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  1. Changes seen on computed tomography of the chest in mildly symptomatic adult patients with sickle cell disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ursula David; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Maioli, Maria Christina Paixão; Soares, Andrea Ribeiro; de Melo, Pedro Lopes; Mogami, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and quantify the main changes seen on computed tomography of the chest in mildly symptomatic adult patients with sickle cell disease, as well as to evaluate the radiologist accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy. Materials and Methods A prospective study involving 44 adult patients with sickle cell disease who underwent inspiration and expiration computed tomography of the chest. The frequency of tomography findings and the extent of involvement are reported. We also calculated radiologist accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy by analyzing the pulmonary alterations and morphology of the spleen. Results The changes found on computed tomography scans, in descending order of frequency, were as follows: fibrotic opacities (81.8%); mosaic attenuation (56.8%); architectural distortion (31.8%); cardiomegaly (25.0%); lobar volume reduction (18.2%); and increased caliber of peripheral pulmonary arteries (9.1%). For most of the findings, the involvement was considered mild, five or fewer lung segments being affected. The accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy (HbSS group versus not HbSS group) was 72.7%. Conclusion In adult patients with sickle cell disease, the main tomography findings reflect fibrotic changes. In addition, computed tomography can be helpful in differentiating among hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27777473

  2. Effects of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan on hemodynamics and exercise capacity in Japanese patients with mildly symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Masaru; Yamada, Hidehiro; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshioka, Koichiro; Funauchi, Masanori; Kuwana, Masataka; Sata, Masataka; Taniguchi, Mitsugu; Nakanishi, Norifumi; Saito, Takefumi; Saji, Tsutomu; Sasayama, Shigetake

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) trial has mostly enrolled patients with World Health Organization functional class (WHO FC) III or IV. However, PAH is rapidly progressive in nature even in patients with less severe forms at diagnosis. Following the recent studies in Western population, here we assessed the efficacy of bosentan in Japanese patients with WHO FCII PAH. In this open-label trial, bosentan 125 mg twice daily was administered for 12 weeks in 16 patients, and a hemodynamic evaluation was performed. Treatment was continued for a further 12 weeks, where the effect on exercise capacity was assessed in 13 patients. In 16 patients, mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 40.4 ± 10.4 to 35.6 ± 12.6 mmHg (p = 0.018) and cardiac index increased from 2.54 ± 0.73 to 2.96 ± 0.82 L/min/m(2) (p = 0.023). Thus, pulmonary vascular resistance decreased from 792 ± 565 to 598 ± 558 dyn·sec/cm(5) (p = 0.006). In 13 patients followed up for 24 weeks, 6-min walking distance increased from baseline at Week 12 (p = 0.003) and Week 24 (p = 0.011). All patients were mildly symptomatic at baseline with dyspnea index (Borg scale) of 2.50 ± 1.58 and the specific activity scale (SAS) of 5.0 ± 1.4 METs. These values remained unchanged throughout the study. These results suggest that bosentan treatment was beneficial for Japanese patients with WHO FC II PAH and treatment should be started in the early stage of the disease.

  3. Operative treatment of symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis and mild isthmic spondylolisthesis in young patients: direct repair of the defect or segmental spinal fusion?

    PubMed

    Schlenzka, D; Seitsalo, S; Poussa, M; Osterman, K

    1993-08-01

    Summary. The results of 23 patients with symptomatic spondylolysis or mild isthmic spondylolisthesis treated by Scott's direct repair of the defect (secclusion) were analyzed with particular reference to spinal mobility and the condition of the intervertebral discs, and compared with the outcome of 25 patients treated by posterolateral segmental fusion without instrumentation. The two groups were comparable as to age at operation (17.4 +/- 5.7 vs. 15.6 +/- 2.6 years), follow-up time (54 +/- 8 vs. 54 +/- 25 months), gender, and preoperative subjective symptoms. The mean preoperative vertebral slip was greater in the fusion group (7.2 +/- 8.4 vs. 13.1 +/- 4, P = 0.003). The follow-up assessment was carried out by an independent observer. It included an interview, Oswestry questionnaire, pain scale drawing, physical examination, plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional testing (lumbar spine mobility, static lifting power). For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the chi2 test, and the paired t-test were used. At followup, 87% of the Scott's group and 96% of the fusion group had occasional pain, not interfering with daily activities, or no pain at all. There was no statistical difference in the subjective, clinical, or functional outcome between the two operation groups. Plain radiographs in both groups showed significant loss of disc height in the operated segment during follow-up, indicating postoperative progression of disc degeneration. In flexion/extension radiographs the total range of movement in the three lowermost lumbar segments was slightly greater after secclusion. This difference was not significant. In MRI there was no statistical difference in disc hydration index between the two groups. The condition of the disc above the fusion was not worse than that of the corresponding disc above the secclusion. There was no correlation between pathologic disc findings in MRI and clinical outcome. It is concluded that in a small

  4. Unrepaired Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve in a Mildly Symptomatic 16-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Drogalis-Kim, Diana E.; Reemtsen, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare and severe variant seen in only 3% to 6% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Fetuses with this combined condition who survive through birth typically need intervention in infancy or early childhood because of respiratory distress, heart failure, or failure to thrive. We describe the unusual case of a mildly symptomatic 16-year-old boy with these conditions who underwent successful primary repair. Our search of the medical literature yielded fewer than 5 cases of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (or variants with an absent left pulmonary artery) and survival without repair into later adolescence or adulthood. PMID:28100972

  5. Symptomatic Pericardial Effusion After Chemoradiation Therapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Junichi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Ohashi, Toshio; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Hanada, Takashi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated clinical and treatment-related factors as predictors of symptomatic pericardial effusion in esophageal cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 214 consecutive primary esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy between 2001 and 2010 in our institute. Pericardial effusion was detected on follow-up computed tomography. Symptomatic effusion was defined as effusion ≥grade 3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 criteria. Percent volume irradiated with 5 to 65 Gy (V5-V65) and mean dose to the pericardium were evaluated employing dose-volume histograms. To evaluate dosimetry for patients treated with two-dimensional planning in the earlier period (2001-2005), computed tomography data at diagnosis were transferred to a treatment planning system to reconstruct three-dimensional plans without modification. Optimal dosimetric thresholds for symptomatic pericardial effusion were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Associating clinical and treatment-related risk factors for symptomatic pericardial effusion were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up was 29 (range, 6-121) months for eligible 167 patients. Symptomatic pericardial effusion was observed in 14 (8.4%) patients. Dosimetric analyses revealed average values of V30 to V45 for the pericardium and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those with asymptomatic pericardial effusion (P<.05). Pericardial V5 to V55 and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those without pericardial effusion (P<.001). Mean pericardial doses of 36.5 Gy and V45 of 58% were selected as optimal cutoff values for predicting symptomatic pericardial effusion. Multivariate analysis identified mean pericardial dose as the

