computed tomography in patients with mild head injuries].

    PubMed

    Boran, Burak O; Barut, Nehir; Akgün, Cem; Celikoğlu, Erhan; Bozbuğa, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    To identify clinical parameters that may be associated with intracranial lesions in patients with mild head injuries, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 15 but without any focal neurological deficit. All head trauma patients admitted to the emergency room within 3 months with GCS scores of 15 (n = 371) were evaluated. Patients with focal neurological deficits, penetrating or multiple traumas, gun shot wounds were not evaluated. Mean age of 222 male and 149 female patients was 22.4 years. Frequency of intracranial lesions detected in CT was higher in patients older than 60 years of age. A significant difference was not found between both genders. Detection rate of abnormalities was higher after motorway accidents. Loss of consciousness and post-traumatic fits were associated with higher rates of pathological sequelae. A significant difference was not found between patients with or without headache, nausea, and vomiting. Sensitivity and specificity of cranial x-ray were estimated to be 38.2% and 93.2% when compared with cranial CT respectively. The incidence of intracranial lesions in patients with mild head injuries, GCS scores of 15, younger than 60 years of age, and without any focal neurological deficits, loss of consciousness, post-traumatic fits, gun shot wound, and penetrating injury is 0.6%.

  17. Elevated Rates of Mild Cognitive Impairment in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Bondi, Mark W.; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Massman, Paul J.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    With the rising number of individuals in their 50s and 60s who are infected with HIV, concerns have emerged about possible increases in the rates of non-HIV-associated dementias. The current study examined the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older HIV-infected adults, since MCI is an intermediate state between typical cognitive aging and dementia that emerges in this age range. Participants included 75 adults with HIV disease aged 50 years and older who were on cART and had undetectable plasma viral loads and 80 demographically similar HIV seronegative comparison subjects. Participants completed a research neuropsychological evaluation that was used to classify MCI according to the comprehensive diagnostic scheme described by Bondi et al. (2014). HIV-infected persons were over seven times more likely to have an MCI designation (16%) than their seronegative counterparts (2.5%). Within the HIV+ cohort, MCI had minimal overlap with diagnoses of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment and was significantly associated with older age, lower Karnofsky Scale of Performance Scores, and mild difficulties performing instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs). HIV infection in older adults is associated with a notably elevated concurrent risk of MCI, which may increase the likelihood of developing non-HIV-associated dementias as this population ages further. PMID:26139019

  18. Obstructive lung disease in children with mild to severe BPD.

    PubMed

    Broström, Eva Berggren; Thunqvist, Per; Adenfelt, Gunilla; Borling, Elisabeth; Katz-Salamon, Miriam

    2010-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of respiratory insufficiency in children born very premature. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the severity of BPD on pulmonary morbidity at school age, as measured by conventional spirometry and impulse oscillometry. We also studied the association between changes in lung function and structural changes in the lungs of children with BPD via High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Finally we studied the prevalence of atopy associated with BPD. We studied 60 very low birth weight (VLBW) children, 28 with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who did not develop BPD ("preterm non-BPD") and 32 with RDS who developed BPD. The severity of BPD was graded as mild, moderate or severe. Follow-up at age 6-8 years consisted of spirometry, oscillometry, thoracic HRCT, allergy skin-prick test, blood samples and a questionnaire. All children with BPD showed some evidence of impaired lung function (more negative reactance, FEV1<80% predicted, greater reversibility), although less than half of these children were symptomatic. The majority of children with BPD (19/26) showed abnormalities on HRCT. There was no evidence that atopy was associated with BPD. Children with mild BPD exhibited similar impairments in respiratory mechanics and lung structure to those diagnosed with moderate BPD. The widespread involvement of the peripheral airways suggests that all children diagnosed with BPD are potentially at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease later in life. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost template for meaningful activity intervention for mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Bakas, Tamilyn; Haase, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and compare cost estimates for a pilot study of the Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity intervention for persons with mild cognitive impairment-caregiver dyads. The increasing complexity of the healthcare system and rising healthcare costs have forced nurse scientists to find ways to effectively improve healthcare quality and control cost, but no studies have examined costs for new programs that target persons with mild cognitive impairment-caregiver dyads. Pilot study data were used to develop a cost template and calculate the cost of implementing the Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity. Mean cost per dyad was estimated to be $1327.97 in the clinical setting, compared with $1069.06 if a telephone delivery mode had been used for 4 of the 6 face-to-face sessions. This difference was largely due to transportation-related expenses and staff cost. : Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity should be evaluated further with larger and more diverse samples as a technology-delivered health promotion program that could reduce costs.

  20. Visuomotor adaptability in older adults with mild cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Jeffrey; Lee, Chi-Mei; Neill, Rebecca; Bo, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule. However, participants demonstrated similar adaptability during the enhanced feedback schedule, regardless of their cognitive ability. Furthermore, individuals with lower MoCA scores showed larger after-effects in spatial control during the enhanced schedule compared to the regular schedule, whereas individuals with higher MoCA scores displayed the opposite pattern. Additional neuro-cognitive assessments revealed that spatial working memory and processing speed were positively related to motor adaptability during the regular scheduled but negatively related to adaptability during the enhanced schedule. We argue that individuals with mild cognitive decline employed different adaptation strategies when encountering enhanced visual feedback, suggesting older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may benefit from enhanced visual error feedback during sensorimotor adaptation.

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, JG.; Litvan, I.

    2012-01-01

    While Parkinson’s disease (PD) traditionally has been defined by its characteristic motor hallmarks, non-motor features such as cognitive impairment and dementia are increasingly recognized as part of PD. Mild cognitive impairment is common in non-demented PD patients, occurring in about 20-50%. Frequency estimates and clinical features of mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI), however, vary across studies due to methodological differences and lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Overall, PD-MCI patients exhibit nonamnestic deficits in cognitive domains such as executive function, attention, and visuospatial function; however, the cognitive phenotype of PD-MCI is heterogeneous with some patients demonstrating greater amnestic deficits. PD-MCI patients, particularly those with posterior cortical profiles, may be at high risk for developing dementia. Various biomarkers studied in PD-MCI including cerebrospinal fluid, genetic analyses, and neuroimaging suggest that there may be distinct PD-MCI profiles. Future studies using uniform PD-MCI diagnostic criteria and incorporating biomarkers and longitudinal follow-up of PD-MCI cohorts are needed to understand PD-MCI as a transitional state between normal cognition and dementia. PMID:22193376

  2. The potential for DHA to mitigate mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Julian E; Patel, Vimal

    2014-11-01

    Scientific knowledge of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) has grown in the last decade to a greater understanding of their mechanisms of action and their potential therapeutic effects. Omega-3 FAs have shown therapeutic potential with respect to hyperlipidemia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and mild cognitive impairment. Laboratory evidence and clinical interest have grown such that omega-3 FAs have now assumed a role in concussion management. This has coincided with recent research that has also helped to increase the scientific understanding of cerebral concussion; although concussion or mild traumatic brain injury was assumed to be a malfunctioning brain without anatomical damage, we now know that there is the potential for damage and dysfunction at the cellular and microstructural levels. Specifically, with concussion abnormal metabolism of glucose may occur and intracellular mitochondrial dysfunction can persist for several days. In this article, we discuss the role of omega-3 FAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, in concussion management. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Clinically mild tularemia associated with tick-borne Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, G P; Kornblatt, A N; Connors, C A; Patton, C; Carney, J; Hobbs, J; Kaufmann, A F

    1983-07-01

    Between May 9 and July 3, 1979, 12 cases of glandular or ulceroglandular tularemia occurred in residents of the Crow Indian Reservation in southcentral Montana; only 13 cases had been reported from this geographic area in the preceding 25 years. The illness was mild, characterized by fever and cervical or occipital adenopathy. Systemic symptoms were self-limited although residual lymphadenopathy was common. Francisella tularensis was isolated from ticks (Dermacentor variabilis), the suspected vector. The strains of F tularensis did not ferment glycerol and thus were identified as type B rather than the more virulent type A. None of 83 adults hospitalized in an urban area 50 miles from the reservation had agglutination titers of antibody to F tularensis of greater than or equal to 1:40 compared with eight of 77 patients at the reservation hospital (P less than 0.01). Mild tularemia in reservation residents may have gone unrecognized; similar illness due to type B F tularensis may occur elsewhere.

  4. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment with low myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Ogata, Takeshi; Haruta, Masayuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Tateno, Akihiko; Tateno, Fuyuki; Mouri, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We reported cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without the core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (dementia and spontaneous parkinsonism) with low uptake in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. Methods: During a 3-year period at a university clinic, we had 254 patients with memory complaints; 106 men, 148 women; mean age 72.5 years (48-95 years). In all patients we performed neurologic examination; memory tests including the MMSE, ADAScog, FAB and additional WMS-R; and imaging tests including brain MRI, SPECT and MIBG scintigraphy. Results: The criteria of amnestic MCI were fulfilled in 44 patients; and 13 of them (30%) showed low MIBG uptake. They had the following: uniformly elderly, with an equal sex ratio, have relatively slow progression, preserved general cognitive function (MMSE 24.8/30). In addition to memory impairment, they commonly showed low frontal function by FAB (12.5/18) and some had mild visual hallucination (5). Other than memory disorder, they had autonomic disorder (nocturia in 7, constipation in 2, postural hypotension in one), REM sleep behavioral disorder (in 3) and occipital hypoperfusion by SPECT (in 5). Conclusion: This cohort of multidomain amnestic MCI cases may present with early stage DLB because of the presence of low MIBG uptake. Clinically, they commonly have low FAB, and may have visual hallucination, autonomic and sleep disorders. PMID:23383388

  5. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression.

  6. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Kiderman, Alexander; Crawford, James; Murphy, Sara; Marshall, Kathryn; Pelusso, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications. PMID:26727256

  7. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (<5% cellulose loss). Corn stover appeared to be least resistant to breakdown by Na2CO3 and enzymatic hydrolysis. Our study indicated that mild sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mild forms of multi-infarct dementia: effectiveness of cerebrolysin].

    PubMed

    Vereshchagin, N V; Nekrasova, E M; Lebedeva, N V; Suslina, Z A; Solov'ev, O I; Piradov, M A; Altunina, M N

    1991-01-01

    The randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of cerebrolysin in a mild form of multi-infarct dementia was carried out. Sixty patients were divided in two equal groups differing significantly at the beginning of the study by none of the compared parameters. They received for 28 days daily drop intravenous doses of cerebrolysin (15 ml of the drug in 200 ml of a 0.85% NaCl solution: 10 ml in the morning and 5 ml in the evening) or placebo in the same amount of the solution. The control of the therapy effectiveness was instituted clinically (by means of a special scale), electroencephalographically, and using the psychological test of Arnold-Kohlmann and the test for response time. The study found a significant improvement of the memory (p-0.01), abstract thinking and time of reaction in the patients on cerebrolysin, confirmed also by the EEG-mapping. It is believed advisable to use the drug cerebrolysin in mild forms of multi-infarct dementia.

  9. Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The object of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using hydrogen/methane mixtures in a laboratory-scale experimental study. In the first year of the two- year program, char is being treated with mixtures of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at temperatures of 1100{degrees}C to 1550{degrees}F and pressures of 50 to 100 psig. The effects of temperature, pressure, residence time, gas velocity, and gas composition on sulfur removal and carbon gasification are being determined. The batch experiments are being performed in a nominal 2-inch-ID stainless-steel, batch, fluidized-bed reactor. The char to be desulfurized was produced by the IGT mild gasification process research unit (PRU) in a recently completed DOE/METC-sponsored technology development program. The parent coal was Illinois No. 6 from a preparation plant, and the char from the selected test contains 4.58 wt% sulfur. In the first quarter, we have obtained and prepared a char for the desulfurization tests. Ultimate and proximate analyses were performed on this char, and its pore size distribution and surface area were determined. Also this quarter, the fluidized-bed reactor system was constructed and equipped with high pressure mass flow controllers and a high pressure sintered metal filter to remove fines from the effluent gas stream.

  10. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Mariko; Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females) with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion) during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05). The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05).Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos. PMID:23836962

  11. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Mariko; Itakura, Hirotaka; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females) with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion) during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05). The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05).Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos.

  12. Role of mild cleansing in the management of patient skin.

    PubMed

    Subramanyan, Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Routine everyday care of skin is an essential part of optimal patient management. Common problems such as xerosis, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, acne, rosacea, and photodamage leave the skin vulnerable to external insults, partly as a result of varying levels of barrier dysfunction. Cosmetic surgery procedures also typically damage the stratum corneum (SC) and leave skin with a very weak barrier during recovery phase. Cleansing is an important aspect of any skin care, since it not only removes unwanted dirt, soil, and bacteria from skin, but also removes dead surface cells, preparing skin to better absorb topically applied drugs/medication. Care must be taken to minimize any further weakening of the SC barrier during cleansing. Cleansers based on mild synthetic surfactants and/or emollients that cause minimal barrier perturbation are ideal for these patients. The present paper is a brief review of four clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy and compatibility of either mild syndet bars or cleansers in patients with atopic dermatitis, acne, rosacea, or patients who had received chemical peels or Retin-A(R) (tretinoin) treatment for sustained photodamage.

  13. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  14. Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Long, Justin Alexander; Chemello, Jonathan; Van Koughnet, Samantha; Fernandez, Angelica; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties. This study tested the hypothesis that MB treatment reduces lesion volume and behavioral deficits in a rat model of mild TBI. In a randomized double-blinded design, animals received either MB (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) after TBI. Studies were performed on 0, 1, 2, 7, and 14 days following an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. MRI lesion was not apparent 1 h after TBI, became apparent 3 h after TBI, and peaked at 2 days for both groups. The MB-treated animals showed significantly smaller MRI lesion volume than the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. The MB-treated animals exhibited significantly improved scores on forelimb placement asymmetry and foot fault tests than did the vehicle-treated animals at all time points studied. Smaller numbers of dark-stained Nissl cells and Fluoro-Jade® positive cells were observed in the MB-treated group than in vehicle-treated animals 14 days post-TBI. In conclusion, MB treatment minimized lesion volume, behavioral deficits, and neuronal degeneration following mild TBI. MB is already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a number of indications, likely expediting future clinical trials in TBI. PMID:24479842

  15. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (∼50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3′UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ∼50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3′UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  16. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-04

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  17. Mild head injury--a positive approach to management.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, D W; Berry, E; Yates, D W

    1994-03-01

    It is estimated that 1.4 million patients each year attend Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments in the UK with a head injury. The vast majority are, in retrospect, diagnosed as a 'mild' injury. There is evidence to suggest that many develop short term morbidity and some long term problems. The incidence is unknown. Early recognition and treatment many hasten recovery. A national postal survey of A&E departments revealed a general unawareness for this morbidity. Written advice given to patients on discharge from the departments was exclusively concerned with the symptoms expected if serious complications developed. A description of the common symptoms of fatigue, poor memory and concentration were not given to the patients in a written format. Arrangements for follow up are, in the majority of hospitals, unstructured. We recommend a positive approach to the management and follow up of mild head injury. This should recognize the common problems experienced by these patients and cater for their needs. More interest and research is required into this aspect of head injury.

  18. Risk assessment of wandering behavior in mild dementia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Luther, S L; Volicer, L; Algase, D; Beattie, E; Brown, L M; Molinari, V; Moore, H; Joseph, I

    2016-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine the risk factors of wandering-related adverse consequences in community-dwelling persons with mild dementia. These adverse consequences include negative outcomes of wandering (falls, fractures, and injuries) and eloping behavior. We recruited 143 dyads of persons with mild dementia and their caregivers from a veteran's hospital and memory clinic in Florida. Wandering-related adverse consequences were measured using the Revised Algase Wandering Scale - Community Version. Variables such as personality (Big Five Inventory), behavioral response to stress, gait, and balance (Tinetti Gait and Balance), wayfinding ability (Wayfinding Effectiveness Scale), and neurocognitive abilities (attention, cognition, memory, language/verbal skills, and executive functioning) were also measured. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of these wandering-related adverse consequences. A total of 49% of the study participants had falls, fractures, and injuries due to wandering behavior, and 43.7% demonstrated eloping behaviors. Persistent walking (OR = 2.6) and poor gait (OR = 0.9) were significant predictors of negative outcomes of wandering, while persistent walking (OR = 13.2) and passivity (OR = 2.55) predicted eloping behavior. However, there were no correlations between wandering-related adverse consequences and participants' characteristics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and education), health status (Charlson comorbidity index), or neurocognitive abilities. Our results highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals so that effective interventions can be developed to reduce or prevent the adverse consequences of wandering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Afterglows of Mildly Relativistic Supernovae: Baryon Loaded Blastwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak

    2011-08-01

    Relativistic supernovae have been discovered until recently only through their association with long duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). As the ejecta mass is negligible in comparison to the swept up mass, the blastwaves of such explosions are well described by the Blandford-McKee (in the ultra relativistic regime) and Sedov-Taylor (in the non-relativistic regime) solutions during their afterglows. However, the recent discovery of the relativistic supernova SN 2009bb, without a detected GRB, has indicated the possibility of highly baryon loaded mildly relativistic outflows which remains in nearly free expansion phase during the radio afterglow. In this work, we consider the dynamics and emission from a massive, relativistic shell, launched by a Central Engine Driven EXplosion (CEDEX), decelerating adiabatically due to its collision with the pre-explosion circumstellar wind profile of the progenitor. We show that this model explains the observed radio evolution of the prototypical SN 2009bb and demonstrate that SN 2009bb had a highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflow.