  6. The effect of mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy on the quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion in elite fencers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taegyu; Kim, Eunkuk; Park, Jongchul; Kang, Hyunyong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy (PT) affects quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion, this case-control study examined elite fencers who continue to train and play fully with mild tendon pains. Twenty-four elite fencers (10 women) with mild symptomatic PT and 24 controls (10 women) participated in the study. Concentric/eccentric isokinetic strength of the quadriceps was tested, and peak torque and total work were recorded. Kinematic data from the knee during the Fente motion were collected. The first analysis period (P1) was after heel contact to the maximal flexion of the knee, and the second (P2) was right after P1 to heel-off. Normalized peak torque and work of concentric/eccentric contractions were not significantly different. Affected fencers demonstrated significantly reduced angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.042). The male fencers did not demonstrate any differences. The affected female fencers demonstrated significantly weaker concentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 (p = 0. 009) and 180°·s-1 (p = 0.047) and less concentric work at 60°·s-1 (p = 0.020). They also demonstrated significantly reduced average angular velocities at P2 (p = 0.001). Therefore, mild symptomatic PT seems to have an effect on the isokinetic concentric contraction of the quadriceps and the angular velocity of the knee during the backward Fente motion in elite female fencers who are participating fully in training and competition. Key points It is likely that even mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy could affect the athletic performances in elite fencers. Elite female fencers are more likely to be affected substantially by symptomatic patellar tendinopathy in their sporting ability than male fencers. Because weak concentric knee extensors may affect the performance in fencing, not only eccentric training for symptomatic patellar tendinopathy but also proper concentric training of the quadriceps may be helpful in a rehabilitation program of elite female

  7. Physician Alerts to Prevent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Rosenbaum, Erin J.; Pendergast, William; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Stevens, Scott M.; Patton, William F.; Dabbagh, Ousama; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Catapane, Elaine; Li, Zhongzhen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains underutilized among hospitalized patients. We designed and carried out a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an alert from a hospital staff member to the Attending Physician will reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE among high-risk patients not receiving prophylaxis. Methods and Results We enrolled patients using a validated point score system to detect hospitalized patients at high risk for symptomatic VTE who were not receiving prophylaxis. 2,493 patients (82% on Medical Services) from 25 study sites were randomized to the intervention group (n=1,238), in which the responsible physician was alerted by another hospital staff member, versus the control group (n=1,255), in which no alert was issued. The primary end point was symptomatic, objectively confirmed VTE within 90 days. Patients whose physicians were alerted were more than twice as likely to receive VTE prophylaxis as controls (46.0% versus 20.6%, p<0.0001). The symptomatic VTE rate was lower in the intervention group (2.7% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.25), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to the control group (2.1% versus 2.3%, p=0.68). Conclusions A strategy of direct staff member to physician notification increases prophylaxis utilization and leads toward reducing the rate of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized patients. However, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilized even after physician notification, especially among Medical Service patients. PMID:19364975

  8. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed.

  9. DDDR pacing for symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, H.J.; Scheffer, M.G.; van Mechelen, R.; Kofflard, M.J.M.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. When medical therapy fails in patients with symptomatic HOCM, three additional therapeutic strategies exist: ventricular septal myectomy, alcohol-induced percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) of the first septal branch of the anterior descending artery and pacemaker implantation. In this paper we present the results of seven patients in whom a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted to reduce the gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and to relieve their symptoms. Methods In patients with drug refractory symptomatic HOCM, not eligible for surgery, pacemaker therapy was recommended. Symptomatic HOCM was defined as symptoms of angina and dyspnoea, functional class NYHA 3-4 and a resting LVOT gradient during Doppler echocardiography of more than 2.75 m/s (30 mmHg). In these patients, a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted with a right ventricular lead positioned in the right ventricular apex and an atrial lead positioned in the right atrial appendage. In all patients the AV setting was programmed between 50 and 100 ms, using Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal filling and to ensure ventricular capture. Results A statistically significant reduction of the LVOT gradient was observed in all patients. The pre-implantation gradient in the LVOT measured by Doppler echocardiography varied from 3-5.8 m/s with a mean of 4.7±1.1 m/s. The post-implantation gradient varied from 1.4-2.6 m/s with a mean of 1.9±0.4 m/s (p<0.001). Symptomatic improvement was present in all patients. NYHA functional class went from 3-4 (mean 3.1±0.5) pre-implantation to 1-2 mean (1.3±0.4) after implantation (p<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 2.3±1.1 years, the improvement in functional class was maintained. Conclusion Our preliminary results demonstrate that dual-chamber pacing is an effective and safe treatment for

  10. UTI: diagnosis and evaluation in symptomatic pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Heldrich, F J; Barone, M A; Spiegler, E

    2000-08-01

    We retrospectively reviewed data on 260 hospitalized pediatric patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). To ascertain the colony-forming units (CFU)/mL compatible with the diagnosis of UTI, a culture from a catheterized urine specimen containing >1,000 CFU/mL was considered diagnostic of UTI and resulted in imaging by renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, and renal nuclear scan with Tc99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). A positive DMSA renal scan is indicative of pyelonephritis. We used logistic regression analysis to determine which patient characteristics were predictive of pyelonephritis. We determined that, in hospitalized pediatric patients, the colony count of the positive urine culture, the type of organism grown in culture, and the voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) result (positive or negative for vesicoureteral reflux) did not predict which patients had pyelonephritis. In females, advancing age of the patient and positive renal ultrasound results were predictive of which patients had pyelonephritis when we controlled for other factors. We feel this emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of hospitalized symptomatic patients, including patients with colony counts of 1,000 to 50,000 CFU/mL, to locate the level of infection and plan appropriate therapy.

  11. The Case for Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Ryan A.; Marks, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is likely the most common cause of stroke worldwide and remains highly morbid even with highly monitored medical therapy. Recent results of the SAMMPRIS trial, which randomized patients to stenting plus aggressive medical management versus aggressive medical management alone have shown that additional treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic lesions with the Wingspan stent is inferior to aggressive medical management alone. In light of these results, there has been renewed interest in angioplasty alone to treat symptomatic ICAD. This article will briefly review the natural history of ICAD and discuss the possible future for endovascular treatment of ICAD with primary intracranial angioplasty in appropriately selected patients. PMID:24782816

  12. Comparison between secretory leukocytic protease inhibitor and reactive nitrogen intermediates levels in cervicovaginal secretions from symptomatic and asymptomatic trichomoniasis Egyptians patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I; Hussein, Eman M

    2006-12-01

    Although trichomoniasis is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases, limited information is known about the host and parasite factors which cause symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections. Both of Secretory Leukocytic Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) and Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI) are major effectors in the innate immune response against infection. This study aimed to compare the level of SLPI and RNI in relation to the vaginal complains among trichomoniasis Egyptian patients. Two groups of trichomonas infected patients were included. Group I included 30 symptomatic patients distributed in three equal subgroups mild, moderate and severe accordiing to degree of symptoms and Group II included 10 asymptomatic patients. Besides, control Group III included 10 healthy females. Cervicovaginal levels of SLPI & RNI were determined in all patients. The mean level of SLPI was less in symptomatic patients (187.75+/-11.61 ng/ml) than in asymptomatic ones (361.18+/-53 ng/ml), with statistically significant difference. Mean level of SLPI was markedly lower in severe symptomatic patients (173.97+/--4.64 ng/ml) when compared with moderate (188.60+/-2.47 ng/ml) and mild (200.69+/-3.01 ng/ml) subgroups respectively. This difference was statistically significant. In controversy, mean levels of RNI in symptomatic patients were significantly higher (39.4+/-7.15 microM) than asymptomatic (38.89+/-6.49 microM). The mean level of RNI was significantly low in severe symptomatic (30.07+/-1.79 microM) than moderate (41.83+/-1.01 microM) and mild (46.30+/-2.02 microM) symptomatic subgroups. This difference was statistically significant. Both of SLPI & RNI levels returned to normal levels in 93.4% & 80% of symptomatic patients respectively one week after metronidazole therapeutic course.