  20. Hearing aids for mild to moderate hearing loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melanie A; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Chong, Lee Yee; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Barker, Fiona; Hoare, Derek J

    2017-09-25

    The main clinical intervention for mild to moderate hearing loss is the provision of hearing aids. These are routinely offered and fitted to those who seek help for hearing difficulties. By amplifying and improving access to sounds, and speech sounds in particular, the aim of hearing aid use is to reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss and improve participation in everyday life. To evaluate the effects of hearing aids for mild to moderate hearing loss in adults. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; the Cochrane Register of Studies Online; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 23 March 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of hearing aids compared to a passive or active control in adults with mild to moderate hearing loss. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcomes in this review were hearing-specific health-related quality of life and the adverse effect pain. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, listening ability and the adverse effect noise-induced hearing loss. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included five RCTs involving 825 participants. The studies were carried out in the USA and Europe, and were published between 1987 and 2017. Risk of bias across the studies varied. Most had low risk for selection, reporting and attrition bias, and a high risk for performance and detection bias because blinding was inadequate or absent.All participants had mild to moderate hearing loss. The average age across all five studies was between 69 and 83 years. The duration of the studies ranged between six weeks and six months.There was a large beneficial effect of hearing aids on hearing-specific health-related quality of life associated with participation in daily life as

  1. A simple rat model of mild traumatic brain injury: a device to reproduce anatomical and neurological changes of mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury typically involves temporary impairment of neurological function. Previous studies used water pressure or rotational injury for designing the device to make a rat a mild traumatic brain injury model. The objective of this study was to make a simple model of causing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. The device consisted of a free-fall impactor that was targeted onto the rat skull. The weight (175 g) was freely dropped 30 cm to rat’s skull bregma. We installed a safety device made of acrylic panel. To confirm a mild traumatic brain injury in 36 Sprague-Dawley rats, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain within 24 h after injury. We evaluated behavior and chemical changes in rats before and after mild traumatic brain injury. The brain MRI did not show high or low signal intensity in 34 rats. The mobility on grid floor was decreased after mild traumatic brain injury. The absolute number of foot-fault and foot-fault ratio were decreased after mild traumatic brain injury. However, the difference of the ratio was a less than absolute number of foot-fault. These results show that the device is capable of reproducing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. Our device can reduce the potential to cause brain hemorrhage and reflect the mechanism of real mild traumatic brain injury compared with existing methods and behaviors. This model can be useful in exploring physiology and management of mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:28070456

  2. A boy with mild mental retardation, mild sensorineural hearing loss and mild facial dysmorphism caused by a 19p13.2 deletion: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwemmle, Cornelia; Rost, Imma; Spranger, Stephanie; Jungheim, Michael; Ptok, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The investigation of patients with congenital anomalies and/or intellectual disability with modern genetic methods allows the recognition of an increasing number of cases with these chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we present a mildly mentally retarded boy with mild facial dysmorphism, language development delay, mild sensorineural hearing loss due to a deletion of 1,14 Mb on chromosome 19p 13.2. The deletion was de novo and familial history negative for this disorder. To our knowledge this is the first description of a patient with symptoms mentioned above associated with a 19p13.2-p13.2 deletion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mild anemia as a protective factor against pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Buzyan, L O

    2015-01-01

    State Medical University. Prospective observation was conducted. All pregnancy complications were registered, in particular, preeclampsia, placental insufficiency (violation of utero-placental blood flow), the presence and severity of anemia during pregnancy, as well as outcomes: the duration and mode of delivery, fetal weight at birth. The criteria for the diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy were: decrease of hemoglobin levels below 110 g/l. All pregnant women with confirmed anemia were treated with iron supplements. After the completion of follow-up the odds ratios analysis of presenting anemia was performed in subgroups: 1) a patient gave birth to a live child, and patient with the loss of the fetus at various stages of gestation; 2) patients who have given birth in time, and patients with premature birth; 3) patients with placental insufficiency (violation of utero-placental blood flow) during pregnancy and patients without placental insufficiency; 4) patients with preeclampsia and patients without pre-eclampsia; 5) patients who have delivered live births weighing less than 2,500 grams and birth weight over 2500. In each case, odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Statistical calculations were performed using the software package SPSS 22.0. Among all patients (n = 421) anemia of varying severity has been diagnosed in 190 (45.13%), including mild anemia in 161 (38.24%), moderate or severe anemia - in 29 patients (6.88%). In 16 (3.8%) cases, the pregnancy resulted in miscarriage or fetal death. Premature birth of live fetus before 34 weeks of gestation was recorded in 13 cases (3.2%; n = 405). Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 15 women (3.56%). Live births with weights less than 2,500 g were registered in 23 cases (5.67%; n = 405).An analysis of odds ratios was performed to compare the groups of women with anemia of any severity and without anemia, with mild anemia compared with women without anemia, and moderate/severe anemia compared to

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Impact of Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Quan, Stuart F; Almeida, Fernanda; Ayappa, Indu; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Budhiraja, Rohit; Cruse, Peggy E; Drager, Luciano F; Griss, Barbara; Marshall, Nathaniel; Patel, Sanjay R; Patil, Susheel; Knight, Shandra L; Rowley, James A; Slyman, Alison

    2016-05-01

    Mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder in adults; however, whether mild OSA has significant neurocognitive and cardiovascular complications is uncertain. The specific goals of this Research Statement are to appraise the evidence regarding whether long-term adverse neurocognitive and cardiovascular outcomes are attributable to mild OSA in adults, evaluate whether or not treatment of mild OSA is effective at preventing or reducing these adverse neurocognitive and cardiovascular outcomes, delineate the key research gaps, and provide direction for future research agendas. Literature searches from multiple reference databases were performed using medical subject headings and text words for OSA in adults as well as by hand searches. Pragmatic systematic reviews of the relevant body of evidence were performed. Studies were incongruent in their definitions of "mild" OSA. Data were inconsistent regarding the relationship between mild OSA and daytime sleepiness. However, treatment of mild OSA may improve sleepiness in patients who are sleepy at baseline and improve quality of life. There is limited or inconsistent evidence pertaining to the impact of therapy of mild OSA on neurocognition, mood, vehicle accidents, cardiovascular events, stroke, and arrhythmias. There is evidence that treatment of mild OSA in individuals who demonstrate subjective sleepiness may be beneficial. Treatment may also improve quality of life. Future research agendas should focus on clarifying the effect of mild OSA and impact of effective treatment on other neurocognitive and cardiovascular endpoints as detailed in the document.

  5. Leishmania infantum Induces Mild Unfolded Protein Response in Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    De Santi, Mauro; Ceccarelli, Marcello; Vitale, Fabrizio; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Leishmaniases are a group of parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus affecting both humans and other vertebrates. Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen able to confer resistance to apoptosis in the early phase of macrophages infection by activation of host PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Intracellular pathogens hijack organelles such as ER to facilitate survival and replication, thus eliciting ER stress and activating/modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the host cell. The UPR is aimed to mitigate ER stress, thereby promoting cell survival. However, prolonged ER stress will activate the apoptotic pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the ER stress response in Leishmania-infected macrophages to gain insights about the mechanisms underlying the apoptosis resistance in parasitized cells. Macrophages differentiated from human monocytic cell lines (U937 and THP-1) and murine primary macrophages were infected with Leishmania infantum MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 (WHO international reference strain). Several ER stress/autophagy expression markers, as well as cell survival/apoptosis markers (phospho-Akt and cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated by qPCR and/or by western blotting. As ER stress positive control, cells were treated with tunicamycin or dithiothreitol (DTT). The gene expression analyses showed a mild but significant induction of the ER stress/autophagy markers. The western blot analyses revealed that the Leishmania infection induced Akt phosphorylation and significantly inhibited the induction of caspase-3 cleavage, eIF2α phosphorylation and DDIT3/CHOP expression in tunicamycin and DTT treated cells. The mild but significant increase in ER stress expression markers and the delay/attenuation of the effects of ER stress inducers in infected cells support the hypothesis that L. infantum could promote survival of host cells by inducing a mild ER stress response. The host ER stress response could be not

  6. [Diagnostic value of exhaled nitric oxide measurement in mild asthma].

    PubMed

    Pérez Tarazona, S; Martínez Camacho, R M; Alfonso Diego, J; Escolano Serrano, S; Talens Gandía, J

    2011-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) in mild asthma. Cross-sectional descriptive study in a group of patients with no history of respiratory or allergic illness (control group) and a group of patients with a history of mild asthma with no baseline treatment (asthma group), both aged 6 to 14 years. The following examinations were performed: measurement of FE(NO) using the portable NIOX MINO(®) device, allergy tests and spirometry. Repeatability of paired FE(NO) measurements was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, the repeatability coefficient and the variation coefficient. The diagnostic value was assessed with the sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for each cut-off point. Eighty-seven patients were included in the control group and 57 in the asthma group. The mean FE(NO) value was 12.1 ppb (SD 13.5) in the control group and 42.9 ppb (SD 24.5) in asthmatics (P<.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99) in controls and asthmatics, respectively. The repeatability coefficient was 5.5 in controls and 9.2 in asthmatic children, and the median variation coefficient was 8.3% and 6.1%. The optimal cut-off value for FE(NO) was 19 ppb (sensitivity and specificity were 91.4% and 87.2%, respectively). The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) (P<.001) and the LR+ was 7.1. Subclinical sensitisation to pneumoallergens accounted for most false positive cases. The determination of FE(NO) with NIOX MINO(®) has an adequate repeatability, especially for healthy patients. For asthmatic patients we recommend determining the average of two measurements. The test has a high diagnostic value in mild asthma. Subclinical sensitisation to pneumoallergens can cause the FE(NO) value to rise to pathologic levels. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  7. Cleaning Carbon Nanotubes by Use of Mild Oxygen Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petkov, Mihail

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown that it is feasible to use oxygen radicals (specifically, monatomic oxygen) from mild oxygen plasmas to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal/CNT interfaces. A capability for such cleaning is essential to the manufacture of reproducible CNT-based electronic devices. The use of oxygen radicals to clean surfaces of other materials is fairly well established. However, previously, cleaning of CNTs and of graphite by use of oxygen plasmas had not been attempted because both of these forms of carbon were known to be vulnerable to destruction by oxygen plasmas. The key to success of the present technique is, apparently, to ensure that the plasma is mild . that is to say, that the kinetic and internal energies of the oxygen radicals in the plasma are as low as possible. The plasma oxygen-radical source used in the experiments was a commercial one marketed for use in removing hydrocarbons and other organic contaminants from vacuum systems and from electron microscopes and other objects placed inside vacuum systems. In use, the source is installed in a vacuum system and air is leaked into the system at such a rate as to maintain a background pressure of .0.56 torr (.75 Pa). In the source, oxygen from the air is decomposed into monatomic oxygen by radio-frequency excitation of a resonance of the O2 molecule (N2 is not affected). Hence, what is produced is a mild (non-energetic) oxygen plasma. The oxygen radicals are transported along with the air molecules in the flow created by the vacuum pump. In the experiments, exposure to the oxygen plasma in this system was shown to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from several specimens. Many high-magnification scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of CNTs were taken before and after exposure to the oxygen plasma. As in the example shown in the figure, none of these images showed evidence of degradation

  8. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective

  9. Mild cognitive impairment: making headway by stepping backwards.

    PubMed

    Förstl, Hans; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Bickel, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent medical problem and the concept and term have become a catch-phrase for research and clinical practice. However, little is known about the most effective tools for a clinical diagnosis of MCI, its potential significance for individual patients and the best possible intervention--at least as long as MCI is considered as a diagnostic entity. We propose a simplified diagnostic and interventional algorithm for the detection and management of patients with MCI. We argue that MCI is so important, because it represents the closest call for an identification of treatable diseases or risk factors before the final manifestation of irreversible brain changes. Stepping backward by focussing on underlying disease processes and attempting causal interventions must be preferred to a mere symptomatic treatment of MCI as a preclinical form of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. A mild removal of Fmoc group using sodium azide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Rajagopal, Basker; Liu, Xuan Yu; Chen, Kuan Lin; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Lin, Fui; Lin, Po-Chiao

    2014-02-01

    A mild method for effectively removing the fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group using sodium azide was developed. Without base, sodium azide completely deprotected N (α)-Fmoc-amino acids in hours. The solvent-dependent conditions were carefully studied and then optimized by screening different sodium azide amounts and reaction temperatures. A variety of Fmoc-protected amino acids containing residues masked with different protecting groups were efficiently and selectively deprotected by the optimized reaction. Finally, a biologically significant hexapeptide, angiotensin IV, was successfully synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using the developed sodium azide method for all Fmoc removals. The base-free condition provides a complement method for Fmoc deprotection in peptide chemistry and modern organic synthesis.

  11. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  12. Marital Quality in the Context of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Garand, Linda; Dew, Mary Amanda; Urda, Bridget; Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; DeKosky, Steven T.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral changes in people with dementia often negatively affect marital relationships. Yet little is known about how the marital relationship is affected when the care recipient has mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study characterizes marital quality among adults who live with a spouse with MCI. Data were drawn from interviews with 27 spouses of people with a recent diagnosis of MCI. Even at early stages of MCI, many spouses report the frequent occurrence of distressing behaviors. This study demonstrates that MCI may degrade the quality of the marital relationship. These results have implications for clinical practice and the delivery of health care and social services to these families. It is important to develop interventions to address the needs of these individuals and their caregivers. Results of this study suggest the need for mental health interventions designed to preserve the quality of these marital relationships. PMID:17984481

  13. Nova outbursts in the case of mild hibernation

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Shankar, A.; Truran, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The necessary conditions for the production of strong thermonuclear runaways in the hibernation scenario are identified and explored. It is found that a reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of about 100, for a period longer than a few thousand years, is generally sufficient to ensure nova-type outbursts, even in the presence of rather high preoutburst accretion rates. Nova outbursts can be obtained under mild hibernation conditions on 1 solar mass white dwarfs as well as on very massive ones. A reduction in the accretion rate by a factor of 10 only is insufficient to produce a nova outburst, if the preoutburst accretion rate is as high as 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. 28 references.

  14. Mild Diabetes Models and Their Maternal-Fetal Repercussions

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, D. C.; Sinzato, Y. K.; Bueno, A.; Netto, A. O.; Dallaqua, B.; Gallego, F. Q.; Iessi, I. L.; Corvino, S. B.; Serrano, R. G.; Marini, G.; Piculo, F.; Calderon, I. M. P.; Rudge, M. V. C.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of diabetes in pregnancy leads to hormonal and metabolic changes making inappropriate intrauterine environment, favoring the onset of maternal and fetal complications. Human studies that explore mechanisms responsible for changes caused by diabetes are limited not only for ethical reasons but also by the many uncontrollable variables. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate experimental models. The diabetes induced in laboratory animals can be performed by different methods depending on dose, route of administration, and the strain and age of animal used. Many of these studies are carried out in neonatal period or during pregnancy, but the results presented are controversial. So this paper, addresses the review about the different models of mild diabetes induction using streptozotocin in pregnant rats and their repercussions on the maternal and fetal organisms to propose an adequate model for each approached issue. PMID:23878822

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury: a risk factor for neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that head trauma can lead to a progressive neurodegeneration known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Although the medical literature also implicates head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, these findings are predominantly based on clinical diagnostic criteria that lack specificity. The dementia that follows head injuries or repetitive mild trauma may be caused by chronic traumatic encephalopathy, alone or in conjunction with other neurodegenerations (for example, Alzheimer's disease). Prospective longitudinal studies of head-injured individuals, with neuropathological verification, will not only improve understanding of head trauma as a risk factor for dementia but will also enhance treatment and prevention of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20587081

  16. Physical activity and mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Cox, Kay; Kurz, Alexander F

    2010-09-01

    Regular physical activity undoubtedly has many health benefits for all age groups. In the past decade, researchers and clinicians have begun to focus their attention on whether physical activity also can improve health outcomes of older adults who experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This ongoing question is gaining relevance in light of the aging of the world population and with it the rise of age-related conditions, such as cognitive impairment. Not surprisingly, physical activity is among the potential protective lifestyle factors mentioned when strategies to delay or prevent dementia are discussed. The first large-scale multidomain intervention trials are under way to put this to the test. This review aims to give an overview of recent trials of physical activity in patients with MCI or dementia.

  17. Review of emotion recognition in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    McCade, Donna; Savage, Greg; Naismith, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    While dysfunction in emotion recognition is sometimes apparent with aging, and is frequently evident in Alzheimer's disease, it is unclear whether individuals who have a high risk of developing dementia exhibit demonstrable changes. A review of the literature pertaining to mild cognitive impairment was undertaken to discern the extent to which emotion recognition deficits are evident in this prodromal period. A search of Medline, Psycinfo and Psyextra databases using specific key words identified only six relevant studies. These studies suggest that the ability to accurately identify facial expressions of affect is compromised. Research in this area is in its infancy. Suggestions are made for furthering our knowledge about this important ability which affects interpersonal relationships, daily functioning, mental well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Therapeutic complexes of physical factors in mild arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, T A; Nikiforova, T I

    2001-01-01

    Three therapeutic complexes were compared clinically in patients with mild arterial hypertension. Complex 1 consisted of dry air--radon baths, bicycle exercise and exposure of the renal projection area to decimetric electromagnetic field. Its efficacy was 90%, mechanism of the hypotensive action is reduction of enhanced activity of the sympathico-adrenal and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, improvement of water-mineral metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Complex 2 consisted of dry effervescent baths, anaprilin electrophoresis with sinusoidal modulated currents and exposure of the renal projection area to low-frequency alternating magnetic field. Its efficacy was 80%. It affects renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, water-mineral metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Complex 3 consisted of electric sleep, laser therapy and general sodium chloride baths. Its efficacy was 63%. The effect was due to inhibition of high sympathico-adrenal system.

  19. Mild hypertension: a clinical trial conducted in hospital general practice.

    PubMed

    Joesbury, H E; Phillips, C A; Garrett, R T; Wilkes, E; Smith, A J

    1976-12-18

    To compare findings in a hospital trial of hypotensive drugs with those in a general practice trial several patients with mild hypertension were studied at the same time in hospital and in general practice. They received bendrofluazide and potassium chloride or bendrofluazide, potassium chloride, and reserpine according to a double-blind crossover protocol, and blood biochemical values were studied over eight weeks and six months. When reserpine was withdrawn from nine women they followed a modified protocol comparing bendrofluazide and potassium chloride with potassium chloride alone. The blood pressure values measured by the general practitioners were similar to those measured in hospital. Both the diuretic alone and the diuretic with reserpine produced significant falls in blood pressures. Although plasma renin activity increased on diuretic treatment, continued treatment did not produce a further increase, and levels gradually declined towards normal.

  20. Mild hypertension: a clinical trial conducted in hospital general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Joesbury, H E; Phillips, C A; Garrett, R T; Wilkes, E; Smith, A J

    1976-01-01

    To compare findings in a hospital trial of hypotensive drugs with those in a general practice trial several patients with mild hypertension were studied at the same time in hospital and in general practice. They received bendrofluazide and potassium chloride or bendrofluazide, potassium chloride, and reserpine according to a double-blind crossover protocol, and blood biochemical values were studied over eight weeks and six months. When reserpine was withdrawn from nine women they followed a modified protocol comparing bendrofluazide and potassium chloride with potassium chloride alone. The blood pressure values measured by the general practitioners were similar to those measured in hospital. Both the diuretic alone and the diuretic with reserpine produced significant falls in blood pressures. Although plasma renin activity increased on diuretic treatment, continued treatment did not produce a further increase, and levels gradually declined towards normal. PMID:793680

  1. Unilateral buckling of elastically restrained rectangular mild steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. T.; Bradford, M. A.; Oehlers, D. J.

    This paper considers the elastic unilateral buckling of rectangular mild steel plates that are restrained elastically and subjected to bending and axial actions. A variational formulation of the Ritz method using linear combinations of harmonic functions for the buckling deformations is used to establish an eigenproblem to determine the plate local buckling coefficients. The motivation for the study is the retrofit of reinforced concrete beams by gluing and then bolting steel plates to the sides of the beam. Such plates, when acting compositely with the concrete beam, are subjected to predominantly bending and axial actions which may cause unilateral local buckling. Whereas the bolts provide complete restraint against buckling at discrete points, the glue may also inhibit local buckling between these nodal points since it acts as a continuous elastic restraint. The influence of the glue stiffness, support conditions and plate proportions on the unilateral buckling of such plates are assessed.

  2. Should mild stimulation be the order of the day?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Mild stimulation protocols aim to reduce the physical, financial and emotional burden associated with the conventional IVF protocol without compromising the pregnancy rate. Such protocols help to decrease the complications and the discomfort related to the prolonged administration of agonist and large doses of gonadotrophins, by limiting the number of oocytes recruited to no more than eight. The per cycle pregnancy rates are lower though the cumulative pregnancy rate in a year is equivalent. This CPR comes by going through earlier repeat cycles. Whether this reduces the physical, emotional or financial burden remains a matter of debate. There is need to standardize these protocol and do more trials to compare the two effectively. Till such time there is a clear benefit above the conventional protocol it will not be the protocol of choice with most physicians. PMID:24672159

  3. Chronic mild cerebrovascular dysfunction as a cause for Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Humpel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383

  4. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  5. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured. PMID:27508110

  6. Selective production of 4-ethylphenolics from lignin via mild hydrogenolysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yueyuan; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-08-01

    Selective production of 4-ethylphenolics from lignin via mild hydrogenolysis was reported in this short communication. The hydrogenolysis of lignin was carried out in an autoclave with 65 vol.% ethanol/water as solvent, with 5% Ru/C, Pd/C and Pt/C as catalysts. The influences of catalysts, lignin species, and reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, and initial H(2) pressure on yield of target compounds were investigated. 3.1% 4-Ethylphenol and 1.3% 4-ethylguaiacol based on lignin could be obtained simultaneously from hydrogenolysis of corn stalk lignin, which is approximate to the yield obtained from petrochemical route. The results of this work showed that this novel method is a quite promising technique for the substitution of petrochemical route. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical Treatment of Textile Dye Wastewater by Mild Steel Anode.

    PubMed

    Bhavya, J G; Rekha, H B; Murthy, Usha N

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of textile dye wastewater generated from a textile processing industry by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at current densities of 12, 24 and 48 A/m2 using mild steel as anode and cathode. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, color and BOD5 were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. It was observed that increasing the electrolysis time and increased current density bring down the concentration of pollutants. Also COD removal rate and energy consumption during the electrolysis were calculated and presented in this paper. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment using MS as anode for TDW oxidation.

  8. A behavioral rehabilitation intervention for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, Melanie C.; Hanna, Sherrie M.; Lepore, Susan W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) currently have few treatment options for combating their memory loss. The Memory Support System (MSS) is a calendar and organization system with accompanying 6-week curriculum designed for individuals with progressive memory impairment. Ability to learn the MSS and its utility were assessed in 20 participants. Participants were significantly more likely to successfully use the calendar system after training. Ninety-five percent were compliant with the MSS at training completion, and 89% continued to be compliant at follow-up. Outcome measures revealed a medium effect size for improvement in functional ability. Subjects further reported improved independence, self-confidence, and mood. This initial examination of the MSS suggests that with appropriate training, individuals with amnestic MCI can and will use a memory notebook system to help compensate for memory loss. These results are encouraging that the MSS may help with the symptoms of memory decline in MCI. PMID:18955724

  9. Impaired tracheobronchial clearance in patients with mild stable asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, J R; Pavia, D; Sheahan, N F; Agnew, J E; Clarke, S W

    1983-01-01

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was measured with the radioaerosol technique in 25 patients with stable, mild asthma, none of whom was taking systemic corticosteroids. The results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 25 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. All patients and healthy subjects were non-smokers. Ventilatory function was significantly impaired in the asthmatic group, which resulted in a more central initial tracheobronchial deposition of inhaled radioaerosol than in the control group. Despite the shorter transit path along the ciliated airways for the tracer radioaerosol in the asthmatic group, mucociliary clearance was found to be significantly poorer than in the healthy control group. This may be important with respect to bronchial mucus plugging. PMID:6879499

  10. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  11. Directed forgetting of autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Haj, Mohamad El; Postal, Virginie; Gall, Didier Le; Allain, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Using the autobiographical directed forgetting method (Barnier et al., 2007), the present paper addressed the intentional inhibitory processes of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild AD patients and healthy elderly people were instructed to either forget or to continue remembering previously generated autobiographical events. In a later recall test they were asked to reconstruct the early-generated memories regardless of the forget/remember instruction. Autobiographical reconstruction was further distributed into episodic and semantic memories. Results showed no forget instruction effect on episodic or semantic autobiographical recall with AD patients, whereas healthy elderly people were able to inhibit only episodic autobiographical memories. The findings suggest an impairment of the intentional inhibitory processes in autobiographical memory with AD and a relative preservation of these mechanisms with normal ageing. They also demonstrate an earlier decline in the intentional inhibitory processes compared to the autobiographical deterioration in AD.

  12. DNA-repair in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bucholtz, Nina; Demuth, Ilja

    2013-10-01

    While the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (late onset Alzheimer disease, LOAD) is not fully understood, it seems to be clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are involved and influence the course of the disease. Among these factors, elevated levels of oxidative stress have been recognized and individual differences in the capacity to deal with DNA damage caused by its effects have been the subject of numerous studies. This review summarizes the research on DNA repair proteins and genes in the context of LOAD pathogenesis and its possible prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current status of the research in this field is discussed with respect to methodological issues which might have compromised the outcome of some studies and future directions of investigation on this subject are depicted.

  13. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  14. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  15. Training self-advocacy skills to adults with mild handicaps.

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, A L; Cuvo, A J; Davis, P K

    1988-01-01

    We developed and empirically evaluated an instructional program to teach self-advocacy skills to eight young adults with mild handicaps. Participants were taught to discriminate whether or not possible violations of legal rights occurred in socially validated scenarios and, if so, to role-play how to redress rights violations. Experimental control was demonstrated with a multiple probe design across four general legal rights categories for the discrimination component of training, and a multiple probe across groups of subjects for the redressing legal rights component of training. Participants' behavior was probed in simulations and deceptions of legal rights violations in natural settings. There were marked increases in dependent measures after instruction. Difficulties in assessing generalization and maintenance of low-rate behaviors and suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:3198550

  16. Persistent vertigo and dizziness after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; Kalra, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium are common symptoms following concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Dizziness and vertigo may be the result of trauma to the peripheral vestibular system or the central nervous system, or, in some cases, may be due to anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder; these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. While most peripheral vestibular disorders can be identified by testing and examination, those without inner-ear causes that have persisting complaints of dizziness and motion sickness are more difficult to understand and to manage. Some of these patients exhibit features compatible with vestibular migraine and may be treated successfully with migraine-preventative medications. This paper reviews the nonotogenic causes of persisting dizziness, the possible mechanisms, and the pathophysiology, as a framework for patient management and for future research.

  17. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  18. Characteristics of Mild Dengue Virus Infection in Thai Children

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Hermann, Laura; Buddhari, Darunee; Scott, Thomas W.; Jarman, Richard G.; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Thammapalo, Suwich; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Mammen, Mammen P.; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V.; Endy, Timothy P.; Rothman, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence–based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact. PMID:24127167

  19. Profiles of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Peraita, Herminia; Chacón, José; Díaz-Mardomingo, Carmen; Martínez-Arias, Rosario

    2015-11-20

    We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to a set of neuropsychological data with the aim of corroborating the three cognitive profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) described in the literature, namely: healthy, amnestic, non-amnestic, and multidomain. The ultimate purpose of the LCA was to try to find the underlying classification of MCI and related pathologies by means of the participants' response patterns, rather than on more classical psychometric criteria, such as the standard deviation of the mean. We computed 547 neuropsychological assessments derived from 223 participants who were assessed annually for three consecutive years. The battery included tests of memory, language, executive function, and praxis. The results obtained by means of LCA, with a four-group solution and using the 40th percentile as the criterion, confirm prior classifications obtained with more questionable psychometric criteria, while providing longitudinal data on the course of MCI and the stability of group assignment over time.

  20. Biomechanical Risk Estimates for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Funk, J. R.; Duma, S. M.; Manoogian, S. J.; Rowson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in living humans based on a large set of head impact data taken from American football players at the collegiate level. Real-time head accelerations were recorded from helmet-mounted accelerometers designed to stay in contact with the player’s head. Over 27,000 head impacts were recorded, including four impacts resulting in MTBI. Parametric risk curves were developed by normalizing MTBI incidence data by head impact exposure data. An important finding of this research is that living humans, at least in the setting of collegiate football, sustain much more significant head impacts without apparent injury than previously thought. The following preliminary nominal injury assessment reference values associated with a 10% risk of MTBI are proposed: a peak linear head acceleration of 165 g, a HIC of 400, and a peak angular head acceleration of 9000 rad/s2. PMID:18184501

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Diagnosis, Longitudinal Course, and Emerging Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as the intermediate stage of cognitive impairment between the changes seen in normal cognitive aging and those associated with dementia. Elderly patients with MCI constitute a high-risk population for developing dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the core clinical criteria for MCI have remained largely unchanged, the operational definition of MCI has undergone several revisions over the course of the last decade and remains an evolving diagnosis. Prognostic implications of this diagnosis are becoming clearer with regard to the risk of progressive cognitive deterioration. Although patients with MCI may represent an optimal target population for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, results from clinical trials have been mixed and a definitive effective treatment remains elusive. This article provides a brief overview of the evolution of the concept of MCI and reviews current diagnostic criteria, the longitudinal course of the disorder, and current and emerging treatments for MCI. PMID:25160795

  2. Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Management of Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Britta

    2015-09-14

    Managing mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis on the first view appears to be a simple task. However, real life often proofs the opposite and creates a challenging situation. In theory, mild-to-moderate disease should be sufficiently treated by mesalamine or alternatively by a probiotic. Insufficient treatment comprises the danger of leading to a flare, and hence, an exacerbation of the entire disease, with risk of progressing to severe disease. What are the considerations with regard to patient management in this situation? Certainly, disease distribution is the critical information, since it allows for planning the optimal route of administration, namely local versus systemic treatment. Novel pharmacological strategies might allow for reaching high local concentrations even at the left side of the colon or alternatively administer locally active budesonide throughout the entire colon frame, thus avoiding systemic side effects. Therapy planning has to involve the patient to identify how this can be included in daily life. Including the patient implies that depending on the condition, disease activity and even life quality, the individual therapy requires timely adaption. A recent study by Pedersen et al. [Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014;20:2276-2285] provides evidence that this strategy can be followed and leads to an overall better outcome. A last thought, besides the patient not taking the appropriate dose or lacking adherence to therapy, should consider that a worsening of disease could be due to infectious complications including Clostridium difficile or cytomegalovirus colitis. If all considerations fail within a reasonable time frame, therapy should be escalated. Patients in this situation often hesitate in accepting the need of immunosuppression. Future options, potentially including phosphatidylcholine, might bridge the gap between mesalamine, probiotics and immunosuppressive strategies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Smoking habits in adolescents with mild to moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2004-09-01

    To study the impact of mild to moderate asthma on smoking habits in adolescents. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that asthma does not prevent adolescents from smoking. A research questionnaire, filled by a systematic sample of military personnel upon enrollment to service in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), was analyzed. Conscripts were asked to voluntarily fill (after obtaining a signed informed consent) a research questionnaire about their medical history, and several health related topics including smoking. This database was matched with the military medical profile of the soldier, which includes the patient asthma status. Overall, 38,047 young adults were included in this study. There was a significant increase in the rate of mild to moderate asthma, from the mid-1980's to date. During the 1980's and early 1990's, asthmatics smoked significantly less frequently (20-22%) than non-asthmatics (25-27%). In the mid- to late-1990's, the smoking rates increased relatively more in asthmatics, to the point that in the last 8 years of this study, they were found to be almost identical in both groups, at a rate of approximately 30%. The presence of asthma is not a powerful motivating agent to prevent from smoking. It is likely that smoking asthmatic teenagers are at risk for suboptimal lung growth, and as young adults, they will become at greater risk of lung function deterioration. We suggest that primary care physicians, caring for asthma in children, adolescents, and young adults, should explain the particular risks generated by tobacco smoking.

  5. Metabolic consequences of chronic intermittent mild stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Abigail K; Fourman, Sarah; Packard, Amy E B; Egan, Ann E; Ryan, Karen K; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Chronic stress in humans has divergent effects on food intake, with some individuals reporting increased vs. decreased food intake during stress. This divergence may depend in part on stress intensity, with higher-intensity stressors preferentially promoting anorexia. Consistent with this idea, rodents given a high-intensity chronic variable stress paradigm have robustly decreased food intake and body weight gain. However, the metabolic effects of a less intense chronic stress paradigm are not clear. Thus in the present study, adult male rats were given chronic intermittent mild stress (CIMS) exposure (3 cycles, in which each cycle consists of once daily mild stress for 5 days/week for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no stress) vs. non-stress controls, combined with ongoing access to a palatable diet (PD; choice of chow, high-fat diet, 30% sucrose drink, and water) vs. control diet (chow and water). As expected, access to PD increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and adiposity, and impaired glucose tolerance. CIMS decreased body weight gain only during the first cycle of stress and did not affect body weight gain thereafter, regardless of diet. Moreover, CIMS did not alter total food intake, adiposity or glucose tolerance regardless of diet. Lastly, CIMS transiently increased high-fat diet preference in PD-fed rats during the first stress cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that CIMS has relatively modest metabolic effects that occur primarily during initial stress exposure. These results support the hypothesis that the metabolic consequences of chronic stress vary with stress intensity and/or frequency.

  6. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P < 0.001), and older participants had lower values than the younger group under NT (P = 0.001) and HT (P = 0.051). Skin warmth detection thresholds at forearm and whole body warmth perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  7. Antiviral Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B With Mild Acute Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su; Ye, Qiaoxia; Wang, Mingfang; Wu, Yinlian; Weng, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Yueyong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of peginterferon α-2a (pegIFN) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) treatments in patients with hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with mild acute exacerbation (AE). Methods Treatment-naive HBeAg-positive CHB patients with AE who received pegIFN or NA (entecavir (ETV) or telbivudine (LDT)) therapies were retrospectively selected. The HBeAg seroconversion rate, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss rate and the cost-effectiveness of different treatments were compared. Results A total of 63 patients with pegIFN therapy and 78 with NA (38 with ETV and 40 with LDT) therapy were included. The HBsAg loss rate was significantly higher in the pegIFN group when compared with the NA group (on week 96: 9/63 (14.29%) vs. 1/78 (1.28%), P = 0.005). No significant difference in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA negativity or the HBeAg/HBsAg seroconversion rate was found between ETV and LDT group. One year of pegIFN therapy resulted in 18.56 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient, and the incremental cost per additional QALY gained was $3,709. Conclusions PegIFN therapy is safe in HBeAg-positive CHB patients with mild AE, as it results in a higher HBsAg loss rate and longer QALYs than NA therapy. PMID:28270871

  8. Neuroprotective effects of mild hypoxia in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seh Hyun; Lee, Woo Soon; Lee, Na Mi; Yun, Sin Weon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of mild hypoxia in the mature and immature brain. Methods We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus and used hippocampal tissue cultures at 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV) to represent the immature and mature brain, respectively. Tissue cultures were exposed to 10% oxygen for 60 minutes. Twenty-four hours after this hypoxic insult, propidium iodide fluorescence images were obtained, and the damaged areas in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) were measured using image analysis. Results In the 7-DIV group compared to control tissue, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage in two regions (CA1: 5.59%±2.99% vs. 4.80%±1.37%, P=0.900; DG: 33.88%±12.53% vs. 15.98%±2.37%, P=0.166), but this decrease was not statistically significant. In the 14-DIV group, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage compared to control tissues; this decrease was not significant in the CA3 (24.51%±6.05% vs. 18.31%±3.28%, P=0.373) or DG (15.72%±3.47% vs. 9.91%±2.11%, P=0.134), but was significant in the CA1 (50.91%±5.90% vs. 32.30%±3.34%, P=0.004). Conclusion Although only CA1 tissues cultured for 14 DIV showed significantly less damage after exposure to hypoxia, the other tissues examined in this study showed a tendency towards less damage after hypoxic exposure. Therefore, mild hypoxia might play a protective role in the brain. PMID:25932036

  9. Predictable chronic mild stress in adolescence increases resilience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28-55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63-83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood.

  10. Clinical differences among mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weis, Holly; Stebbins, Glenn; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a construct in Parkinson's disease (PD) and occurs in about 25% of nondemented PD patients. Although executive dysfunction is the most frequent type of cognitive deficit in PD, the cognitive phenotype of PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is broad. PD-MCI subtypes are represented by amnestic and nonamnestic domain impairment as well as single- and multiple-domain impairment. However, it is unclear whether patients with different PD-MCI subtypes also differ in other clinical characteristics in addition to cognitive profile. We studied 128 PD-MCI subjects at our Movement Disorders center, comparing clinical, motor, and behavioral characteristics across the PD-MCI subtypes. We found varying proportions of impairment subtypes: nonamnestic single domain, 47.7%; amnestic multiple domain, 24.2%; amnestic single domain, 18.8%; and nonamnestic multiple domain, 9.5%. Attentional/executive functioning and visuospatial abilities were the most frequently impaired domains. PD-MCI subtypes differed in their motor features, with nonamnestic multiple-domain PD-MCI subjects showing particularly pronounced problems with postural instability and gait. Differences among PD-MCI subtypes in age, PD duration, medication use, mood or behavioral disturbances, and vascular disease were not significant. Thus, in addition to differing cognitive profiles, PD-MCI subtypes differed in motor phenotype and severity but not in mood, behavioral, or vascular comorbidities. Greater postural instability and gait disturbances in the nonamnestic multiple-domain subtype emphasize shared nondopaminergic neural substrates of gait and cognition in PD. Furthermore, increased burden of cognitive dysfunction, rather than type of cognitive deficit, may be associated with greater motor impairment in PD-MCI.

  11. Mild evolution of the stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Machado, Rubens E. G.; Vilchez, José M.; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Varela, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Context. The metallicity gradients of the stellar populations in disc galaxies and their evolution store relevant information on the disc formation history and on those processes which could mix stars a posteriori, such as migration, bars and/or galaxy-galaxy interactions. Aims: We aim to investigate the evolution of the metallicity gradients of the whole stellar populations in disc components of simulated galaxies in a cosmological context. Methods: We analyse simulated disc galaxies selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation that includes chemical evolution and a physically motivated supernova feedback capable of driving mass-loaded galactic winds. Results: We detect a mild evolution with redshift in the metallicity slopes of - 0.02 ± 0.01 dex kpc-1 from z 1. If the metallicity profiles are normalised by the effective radius of the stellar disc, the slopes show no clear evolution for z< 1, with a median value of approximately - 0.23 dex reff-1. As a function of stellar mass, we find that metallicity gradients steepen for stellar masses smaller than 1010.3M⊙ while the trend reverses for higher stellar masses, in the redshift range z = [ 0,1 ]. Galaxies with small stellar masses have discs with larger reff and flatter metallicity gradients than expected. We detect migration albeit weaker than in previous works. Conclusions: Our stellar discs show a mild evolution of the stellar metallicity slopes up to z 1, which is well-matched by the evolution calculated archeologically from the abundance distributions of mono-age stellar populations at z 0. The dispersion in the relations allows for stronger individual evolutions. Overall, supernova feedback could explain the trends but an impact of migration can not be totally discarded. Galaxy-galaxy interactions or small satellite accretions can also contribute to modify the metallicity profiles in the outer parts. Disentangling the effects of these processes for individual galaxies is still a challenge in a

  12. Quality of life in children after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Rotarescu, Virginia; Ciurea, A V

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Mild Head Injury (MHI) in children not only in terms of impairment, but also in terms of disability, handicap and quality of life (QOL). Emergency Clinical Hospital "Bagdasar-Arseni", Bucharest, Romania, between 2000 and 2004 We take into account the patients with mild head injury MHI (CCS of 14 and 15 and amnesia). From a cohort of 1,319 children, consecutive patients with MHI, presented at the emergency room in a period of four years (2000-2003), 528 children (40.0%) were selected for admission, based on the presence of the risk factors. All admitted patients were investigated based on a protocol of neurosurgical evaluation and were followed for a period of 12 months. The Falls were the most common cause of MHI (30.6% - 162 cases). The proportion of children with detectable CT scan abnormalities was smaller (19.8% - 105 cases) and surgery was necessary in only 5.5% (29 cases). Special attention was paid to child-abuse and traffic accident cases. Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) was observed in 26.9% cases. Neuropsychological tests were performed in 96 children (21.2%), to evaluate neuropsychological, emotional, psychosocial and behavioral impairments. The study has shown that cognitive dysfunctions mainly were observed after MHI (especially deficits in information processing speed, memory and attention). The neurosurgeon should perform a complete evaluation of the children-patient with MHI, including a current physical examination, a neuro-radiological evaluation and a formal neuropsychological assessment, in order to detect the abnormalities and to treat them. Psychotherapy can be of benefit in cases with MHI. Any common case of MHI may hide a possible lesion with delayed consequences.