  13. Incidence of Symptomatic Vertebral Fractures in Patients After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Hierholzer, Johannes Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Baumann, Clemens; Slotosch, Christine; Schulz, Rudolf

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of secondary symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in patients previously treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty (VTP). Three hundred sixteen patients with 486 treated VCFs were included in the study according to the inclusion criteria. Patients were kept in regular follow-up using a standardized questionairre before, 1 day, 7 days, 6 months, and 1 year after, and, further on, on a yearly basis after VTP. The incidence of secondary symptomatic VCF was calculated, and anatomical distribution with respect to previous fractures characterized. Mean follow-up was 8 months (6-56 months) after VTP. Fifty-two of 316 (16.4 %) patients (45 female, 7 male) returned for treatment of 69 secondary VCFs adjacent to (35/69; 51%) or distant from (34/69; 49%) previously treated levels. Adjacent secondary VCF occurred significantly more often compared to distant secondary VCF. Of the total 69 secondary VCFs, 35 of 69 occurred below and 27 of 69 above pretreated VCFs. Of the 65 sandwich levels generated, in 7 of 65 (11%) secondary VCFs were observed. Secondary VCF below pretreated VCF occurred significantly earlier in time compared to VCF above and compared to sandwich body fractures. No major complication occurred during initial or follow-up intervention. We conclude that secondary VCFs do occur in individuals after VTP but the rate found in our study remains below the level expected from epidemiologic studies. Adjacent fractures occur more often and follow the cluster distribution of VCF as expected from the natural history of the underlying osteoporosis. No increased rate of secondary VCF after VTP was observed in this retrospective analysis. In accordance with the pertinent literature, short-term and also midterm clinical results are encouraging and provide further support for the usefulness and the low complication rate of this procedure as an adjunct to the spectrum of pain management in patients with severe

  14. Prevalence of Symptomatic Lumbar Spondylolysis in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Akihiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakamaki, Tadanori; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis, is prevalent in adolescent athletes. Recent advances in diagnostic tools and techniques enable early diagnosis before these fractures progress to complete fractures through the pars. However, because patients often consult family physicians for primary care of low back pain and these physicians may not have access to diagnostic modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, stress fractures can be missed. This study surveyed the prevalence of symptomatic spondylolysis in pediatric patients who consulted an orthopedic clinic for primary care and investigated whether such acute stress fractures may be overlooked without MRI. The prospective study investigated 264 patients who were younger than 19 years and had low back pain. Of the 153 patients (58.0%) with low back pain persisting for longer than 2 weeks, 136 who agreed to undergo MRI were included in the study. This group included 11 elementary school students, 71 junior high school students, and 54 high school students. The overall prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis was 39.7% (54 of 136) and was 9.3% in elementary school students (5 of 11, 45.5%), 59.3% in junior high school students (32 of 71, 45.1%), and 31.5% in high school students (17 of 54, 31.5%). All 54 patients with spondylolysis had a history of athletic activity. Primary care physicians should recognize that approximately 40% of pediatric patients presenting with low back pain persisting for longer than 2 weeks may have spondylolysis and should consider MRI in those with a history of athletic activity. Because the spine is immature in this age group, almost half of affected elementary school and junior high school students may have lumbar spondylolysis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e434-e437.].

  15. Vibratory sense deficits in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, G.J.; Shakoor, N.; Cvetanovich, G.L.; Fogg, L.F.; Orías, A.A. Espinoza; Nho, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sensory deficits, measured through vibratory perception threshold (VPT), have been recognized in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), but have not been evaluated in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), thought to be a pre-OA condition. This study aimed to assess VPT in symptomatic FAI pre- and 6-months post-arthroscopy vs. controls. Methods: FAI patients and controls were assessed for VPT at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Pain was assessed using a visual analog pain scale. FAI participants were evaluated again 6-months after surgery for FAI. Differences between groups and pre- and post- surgery were evaluated with independent and paired sample t-tests, respectively. Secondary analysis was performed using repeated-measures ANOVA to evaluate the effect of pain and time since surgery on VPT pre- and post-operatively. Results: No differences in age and BMI were seen between groups (p>0.05). Reduced VPT (higher value is worse) was evident in the pre- (8.0±3.9V, t=2.81, p=0.009) and post-operative (6.8±2.8V, t=2.34, p=0.027) patients compared to controls (4.7±1.3V). After hip arthroscopy, there was a trend toward improved VPT (t=1.97, p=0.068). Preoperative and 6-months postoperative pain and time since surgery were not found to influence VPT (F-ratio≥0.00, p≥0.427). Conclusion: Sensory deficits were observed in FAI patients both before and 6-months after hip arthroscopy. PMID:26944822

  16. Symptomatic carotid ischaemic events: safest and most cost effective way of selecting patients for angiography, before carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, G J; Warlow, C P

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the safest, least costly, and most effective way to select patients with symptomatic carotid ischaemic events for carotid angiography before carotid endarterectomy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University departments of clinical neurosciences and clinical neurology. PATIENTS: 485 Patients with carotid territory transient ischaemic attacks of the brain (n = 224) or eye (n = 162) or retinal infarction (n = 99) were referred to a single neurologist between 1976 and 1986. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical examination by auscultation over the precordium, supraclavicular fossae, and neck vessels (all patients). Cerebral angiography of patients suitable for carotid endarterectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Financial cost and number of disabling strokes after angiography. RESULTS: 296 Patients were investigated by cerebral angiography. Ischaemic symptoms had occurred in the distribution of 298 internal carotid arteries (symptomatic) that were imaged, two patients having bilateral symptoms. The presence or absence of a carotid bruit and the maximum percentage diameter stenosis of the origin of the symptomatic internal carotid artery were correlated. The prevalence of mild disease (diameter stenosis greater than or equal to 25%) of the symptomatic internal carotid artery was 57%, and if an ipsilateral carotid bruit was heard the probability of mild stenosis rose to 92%. The prevalence of moderate disease of the symptomatic internal carotid artery (stenosis greater than or equal to 50%) was 39%, and if a bruit was heard the probability doubled to 78%. The prevalence of severe internal carotid disease (stenosis greater than or equal to 75%) was 22%, and if a bruit was heard the probability was more than double, at 49%. The direct cost to both the NHS and the private health sector of investigating patients with symptomatic carotid ischaemia was estimated for several strategies of carotid artery imaging and expressed in terms of financial cost and number

  17. Differences in autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, C. F.; Katritsis, D.; Crowther, A.; Cooper, I. C.; Coltart, J. D.; Webb-Peploe, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Autonomic neuropathy provides a mechanism for the absence of symptoms in silent myocardial ischaemia, but characterisation of the type of neuropathy is lacking. AIM--To characterise and compare autonomic nerve function in patients with silent and symptomatic myocardial ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS--The Valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate variation (HRV) in response to deep breathing and standing, lower body negative pressure, isometric handgrip, and the cold pressor test were performed by patients with silent (n = 25) and symptomatic (n = 25) ambulatory ischaemia and by controls (n = 21). No difference in parasympathetic efferent function between patients with silent and symptomatic ischaemia was recorded, but both had significantly less HRV in response to standing than the controls (p < 0.005 for silent and p < 0.01 for symptomatic). Patients with silent ischaemia showed an increased propensity for peripheral vasodilatation compared with symptomatic patients (p < 0.02) and controls (p < 0.04). Impaired sympathetic function was found in patients with pure silent ischaemia (n = 4) compared with the remaining patients with silent ischaemia whose pain pathways were presumed to be intact. CONCLUSIONS--Patients with silent ischaemia and pain pathways presumed to be intact have an enhanced peripheral vasodilator response, and if this applied to the coronary vasculature it could provide a mechanism for limiting ischaemia to below the pain threshold. Patients with pure silent ischaemia have evidence of sympathetic autonomic dysfunction. Images PMID:8297687

  18. Radium-223 dichloride: a review of its use in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; formerly Alpharadin™) [hereafter referred to as radium-223] is a first-in-class alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Radium-223 is a calcium mimetic, which targets bone, delivering cytotoxic radiation to the sites of bone metastases. In the recently reported Alpharadin™ in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) phase III study, radium-223 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with placebo, making it the first bone-targeted CRPC therapy for which an overall survival benefit has been demonstrated. The ALSYMPCA study also demonstrated the beneficial effects of radium-223 on disease-related symptomatic skeletal events, pain and health-related quality of life. Radium-223 was generally well tolerated, being associated with low rates of myelosuppression and generally mild gastrointestinal adverse events. Thus, radium-223 is a valuable addition to the treatment options for this poor-prognosis population.