  13. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Diffuse Axonal Injury in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Kevin D.; Chen, Xiao-Han; Meaney, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Until recently, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or “concussion” was generally ignored as a major health issue. However, emerging evidence suggests that this injury is by no means mild, considering it induces persisting neurocognitive dysfunction in many individuals. Although little is known about the pathophysiological aspects of mTBI, there is growing opinion that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may play a key role. To explore this possibility, we adapted a model of head rotational acceleration in swine to produce mTBI by scaling the mechanical loading conditions based on available biomechanical data on concussion thresholds in humans. Using these input parameters, head rotational acceleration was induced in either the axial plane (transverse to the brainstem; n=3), causing a 10- to 35-min loss of consciousness, or coronal plane (circumferential to the brainstem; n=2), which did not produce a sustained loss of consciousness. Seven days following injury, immunohistochemical analyses of the brains revealed that both planes of head rotation induced extensive axonal pathology throughout the white matter, characterized as swollen axonal bulbs or varicosities that were immunoreactive for accumulating neurofilament protein. However, the distribution of the axonal pathology was different between planes of head rotation. In particular, more swollen axonal profiles were observed in the brainstems of animals injured in the axial plane, suggesting an anatomic substrate for prolonged loss of consciousness in mTBI. Overall, these data support DAI as an important pathological feature of mTBI, and demonstrate that surprisingly overt axonal pathology may be present, even in cases without a sustained loss of consciousness. PMID:21740133

  14. Pain Sensitivity and Recovery From Mild Chronic Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, Timothy A.; Harris, Erica; Randall, Surilla; Roth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether an extended bedtime in sleepy and otherwise healthy volunteers would increase alertness and thereby also reduce pain sensitivity. Setting: Outpatient with sleep laboratory assessments. Participants and Interventions: Healthy volunteers (n = 18), defined as having an average daily sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) < 8 min, were randomized to 4 nights of extended bedtime (10 hr) (EXT) or 4 nights of their diary-reported habitual bedtimes (HAB). On day 1 and day 4 they received a standard MSLT (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 hr) and finger withdrawal latency pain testing to a radiant heat stimulus (10:30 and 14:30 hr). Results: During the four experimental nights the EXT group slept 1.8 hr per night more than the HAB group and average daily sleep latency on the MSLT increased in the EXT group, but not the HAB group. Similarly, finger withdrawal latency was increased (pain sensitivity was reduced) in the EXT group but not the HAB group. The nightly increase in sleep time during the four experimental nights was correlated with the improvement in MSLT, which in turn was correlated with reduced pain sensitivity. Conclusions: These are the first data to show that an extended bedtime in mildly sleepy healthy adults, which resulted in increased sleep time and reduced sleepiness, reduces pain sensitivity. Citation: Roehrs TA; Harris E; Randall S; Roth T. Pain sensitivity and recovery from mild chronic sleep loss. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1667-1672. PMID:23204609

  15. Mild MPP(+) exposure impairs autophagic degradation through a novel lysosomal acidity-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Masatsugu; Kotake, Yaichiro; Tokunaga, Wataru; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, but its underlying cause remains unknown. Although recent studies using PD-related neurotoxin MPP(+) suggest autophagy involvement in the pathogenesis of PD, the effect of MPP(+) on autophagic processes under mild exposure, which mimics the slow progressive nature of PD, remains largely unclear. We examined the effect of mild MPP(+) exposure (10 and 200 μM for 48 h), which induces a more slowly developing cell death, on autophagic processes and the mechanistic differences with acute MPP(+) toxicity (2.5 and 5 mM for 24 h). In SH-SY5Y cells, mild MPP(+) exposure predominantly inhibited autophagosome degradation, whereas acute MPP(+) exposure inhibited both autophagosome degradation and basal autophagy. Mild MPP(+) exposure reduced lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D activity without changing lysosomal acidity, whereas acute exposure decreased lysosomal density. Lysosome biogenesis enhancers trehalose and rapamycin partially alleviated mild MPP(+) exposure induced impaired autophagosome degradation and cell death, but did not prevent the pathogenic response to acute MPP(+) exposure, suggesting irreversible lysosomal damage. We demonstrated impaired autophagic degradation by MPP(+) exposure and mechanistic differences between mild and acute MPP(+) toxicities. Mild MPP(+) toxicity impaired autophagosome degradation through novel lysosomal acidity-independent mechanisms. Sustained mild lysosomal damage may contribute to PD. We examined the effects of MPP(+) on autophagic processes under mild exposure, which mimics the slow progressive nature of Parkinson's disease, in SH-SY5Y cells. This study demonstrated impaired autophagic degradation through a reduction in lysosomal cathepsin D activity without altering lysosomal acidity by mild MPP(+) exposure. Mechanistic differences between acute and mild MPP(+) toxicity were also observed. Sustained mild damage of lysosome may be an underlying cause

  16. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0584 TITLE: A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sept 2014 – 26 Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...augmentation for cognitive training intervention to improve memory performance in older Veterans with a diagnosis of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

  17. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  18. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  19. Prevalence of mild behavioral impairment in mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline, and its association with caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faisal; Ismail, Zahinoor; Mortby, Moyra E; Barber, Philip; Cieslak, Alicja; Fischer, Karyn; Granger, Robert; Hogan, David B; Mackie, Aaron; Maxwell, Colleen J; Menon, Bijoy; Mueller, Patricia; Patry, David; Pearson, Dawn; Quickfall, Jeremy; Sajobi, Tolulope; Tse, Eric; Wang, Meng; Smith, Eric E

    2017-09-07

    Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes later life acquired, sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in cognitively normal individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as an at-risk state for incident cognitive decline and dementia. We developed an operational definition of MBI and tested whether the presence of MBI was related to caregiver burden in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or MCI assessed at a memory clinic. MBI was assessed in 282 consecutive memory clinic patients with SCD (n = 119) or MCI (n = 163) in accordance with the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria. We operationalized a definition of MBI using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit caregiver burden scale. Generalized linear regression was used to model the effect of MBI domains on caregiver burden. While MBI was more prevalent in MCI (85.3%) than in SCD (76.5%), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Prevalence estimates across MBI domains were affective dysregulation (77.8%); impulse control (64.4%); decreased motivation (51.7%); social inappropriateness (27.8%); and abnormal perception or thought content (8.7%). Affective dysregulation (p = 0.03) and decreased motivation (p=0.01) were more prevalent in MCI than SCD patients. Caregiver burden was 3.35 times higher when MBI was present after controlling for age, education, sex, and MCI (p < 0.0001). MBI was common in memory clinic patients without dementia and was associated with greater caregiver burden. These data show that MBI is a common and clinically relevant syndrome.

  20. Spanish version of the Bayer Activities of Daily Living scale in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease: discriminant and concurrent validity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Benavides, G; Manero, R M; Quiñones-Ubeda, S; de Sola, S; Quintana, M; Peña-Casanova, J

    2009-01-01

    To test the discriminant and concurrent validity of the Spanish version of the Bayer Activities of Daily Living scale (B-ADL) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The B-ADL scale, the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), and the Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living in Dementia (IDDD) were administered to 277 elderly Spanish patients (78 MCI and 199 AD). Correlations between scales were performed, and ROC curves were plotted. In MCI and mild AD discrimination, an area under the ROC curve of 0.84 was found; a cut-off point of 3.3 was proposed with values of 0.81 for sensitivity and 0.72 for specificity. The B-ADL correlated positively to both the BDRS (r = 0.7) and the IDDD (r = 0.8). The B-ADL is a valid and sensitive scale that can be used to discriminate mild AD from MCI.

  1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Stennis Watson, G.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. Design Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Setting Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System clinical research unit. Participants Thirty-three adults (17 women) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment ranging in age from 55 to 85 years (mean age,70 years). Intervention Participants were randomized either to a high-intensity aerobic exercise or stretching control group. The aerobic group exercised under the supervision of a fitness trainer at 75% to 85% of heart rate reserve for 45 to 60 min/d, 4 d/wk for 6 months. The control group carried out supervised stretching activities according to the same schedule but maintained their heart rate at or below 50% of their heart rate reserve. Before and after the study, glucometabolic and treadmill tests were performed and fat distribution was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, month 3, and month 6, blood was collected for assay and cognitive tests were administered. Main Outcome Measures Performance measures on Symbol-Digit Modalities, Verbal Fluency, Stroop, Trails B, Task Switching, Story Recall, and List Learning. Fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulinlike growth factor-I, and β-amyloids 40 and 42. Results Six months of high-intensity aerobic exercise had sex-specific effects on cognition, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trophic activity despite comparable gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat reduction. For women, aerobic exercise improved performance on multiple tests of executive function, increased glucose disposal during the metabolic clamp, and reduced fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. For men

  2. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, W.J.; Mauger, D.T.; Paul, I.M.; Moy, J.N.; Boehmer, S.J.; Szefler, S.J.; Fitzpatrick, A.M.; Jackson, D.J.; Bacharier, L.B.; Cabana, M.D.; Covar, R.; Holguin, F.; Lemanske, R.F.; Martinez, F.D.; Pongracic, J.A.; Beigelman, A.; Baxi, S.N.; Benson, M.; Blake, K.; Chmiel, J.F.; Daines, C.L.; Daines, M.O.; Gaffin, J.M.; Gentile, D.A.; Gower, W.A.; Israel, E.; Kumar, H.V.; Lang, J.E.; Lazarus, S.C.; Lima, J.J.; Ly, N.; Marbin, J.; Morgan, W.J.; Myers, R.E.; Olin, J.T.; Peters, S.P.; Raissy, H.H.; Robison, R.G.; Ross, K.; Sorkness, C.A.; Thyne, S.M.; Wechsler, M.E.; Phipatanakul, W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies have suggested an association between frequent acetaminophen use and asthma-related complications among children, leading some physicians to recommend that acetaminophen be avoided in children with asthma; however, appropriately designed trials evaluating this association in children are lacking. METHODS In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 300 children (age range, 12 to 59 months) with mild persistent asthma and assigned them to receive either acetaminophen or ibuprofen when needed for the alleviation of fever or pain over the course of 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the number of asthma exacerbations that led to treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. Children in both treatment groups received standardized asthma-controller therapies that were used in a simultaneous, factorially linked trial. RESULTS Participants received a median of 5.5 doses (interquartile range, 1.0 to 15.0) of trial medication; there was no significant between-group difference in the median number of doses received (P = 0.47). The number of asthma exacerbations did not differ significantly between the two groups, with a mean of 0.81 per participant with acetaminophen and 0.87 per participant with ibuprofen over 46 weeks of follow-up (relative rate of asthma exacerbations in the acetaminophen group vs. the ibuprofen group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.28; P = 0.67). In the acetaminophen group, 49% of participants had at least one asthma exacerbation and 21% had at least two, as compared with 47% and 24%, respectively, in the ibuprofen group. Similarly, no significant differences were detected between acetaminophen and ibuprofen with respect to the percentage of asthma-control days (85.8% and 86.8%, respectively; P = 0.50), use of an albuterol rescue inhaler (2.8 and 3.0 inhalations per week, respectively; P = 0.69), unscheduled health care utilization for asthma (0.75 and 0.76 episodes per participant

  3. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  4. Effects of mild forelimb lameness on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Parente, E J; Russau, A L; Birks, E K

    2002-09-01

    Mild lameness is considered a performance-limiting problem that may escape detection until it worsens, and is considered the primary reason for reduced racing performance. The kinematics changes associated with a lame horse at the trot have been demonstrated previously, but the metabolic cost of these alterations in their gait have not been demonstrated. Six fit Thoroughbred horses with an established VO2max participated in 4 trials using a randomised cross-over design study, separated by 10-14 days. The horses were tested with one of 4 trial conditions: lead forelimb lameness (LL); off-lead forelimb lameness (OL); bilateral forelimb lameness (BL) or no lameness (NL). Lameness was induced by sole pressure from a modified shoe that resulted in a consistent slight head nod at a trot in a straight line while jogging in hand. Lameness was adjusted to provide a lameness that would be quantified as a 1-2/5 on the grading system recommended by the AAEP. Each trial consisted of 4 different levels of exercise intensity at speeds equivalent to 30, 60, 80 and 110% of an individual's speed required to elicit VO2max. Stride parameters, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), electrolytes, plasma lactate, glucose and PCV/TP were measured prior to exercise, at each exercise level and after exercise. A multiway ANOVA with repeated measures was utilised to examine possible effects of individual horse, lameness, and exercise intensity on measured parameters. Significance was set at alpha = 0.05. For horses exercising at the maximum intensity, VO2 was significantly lower for both of the single-leg lamenesses (LL or OL) when compared to NL or BL (mean +/- s.e. 165.6 +/- 2.5, 164.7 +/- 3.0, 175.8 +/- 2.4 and 170.9 +/- 2.1 ml O2/min/kg bwt, respectively). Blood lactate concentrations were not significantly different among the treatment groups. However, lactate accumulation rates computed as the change with time in lactate concentration at the highest exercise

  5. Permanent post-concussion symptoms after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    King, Nigel S; Kirwilliam, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A small minority of individuals experience long-term or permanent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) after a mild head injury (MHI). There has been no systematic, quantitative research examining a wide range of variables in a representative sample of such patients (i.e. with PCS for more than 18 months). This study explores a broad spectrum of demographic, cognitive, emotional and psychosocial factors (known to be important in the development of early PCS) in a representative sample of patients with permanent PCS. One hundred consecutively referred patients to a Community Head Injury Service in Buckinghamshire, UK for the treatment of persistent PCS, at least 18 months post-MHI, were identified and invited to participate. An exploratory design evaluated a range of demographic, cognitive, emotional and psychosocial variables and their relationship to PCS severity and quality-of-life (QoL). Twenty-four participants, with a mean time post-injury of 6.9 years, responded. They were characterized by: (i) older age compared to those typically presenting with MHI, (ii) very high levels of PCS, (iii) high post-injury unemployment, (iv) pre- or post-morbid factors which might exacerbate post-concussional difficulties, (v) elevated levels of anxiety and depression and (vi) mildly reduced scores on tests of short-term memory and speed of information processing. Post-hoc analysis of the total sample (n = 100) confirmed older age and a high proportion having pre- or post-morbid factors. QoL negatively correlated with PCS severity, and anxiety scores accounted for 45.9% of the variance in PCS severity. Very high levels of PCS, high post-injury unemployment and measurable cognitive deficits can be permanent features of MHI. Quality-of-life is directly related to symptom severity. Age, pre-/post-morbid concomitant factors, neuropsychological deficits and emotional status are key variables in understanding the phenomenon of permanent PCS. Important vulnerability factors in the

  6. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, William J; Mauger, David T; Paul, Ian M; Moy, James N; Boehmer, Susan J; Szefler, Stanley J; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Cabana, Michael D; Covar, Ronina; Holguin, Fernando; Lemanske, Robert F; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Beigelman, Avraham; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Chmiel, James F; Daines, Cori L; Daines, Michael O; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah A; Gower, W Adam; Israel, Elliot; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Morgan, Wayne J; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Thyne, Shannon M; Wechsler, Michael E; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-08-18

    Studies have suggested an association between frequent acetaminophen use and asthma-related complications among children, leading some physicians to recommend that acetaminophen be avoided in children with asthma; however, appropriately designed trials evaluating this association in children are lacking. In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 300 children (age range, 12 to 59 months) with mild persistent asthma and assigned them to receive either acetaminophen or ibuprofen when needed for the alleviation of fever or pain over the course of 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the number of asthma exacerbations that led to treatment with systemic glucocorticoids. Children in both groups received standardized asthma-controller therapies that were used in a simultaneous, factorially linked trial. Participants received a median of 5.5 doses (interquartile range, 1.0 to 15.0) of trial medication; there was no significant between-group difference in the median number of doses received (P=0.47). The number of asthma exacerbations did not differ significantly between the two groups, with a mean of 0.81 per participant with acetaminophen and 0.87 per participant with ibuprofen over 46 weeks of follow-up (relative rate of asthma exacerbations in the acetaminophen group vs. the ibuprofen group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.28; P=0.67). In the acetaminophen group, 49% of participants had at least one asthma exacerbation and 21% had at least two, as compared with 47% and 24%, respectively, in the ibuprofen group. Similarly, no significant differences were detected between acetaminophen and ibuprofen with respect to the percentage of asthma-control days (85.8% and 86.8%, respectively; P=0.50), use of an albuterol rescue inhaler (2.8 and 3.0 inhalations per week, respectively; P=0.69), unscheduled health care utilization for asthma (0.75 and 0.76 episodes per participant, respectively; P=0.94), or adverse events. Among

  7. Shifting patterns of mild weather in response to projected radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Kapnick, Sarah; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, climate change research has focused on changes in mean climate (e.g. global mean temperature, sea level rise, glacier melt) or change in extreme events (e.g. hurricanes, extreme precipitation, droughts, heat waves, wild fires). Though extreme events have the potential to disrupt society, extreme conditions are rare by definition. In contrast, mild weather occurs frequently and many human activities are built around it. Examples of such activities include football games, dog walks, bike rides, and outdoor weddings, but also activities of direct economic impact, e.g. construction work, infrastructure projects, road or rail transportation, air travel, and landscaping projects. Absence of mild weather impacts society in various way, understanding current and future mild weather is therefore of high scientific interest. We present a global analysis of mild weather based on simple and relatable criteria and we explore changes in mild weather occurrence in response to radiative forcing. A high-resolution global climate model, GFDL HiFLOR, is used to allow for investigation of local features and changes. In response to RCP4.5, we find a slight global mean decrease in the annual number of mild days projected both in the near future (-4 d/yr, 2016-2035) and at the end of this century (-10 d/yr, 2081-2100). Projected regional and seasonal redistributions of mild days are substantially greater. Tropical regions are projected to see large decreases, in the mid-latitudes small increases in the number of mild days are projected. Mediterranean climates are projected to see a shift of mild weather away from the local summer to the shoulder seasons. These changes are larger than the interannual variability of mild weather caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Finally, we use reanalysis data to show an observed global decrease in the recent past, and we verify that these observed regional changes in mild weather resemble the projections.

  8. Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2012-01-01

    Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  10. Automatic Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Electroencephalogram Spectral Features.

    PubMed

    Kashefpoor, Masoud; Rabbani, Hossein; Barekatain, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most expensive and fatal diseases in the elderly population. Up to now, no cure have been found for AD, so early stage diagnosis is the only way to control it. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) usually is the early stage of AD which is defined as decreasing in mental abilities such a cognition, memory, and speech not too severe to interfere daily activities. MCI diagnosis is rather hard and usually assumed as normal consequences of aging. This study proposes an accurate, mobile, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. EEG signals were recorded using 19 electrodes positioned according to the 10-20 International system at resting eyes closed state from 16 normal and 11 MCI participants. Nineteen Spectral features are computed for each channel and examined using a correlation based algorithm to select the best discriminative features. Selected features are classified using a combination of neurofuzzy system and k-nearest neighbor classifier. Final results reach 88.89%, 100%, and 83.33% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively, which shows the potential of proposed method to be used as an MCI diagnostic tool, especially for screening a large population.

  11. Verbal learning strategy following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Geary, Elizabeth K; Kraus, Marilyn F; Rubin, Leah H; Pliskin, Neil H; Little, Deborah M

    2011-07-01

    That learning and memory deficits persist many years following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial due to inconsistent objective evidence supporting subjective complaints. Our prior work demonstrated significant reductions in performance on the initial trial of a verbal learning task and overall slower rate of learning in well-motivated mTBI participants relative to demographically matched controls. In our previous work, we speculated that differences in strategy use could explain the differences in rate of learning. The current study serves to test this hypothesis by examining strategy use on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition. Our present findings support the primary hypothesis that mTBI participants under-utilize semantic clustering strategies during list-learning relative to control participants. Despite achieving comparable total learning scores, we posit that the persisting learning and memory difficulties reported by some mTBI patients may be related to reduced usage of efficient internally driven strategies that facilitate learning. Given that strategy training has demonstrated improvements in learning and memory in educational and occupational settings, we offer that these findings have translational value in offering an additional approach in remediation of learning and memory complaints reported by some following mTBI.