  19. A comparison of emotional decoding abilities in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, very mild and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Krzywoszanski, Lukasz; Spisak, Karolina; Donohue, Bryan E; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in emotional decoding abilities were described in patients with Alzheimer's dementia and amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). However the pattern of decline and its dependency on the type of emotional stimuli has not been investigated so far. In our study, 5 sets of cartoon-like drawings portraying various human emotions of increasing complexity were presented to patients with very mild and mild Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI and control subjects. Patients with Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI and control subjects decoded emotions with similar accuracy. The pattern of decoding abilities was similar in Alzheimer's dementia, a-MCI patients and healthy control subjects. Decoding abilities depended on a manner the emotional stimuli were presented.

  20. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms among symptomatic long QT syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Määttänen, Ilmari; Swan, Heikki; Hintsanen, Mirka; Toivonen, Lauri; Kontula, Kimmo; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether long QT syndrome status moderates the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Participants were 562 (n= 246 symptomatic) long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Depressive symptoms were measured with a modified version of the Beck's Depression Inventory. There was an interaction between long QT syndrome status and stressful life events on depressive symptoms. In the symptomatic long QT syndrome patients, stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms (B= 0.24, p< 0.001). In the asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, this association was 62.5 percent weaker (B= 0.09, p= 0.057). Compared to asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, symptomatic long QT syndrome patients are more sensitive to the depressive effects of stressful life events.

  1. Symptomatic pharmacotherapy of migraine.

    PubMed

    Lobo, B L; Cooke, S C; Landy, S H

    1999-07-01

    This review summarizes data on the effectiveness of various symptomatic migraine pharmacotherapies and makes recommendations for treatment. A wide variety of agents are available for the symptomatic treatment of migraine headache, including over-the-counter analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), combination products, opiates, ergot alkaloids, corticosteroids, dopamine antagonists, and triptans. In the stepped-care approach, simple analgesics and NSAIDs are the recommended first step for the treatment of mild-to-moderate migraine headaches. Patients who do not respond to first-step treatments may be given ergots, combination products, dopamine antagonists, or triptans as the second step. Corticosteroids or opiates may be used as rescue treatment in patients who do not respond to second-step treatment. A stratified approach to care individualizes treatment based on the severity of the headache and other patient-specific factors. In a stratified approach, dihydroergotamine or triptans may be the first-step treatment for patients who present with a history of severe migraines that have responded poorly to previous treatments. Sumatriptan was the first triptan approved for the symptomatic treatment of migraine headache; newer triptans include zolmitriptan, naratriptan, and rizatriptan. Since sumatriptan is rapidly absorbed by the subcutaneous route, its time to onset of effect is shortest. Among triptan drugs that are administered orally, the relative time to onset may be shorter with rizatriptan than sumatriptan. Naratriptan has a longer time to onset but is associated with a lower rate of migraine recurrence than other triptans. graine headache, ergot alkaloids, triptans,

  2. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC ARTHROSCOPY IN SYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS AFTER KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Fabricio Roberto; Souza, Clodoaldo José Duarte de; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Assess the worthiness of arthroscopy in investigating and treating knee pain after arthroplasty unexplained by clinical and subsidiary examinations. Methods: Among 402 patients submitted to total or unicompartimental arthroplasty between September 2001 and April 2007 at a public university hospital, 17 presented with pain on prosthetic articulation, without clear diagnosis by clinical, X-ray, laboratory, scintiscan, or nuclear magnetic resonance tests. All patients were submitted to arthroscopy and symptoms were assessed by using the Lysholm scale, comparing pre-and post-arthroscopy periods. Peroperative findings have been recorded. Results: The procedure was effective for pain relief in 14 of 17 patients (82.35%). The median for Lysholm scale climbed from 36 points before arthroscopy to 94 points after the procedure (p < 0.001). Most of the patients (12) were arthroscopically diagnosed with fibrosis known as “cyclop”; on the remaining five patients, anterior synovitis was found. All patients were treated by resection. Conclusions: Knee arthroscopy after arthroplasty in patients presenting unclear persistent pain shows localized arthrofibrosis (“cyclops”) or synovitis, which can be treated by using the same procedure, resulting in pain relief. PMID:27022517

  3. Incidence and sequelae of symptomatic venous thromboembolic disease among patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lai, J M; Yablon, S A; Ivanhoe, C B

    1997-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening complication among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, few reports describe the incidence of this important disease. We reviewed the incidence of symptomatic VTE among 124 consecutive admissions with TBI to a free-standing rehabilitation hospital over an 18-month period. Four patients manifested evidence of VTE within 2 months of injury: two with leg swelling, one with an oedematous arm, and one with respiratory distress. None of the patients with suspected VTE received prophylactic anticoagulant therapy. Diagnosis of VTE was confirmed with venograph in two of the four patients. Although VTE is frequently asymptomatic, the incidence of symptomatic VTE (1.6%) among this series of rehabilitation inpatients with TBI still appears surprisingly low. These results have implications regarding the utility of non-invasive diagnostic screening of asymptomatic VTE and routine anticoagulant prophylaxis of high-risk patients with TBI.

  4. Affective prosody perception in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoertnagl, Christine M; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Baumgartner, Susanne; Biedermann, Falko; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Mühlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W; Hofer, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Affect perception has frequently been shown to be impaired in patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear whether these impairments exist during symptomatic remission and whether the two disorders differ from each other in this regard. Most previous studies have investigated facial affect recognition, but not the ability to decode mental states from emotional tone of voice, i.e. affective prosody perception (APP). Accordingly, the present study directly compared APP in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia or BD and healthy control subjects and investigated its relationship with residual symptomatology in patients. Patients with schizophrenia and BD showed comparable APP impairments despite being symptomatically remitted. In comparison to healthy control subjects, overall APP deficits were found in BD but not in schizophrenia patients. Both patient groups were particularly impaired in the identification of anger and confounded it with neutral prosody. In addition, schizophrenia patients frequently confused sadness with happiness, anger, or fright. There was an inverse association between the degree of residual positive symptoms and the ability to correctly recognize happiness in schizophrenia patients. Overall, these data indicate that impairments in APP represent an enduring deficit and a trait marker of both schizophrenia and BD and that the level of impairment is comparable between disorders.

  5. Symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a patient taking the dietary supplement tiratricol.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Elkin, Peter L; Erickson, Dana; Klee, George G; Brennan, Michael D

    2002-06-01

    An 87-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of nervousness, tremor, insomnia, and fatigue of 2 months' duration. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a suppressed thyrotropin level and an elevated triiodothyronine level. A review of her medications revealed that she had started taking several dietary supplements at the recommendation of her chiropractor before the onset of symptoms. One of these was tiratricol (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid or Triac), a substance sold as a dietary supplement despite classification as a drug by the Food and Drug Administration. Tiratricol has weak thyromimetic effects, can inhibit pituitary thyrotropin secretion, and in higher doses can significantly stimulate metabolism. Such was the case with this patient who presented with signs, symptoms, and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism that promptly resolved after discontinuation of tiratricol therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of documented thyrotoxicosis secondary to tiratricol use. Because tiratricol is still available for sale on several Internet sites, this case emphasizes the importance of inquiring about the use of dietary supplements in all patients. The availability of such products on the Internet increases the already complex task of monitoring patients' use of dietary supplements.

  6. Consensus statement on preventive and symptomatic care of leukodystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Van Haren, Keith; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Bernard, Genevieve; Murphy, Jennifer L; Pizzino, Amy; Helman, Guy; Suhr, Dean; Waggoner, Jacque; Hobson, Don; Vanderver, Adeline; Patterson, Marc C

    2015-04-01

    Leukodystrophies are inherited disorders whose primary pathophysiology consists of abnormal deposition or progressive disruption of brain myelin. Leukodystrophy patients manifest many of the same symptoms and medical complications despite the wide spectrum of genetic origins. Although no definitive cures exist, all of these conditions are treatable. This report provides the first expert consensus on the recognition and treatment of medical and psychosocial complications associated with leukodystrophies. We include a discussion of serious and potentially preventable medical complications and propose several preventive care strategies. We also outline the need for future research to prioritize clinical needs and subsequently develop, validate, and optimize specific care strategies.

  7. Prognostic significance of calcified plaque among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sana; Bellam, Naveen; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Quyyumi, Arshed; Hausleiter, Jörg; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Fillippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin J.; Dunning, Allison L.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Lin, Fay Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert L.; Villines, Todd C.; Gomez, Millie J.; Min, James K.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a well-established predictor of clinical outcomes for population screening. Limited evidence is available as to its predictive value in symptomatic patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the current study was to assess the prognostic value of CAC scores among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD. Methods From the COronary Computed Tomographic Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) registry, 7,200 symptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD (<50% coronary stenosis) on coronary-computed tomographic angiography were prospectively enrolled and followed for a median of 2.1 years. Patients were categorized as without (0% stenosis) or with (>0% but <50% coronary stenosis) a luminal stenosis. CAC scores were calculated using the Agatston method. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed to estimate all-cause mortality and/or myocardial infarction (MI). Four-year death and death or MI rates were 1.9% and 3.3%. Results Of the 4,380 patients with no luminal stenosis, 86% had CAC scores of <10 while those with a luminal stenosis had more prevalent and extensive CAC with 31.9% having a CAC score of ≥100. Among patients with no luminal stenosis, CAC was not predictive of all-cause mortality (P = .44). However, among patients with a luminal stenosis, 4-year mortality rates ranged from 0.8% to 9.8% for CAC scores of 0 to ≥400 (P < .0001). The mortality hazard was 6.0 (P = .004) and 13.3 (P < .0001) for patients with a CAC score of 100–399 and ≥400. In patients with a luminal stenosis, CAC remained independently predictive in all-cause mortality (P < .0001) and death or MI (P < .0001) in multivariable models containing CAD risk factors and presenting symptoms. Conclusions CAC allows for the identification of those at an increased hazard for death or MI in symptomatic patients with nonobstructive disease. From the

  8. Impact of CRAB Symptoms in Survival of Patients with Symptomatic Myeloma in Novel Agent Era

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Aya; Fujita, Shinya; Satake, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Takahisa; Azuma, Yoshiko; Tsubokura, Yukie; Hotta, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Tomoki; Nomura, Shosaku

    2017-01-01

    The acronym CRAB summarizes the most typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma, these being hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone disease. CRAB can be used to distinguish between active, symptomatic multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance or smoldering myeloma. The distinction is relevant not only for classification and diagnosis but also for therapy. CRAB factors influence the prognosis of multiple myeloma. However, it is unclear whether the presence of CRAB factors has an influence on the prognosis of myeloma treated with novel agents. In the current study, patients with hypercalcemia and bone disease showed a significantly worse prognosis, whereas anemia and renal failure showed no difference in survival. Novel agents used for treatment of patients with renal failure suggested a favorable outcome compared with conventional therapy. Bone disease was the most common factor and may have the strongest prognostic value in symptomatic myeloma patients using novel agents. PMID:28286629

  9. Endometrial pathology in postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment: comparison between gynaecologically symptomatic and asymptomatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I; Perel, E; Flex, D; Tepper, R; Altaras, M M; Cordoba, M; Beyth, Y

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate whether endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic rather than in gynaecologically asymptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment; and to evaluate the possible influence of various clinical factors on the incidence of endometrial pathology. METHODS: Endometrial histological findings, transvaginal ultrasonographic endometrial thickness, demographic characteristics, health habits, and risk factors for endometrial cancer were compared between 14 gynaecologically symptomatic (group I) and 224 gynaecologically asymptomatic (group II) postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 28.6% of the study population had endometrial pathology. The incidence of overall positive endometrial histological findings was significantly higher in group I than in group II (92.9% v 24.6%, p < 0.0001). Atrophic endometrium was more common in group II than in group I (75.3% v 7.1%, p < 0.0001). Most other endometrial pathology was significantly more common in group I than in group II (endometrial hyperplasia, 35.7% v 5.6%, p < 0.0001; endometrial polyps, 35.7% v 13.4%, p < 0.0111; endometrial carcinoma, 21.5% v 0.9%, p < 0.0001). Endometrial pathology appeared considerably later in the gynaecologically asymptomatic patients than in gynaecologically symptomatic patients (p = 0.0002). Vaginal bleeding or spotting occurred exclusively in group I. The incidence of endometrial pathology in the entire study population was consistent with that reported elsewhere, and higher than that reported for healthy postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment, and after a shorter duration of time, than in gynaecologically asymptomatic patients. PMID:10474520

  10. Mild Bleeders: Diagnosis is Elusive in Large Number of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotru, Mrinalini; Mutereja, Deepti; Purohit, Abhishek; Tyagi, Seema; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu; Pati, Hara Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Bleeding is a common clinical presentation. Even patients with mild bleeding disorders are extensively investigated for ascertaining the cause. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the extent of the possibility of diagnosis in mild bleeding disorders. Material and Methods This was a prospective study of patients referred for work up of mild bleeding for a period of 13 months. A complete blood count, peripheral smear examination, Prothrombin time, Partial Thromboplastin time and Thrombin Time, Platelet Aggregometry test, tests for von Willebrand’s disease and Platelet Factor 3 availability were measured. Results 164 patients presented with mild bleeding, in 114 of the patients a single site of bleeding was present. Epistaxis was the most common presentation (39%). Cutaneous bleeding (petechiae and purpura) was the next common site. History of a major bleeding tendency in the family was present only in 11 patients. The investigations showed that VWD (17/164), followed by clotting disorders (CD) mainly mild hemophilia (15/164) were the most common diagnosable cause. There were also 4 cases of hypofibrinogenemia. The disorders of platelets (Platelet function defects/PFD) were the least common (9/164). Rest 123 (75%) patients could not be diagnosed on the basis of these investigations and were labeled as Bleeding disorders – Unclassified (BDC). Conclusion n our study, 75% of the patients with mild bleeding remained undiagnosed even after extensive laboratory workup, thus raising a very pertinent question that is it necessary that all mild bleeders submit to a broad battery of investigations, as the diagnosis continues to be elusive despite extensive workup. PMID:27872729