  12. Naturalistic measures of prospective memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Delprado, Jacinta; Kinsella, Glynda; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn

    2013-06-01

    Several studies have now reported that individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are impaired on laboratory-based measures of prospective memory (PM). However, the age-PM paradox has revealed that impairment observed in the laboratory does not necessarily reflect functioning in day-to-day life. The current study examined naturalistic measures of PM by comparing participants with aMCI to healthy older adults on experimenter-introduced PM tasks (Experiment 1) and on participants' own, self-generated PM tasks (Experiment 2). Individuals with aMCI were found to be globally impaired on each of the naturalistic measures of PM Strategy use was found to be a distinguishing feature between the two groups with healthy older adults using more written strategies, whereas individuals with aMCI relied more on another person providing a reminder. Also of note was that both groups only used strategies around half the time for their own PM tasks. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for interventions and the day-to-day functioning of individuals with aMCI, a population that is struggling to maintain independence in the community. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacy A; Canlas, Lauren L; Potts, Jennifer; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a tripling in the consumption of small cigars and cigarillos, with further increases expected because cigar products are not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations. Acute toxin exposure from cigar smoking is difficult to assess because unlike cigarettes, cigars vary widely in size, design, composition, and in the smoking behavior of their consumers. For example, a recent practice among urban youth is to remove the paper liner (i.e., "freaking") of a small cigar in the belief that it is this paper liner that leads to addiction and cancer. We examined acute exposure (CO and nicotine boosts) and puffing behavior in 12 participants (10 men) who smoked (ad lib) their usual conventional cigarette, a Black & Mild cigar (B&M) and a B&M without the paper liner (i.e., "freaked" [B&Mf]). All products (cigarettes, B&M, and B&Mf) significantly increased heart rate and CO with a trend for plasma nicotine. Nicotine boost was significantly higher after cigarette smoking than both B&M and B&Mf, while CO boost was significantly greater after B&M and B&Mf than cigarettes. The CO boost after B&M was larger than after B&Mf. These findings suggest that small cigar smoking is associated with smoke inhalation that leads to significant exposure to nicotine, CO, and presumably other components of tobacco smoke and that removing the inner liner does not substantially reduce toxin exposure.

  14. Randomized treatment trial in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Omar; McCullagh, Scott; Ouchterlony, Donna; Feinstein, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether multidisciplinary treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) improves neurobehavioral outcome at 6 months postinjury. Subjects with MTBI were randomly assigned to treatment (n=97) or nontreatment (control, n=94) groups. Treated patients were assessed within 1 week of injury and thereafter managed by a multidisciplinary team according to clinical need for a further 6 months. Control subjects were not offered treatment. Six-month outcome measures included: severity of postconcussive symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Disorder Questionnaire), psychosocial functioning (Rivermead Follow-up Questionnaire), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), and cognition (neurocognitive battery). Treatment and control subjects were well-matched for demographic and MTBI severity data. In addition, the two groups did not differ on any outcome measure. However, in individuals with preinjury psychiatric difficulties (22.9% of the entire sample), subjects in the treatment group had significantly fewer depressive symptoms 6 months postinjury compared with untreated controls (P=.01). These findings suggest that routine treatment of all MTBI patients offers little benefit; rather, targeting individuals with preinjury psychiatric problems may prove a more rational and cost-effective approach.

  15. Thermally Stable Mesoporous Silica Spheres synthesized under Mild Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Christopher; You, Eunyoung; Watkins, James

    2009-03-01

    Thermally stable, mesoporous silica spheres were synthesized using a one-pot technique under mild conditions. As-calcined silica spheres were shown to be highly porous with surface areas greater than 1000 m^2/g and pore volumes on the order of 1 cc/g. Pore walls were found to be highly resistant to collapse as a consequence of thermal treatment at temperatures exceeding 750 C or hydrothermal treatment in boiling water at temperatures exceeding 100 C for over 100 hours. ^29Si-^1H cross polarization NMR data indicate that the silica is highly condensed at the surface providing rationale for the exceptional pore wall stability observed. The mesoporous silica spheres were synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at room temperature and near-neutral pH using cysteamine and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in a mixed water and ethanol system. Sphere size was shown to be tunable by altering the relative amounts of ethanol, CTAB, or TEOS. Sphere diameters ranging from 30 nm to 560 nm were observed. The preparation method and characterization of these highly condensed, thermally stable, mesoporous silica spheres for applications including sensing, catalysis, purification, and payload encapsulation is presented.

  16. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Naismith, Laura M.; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = −.43 to −.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  17. Determining client cognitive status following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Elizabeth; Lannin, Natasha A; Taylor, Amelia; Farquhar, Michelle; Morarty, Jacqui; Unsworth, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    People with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) commonly experience cognitive impairments. Occupational therapists working in acute general hospitals in Australia routinely access client Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, and assess cognitive status using standardized tools and by observing basic activity of daily living (ADL) performance. However, limited evidence exists to identify the best assessment(s) to determine client cognitive status. To determine whether cognitive status assessed by GCS score and the Cognistat are predictive of basic ADL performance among clients with mTBI in an acute general hospital and make inferences concerning the clinical utility of these assessment tools. Retrospective analysis of medical record data on demographics, Cognistat, GCS, and modified Barthel Index (MBI) using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and linear regression. Data analysis of 166 participants demonstrated that no associations exist between GCS and Cognistat scores, or Cognistat scores and MBI dependency level. The presence of co-morbid multi-trauma injuries and length of stay were the only variables that significantly predicted MBI dependency level. While the MBI scores are of value in identifying clients with difficulty in basic ADLs, Cognistat and GCS scores are of limited use in differentiating client levels of cognitive impairment and the authors caution against the routine administration of the Cognistat following mTBI. Further research is required to identify more suitable assessments for use with a mTBI population.

  18. Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryant, Sid E.; Johnson, Leigh; Reisch, Joan; Edwards, Melissa; Hall, James; Barber, Robert; Devous, Michael; Royall, Donald; Singh, Meharvan

    2013-01-01

    Background While a great deal of literature has focused on risk factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), little published work examines risk for MCI among Mexican Americans. Methods Data from 1628 participants (non-Hispanic n= 1002; Mexican American n=626) were analyzed from two ongoing studies of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, Project FRONTIER and TARCC. Results When looking at the full cohorts (non-Hispanic and Mexican American), age, education, APOE ε4 status and gender were consistently related to MCI diagnosis across the two cohorts. However, when split by ethnicity advancing age was the only significant risk factor for MCI among Mexican Americans across both cohorts. Conclusions The current data suggests that many of the previously established risk factors for MCI among non-Hispanic cohorts may not be predictive of MCI among Mexican Americans and point to the need for additional work aimed at understanding factors related to cognitive aging among this underserved segment of the population. PMID:23643456

  19. Anosognosia and Anosodiaphoria in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Maria; Bjork, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the occurrence of anosognosia (lack of awareness) and anosodiaphoria (insouciance) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the influence of a worsening of dementia on these phenomena. Methods A self-evaluation scale was used assessing degrees of anosognosia and anosodiaphoria; furthermore, a neuropsychological assessment and statistical analyses with nonparametric tests which could cope with data on an ordinal scale level and small samples were employed. Results Cognitive ability was lower in AD (n = 9) than in MCI patients (n = 12), but AD patients self-rated lower cognitive disabilities, which is interpreted as one relative sign of anosognosia in AD. Awareness of the reasons for cognitive problems was also lower in AD, which is considered as another sign of anosognosia. The main pattern in MCI found that the higher the awareness, the lower the cognitive ability. In AD low awareness paralleled low cognitive functioning. Anosodiaphoria was present in AD but not in MCI. Conclusion According to the literature anosognosia and anosodiaphoria seem to increase with progression of dementia from MCI as a result of right hemispheric alterations. PMID:25759713

  20. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity.

  1. Ophthalmologic Psychophysical Tests Support OCT Findings in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramirez, Ana I.; Yubero, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Triviño, Alberto; Ramirez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze in mild Alzheimer's disease (MAD) patients, GDS-4 (Reisberg Scale), whether or not some psychophysical tests (PTs) support OCT macular findings in the same group of MAD patients reported previously. Methods. Twenty-three MAD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini Mental State Examination of 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) (3, 6, 12, and 18 cpds), color perception (CP), and perception digital test (PDT) were tested in one eye of each patient. Results. In comparison with the controls, MAD patients presented (i) a significant decrease in VA, PDT, and CS for all spatial frequencies analyzed, especially the higher ones, and (ii) a significant increase in unspecific errors on the blue axis (P < 0.05 in all instances). In MAD patients, a wide aROC curve was plotted in all PTs. Conclusions. In MAD, CS, VA, and the tritan axis in CP were impaired. The PTs with the greatest predictive value are the higher spatial frequencies in CS and tritan unspecific errors in CP. PT abnormalities are consistent with the structural findings reported in the same MAD patients using OCT. PMID:26106485

  2. Socially assistive robotics for stroke and mild TBI rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Matarić, Maja; Tapus, Adriana; Winstein, Carolee; Eriksson, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary research project aimed at developing and evaluating effective and user-friendly non-contact robot-assisted therapy, aimed at in-home use. The approach stems from the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience that seeks to understand phenomena in terms of interactions between the social, cognitive, and neural levels of analysis. This technology-assisted therapy is designed to be safe and affordable, and relies on novel human-robot interaction methods for accelerated recovery of upper-extremity function after lesion-induced hemiparesis. The work is based on the combined expertise in the science and technology of non-contact socially assistive robotics and the clinical science of neurorehabilitation and motor learning, brought together to study how to best enhance recovery after stroke and mild traumatic brain injury. Our approach is original and promising in that it combines several ingredients that individually have been shown to be important for learning and long-term efficacy in motor neurorehabilitation: (1) intensity of task specific training and (2) engagement and self-management of goal-directed actions. These principles motivate and guide the strategies used to develop novel user activity sensing and provide the rationale for development of socially assistive robotics therapy for monitoring and coaching users toward personalized and optimal rehabilitation programs.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

  4. Multimodal MRI classification in vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Diciotti, Stefano; Ciulli, Stefano; Ginestroni, Andrea; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI) is a disorder in which multimodal MRI can add significant value by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with brain morphometry. In this study we implemented and compared machine learning techniques for multimodal classification between 58 VMCI patients and 29 healthy subjects as well as for discrimination (within the VMCI group) between patients with different cognitive performances. For each subject, a cortical feature vector was constructed based on cortical parcellation and cortical and subcortical volumetric segmentation and a DTI feature vector was formed by combining descriptive statistical metrics related to the distribution of DTI invariants within white matter. We employed both a sequential minimal optimization and a functional tree classifier, using feature selection and 10-fold cross-validation, and compared their performances in monomodal and multimodal classification for both classification problems (healthy subjects vs VMCI and prediction of cognitive performance). While monomodal classification resulted in satisfactory performance in most cases, turning from monomodal to multimodal classification resulted in an improvement of the performance in the discrimination between VMCI patients with low cognitive performance and healthy subjects by up to 10% in sensitivity (leaving specificity unchanged). We therefore are able to confirm the usefulness of machine learning techniques in discriminating diseased states based on neuroimaging data.

  5. Brazilian Bentonite Submitted to Mild Acid Treatment Under Moderated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C. G. Bastos; Justo, V. F.; Fermino, D. M.; Valenzuela, M. G. S.; Volzone, C.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F. R.

    The present paper presents the study of light green smectite clay, from Paraiba, Brazil, submitted to mild acid attack under moderated conditions. Usually, clays are subjected to treatment with strong inorganic acids at temperatures near the boiling point and at high acid concentrations and then, widely used as bleaching agents. The treatment occurred under bellow boiling temperature and at short times of reaction (90°C, reaction times of 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours in close reactor, concentration of the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 1.5 M, clay/acid solution ratio of 1g/10mL). The purpose of these attacks is to reduce the concentration of impurities providing color, with minimal change in the clay minerals structure, aiming at use in products of high value such as cosmetics and polymer/clay nanocomposites. The raw clay and the attacked samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), cation exchange capacity (CEC), stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS).

  6. [Dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a review].

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Pineda, David

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. The cognitive disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) have traditionally been associated with the presence of dementia in later stages of the disease. Recent studies, however, consider that cognitive impairment can appear as of early stages. Knowing the cognitive profile of PD furthers our understanding of the clinical phenotype, making it easier to reach a timely diagnosis and favouring intervention on the symptoms from the initial stages. AIM. To present a review of the literature on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia associated with PD. DEVELOPMENT. Several studies report that patients with PD who have a prolonged time to progression develop dementia. Yet, there have also been reports claiming that, as of the early stages, patients can present subtle cognitive alterations known as MCI. The initial neuropsychological profile is mainly of a non-amnesic type, characterised by executive dysfunction, alterations affecting attention, operative memory deficit and faulty retrieval of information. When patients develop dementia, disorders will arise in the storage of information, in semantic fluency, and in visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. Currently there are criteria available for diagnosing the MCI and dementia associated with PD, as well as valid reliable instruments for detecting those disorders. CONCLUSIONS. Cognitive symptoms are frequent in PD. From the initial stages of the disease onwards patients may present MCI that is mainly characterised by a fronto-subcortical cognitive profile, whereas dementia usually develops at later stages, when a pattern of posterior cortical cognitive disorder is also observed.

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Hanlon, Faith M

    2015-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers great promise for elucidating the neuropathology associated with a single or repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current review discusses the physiological underpinnings of the blood-oxygen level dependent response and how trauma affects the signal. Methodological challenges associated with fMRI data analyses are considered next, followed by a review of current mTBI findings. The majority of evoked studies have examined working memory and attentional functioning, with results suggesting a complex relationship between cognitive load/attentional demand and neuronal activation. Researchers have more recently investigated how brain trauma affects functional connectivity, and the benefits/drawbacks of evoked and functional connectivity studies are also discussed. The review concludes by discussing the major clinical challenges associated with fMRI studies of brain-injured patients, including patient heterogeneity and variations in scan-time post-injury. We conclude that the fMRI signal represents a complex filter through which researchers can measure the physiological correlates of concussive symptoms, an important goal for the burgeoning field of mTBI research.

  8. Clinical-neuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pa, Judy; Boxer, Adam; Chao, Linda L; Gazzaley, Adam; Freeman, Katie; Kramer, Joel; Miller, Bruce L; Weiner, Michael W; Neuhaus, John; Johnson, Julene K

    2009-04-01

    Subgroups of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been proposed, but few studies have investigated the nonamnestic, single-domain subgroup of MCI. The goal of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of two single-domain MCI subgroups: amnestic MCI and dysexecutive MCI. We compared the cognitive, functional, behavioral, and brain imaging characteristics of patients with amnestic MCI (n = 26), patients with dysexecutive MCI (n = 32), and age- and education-matched control subjects (n = 36) using analysis of variance and chi(2) tests. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine group differences in brain magnetic resonance imaging atrophy patterns. Patients with dysexecutive MCI had significantly lower scores on the majority of executive function tests, increased behavioral symptoms, and left prefrontal cortex atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging when compared with control subjects. In contrast, patients with amnestic MCI had significantly lower scores on tests of memory and a pattern of atrophy including bilateral hippocampi and entorhinal cortex, right inferior parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus when compared with control subjects. Overall, the clinical and neuroimaging findings provide support for two distinct single-domain subgroups of MCI, one involving executive function and the other involving memory. The brain imaging differences suggest that the two MCI subgroups have distinct patterns of brain atrophy.

  9. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  10. Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, H; Bandak, A; Ling, G; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, direct physical evidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blast has been difficult to obtain through conventional imaging modalities such as T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we review current progress in detecting evidence of brain injury from explosive blast using advanced imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and the metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where each targets different aspects of the pathology involved in mTBI. DTI provides a highly sensitive measure to detect primary changes in the microstructure of white matter tracts. fMRI enables the measurement of changes in brain activity in response to different stimuli or tasks. Remarkably, all three of these paradigms have found significant success in conventional mTBI where conventional clinical imaging frequently fails to provide definitive differences. Additionally, although used less frequently for conventional mTBI, PET has the potential to characterize a variety of neurotransmitter systems using target agents and will undoubtedly play a larger role, once the basic mechanisms of injury are better understood and techniques to identify the injury are more common. Finally, our MRSI imaging studies, although acquired at much lower spatial resolution, have demonstrated selectivity to different metabolic and physiologic processes, uncovering some of the most profound differences on an individual by individual basis, suggesting the potential for utility in the management of individual patients.

  11. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals.

  12. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdivant, Nasya M.; Smith, Sean G.; Ali, Syed F.; Wolchok, Jeffrey C.; Balachandran, Kartik

    2016-09-01

    Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema. We hypothesized that mTBI-mediated astrocyte dysfunction, initiated by increased intracellular volume, could be reduced when treated with AZA. We tested our hypothesis in a three-dimensional in vitro astrocyte model of mTBI. Samples were subject to no stretch (control) or one high-speed stretch (mTBI) injury. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. Cell death and expression of S100B was significantly reduced when AZA was added shortly before mTBI stretch. Overall, our data point to occurrence of astrocyte swelling immediately following mTBI, and AZA as a promising treatment to mitigate downstream cellular mortality.

  13. Dynamics of mild strombolian activity on Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pering, T. D.; Tamburello, G.; McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; James, M. R.; Lane, S. J.; Sciotto, M.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.

    2015-07-01

    Here we report the first measurements of gas masses released during a rare period of strombolian activity at the Bocca Nuova crater, Mt. Etna, Sicily. UV camera data acquired for 195 events over an ≈ 27 minute period (27th July 2012) indicate erupted SO2 masses ranging from ≈ 0.1 to ≈ 14 kg per event, with corresponding total gas masses of ≈ 0.1 to 74 kg. Thus, the activity was characterised by more frequent and smaller events than typically associated with strombolian activity on volcanoes such as Stromboli. Events releasing larger measured gas masses were followed by relatively long repose periods before the following burst, a feature not previously reported on from gas measurement data. If we assume that gas transport within the magma can be represented by a train of rising gas pockets or slugs, then the high frequency of events indicates that these slugs must have been in close proximity. In this case the longer repose durations associated with the larger slugs would be consistent with interactions between adjacent slugs leading to coalescence, a process expedited close to the surface by rapid slug expansion. We apply basic modelling considerations to the measured gas masses in order to investigate potential slug characteristics governing the observed activity. We also cross correlated the acquired gas fluxes with contemporaneously obtained seismic data but found no relationship between the series in line with the mild form of manifest explosivity.