  11. Symptomatic and silent myocardial ischaemia in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, S D; Dunn, F G; Tweddel, A C; Martin, W; Macfarlane, P W; McKillop, J H; Lorimer, A R; Cobbe, S M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of symptomatic and silent myocardial ischaemia in patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--University department of medical cardiology. PATIENTS--90 patients (68 men and 22 women; mean age 57 (range 25 to 79)) with left ventricular hypertrophy due to essential hypertension. INTERVENTIONS--48 hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring (all patients), exercise electrocardiography (n = 79), stress thallium scintigraphy (n = 80), coronary arteriography (n = 35). RESULTS--43 patients had at least one episode of ST segment depression on ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. The median number of episodes was 16 (range 1 to 84) with a median duration of 8.6 (range 2 to 17) min. Over 90% of these episodes were clinically silent. 26 patients had positive exercise electrocardiography and 48 patients had reversible thallium perfusion defects despite chest pain during exercise in only five patients. 18 of the 35 patients who had coronary arteriography had important coronary artery disease. Seven of these patients gave no history of chest pain. CONCLUSIONS--Symptomatic and silent myocardial ischaemia are common in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, even in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease. PMID:1389717

  12. Can breast surgeons read mammograms of symptomatic patients in the one-stop breast clinic?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. C.; Griffith, C. D.; Griffiths, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To establish how accurate surgeons were when compared to the radiologists in interpreting symptomatic mammograms in one-stop clinics. METHODS: The surgeons were asked to write their opinion on the mammograms which was compared with the radiologists' report. 144 patients were involved in the study and the data were analysed by McNemara's test for paired categorical data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons were accurate in interpreting most of the mammographic findings. However, they underestimated the presence of benign calcification which was statistically significant. Surgeons can, therefore, be involved in double reading of mammograms in symptomatic breast disease patients and improve the sensitivity which has been the case in double reading by radiologists in the breast screening programme. PMID:11320917

  13. For veterans with mild traumatic brain injury, improved posttraumatic stress disorder severity and sleep correlated with symptomatic improvement.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Robert L; Riechers, Ronald G; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Piero, Traci; Ruff, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    This was an observational study of a cohort of 63 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) associated with an explosion. They had headaches, residual neurological deficits (NDs) on neurological examination, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and were seen on average 2.5 years after their last mTBI. We treated them with sleep hygiene counseling and oral prazosin. We monitored headache severity, daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive performance using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test, and the presence of NDs. We quantitatively measured olfaction and assessed PTSD severity using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Nine weeks after starting sleep counseling and bedtime prazosin, the veterans' headache severity decreased, cognitive function as assayed with a brief screening tool improved, and daytime sleepiness diminished. Six months after completing treatment, the veterans demonstrated additional improvement in headache severity and daytime sleepiness and their improvements in cognitive function persisted. There were no changes in the prevalence of NDs or olfaction scores. Clinical improvements correlated with reduced PTSD severity and daytime sleepiness. The data suggested that reduced clinical manifestations following mTBI correlated with PTSD severity and improvement in sleep, but not the presence of NDs or olfaction impairment.

  14. External carotid stenting for symptomatic stenosis in a patient with patent EDAS for Moyamoya disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric; Parker, Lindsey; Fraser, Justin F

    2014-01-01

    Background Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive narrowing of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Symptomatic patients typically undergo cerebrovascular intervention via extracranial–intracranial (EC–IC) bypass, most often with the use of the superficial temporal artery. This case of Moyamoya disease is of particular interest as the patient presented with a unilateral atherosclerotic external carotid artery (ECA) stenosis after EC–IC bypass that eliminated the benefit of his original surgery, resulting in a symptomatic presentation. Clinical presentation A 53-year-old man presenting with Moyamoya disease and known left ICA occlusion had received a bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) bypass 10 years previously. He re-presented complaining of right-sided tingling, weakness, and numbness radiating up the arm. CT angiography indicated significant stenosis of the left ECA. ECA angioplasty and stenting with a distal protection device resulted in resolution of his symptoms. Conclusions This case illustrates that a patient presenting with Moyamoya disease and concurrent symptomatic ECA stenosis post-EDAS can be effectively and safely treated with ECA stenting. PMID:25085947

  15. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse: randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. Interventions Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients’ perceived change in symptoms. Results Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (P<0.001). Other secondary outcomes showed no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Although pelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points

  16. Comparison of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Genome Sequences from Strains Isolated from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; Mol, Kristin H. J. M.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Kockx, Christel E. M.; Jansen, Ruud; Van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium can be carried asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of children. To identify potential genetic differences between M. pneumoniae strains that are carried asymptomatically and those that cause symptomatic infections, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis of 20 M. pneumoniae strains. The analyzed strains included 3 reference strains, 3 strains isolated from asymptomatic children, 13 strains isolated from clinically well-defined patients suffering from an upper (n = 4) or lower (n = 9) RTI, and one strain isolated from a follow-up patient who recently recovered from an RTI. The obtained sequences were each compared to the sequences of the reference strains. To find differences between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, a variant comparison was performed between the different groups of strains. Irrespective of the group (asymptomatic vs. symptomatic) from which the strains originated, subtype 1 and subtype 2 strains formed separate clusters. We could not identify a specific genotype associated with M. pneumoniae virulence. However, we found marked genetic differences between clinical isolates and the reference strains, which indicated that the latter strains may not be regarded as appropriate representatives of circulating M. pneumoniae strains. PMID:27833597

  17. Chronically Symptomatic Patients with Undetectable Gall Bladder on Ultrasonography Could Benefit from Early Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Stephen D.; Blackburn, Simon C.; Adewole, Victoria A.; Mahomed, Anies A.

    2013-01-01

    90 percent of symptomatic patients undergoing cholecystectomy have cholelithiasis with 10% categorized as asymptomatic cholecystitis. In both instances, the gallbladder is evident on ultrasonography. In children with symptomatic biliary dyspepsia, the decision to proceed to cholecystectomy is made difficult if choleliths are not seen on ultrasonography. This decision is made even more difficult if the gallbladder itself is not seen on repeated imaging. In a cohort of 54 cholecystectomies, 3 cases, with recurrent right upper quadrant pain and undetectable gallbladders on repeat ultrasonography, were identified. After prolonged observation all underwent successful cholecystectomy. Histology demonstrated a markedly fibrotic and thickened gallbladder in all. Given this experience, we suggest that nonvisibility of the gallbladder, in fact, maybe be a feature of a chronic acalculous cholecystitis. We advise consideration of cholecystectomy for chronic biliary dyspepsia where repeat ultrasonography fails to demonstrate a gallbladder. PMID:23401761

  18. Reappraisal of primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideo; Terada, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yuko; Tomura, Nagatsuki; Kono, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Ryo; Shintani, Aki

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting. We describe our experience with primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. All patients who underwent balloon angioplasty without stenting for MCA stenosis between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated technical success rates, degrees of stenosis, and stroke or death within 30 days. Among patients who were followed-up for > 1 year we evaluated latest functional outcomes, stroke recurrence at 1 year, and restenosis. In total 45/47 patients (95.7%) were successfully treated. Average pre- and postprocedure stenosis rates were 79.9% and 39.5%, respectively. Three neurological complications occurred within 30 days: one thromboembolism during the procedure; one lacunar infarction; and one fatal intraparenchymal hemorrhage after the procedure. Stroke or death rate within 30 days was 6.4%. Thirty-three patients were available for follow-up analysis with a mean period of 51.5 months. The combined rate of stroke or death within 30 days and ipsilateral ischemic stroke of the followed-up patients within 1 year beyond 30 days was 9.4%. Restenosis was observed in 26.9% of patients and all remained asymptomatic. In our retrospective series, balloon angioplasty without stenting was a safe, effective modality for symptomatic MCA stenosis. For patients refractory to medical therapy, primary balloon angioplasty may offer a better supplemental treatment option.