  14. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  15. Borderlines between Sarcopenia and Mild Late-Onset Muscle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmio, Johanna; Udd, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Numerous natural or disease-related alterations occur in different tissues of the body with advancing age. Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength beginning in mid-adulthood and accelerating in people older than 60 years. Pathophysiology of sarcopenia involves both neural and muscle dependent mechanisms and is enhanced by multiple factors. Aged muscles show loss in fiber number, fiber atrophy, and gradual increase in the number of ragged red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. Generalized loss of muscle tissue and increased amount of intramuscular fat are seen on muscle imaging. However, the degree of these changes varies greatly between individuals, and the distinction between normal age-related weakening of muscle strength and clinically significant muscle disease is not always obvious. Because some of the genetic myopathies can present at a very old age and be mild in severity, the correct diagnosis is easily missed. We highlight this difficult borderline zone between sarcopenia and muscle disease by two examples: LGMD1D and myotonic dystrophy type 2. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool to help differentiate myopathies from sarcopenia and to reach the correct diagnosis also in the elderly. PMID:25324776

  16. Chronic permanent hypoxemia predisposes to mild elevation of liver stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Tahiri, Mohamed; Drighil, Abdenasser; Jalal, Yasmine; Ghellab, Dounia; Hliwa, Wafaa; Fouad, Haddad; Badre, Wafaa; Bellabah, Ahmad; Habbal, Rachida; Alaoui, Rhimou

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of long term permanent hypoxemia noticed in patients with non operated congenital cyanogenic cyanotic cardiopathy on liver stiffness. METHODS: We included ten adult patients with non operated inoperate cyanotic cardiopathy and ten matched patients for age and gender admitted to the gastroenterology department for proctologic diseases; Clinical and laboratory data were collected [age, gender, body mass index, oxygen saturation, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glycemia and cholesterol]. Measurement of hepatic stiffness by transient elastography was carried out in all patients using the Fibroscan device. All patients underwent an echocardiography to eliminate congestive heart failure. RESULTS: Among the patients with cyanotic cardiopathy, median liver stiffness 5.9 ± 1.3 kPa was greater than control group (4.7 ± 0.4 kPa) (P = 0.008). Median levels of GOT, GPT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glycemia and cholesterol were comparable in cardiopathy and control group. In regression analysis including age, gender, body mass index, oxygen saturation, GOT, GPT, glycemia, cholesterol showed that only oxygen saturation was related to liver stiffness (r = -0.63 P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Chronic permanent hypoxemia can induce mild increase of liver stiffness, but further studies are needed to explore the histological aspects of liver injury induced by chronic permanent hypoxemia. PMID:25132776

  17. Ileal adenocarcinoma in a mild phenotype of abetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shali, K; Wang, J; Rosen, F; Hegele, R A

    2003-02-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by defective assembly and secretion of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. This disorder results from mutations in the MTP gene encoding the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. We report a 58-year-old male homozygote for a missense mutation, S590I, in MTP. The patient had a lifelong history of fat malabsorption, but was only diagnosed with ABL at age 52, based upon such classic features as absence of apo B-containing lipoproteins, acanthocytosis, atypical retinitis pigmentosa and markedly depressed serum beta-carotene concentration. However, his presentation was notable not only by survival to the sixth decade of life without specific treatment, but also by the absence of neurological involvement and by normal serum vitamin E concentration. He subsequently developed adenocarcinoma of the ileum, which required ileal resection. Therefore, this missense mutation appears to be associated with a late-presenting and relatively mild ABL phenotype that lacks some classical features, particularly neuropathy, but appears to be associated with other atypical features, specifically small intestinal cancer.

  18. Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Raquel C.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Every year an estimated 42 million people worldwide suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion. More severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, large epidemiological studies have additionally identified MTBI as a risk factor for dementia. The role of MTBI in risk of PD or ALS is less well established. Repetitive MTBI and repetitive sub-concussive head trauma has been linked to increased risk for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a unique neurodegenerative tauopathy first described in boxers but more recently described in a variety of contact sport athletes, military veterans, and civilians exposed to repetitive MTBI. Studies of repetitive MTBI and CTE have been limited by referral bias, lack of consensus clinical criteria for CTE, challenges of quantifying MTBI exposure, and potential for confounding. The prevalence of CTE is unknown and the amount of MTBI or sub-concussive trauma exposure necessary to produce CTE is unclear. This review will summarize the current literature regarding the epidemiology of MTBI, post-TBI dementia and Parkinson's disease, and CTE while highlighting methodological challenges and critical future directions of research in this field. PMID:25748121

  19. Dysexecutive Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Derailment in Temporal Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Penney, Dana L.; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W.; Libon, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. PMID:22014116

  20. A systematic review of treatments for Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Claudia; Li, Ryan; Lyketsos, Constantine; Livingston, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Background More people are presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), frequently a precursor to dementia but we do not know how to reduce deterioration. Aims To systematically review Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) evaluating effects of any intervention for MCI on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, functional, global outcomes, life quality, or incident dementia. Methods We reviewed the 41 studies fitting predetermined criteria, assessed validity using a checklist, calculated standardised outcomes, and prioritised primary outcome findings in placebo-controlled studies. Results The strongest evidence was that cholinesterase inhibitors did not reduce incident dementia. Cognition improved in single trials of: a heterogeneous psychological group intervention over 6 months; piribedil, a dopamine agonist over 3 months; and donepezil over 48 weeks. Nicotine improved attention over 6 months. There was equivocal evidence that Huannao Yicong improved cognition and social functioning. Conclusions There was no replicated evidence that any intervention was effective. Cholinesterase inhibitors and rofecoxib are ineffective in preventing dementia. Further good quality RCTs are necessary and preliminary evidence suggests these should include trials of psychological group interventions and piribedil. PMID:24085737

  1. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, SangYun; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  2. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  3. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sturdivant, Nasya M.; Smith, Sean G.; Ali, Syed F.; Wolchok, Jeffrey C.; Balachandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema. We hypothesized that mTBI-mediated astrocyte dysfunction, initiated by increased intracellular volume, could be reduced when treated with AZA. We tested our hypothesis in a three-dimensional in vitro astrocyte model of mTBI. Samples were subject to no stretch (control) or one high-speed stretch (mTBI) injury. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. Cell death and expression of S100B was significantly reduced when AZA was added shortly before mTBI stretch. Overall, our data point to occurrence of astrocyte swelling immediately following mTBI, and AZA as a promising treatment to mitigate downstream cellular mortality. PMID:27623738

  4. Learning temporal statistics for sensory predictions in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardi Luft, Caroline; Baker, Rosalind; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-08-01

    Training is known to improve performance in a variety of perceptual and cognitive skills. However, there is accumulating evidence that mere exposure (i.e. without supervised training) to regularities (i.e. patterns that co-occur in the environment) facilitates our ability to learn contingencies that allow us to interpret the current scene and make predictions about future events. Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated fronto-striatal and medial temporal lobe brain regions in the learning of spatial and temporal statistics. Here, we ask whether patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) that are characterized by hippocampal dysfunction are able to learn temporal regularities and predict upcoming events. We tested the ability of MCI-AD patients and age-matched controls to predict the orientation of a test stimulus following exposure to sequences of leftwards or rightwards orientated gratings. Our results demonstrate that exposure to temporal sequences without feedback facilitates the ability to predict an upcoming stimulus in both MCI-AD patients and controls. However, our fMRI results demonstrate that MCI-AD patients recruit an alternate circuit to hippocampus to succeed in learning of predictive structures. In particular, we observed stronger learning-dependent activations for structured sequences in frontal, subcortical and cerebellar regions for patients compared to age-matched controls. Thus, our findings suggest a cortico-striatal-cerebellar network that may mediate the ability for predictive learning despite hippocampal dysfunction in MCI-AD.

  5. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ryon; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  6. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  7. NOX Activity Is Increased in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunita; Parrino, Taryn E.; Knight, Alecia G.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Weidner, Adam M.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a longitudinally followed group of patients. This group included both control and late-stage AD subjects, and also subjects with preclinical AD and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to evaluate the profile of NOX in the earliest stages of dementia. Data show significant elevations in NOX activity and expression in the temporal gyri of MCI patients as compared with controls, but not in preclinical or late-stage AD samples, and not in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical evaluations of NOX expression indicate that whereas microglia express high levels of gp91phox, moderate levels of gp91phox also are expressed in neurons. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that NOX inhibition blunted the ability of oligomeric amyloid beta peptides to injure cultured neurons. Collectively, these data show that NOX expression and activity are upregulated specifically in a vulnerable brain region of MCI patients, and suggest that increases in NOX-associated redox pathways in neurons might participate in the early pathogenesis of AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1371–1382. PMID:19929442

  8. VOC destruction by water diluted hydrogen mild combustion.

    PubMed

    Sabia, P; Romeo, F; de Joannon, M; Cavaliere, A

    2007-06-01

    This study represents a preliminary numerical evaluation of the effect of steam dilution and hydrogen addition on the oxidation of formaldehyde and benzene, chosen as representative of the volatile organic compounds (VOC), in mild condition by evaluating the autoignition time and the steady state attainment. These parameters are important in the design of thermal VOC destruction plants since they influence the abatement efficiency and, therefore, the plant dimension. It has come out that, in comparison with the system diluted in nitrogen, steam induces lower autoignition times and, on the other hand, longer times for the attainment of the steady state. In contrast, for very high water content the autoignition time slightly increases. In particular results have shown that is possible to identify an optimum value of steam content that allows for the attainment of the steady state condition by the lowest residence time. Hydrogen addition to systems diluted in nitrogen promotes the oxidation reactions and anticipates the steady state condition. In steam diluted systems hydrogen delays the autoignition of the mixtures even though anticipates the attainment of the complete destruction of the VOC. The rate of production analysis has showed that the H(2)/O(2) reactions, that promote the ignition and the destruction of VOC, are sensibly modified by the presence of water and hydrogen.

  9. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  10. The chemical composition of the mild barium star HD 202109

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, A. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Kim, C.; Liang, Y. C.; Musaev, F. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of the mild barium star HD 202109 (\\zeta Cyg) determined from the analysis of a spectrum obtained by using the 2-m telescope at the Peak Terskol Observatory and a high-resolution spectrometer with R=80 000, signal to noise ratio >100. We also present the atmospheric parameters of the star determined using various methods including iron-line abundance analysis. For line identifications, we use whole-range synthetic spectra computed from Kurucz's database and the latest lists of spectral lines. Among the determined abundances of 51 elements, those of P, S, K, Cu, Zn, Ge, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, In, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Hf, Os, Ir, Pt, Tl, and Pb were not investigated previously. Assuming that the overabundance pattern of Ba stars is due to binary accretion, the observed abundance pattern of the neutron-capture process elements in HD 202109 can be explained by combining the AGB star nucleosynthesis and the wind accretion scenario. Based on observations obtained at the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol observatory near Mt. Elbrus, Northern Caucasus, Russia - International Center for Astronomical, Medical and Ecological Research (ICAMER), Ukraine & Russia.

  11. The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ossher, Lynn; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT.

  12. Microstructure characteristics of laser MIG hybrid welded mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Jun; Hu, Qianwu

    2008-07-01

    To deepen the understanding of laser-arc hybrid welding, the weld shape and microstructure characteristics of laser-metal inert gas hybrid welded mild steel were analyzed. The results showed typical hybrid weld could be classified as two parts: the wide upper zone and the narrow nether zone, which were defined as arc zone and laser zone, respectively. In the hybrid weld, the microstructure, alloy element distribution and microhardness all have evident difference between laser zone and arc zone. The microstructure of arc zone consists of coarse columnar dendrite and fine acicular dendrite between the columnar dendrites, but that of laser zone is composed of fine equiaxed dendrite in weld center and columnar dendrite around the equiaxed dendrite. Compared to arc zone, laser zone has finer grain size, higher microhardness, smaller alloy element content in the fusion zone and narrower heat affected zone. The discussions demonstrated that the observed difference was caused by the difference of temperature gradient, crystallizing and the effects of arc pressure on the molten pool between laser zone and arc zone.

  13. Mild hydrolysis of 2-trifluoromethylphenol: kinetics, mechanism and environmental relevance.

    PubMed

    Reinscheid, Uwe M; Vervoort, Jacques; Zuilhof, Han

    2006-10-01

    2-Trifluoromethylphenol was hydrolysed in a phosphate buffer at neutral pH. At mild temperatures ranging from 34 degrees C to 69 degrees C this compound liberates consecutively fluorine anions to form salicylic acid. This process is energetically driven by the hydration of the fluorine anions. No intermediates have been detected by HPLC and (19)F-NMR and this was confirmed by computer calculations which favor the first step in the whole reaction sequence being rate-limiting. Accordingly, the reaction energy of the first dehalogenation of the trifluoromethyl anion is 28.4 kcal mol(-1) higher than for the second dehalogenation. The pseudo-first-order kinetic was determined and from an Arrhenius diagram an activation energy of E(a)=25.1 kcal mol(-1) has been estimated. At 37 degrees C and a pH of 7.4 the half-life was 6.9 h. The rate of hydrolysis was favored at higher pH and it was not influenced by oxygen, sunlight or trace elements found in natural water. The latter was shown by incubations with lake water instead of distilled water.

  14. Epidemiology of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Laker, Scott R

    2011-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common public health concern that affects millions of people each year. The available epidemiology of mTBI may contain insights that can guide future identification, prevention, and treatment efforts. This article discusses epidemiology of both non-sports-related mTBI and sports-related concussion. Specific occupational factors, emergency department data, and meta-analysis regarding mTBI are reviewed and discussed. With regard to sports concussion, the article will discuss data related to the sport played, the individual's position, level of play, and gender differences. Although males make up a larger percentage of cases than do females throughout the majority of reviewed non-sports-related mTBI data, the sports literature indicates that rates are higher in women when similar sports are compared. Identifiable risk factors within sports include female gender, sport, and position played. Emerging trends across mTBI include increased incidence and decreased rate of hospitalization for mTBI.

  15. Mild traumatic brain injury in the occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor H; Lombard, Lisa A; Greher, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    The evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the occupational setting may pose significant challenges for even the most-seasoned practitioner. Providers must simultaneously address the clinical management of mTBI and be familiar with the systematic and administrative requirements related to the management of injured workers with mTBI who are covered by workers' compensation insurance, including causation, return to work, and the potential of permanent impairment. Given the primarily subjective nature of many mTBI symptoms, an injured worker with a delayed recovery may raise the question, if not suspicion, of symptom magnification and secondary gain. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of the injured worker with mTBI, and focuses on the medicolegal issues that are present in the workers' compensation system, especially the role of neuropsychological evaluations. Although significant differences exist regarding classification schema, for the purposes of this discussion, mTBI is used to encompass the terms concussion, postconcussive syndrome, and persistent postconcussive syndrome.

  16. Reversible neuropsychological deficits after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Hiltbrunner, B; Dill, C; Kesselring, J

    2000-06-01

    To determine the influence of motivation on performance in a divided attention test of patients after mild traumatic brain injury (MBI). Comparison of the performance of 12 patients with MBI with 10 patients with severe brain injury (SBI) and 11 healthy controls in a computer supported divided attention task before (T1) and after (T2) verbal motivation. At T1, the MBI group performed the same as the SBI group but significantly worse than the controls in all variables. At T2, the MBI group performed worse than the controls at T2 but the results were equal to the results of the controls at T1 and significantly better than the SBI group at T1 or T2. At T2 the MBI group performed at the level of published norms for the rest. Before verbal motivation the MBI group's results in the divided attention task were comparable with those from patients with severe brain injury. They failed to exploit their performance potential when it depended on self motivation but were able to perform at the level of the control group when external motivation was applied.

  17. Effects of mild cognitive impairment on emotional scene memory.

    PubMed

    Waring, J D; Dimsdale-Zucker, H R; Flannery, S; Budson, A E; Kensinger, E A

    2017-02-01

    Young and older adults experience benefits in attention and memory for emotional compared to neutral information, but this memory benefit is greatly diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about whether this impairment arises early or late in the time course between healthy aging and AD. This study compared memory for positive, negative, and neutral items with neutral backgrounds between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults. We also used a divided attention condition in older adults as a possible model for the deficits observed in MCI patients. Results showed a similar pattern of selective memory for emotional items while forgetting their backgrounds in older adults and MCI patients, but MCI patients had poorer memory overall. Dividing attention during encoding disproportionately reduced memory for backgrounds (versus items) relative to a full attention condition. Participants performing in the lower half on the divided attention task qualitatively and quantitatively mirrored the results in MCI patients. Exploratory analyses comparing lower- and higher-performing MCI patients showed that only higher-performing MCI patients had the characteristic scene memory pattern observed in healthy older adults. Together, these results suggest that the effects of emotion on memory are relatively well preserved for patients with MCI, although emotional memory patterns may start to be altered once memory deficits become more pronounced.

  18. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Leodante; Jetly, Rakesh; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG) from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz), together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8–12 Hz). A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI. PMID:27906973

  19. Complicated vs uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury: acute neuropsychological outcome.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to carefully examine the effects of a complicated vs uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on acute neuropsychological outcome. Participants were derived from an archival trauma database. This is a retrospective matched groups design. All patients were seen through a Head Injury Trauma Service clinical pathway. To be included, all patients must have undergone a day-of-injury CT scan and completed a small battery of neuropsychological tests within 2 weeks of injury. Patients were sorted into two groups on the basis of having a normal or abnormal CT scan. Patients were then carefully matched on age, education, gender and mode of injury (e.g. car accident, fall or assault). The final sample consisted of 100 patients, with 50 in each group. The patients with complicated MTBIs performed significantly more poorly on some of the neuropsychological tests. However, the effect sizes were small or medium and the two groups could not be differentiated using logistic regression analysis. The reasons why people recover slowly or fail to recover fully from MTBIs remain poorly understood. Visible structural brain damage carries increased risk for slow and incomplete recovery, but certainly does not provide an explanation for good or poor outcome in the majority of patients.

  20. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  1. Hydrodynamical Interaction of Mildly Relativistic Ejecta with an Ambient Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    The hydrodynamical interaction of spherical ejecta freely expanding at mildly relativistic speeds into an ambient cold medium is studied in semianalytical and numerical ways to investigate how ejecta produced in energetic stellar explosions dissipate their kinetic energy through the interaction with the surrounding medium. We especially focus on the case in which the circumstellar medium (CSM) is well represented by a steady wind at a constant mass-loss rate, having been ejected from the stellar surface prior to the explosion. As a result of the hydrodynamical interaction, the ejecta and CSM are swept by the reverse and forward shocks, leading to the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We present a semianalytical model describing the dynamical evolution of the shell and compare the results with numerical simulations. The shell can give rise to bright emission as it gradually becomes transparent to photons. We develop an emission model for the expected emission from the optically thick shell, in which photons in the shell gradually diffuse out to the interstellar space. Then we investigate the possibility that radiation powered by the hydrodynamical interaction is the origin of an underluminous class of gamma-ray bursts.

  2. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

  3. Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Martin A.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Wuu, Joanne; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent cholinergic basal forebrain neurons degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Elevated proNGF and reduced levels of the TrkA high-affinity NGF receptor occur in prodromal and advanced stages of AD. We recently described a protease cascade responsible for the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF (mNGF) in which matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades mNGF in the extracellular space. To determine whether this proteolytic cascade is altered during the progression of AD, we examined human frontal and parietal cortex tissue from aged subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or no cognitive impairment (NCI). The analysis demonstrated greater MMP-9 activity in both AD and MCI compared to NCI brain samples (p < 0.01), which supports the notion that a metabolic failure in the NGF-maturation/degradation pathway may be associated with an exacerbated degradation of mNGF in the cerebral cortex in early AD. Moreover, there were inverse correlations between Global Cognitive Score and Mini-Mental State Examination score and MMP-9 activity. These findings suggest that a reduction in mNGF as a consequence of MMP-9-mediated degradation may in part underlie the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in MCI and AD. PMID:19915485

  4. Cognitive Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Yan; Li, Li; Xiao, Jia Qing; He, Chang Zhi; Lyu, Xiu Lin; Gao, Lei; Yang, Xiao Wei; Cui, Xin Gang; Fan, Li Hua

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Forty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitive training occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). Following training, cognitive abilities improved in the treatment group, based on the total scores of all 4 measures, as well as specifically on the MoCA and LOTCA. There were differences in the main effects of group and time point on some subscales, but these differences had little, if any, effect on the overall analyses. The present study demonstrated that cognitive training has beneficial effects on attention, language, orientation, visual perception, organization of visual movement, and logical questioning in patients with MCI. Furthermore, the observed effects are long-term changes. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Thalamic Shape and Cognitive Performance in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Changtae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Won, Wang Yeon; Joo, Soo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate thalamic shape alterations and their relationships with various episodic memory impairments in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods We compared volumes and morphological alterations of the thalamus between aMCI subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between thalamic deformations and various memory impairments in aMCI subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results The normalized left thalamic volumes of the aMCI group were significantly smaller than those of the healthy control group (p<0.0001). aMCI subjects exhibited significant thalamic deformations in the left thalamic dorso-medial and antero-medial areas compared with healthy individuals. CERAD-K Word List Memory scores were significantly correlated with the left dorso-medial areas in aMCI subjects. There were no significant correlations between verbal fluency, Boston naming test, constructional praxis, Word List Recognition, and Visuospatial Recall scores and thalamic shape in aMCI subjects. Verbal delayed recall scores were also significantly correlated with the left dorso-medial areas in the aMCI group. Conclusion Structural alterations in the thalamic deformations in the left dorso-medial and antero-medial areas might be core underlying neurobiological mechanisms of thalamic dysfunction related to Word List Memory and delayed verbal recall in individuals with aMCI. PMID:27757128

  6. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs.