  19. Reappraisal of Primary Balloon Angioplasty without Stenting for Patients with Symptomatic Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Hideo; TERADA, Tomoaki; TANAKA, Yuko; TOMURA, Nagatsuki; KONO, Kenichi; YOSHIMURA, Ryo; SHINTANI, Aki

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting. We describe our experience with primary balloon angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. All patients who underwent balloon angioplasty without stenting for MCA stenosis between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated technical success rates, degrees of stenosis, and stroke or death within 30 days. Among patients who were followed-up for > 1 year we evaluated latest functional outcomes, stroke recurrence at 1 year, and restenosis. In total 45/47 patients (95.7%) were successfully treated. Average pre- and postprocedure stenosis rates were 79.9% and 39.5%, respectively. Three neurological complications occurred within 30 days: one thromboembolism during the procedure; one lacunar infarction; and one fatal intraparenchymal hemorrhage after the procedure. Stroke or death rate within 30 days was 6.4%. Thirty-three patients were available for follow-up analysis with a mean period of 51.5 months. The combined rate of stroke or death within 30 days and ipsilateral ischemic stroke of the followed-up patients within 1 year beyond 30 days was 9.4%. Restenosis was observed in 26.9% of patients and all remained asymptomatic. In our retrospective series, balloon angioplasty without stenting was a safe, effective modality for symptomatic MCA stenosis. For patients refractory to medical therapy, primary balloon angioplasty may offer a better supplemental treatment option. PMID:25746307

  20. Effect of metoprolol on heart rate variability in symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Taçoy, Gülten; Balcioğlu, Akif Serhat; Arslan, Uğur; Durakoğlugil, Emre; Erdem, Güliz; Ozdemir, Murat; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-06-01

    Metoprolol is widely used to eliminate symptoms in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), a condition associated with enhanced sympathetic tone. In this study, effects of metoprolol on heart rate variability (HRV) indices were investigated in symptomatic patients with MVP. Thirty-nine symptomatic patients with MVP (26 women, mean age 26 +/- 7 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. After a baseline 24-hour Holter evaluation in all subjects, patients with MVP were started on metoprolol succinate therapy at a dose of 25 to 100 mg/d, and Holter analysis was repeated at the end of 3 months of metoprolol therapy. At the basal evaluation, all time-domain HRV indices with the exception of proportion of adjacent RR intervals differing by >50 ms in the 24-hour recording were significantly lower in patients with MVP than controls (SD of all normal-to-normal [NN] intervals, p = 0.013; SD of average NN intervals calculated during 5-minute periods of the entire recording, p = 0.03; triangular index, p = 0.025; and square root of mean squared differences in successive NN intervals, p = 0.026). After metoprolol treatment, all HRV indices significantly improved compared with baseline (SD of all NN intervals, p = 0.028; SD of average NN intervals calculated during 5-minute periods of the entire recording, p = 0.043; triangular index, p = 0.004; square root of the mean squared differences in successive NN intervals, p = 0.021; and proportion of adjacent RR intervals differing by >50 ms in the 24-hour recording, p = 0.014), and HRV indices after metoprolol treatment were similar to those of the control group (p >0.05). In conclusion, metoprolol significantly improved impaired HRV parameters in symptomatic patients with MVP.

  1. What is the value of conducting a trial of r-tPA for the treatment of mild stroke patients?

    PubMed

    Guzauskas, Gregory F; Chen, Er; Lalla, Deepa; Yu, Elaine; Tayama, Darren; Veenstra, David L

    2017-02-01

    Background The Phase IIIb, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Alteplase in Patients With Mild Stroke: Rapidly Improving Symptoms and Minor Neurologic Deficits (PRISMS) trial will assess r-tPA in ischemic stroke patients who present with mild deficits (i.e. mild stroke). Aims To assess PRISMS's societal value in clarifying the optimal care for patients with mild ischemic stroke. Methods A value of information (VOI) decision model was developed to compare the outcomes of mild stroke patients treated vs. not treated with r-tPA. Model inputs were derived from a subset of Third International Stroke Trial patients, a recent meta-analysis of r-tPA trials, expert opinion, and other published sources. VOI analyses were also used to assess the expected US societal value of the PRISMS trial and the expected value of reducing uncertainty in key trial estimates. Results The expected net societal value of the PRISMS trial was approximately $210 million ($160 m-$260 m), representing a six-fold return on investment. The value of reducing uncertainty in r-tPA efficacy was approximately $150 million ($100 m-$200 m), while reducing uncertainty in r-tPA safety (increased risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage) did not add additional value in comparison. Conclusions Developing a better understanding of the outcomes of r-tPA treatment in patients with mild ischemic stroke will provide tremendous societal value by clarifying current uncertainty around treatment effectiveness. Enrollment in the PRISMS trial for patients presenting with mild ischemic stroke within 0-3 h of symptom onset should be highly encouraged.

  2. Ovarian Artery Embolization in Patients With Collateral Supply to Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomata

    SciTech Connect

    Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Poellinger, A. Wagner, M. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and outcome of ovarian artery embolization (OAE) in patients with collateral supply to symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with relevant leiomyoma perfusion by way of enlarged ovarian arteries underwent additional OAE during the same (N = 10) or a second procedure (N = 3). Uterine artery embolization (UAE) was performed bilaterally in 10 and unilaterally in 2 patients with a single artery. One patient had no typical uterine arteries but bilaterally enlarged ovarian arteries, prompting bilateral OAE. OAE was accomplished with coil embolization in one and particle embolization in 12 patients. Symptoms before therapy and clinical outcome were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after embolization was available in 11 of 13 patients and was used to determine the percentage of fibroid infarction. Results: UAE and OAE were technically successful in all patients. One patient experienced prolonged irritation at the puncture site. Median clinical follow-up time was 16 months (range 4-37). Ten of 13 patients showed improvement or complete resolution of clinical symptoms. One patient reported only slight improvement of her symptoms. These women presented with regular menses. Two patients (15%), 47 and 48 years, both with unilateral OAE, reported permanent amenorrhea directly after embolization. Their symptoms completely resolved. Seven patients showed complete and 4 showed >90% fibroid infarction after embolization therapy. Conclusions: OAE is technically safe and effective in patients with ovarian artery collateral supply to symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. The risk of permanent amenorrhea observed in this study is similar to the reported incidence after UAE.

  3. Symptomatic reactions, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction associated with upper cervical chiropractic care: A prospective, multicenter, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies have previously shown that adverse events following manipulation to the neck and/or back are relatively common, although these reactions tend to be mild in intensity and self-limiting. However, no prospective study has examined the incidence of adverse reactions following spinal adjustments using upper cervical techniques, and the impact of this care on clinical outcomes. Methods Consecutive new patients from the offices of 83 chiropractors were recruited for this practice-based study. Clinical outcome measures included 1) Neck pain disability index (100-point scale), 2) Oswestry back pain index (100-point scale), 3) 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) for neck, headache, midback, and low back pain, 4) treatment satisfaction, and 5) Symptomatic Reactions (SR). Data were collected at baseline, and after approximately 2 weeks of care. A patient reaching sub-clinical status for pain and disability was defined as a follow-up score <3 NRS and <10%, respectively. A SR is defined as a new complaint not present at baseline or a worsening of the presenting complaint by >30% based on an 11-point numeric rating scale occurring <24 hours after any upper cervical procedure. Results A total of 1,090 patients completed the study having 4,920 (4.5 per patient) office visits requiring 2,653 (2.4 per patient) upper cervical adjustments over 17 days. Three hundred thirty- eight (31.0%) patients had SRs meeting the accepted definition. Intense SR (NRS ≥8) occurred in 56 patients (5.1%). Outcome assessments were significantly improved for neck pain and disability, headache, mid-back pain, as well as lower back pain and disability (p <0.001) following care with a high level (mean = 9.1/10) of patient satisfaction. The 83 chiropractors administered >5 million career upper cervical adjustments without a reported incidence of serious adverse event. Conclusions Upper cervical chiropractic care may have a fairly common occurrence of mild intensity SRs