  7. Ventilatory response of the newborn infant to mild hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, G; Malcolm, G; Henderson-Smart, D

    1997-09-01

    The transition from an immature (biphasic) to a mature (sustained hyperpneic) response to a brief period of sustained hypoxia is believed to be well advanced by postnatal day 10 for newborn infants. However, a review of the supporting evidence convinced us that this issue warranted further, more systematic investigation. Seven healthy term infants aged 2 days to 8 weeks were studied. The ventilatory response (VR) elicited by 5 min breathing of 15% O2 was measured during quiet sleep. Arterial SaO2 (pulse oximeter) and minute ventilation (expressed as a change from control, delta V'i) were measured continuously. Infants were wrapped in their usual bedding and slept in open cots at room temperature (23 degrees-25 degrees). Infants aged 2-3 days exhibited predominantely a sustained hypopnea during the period of hypoxia (delta V'i = -2% at 1 min, -13% at 5 min). At 8 weeks of age, the mean response was typically biphasic (delta V'i = +9% at 1 min, -4% at 5 min). This age-related difference between responses was statistically significant (two-way ANOVA by time and age-group; interaction P < 0.05). These data reveal that term infants studied under ambient conditions during defined quiet sleep may exhibit an immature VR to mild, sustained hypoxia for at least 2 months after birth. This suggests that postnatal development of the O2 chemoreflex is slower than previously thought.

  8. Cost Template for Meaningful Activity Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yueh-Feng Lu, Yvonne; Bakas, Tamilyn; Haase, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare cost estimates for a pilot study of the Daily Enhancement of Meaningful Activity (DEMA) intervention for persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI)-caregiver dyads. Background The increasing complexity of the health care system and rising health care costs, have forced nurse scientists to find ways to effectively improve health care quality and control cost, but no studies have examined costs for new programs that target PwMCI-caregiver dyads. Description of the project Pilot study data were used to develop a cost template and calculate the cost of implementing the DEMA. Outcomes Mean cost per dyad was estimated to be $1,327.97 in the clinical setting, compared with $1,069.06 if a telephone delivery mode had been used for four of the six face-to-face sessions. This difference was largely due to transportation-related expenses and staff cost. Implications DEMA should be evaluated further with larger and more diverse samples as a technology-delivered health promotion program that could reduce costs. PMID:23392066

  9. Caregivers in China: knowledge of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Mei, John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali; Pacheco, Misty; Wu, Bei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1) initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2) experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3) perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost), they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term "laonian chidai" which literally translates to "stupid, demented elderly" may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members' worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI.

  10. Reversible neuropsychological deficits after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Keller, M; Hiltbrunner, B; Dill, C; Kesselring, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the influence of motivation on performance in a divided attention test of patients after mild traumatic brain injury (MBI).
METHODS—Comparison of the performance of 12 patients with MBI with 10 patients with severe brain injury (SBI) and 11 healthy controls in a computer supported divided attention task before (T1) and after (T2) verbal motivation.
RESULTS—At T1, the MBI group performed the same as the SBI group but significantly worse than the controls in all variables. At T2, the MBI group performed worse than the controls at T2 but the results were equal to the results of the controls at T1 and significantly better than the SBI group at T1 or T2. At T2 the MBI group performed at the level of published norms for the rest.
CONCLUSION—Before verbal motivation the MBI group's results in the divided attention task were comparable with those from patients with severe brain injury. They failed to exploit their performance potential when it depended on self motivation but were able to perform at the level of the control group when external motivation was applied.

 PMID:10811701

  11. Elevated Osteopontin Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Yin, Xue Song; Guo, Hong; Han, Rong Kun; He, Rui Dong; Chi, Li Jun

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the function of OPN in AD and MCI progression is not well defined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from 35 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 20 other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND). Concentrations of OPN in the CSF and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During a 3-year clinical followup, 13 MCI patients converted to AD (MCI converters), and 18 were clinically stable (MCI nonconverters). CSF OPN concentrations were significantly increased in AD and MCI converters compared to OND, and increased levels of OPN in AD were associated with MMSE score; OPN protein levels both in the CSF and plasma of newly diagnosed AD patients were higher than that of chronical patients. In MCI converters individuals tested longitudinally, both plasma and CSF OPN concentrations were significantly elevated when they received a diagnosis of AD during followup. Further wide-scale studies are necessary to confirm these results and to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in AD. PMID:23576854

  12. Reasons for mild parkinsonian signs - which constellation may indicate neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Lerche, Stefanie; Brockmann, Kathrin; Wurster, Isabel; Gaenslen, Alexandra; Roeben, Benjamin; Holz, Daniel; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) are common in the elderly population. Several factors including physical decline and comorbidities in addition to neurodegeneration may be possible sources for MPS. The objective was to examine whether MPS are associated with a history of orthopedic disturbances, vascular diseases or prodromal markers for neurodegeneration. The TREND study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study in individuals >50 years with biennial assessments designed to identify prodromal markers for neurodegeneration. In this substudy, 1091 elderly individuals were evaluated for a possible association of MPS with prodromal markers for neurodegeneration, orthopedic disturbances, vascular diseases, as well as cerebral abnormalities. These factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, with a structured health interview, a neurological examination and by transcranial sonography. 82 participants showed MPS. They were found to have more often hyposmia and RBD, had a higher autonomic dysfunction score and they more frequently showed hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra compared to controls. Neither orthopedic disturbances nor vascular diseases were significantly associated with the prevalence of MPS. MPS might be a sign of early neurodegeneration rather than caused by other motor influencing diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of patients with mild to moderate primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Blair, Janis E; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Vaszar, Laszlo T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Orenstein, Robert; Kusne, Shimon; Ho, Stanford; Seville, Maria T; Parish, James M

    2014-06-01

    In Arizona, USA, primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis accounts for 15%-29% of community-acquired pneumonia. To determine the evolution of symptoms and changes in laboratory values for patients with mild to moderate coccidioidomycosis during 2010-2012, we conducted a prospective 24-week study of patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Of the 36 patients, 16 (44%) were men and 33 (92%) were White. Median age was 53 years, and 20 (56%) had received antifungal treatment at baseline. Symptom scores were higher for patients who received treatment than for those who did not. Median times from symptom onset to 50% reduction and to complete resolution for patients in treatment and nontreatment groups were 9.9 and 9.1 weeks, and 18.7 and 17.8 weeks, respectively. Median times to full return to work were 8.4 and 5.7 weeks, respectively. One patient who received treatment experienced disseminated infection. For otherwise healthy adults with acute coccidioidomycosis, convalescence was prolonged, regardless of whether they received antifungal treatment.

  14. Characteristics of Patients with Mild to Moderate Primary Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Hui H.; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Vaszar, Laszlo T.; Vikram, Holenarasipur R.; Orenstein, Robert; Kusne, Shimon; Ho, Stanford; Seville, Maria T.; Parish, James M.

    2014-01-01

    In Arizona, USA, primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis accounts for 15%–29% of community-acquired pneumonia. To determine the evolution of symptoms and changes in laboratory values for patients with mild to moderate coccidioidomycosis during 2010–2012, we conducted a prospective 24-week study of patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Of the 36 patients, 16 (44%) were men and 33 (92%) were White. Median age was 53 years, and 20 (56%) had received antifungal treatment at baseline. Symptom scores were higher for patients who received treatment than for those who did not. Median times from symptom onset to 50% reduction and to complete resolution for patients in treatment and nontreatment groups were 9.9 and 9.1 weeks, and 18.7 and 17.8 weeks, respectively. Median times to full return to work were 8.4 and 5.7 weeks, respectively. One patient who received treatment experienced disseminated infection. For otherwise healthy adults with acute coccidioidomycosis, convalescence was prolonged, regardless of whether they received antifungal treatment. PMID:24865953

  15. Cognitive rehabilitation in patients with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Majid; Alavirad, Maryam; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Emsaki, Golita; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nonamnesic type of mild cognitive impairment (na-MCI) is predementia state with subtle decline incognitive domains except memory. Although cognitive rehabilitation (CR) has been investigated in amnesic type of MCI, we could not find any trial that rehabilitated na-MCI exclusively. We studied the effectiveness of CR on na-MCI. Materials and Methods: This study was a blinded, randomized clinical trial. Individuals with age of 60 years or more, complete self-directedness and diagnosis of na-MCI, based on Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive assessment tool, were selected. The 51 patients were randomly assigned into three groups: CR, lifestyle (LS) modification, and the control group (CG). Neuropsychological tests for executive functioning were assessed at the baseline, after the interventions, and 6 months later. Results: The mean score of the “design fluency” test increased significantly in CR, compared to LS and CG (P = 0.007). In “five-point” test, mean score increased significantly in CR (P = 0.03). There was higher mean score of Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults in CR (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Consideration of the MCI subtypes allows us to target specific cognitive domains, such as information processing, for better CR outcome. CR may result in better performance of executive functioning of daily living. PMID:28250778

  16. Mild cognitive deficits in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a major target organ for cortisol considering its high density of glucocorticoid receptors. Several states of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation point towards impairments in cognitive functioning. However, there is a very limited body of research on the effects of hypocortisolism on cognitive functioning. To evaluate cognitive functioning in patients with hypocortisolism (i.e., primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI)) and to examine the possible effect of postponing early-morning hydrocortisone intake on cognitive functioning. Thirty-one patients with PAI on regular morning hydrocortisone intake and 31 healthy matched controls underwent nine neuropsychological tests, evaluating memory and executive functioning. In addition, the effect of normal timing and postponement of morning hydrocortisone intake on neuropsychological tests were assessed in an additional 29 patients with PAI. Compared to controls, patients with PAI performed worse on auditory and visual memory tasks (all P ≤ 0.024) and executive functioning tasks (all P ≤ 0.012). In contrast, patients performed better on a concentration and an attention task (both P<0.05). Postponement of hydrocortisone intake in the morning did not affect the outcomes of neuropsychological tests. Patients on long-term hydrocortisone replacement for PAI show mild cognitive deficits compared to controls. There was no effect of postponement of regular hydrocortisone intake on cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Perla; Korczyn, Amos D

    2008-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas. PMID:18982912

  18. Precuneus Structure Changes in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Robert; Werner, Annett; Gruschwitz, Antonia; Osterrath, Antje; Lange, Jan; Donix, Katharina L; Linn, Jennifer; Donix, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI. In contrast to healthy people, patients with aMCI showed an association of cortical thinning in the precuneus with predominantly left-hemispheric thickness reductions in medial temporal and frontal cortices. Our data highlight structural neuronal network characteristics among patients with aMCI.

  19. Automatic Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Electroencephalogram Spectral Features

    PubMed Central

    Kashefpoor, Masoud; Rabbani, Hossein; Barekatain, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most expensive and fatal diseases in the elderly population. Up to now, no cure have been found for AD, so early stage diagnosis is the only way to control it. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) usually is the early stage of AD which is defined as decreasing in mental abilities such a cognition, memory, and speech not too severe to interfere daily activities. MCI diagnosis is rather hard and usually assumed as normal consequences of aging. This study proposes an accurate, mobile, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. EEG signals were recorded using 19 electrodes positioned according to the 10–20 International system at resting eyes closed state from 16 normal and 11 MCI participants. Nineteen Spectral features are computed for each channel and examined using a correlation based algorithm to select the best discriminative features. Selected features are classified using a combination of neurofuzzy system and k-nearest neighbor classifier. Final results reach 88.89%, 100%, and 83.33% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively, which shows the potential of proposed method to be used as an MCI diagnostic tool, especially for screening a large population. PMID:27014609

  20. Mild Hyperthermia Downregulates Receptor-dependent Neutrophil Function

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Dieter; Wittmann, Sigrid; Rothe, Gregor; Sessler, Daniel I.; Vogel, Peter; Taeger, Kai

    2005-01-01

    Mild hypothermia impairs resistance to infection and, reportedly, impairs phagocytosis and oxidative killing of un-opsonized bacteria. We evaluated various functions at 33 to 41°C in neutrophils taken from volunteers. Adhesion on endothelial cells was determined using light microscopy. Adhesion molecules expression and receptors, phagocytosis, and release of reactive oxidants were assessed using flow cytometric assays. Adhesion protein CD11b expression on resting neutrophils was temperature independent. However, upregulation of CD11b with TNF-α was increased by hypothermia and decreased with hyperthermia. Neutrophil adhesion to either resting or activated endothelial cells was not temperature dependent. Bacterial uptake was inversely related to temperature, more so with E. coli than S. aureus. Temperature dependence of phagocytosis occurred only with opsonized bacteria. Hypothermia slightly increased N-Formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) receptors on neutrophils: hyperthermia decreased expression, especially with TNF-α. FMLP-induced H2O2 production was inversely related to temperature, especially in the presence of TNF-α. Conversely, phorbol-13-myristate-12-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, induced an extreme and homogenous release of reactive oxidants that increased with temperature. In contrast to non-receptor dependent phagocytosis and oxidative killing, several crucial receptor-dependent neutrophil activities show temperature-dependent regulation, with hypothermia increasing function. The temperature dependence of neutrophil function is thus more complicated than previously appreciated. PMID:15281545

  1. Metabolic and endocrine factors in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Etgen, Thorleif; Bickel, Horst; Förstl, Hans

    2010-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition with cognitive changes between normal aging and dementia. Some forms of MCI are regarded as potential preclinical forms of dementia. The control of treatable somatic risk factors is of great relevance in patients with MCI, particularly as there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of interventions targeting neurodegenerative processes, as used in manifest dementia. The etiology of MCI is varied including cerebrovascular risk factors and is also associated with metabolic and endocrine factors. Chronic kidney disease is a newly identified and independent risk factor for MCI. Testosterone substitution is useful if a low testosterone level is present but general screening for testosterone deficiency is not yet recommended. A relationship between MCI and vitamin D or subclinical thyroid dysfunction may exist, but the value of substitution is doubtful and requires large randomized placebo-controlled trials. Although an association between vitamin B12 deficiency or hyperhomocysteinemia and MCI is present, substitution of vitamin B12 or folate does not appear to prevent cognitive decline. Estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy may be considered only in younger postmenopausal women, but may have detrimental effects on cognitive function in older postmenopausal women. Other less familiar or unknown risk factors contributing to cognitive dysfunction should be identified as they are a potential target of prevention or intervention of MCI or dementia. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suspected non-AD pathology in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wisse, Laura E M; Butala, Nirali; Das, Sandhitsu R; Davatzikos, Christos; Dickerson, Bradford C; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev N; Yushkevich, Paul A; Wolk, David A

    2015-12-01

    We aim to better characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (SNAP) based on their longitudinal outcome, cognition, biofluid, and neuroimaging profile. MCI participants (n = 361) from ADNI-GO/2 were designated "amyloid positive" with abnormal amyloid-beta 42 levels (AMY+) and "neurodegeneration positive" (NEU+) with abnormal hippocampal volume or hypometabolism using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. SNAP was compared with the other MCI groups and with AMY- controls. AMY-NEU+/SNAP, 16.6%, were older than the NEU- groups but not AMY- controls. They had a lower conversion rate to AD after 24 months than AMY+NEU+ MCI participants. SNAP-MCI participants had similar amyloid-beta 42 levels, florbetapir and tau levels, but larger white matter hyperintensity volumes than AMY- controls and AMY-NEU- MCI participants. SNAP participants performed worse on all memory domains and on other cognitive domains, than AMY-NEU- participants but less so than AMY+NEU+ participants. Subthreshold levels of cerebral amyloidosis are unlikely to play a role in SNAP-MCI, but pathologies involving the hippocampus and cerebrovascular disease may underlie the neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in this group.

  3. [Descriptive study of behavioural disorders in mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Baquero, M; Blasco, R; Campos-García, A; Garcés, M; Fages, E M; Andreu-Català, M

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an abnormality in cognitive function not provoking a noticeable disability in activities of daily living in the affected person. In a group of patients with MCI, we propose to observe and to quantify the presence of behavioral disorders, using the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). NPI is a known instrument in evaluation of this kind of disorders in patients with dementia, and it is a semi structured interview with a relevant informer or relative to the patient. NPI was applied to a series of 100 cases (61 women and 39 men) of MCI, diagnosed as usual in our settings. Mean age was 74.3 +/- 10 years, and mean MEC (Spanish modified version of MMSE) 25.57 +/- 4.2 (over a maximum of 35 points). Most prevalent disorder was depression, in 36 % of cases, and other frequent findings were irritability (35%), anxiety (24%) and apathy (19%). In some cases, agitation (4%), abnormal motor behavior (3%) and delusions (1%) were detected. Hallucination, disinhibition and euphoria or elation were not detected in this series. Data show a certain similarity with occidental culture environment, globally considered. The presence of behavioral and psychological disorders in patients with MCI could be a marker for later development of dementia. NPI can be a usable tool when detection and evaluation of these symptoms is required.

  4. Discriminant analysis of multiple cortical changes in mild cognitive impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Congling; Guo, Shengwen; Lai, Chunren; Wu, Yupeng; Zhao, Di; Jiang, Xingjun

    2017-02-01

    To reveal the differences in brain structures and morphological changes between the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the normal control (NC), analyze and predict the risk of MCI conversion. First, the baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) images of 73 NC, 46 patients with stable MCI (sMCI) and 40 patients with converted MCI (cMCI) were selected. Second, the FreeSurfer was used to extract the cortical features, including the cortical thickness, surface area, gray matter volume and mean curvature. Third, the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination method (SVM-RFE) were adopted to determine salient features for effective discrimination. Finally, the distribution and importance of essential brain regions were described. The experimental results showed that the cortical thickness and gray matter volume exhibited prominent capability in discrimination, and surface area and mean curvature behaved relatively weak. Furthermore, the combination of different morphological features, especially the baseline combined with the longitudinal changes, can be used to evidently improve the performance of classification. In addition, brain regions with high weights predominately located in the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe, which were relative to emotional control and memory functions. It suggests that there were significant different patterns in the brain structure and changes between the compared group, which could not only be effectively applied for classification, but also be used to evaluate and predict the conversion of the patients with MCI.

  5. Interference Impacts Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; García-Pacios, Javier; del Río, David; López, María E.; Pineda-Pardo, José A.; Marcos, Alberto; Delgado Losada, Maria L.; López-Frutos, José M.; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control. PMID:27790082

  6. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  7. Task-dependent posterior cingulate activation in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ries, Michele L; Schmitz, Taylor W; Kawahara, Tisha N; Torgerson, Britta M; Trivedi, Mehul A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2006-01-15

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is functionally compromised in individuals diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In functional MRI studies with healthy participants, this same region is active during self-appraisal (requiring retrieval of semantic knowledge about the self) as well as episodic recognition of previously learned information. Administering both types of tasks to people with MCI may reveal important information on the role of the PCC in recollection. This study investigated fMRI activation in the PCC in individuals with MCI and matched controls across two tasks. The first task was a visual episodic recognition task. The second task was an autobiographical self-appraisal task in which subjects rated themselves on a set of trait adjectives. Results of a conjunction analysis revealed the PCC as the sole region commonly active during both tasks in the healthy older adults. Furthermore, additional analysis revealed an interaction in the PCC, indicating a task-dependent response in the MCI group. MCI participants showed PCC activation during self-appraisal, but not episodic retrieval. This result suggests in MCI that the PCC shows functional degradation during episodic retrieval; however, the PCC's role in retrieval and evaluation of highly elaborated information regarding the self is more well-preserved.

  8. Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-05-01

    Every year an estimated 42 million people worldwide suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion. More severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, large epidemiological studies have additionally identified MTBI as a risk factor for dementia. The role of MTBI in risk of PD or ALS is less well established. Repetitive MTBI and repetitive sub-concussive head trauma have been linked to increased risk for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a unique neurodegenerative tauopathy first described in boxers but more recently described in a variety of contact sport athletes, military veterans, and civilians exposed to repetitive MTBI. Studies of repetitive MTBI and CTE have been limited by referral bias, lack of consensus clinical criteria for CTE, challenges of quantifying MTBI exposure, and potential for confounding. The prevalence of CTE is unknown and the amount of MTBI or sub-concussive trauma exposure necessary to produce CTE is unclear. This review will summarize the current literature regarding the epidemiology of MTBI, post-TBI dementia and Parkinson's disease, and CTE while highlighting methodological challenges and critical future directions of research in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Traumatic Brain Injury.

  9. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    PubMed

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  10. Interference Impacts Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; García-Pacios, Javier; Del Río, David; López, María E; Pineda-Pardo, José A; Marcos, Alberto; Delgado Losada, Maria L; López-Frutos, José M; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  11. Executive memory dysfunctions following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nolin, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    To explore the contribution of executive dysfunctions to mnemonic problems in adults with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Prospective quasiexperimental between-groups design. Ninety-nine persons with MTBI were compared to 90 control group participants matched for gender, age, and education. Two Canadian brain injury rehabilitation programs. California Verbal Learning Test. Participants with MTBI showed a significant deficit in free recall on the California Verbal Learning Test but performed similarly to the comparison group on the recognition task. Furthermore, the participants with MTBI were less likely to use semantic clustering as a memorizing strategy and made more intrusion errors and false-positive errors on the recognition task. While the scores for the participants with MTBI are only slightly lower than the norm, they demonstrate that MTBI has a negative effect on mnemonic performance. The results are explained in terms of a deficit in registration/retrieval processes rather than a malfunction of the storage processes. This supports the initial hypothesis that executive dysfunctions are detrimental to the quality of mnemonic functions in patients with MTBI.

  12. Semantic knowledge for famous names in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups: 23 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 9-18.).

  13. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of mild TBI and PTSD: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia B; Lee-Wilk, Terry; Kok, Brian C; Wilk, Joshua E

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion on the battlefield in Iraq/Afghanistan has resulted in its designation as a 'signature injury'. Civilian studies have shown that negative expectations for recovery may lead to worse outcomes. While there is concern that concussion screening procedures in the Veteran's Affairs Healthcare System and the Department of Defence could fuel negative expectations, leading to negative iatrogenic effects, it has been difficult to document this in clinical settings. The aim of this report is to describe the case of a veteran with comorbid mTBI/PTSD with persistent symptoms of unknown aetiology and the effects of provider communications on the patient's recovery. Case report of a veteran with reported mTBI, including provider communications, neuropsychological test results and report of functioning after changes in provider messages. Two-years post-mTBI, the patient attributed cognitive difficulties to his brain injury, but neuropsychological assessment found that his cognitive profile was consistent with psychological rather than neurological dysfunction. After providers systematically emphasized expectations of recovery, the patient's daily functioning improved. This case illustrates difficulties in mass screening for and treating mTBI. Recommendations for improvement include clinician training in effectively communicating positive expectations of recovery after concussion.

  14. Visuospatial memory and neuroimaging correlates in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Mitolo, Micaela; Gardini, Simona; Fasano, Fabrizio; Crisi, Girolamo; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial abilities decline in normal aging and decrease faster and earlier in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but these deficits are under investigated. The main goals of this study were to assess visuospatial memory abilities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in order to verify whether these tasks might be valid as the standard cognitive test to differentiate MCI individuals from normal controls and to investigate the brain structural correlates of visuospatial deficits. Twenty MCI patients and fourteen healthy elderly controls underwent an experimental visuospatial battery, which also included self-rating spatial questionnaires, and structural MRI brain imaging. Compared to healthy elderly controls, MCI patients scored significantly worse in almost all visuospatial tasks. ROC analysis showed that visuospatial tasks had an elevated discriminant power between groups (AUC >0.90). Voxel-based morphometry analysis, compared to controls, disclosed a higher level of atrophy in frontal and medio-temporal regions and a different pattern of correlation between grey matter values and visuospatial performance, with wider distributed areas of the occipital and middle temporal cortex in the map and route learning. This study indicates that visuospatial memory tests are valid tools in completing the diagnostic evaluation of MCI.

  15. Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized by a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.

  16. Enhancing low severity coal liquefaction reactivity using mild chemical pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shams, K.G.; Miller, R.L.; Baldwin, R.M.

    1992-07-13

    In this paper, we describe results from a study in which mild chemical pretreatment of coal has been used to enhance low severity liquefaction reactivity. We have found that ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid improves THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt% (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt% for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt% for liquefaction of the eight coals at 623 K (350{degree}C) reaction temperature and 30 min. reaction time. Similar enhancement results occurred using, hexane or acetone in place of methanol. Pretreatment with methanol and HCI separately indicated that both reagents were necessary to achieve maximum liquefaction improvement. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol%. No appreciable effect on reactivity was observed at higher acid concentrations. Although vapor phase alcohol/HCI mixtures have been shown to partially alkylate bituminous coals, analysis of Wyodak and Illinois {number sign}6 coal samples indicated that no organic phase alteration occurred during pretreatment; however, over 90 wt% of the calcium was removed from each coal. Calcium is thought to catalyze retrogressive reactions during coal pyrolysis, and thus calcium removal prior to low severity liquefaction minimizes the rate of THF-insoluble product formation.

  17. The Effect of Bilingualism on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. Method. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Results. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). Discussion. This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT. PMID:22454387

  18. Study on the genotoxicity of 13 mild coal gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, B.Z.; Robbins, S.; Bryant, D.; Ong, T.; Ma, J.

    1994-12-31

    Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner use of coal can help meet future energy needs. The mutagenicity of 13 gasification product samples from various coal mine sources, with different processing conditions and boiling point ranges, was studied using bacteria. The results show that 9 of the 13 composite samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay. Six mutagenic samples were further fractionated into basic, acidic nonpolar and polar neutral subfractions. All samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay with S9 in the nonpolar neutral subfraction. Five mutagenic samples were also tested for genotoxicity in three mammalian cell assays. None of the samples tested caused gene mutations in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells in the HGPRT assay system. However, all five samples were found to induce micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in V79 cells. Chemical characterization of the subfractions indicates that the nonpolar neutral subfractions contain aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be responsible for the genotoxic activity of samples.

  19. Caregivers in China: Knowledge of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Mei, John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali; Pacheco, Misty; Wu, Bei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1) initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2) experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3) perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost), they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term “laonian chidai” which literally translates to “stupid, demented elderly” may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members’ worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI. PMID:23326541

  20. Bone properties by nanoindentation in mild and severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Albert, Carolyne; Jameson, John; Toth, Jeffrey M; Smith, Peter; Harris, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by bone fragility. Previous research suggests that impaired collagen network and abnormal mineralization affect bone tissue properties, however, little data is yet available to describe bone material properties in individuals with this disorder. Bone material properties have not been characterized in individuals with the most common form of osteogenesis imperfecta, type I. Bone tissue elastic modulus and hardness were measured by nanoindentation in eleven osteotomy specimens that were harvested from children with osteogenesis imperfecta during routine surgeries. These properties were compared between osteogenesis imperfecta types I (mild, n=6) and III (severe, n=5), as well as between interstitial and osteonal microstructural regions using linear mixed model analysis. Disease severity type had a small but statistically significant effect on modulus (7%, P=0.02) and hardness (8%, P<0.01). Individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta type I had higher modulus and hardness than did those with type III. Overall, mean modulus and hardness values were 13% greater in interstitial lamellar bone regions than in osteonal regions (P<0.001). The current study presents the first dataset describing bone material properties in individuals with the most common form of osteogenesis imperfecta, i.e., type I. Results indicate that intrinsic bone tissue properties are affected by phenotype. Knowledge of the material properties of bones in osteogenesis imperfecta will contribute to the ability to develop models to assist in predicting fracture risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  2. Review of Academic Mathematics Instruction for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Casey; Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics education--like all education--faced changes in recent years including increasing expectations, and these expectations have impacted all students, including students with mild intellectual disability. To explore the impact of the changes on mathematics education on students with mild intellectual disability, the authors reviewed the…

  3. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…

  4. Assessing the Employment-Related Interpersonal Competence of Mildly Mentally Retarded Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    The Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE) designed to assess a mildly retarded worker's knowledge of interpersonal skills in the employment setting, was developed based on analysis of problems that mildly retarded workers experience and identification of correct responses to those problems by competitive employers. Initial…

  5. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate and feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During this project, it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440 F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal, and unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freeze-dried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped (at reduced weight, volume, and cost) to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  6. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbanes, J.J. II; Ho, K.

    1993-05-01

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During the current quarter a laboratory-scale mild gasification reactor was used to produce additional liquid derived from IBC-105 coal. The liquid has an organic sulfur content of 2.88%. The biocatalyst is apparently inhibited by chemical constituents in the light oil fraction of mild coal gasification liquids, but functions quite well in other liquid fractions or in unfractionated mild coal gasification liquid. Even when excess biocatalyst is used, approximately 12% of the organosulfur compounds appear to be recalcitrant to biodesulfurization. Biodesulfurization tests utilizing membrane fragments purified from IGTS8 and freeze-dried IGTS8 cell preparations added directly to mild coal gasification liquids have been performed. The processing and analysis of those samples is currently under way.

  7. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  9. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…

  10. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  11. The Use of "Mild" Aversive Stimuli for Control of Stereotypic and Self-Injurious Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.

    The use of mild aversives to control self-injurious and stereotypic behaviors of severely emotionally disturbed children is considered. Research is reviewed on the ethics and effectiveness of aversive stimuli. Mild aversives include a form of nonseclusionary timeout known as facial screening, the administration of certain irritating substances…

  12. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  13. Implementing a Problem-Solving Intervention with Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Students with mild and moderate disabilities need to be skillful at problem solving. This article provides an overview of a problem-solving intervention designed to teach students with mild and moderate disabilities the skills of problem solving. An explanation of the assessments, materials, instructional outline, and methods is presented.…

  14. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  15. The Use of "Mild" Aversive Stimuli for Control of Stereotypic and Self-Injurious Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.

    The use of mild aversives to control self-injurious and stereotypic behaviors of severely emotionally disturbed children is considered. Research is reviewed on the ethics and effectiveness of aversive stimuli. Mild aversives include a form of nonseclusionary timeout known as facial screening, the administration of certain irritating substances…

  16. Social Status and Social Perceptual Abilities of Mildly Handicapped Learners: Methodological and Substantive Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gale M.

    In an examination of the notion of person-environment fit as it applies to the socioempathy-social status for mildly handicapped children in mainstreamed and special class settings, 38 mildly learning handicapped (LH) and 234 nonhandicapped students were administered social status instruments. Results revealed that LH Ss in special placements were…

  17. Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.

    2013-01-01

    This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed sustained…

  18. Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.

    2013-01-01

    This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed sustained…

  19. Perisplenic halo on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy: a sign of mild ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Deland, F.H.

    1982-04-01

    A patient with acute parenchymal liver disease whose /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid (SC) liver/spleen scan showed a perisplenic halo in the posterior view (supine position) proved to have mild ascites at the time of autopsy. The signs of mild and massive ascites are briefly discussed.

  20. Using E-Readers to Improve Reading for Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camardese, Amy; Morelli, M. Eileen; Peled, Yehuda; Kirkpatrick, Maile

    2014-01-01

    Improving reading comprehension and fluency in students with mild disabilities has long been a challenge for educators. Technology has provided a host of new possibilities for working with students with mild disabilities. This study incorporated a mixed method to investigate the potential of using E-Readers as an instructional tool. Three features…

  1. Behavior Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: An Initial Step towards Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children…

  2. Behavior Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: An Initial Step towards Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children…

  3. The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children with Mild Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Method: Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a…

  4. Communicative Interactions of Mildly Delayed and Normally Developing Preschool Children: Effects of Listener's Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    1986-01-01

    The communicative interactions of 32 mildly delayed and normally developing preschoolers were recorded during free play in a mainstreamed program. Analyses of syntactic complexity, semantic diversity, functional aspects of speech, and the use of selected discourse devices indicated that mildly delayed children adjusted important characteristics of…

  5. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  6. Preserved Metamemorial Ability in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease: Shifting Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Jill D.; Chong, Hyemi; Wolk, David A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) display a greater tendency to endorse unstudied items as "old" on memory tests than healthy older adults. This liberal response bias may result in mistaken beliefs about the completion of common tasks. This research attempted to determine whether it was possible to shift the response bias of mild AD…

  7. The Influence of Hearing Aid Use on Outcomes of Children with Mild Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Method: Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a…

  8. Tracking Post-School Destinations of Young People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Problem of Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Sue; Kagan, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Background: This research was carried out as an assessment of the transition towards adult life for school leavers with mild intellectual disabilities. Ninety young people who were enrolled at three schools for people with mild intellectual disabilities were followed up for the first 12-18 months after they left school to assess how they…

  9. The Effects of Mild Sensorineural Hearing Loss on Academic Performance of Young School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, James C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study involving 24 mildly hearing impaired students compared with 24 hearing elementary students suggested that permanent mild hearing loss in children during the early stages has a negative effect on general academic performance. Some evidence supports the notion that the negative effect may increase with age. (CL)

  10. The Postschool Outcomes of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Does It Get Better with Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although students with mild intellectual disability (MID) present unique educational needs and considerations, in research and in practice, they are sometimes aggregated with students with learning disabilities and emotional disorders and considered mild disabilities or aggregated with students with moderate/severe intellectual…

  11. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  12. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  14. Functional Curriculum and Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Exploring Postschool Outcomes through the NLTS2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Joshi, Gauri

    2012-01-01

    While students with mild intellectual disability receive less attention in research, their educational programming is still important, including the curriculum they receive in school. This study analyzed the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) as to the curriculum students with mild intellectual disability received in high school as…

  15. Making Sense of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Qualitative Exploration of the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Nightingale, Marcie C.; Erlen, Judith A.; Kane, April L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; DeKosky, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed dementia precursor state of mild cognitive impairment is emerging as a primary target of aging research. Yet, little is known about the subjective experience of living with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. This study examines, from the patient's perspective, the experience of living with and making sense of the…

  16. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  17. Oxygen cost of treadmill and over-ground walking in mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Suh, Yoojin; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Weikert, Madeline; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Fernhall, Bo; Goldman, Myla

    2011-04-01

    Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the O(2) cost of walking might quantify this dysfunction in mild MS. This paper examined the difference in O(2) cost of walking between persons with MS who have mild disability and healthy controls and the correlation between the O(2) cost of walking and disability. Study 1 included 18 persons with mild MS and 18 controls and indicated that the O(2) cost of walking was significantly higher in MS than controls and that disability was significantly associated with the O(2) cost of slow, moderate, and fast treadmill walking. Study 2 included 24 persons with mild MS and indicated that disability was significantly correlated with O(2) cost of comfortable, fast, and slow over-ground walking. We provide evidence that the O(2) cost of walking is an indicator of walking dysfunction in mildly disabled persons with MS and should be considered in clinical research and practice.

  18. Do cartilage volume or thickness distinguish knees with and without mild radiographic osteoarthritis? The Framingham Study

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Stephan; Yang, Mei; Eckstein, Felix; Niu, Jingbo; Hunter, David J.; McLennan, Christine E.; Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank; Hudelmaier, Martin; Aliabadi, Piran; Felson, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the quantity of cartilage or semiquantitative scores actually differ in knees with mild radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) compared with knees without OA. Methods Framingham OA Study participants had knee tibiofemoral MRI-based measurements of cartilage. Using 3D FLASH-water excitation sequences, cartilage volume (VC), thickness (ThCtAB) and subregional ThCtAB were measured and cartilage scored semiquantitatively (using WORMS). Using weight bearing radiographs, we defined mild OA as K/L=2 and nonOA as K/L=0. Differences between OA and nonOA knees in median cartilage measurements were tested using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results Among 948 participants (one knee each), neither VC nor regional thickness (ThCtAB) were different in mild versus nonOA knees. In mild OA, cartilage erosions in focal areas were missed when cartilage was quantified over large regions like the medial tibia. For some but not all subregions of cartilage, especially among men, ThCtAB was lower (p<.05) in mild OA than nonOA knees. Because semiquantitative scores captured focal erosions, median WORMS scores were higher in mild OA than nonOA (all p<.05). In moderate/severe OA (K/L grades 3 or 4), OA knees had much lower ThCtAB and higher WORMS scores than knees with nonOA. Conclusions In mild OA, the focal loss of cartilage is missed by quantitative measures of cartilage volume or thickness over broad areas. Regional cartilage volume and thickness (e.g. medial tibia) are not different in mild OA versus nonOA. Subregional thickness may be decreased in mild OA. Semiquantitative scoring which assesses focal cartilage damage differentiates mild OA from nonOA. PMID:19193659

  19. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  20. Distance perception in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Yadav, Naveen K; Han, Esther; Ludlam, Diana P; Peddle, Angela; Hulse, Paul; Walter, Suzanne; Han, Jennifer

    2012-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess monocular and binocular distance perception, and stereoacuity, in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who reported the symptom of "poor depth perception"; Ten patients with mTBI were tested and compared with ten visually-normal asymptomatic individuals in the following areas: perceived distance, stereoacuity at distance (3 meters) and near (40 cm), and a 9-item 5-point rating-scale questionnaire related to distance perception. Distance perception was assessed under monocular and binocular viewing conditions in both clustered and isolated static environments. Magnitude estimation was used to obtain the distance perception response function of physical versus perceived distance using common objects positioned at distances of 0.77 to 12.84 meters. The mean distance perception response function slopes were not significantly different in the two groups for any of the test conditions. Stereoacuity (sec arc) was slightly reduced at both near and distance in the individuals with mTBI (36 ± 24.58 and 84 ± 68.34, respectively) as compared with the normal subjects (20 ± 0 and 51 ± 9.93, respectively). The mTBI group mean symptom score was 3.24 ± 0.26 indicating a moderate problematic level; Similarity of the mean distance response functions in the mTBI group under monocular and binocular viewing conditions suggested that their misperception of distance was not due to a "binocular vergence" problem. Similarly, the slightly reduced stereoacuity in the mTBI group was not sufficient to explain their symptom of "poor depth perception." Thus, it is speculated that this problem reflects a higher-level cortical perceptual phenomenon related to diffuse brain damage in areas dealing with visuo-spatial mapping. American Optometric Association.