  4. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. Purpose To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Study Design Prospective case series. Methods One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. Results No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients

  5. Goal attainment after treatment in patients with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Mamik, Mamta M; Rogers, Rebecca G; Qualls, Clifford R; Komesu, Yuko M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess differences in goal attainment of self-described goals after treatment of symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) for women who chose surgery compared to women who chose pessary; and (2) compare patient global improvement between groups. STUDY DESIGN Women who had symptomatic stage ≥ II prolapse presenting for care of POP to the urogynecology clinic at the University of New Mexico were recruited. Patients listed up to 3 goals they had for their treatment. In addition, they completed the short forms of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), the POP/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, and the Body Image Scale. Goals listed by patients were then categorized into 10 categories. Each of the listed goals was categorized based on a consensus of 5 providers. At 3 months’ follow-up patients listed if they had met their self-described goals on a scale of 0–10 and also answered the Patient Global Improvement Index (PGI-I). RESULTS There were no significant differences between the 2 groups’ baseline characteristics. Surgery patients ranked their goal attainment higher than pessary patients for all the 3 goals listed. Similarly, PGI-I scores were also higher in the surgical (2.4 ±1.1) than the pessary (1.93 ± 0.8) treatment groups (P < .04). Patients in the surgery group also had better symptom improvement as measured by the PFDI-20 (P < .02). CONCLUSION Patients who chose surgery had better global improvement and met their goals better compared to patients who chose pessary. PMID:23770473

  6. Profiling the clinical presentation of diagnostic characteristics of a sample of symptomatic TMD patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n = 125) and disc displacement without reduction (n = 104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n = 36), acute muscle pain (n = 125), acute articular pain (n = 75) and chronic articular impairment (n = 121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and

  7. Aspirin Resistance Predicts Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pasala, Tilak; Hoo, Jennifer Soo; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Waheed, Rehan; Sengodan, Prasanna; Alexander, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death in patients who have symptomatic peripheral artery disease. However, a subset of patients who take aspirin continues to have recurrent cardiovascular events. There are few data on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease who manifest aspirin resistance. Patients with peripheral artery disease on long-term aspirin therapy (≥4 wk) were tested for aspirin responsiveness by means of the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay. The mean follow-up duration was 22.6 ± 8.3 months. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of vascular interventions (surgical or percutaneous), or of amputation or gangrene caused by vascular disease. Of the 120 patients enrolled in the study, 31 (25.8%) were aspirin-resistant and 89 (74.2%) were aspirin-responsive. The primary endpoint occurred in 10 (32.3%) patients in the aspirin-resistant group and in 13 (14.6%) patients in the aspirin-responsive group (hazard ratio=2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–5.66; P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the secondary outcome of revascularization or tissue loss. By multivariate analysis, aspirin resistance and history of chronic kidney disease were the only independent predictors of long-term adverse cardiovascular events. Aspirin resistance is highly prevalent in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease and is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular risk. Whether intervening in these patients with additional antiplatelet therapies would improve outcomes needs to be explored. PMID:28100965

  8. Determinants and Prognostic Significance of Symptomatic Status in Patients with Moderately Dysfunctional Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Youn; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Cho, In Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of symptoms and their prognostic implications in patients with moderately dysfunctional bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs). Methods Among 1,019 subjects in the BAV registry treated in a single tertiary care center, the records of 127 patients (85 men, age 58±13 years) with moderately dysfunctional BAVs were comprehensively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups based on symptom status: asymptomatic (n = 80) vs. symptomatic (n = 47). The primary end-point was defined as a composite of aortic valve surgery, hospitalization for heart failure, and any cause of death. Results The symptomatic group had a higher proportion of females, hypertension, aortic stenosis, and aortopathy than did the asymptomatic group. The symptomatic group showed lower e′ (5.5±1.7 vs. 6.5±2.2 cm/s, p = 0.003), higher E/e′ (13.3 ± 4.9 vs. 10.9±3.7, p = 0.002), and larger left atrial volume index (29.9±11.4 vs. 24.6±9.1 ml/m2, p = 0.006) than did the asymptomatic group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–7.36, p = 0.031), hypertension (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.20–7.82, p = 0.019), moderate aortic stenosis (OR 5.33 5.78, 95% CI 1.99–16.83, p = 0.001), E/e′ >15 (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.03–11.19, p = 0.015), and aortopathy (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.07–7.10, p = 0.035) were independently correlated with symptom status. The symptomatic group showed a significantly lower rate of event-free survival during the 8-year follow-up period (54±9% vs. 68±10%, p = 0.001). Conclusions In patients with moderately dysfunctional BAVs, the presence of moderate aortic stenosis, aortopathy, and diastolic dysfunction determines symptom status, along with female gender and hypertension. Symptom status was associated with clinical outcomes. PMID:28060855

  9. Transient lactose malabsorption in patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon.

    PubMed

    Tursi, Antonio; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Giorgetti, Gian Marco; Elisei, Walter

    2006-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) may be secondary to several small bowel diseases, and small intestinal overgrowth (SIBO) may be one of them. We looked for a correlation between symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon and LM and assessed whether this correlation may be related to SIBO. Ninety consecutive patients (pts; 39 males, 51 females; mean age, 67.2 years; range, 32-91 years) affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon were evaluated to assess orocecal transit time (OCTT), SIBO, and LM by lactulose and lactose H2 breath test (H2-BT) at entry and after 8 weeks of treatment. OCTT was delayed in 67 of 90 pts (74.44%). Fifty-three of 90 pts (58.88%) showed SIBO, and OCTT was normal in 23 of 90 pts (25.56%). LM was diagnosed in 59 of 90 pts (65.55%): 49 of 59 (71.74%) were simultaneously affected by SIBO and delayed OCTT (and thus 49 of 53 pts [92.45%] with delayed OCTT and SIBO were affected by LM); 3 of 59 pts (5.09%) showed only delayed OCTT; 7 of 59 pts (11.86%) did not show either SIBO or delayed OCTT. The association of LM and SIBO was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Seventy-nine of 86 pts (91.86%) showed normal OCTT, while OCTT remained prolonged but shorter in the remaining 7 pts (8.14%). SIBO was eradicated in all pts completing the study, while a new lactulose H2-BT showed persistence of SIBO in one pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease. Forty-seven of 59 pts (79.66%) had a normal lactose H2-BT (P < 0.002), while 12 of 59 pts (20.34%) showed persistence of LM. LM disappeared in 46 of 49 pts (93.88%) concurrently with normalization of OCTT and eradication of SIBO (P < 0.002); it also disappeared in 1 of 3 pts (33.33%) previously affected by delayed OCTT (without SIBO) and LM concurrently with normalization of OCTT. On the contrary, it persisted in all pts with normal OCTT and absence of SIBO. Moreover, it persisted also in the pt with recurrence of symptomatic diverticular disease and persistence of SIBO

  10. WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles of mildly to severely brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D C; Ledbetter, M F; Cohen, N J; Marmor, D; Tulsky, D S

    2000-01-01

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III; The Psychological Corporation, 1997) scores of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI, n = 23) to moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (M-S TBI, n = 22) were compared to those of 45 matched normal control patients. WAIS-III results revealed that IQ and index scores of MTBI patients did not significantly differ from those of controls, whereas M-S TBI patients received significantly lower mean scores on all measures. All M-S TBI patients' WMS-III index scores also revealed significantly lower scores in comparison to those of control participants, with the exception of Delayed Auditory Recognition. MTBI patients showed significantly lower mean index scores compared to normal controls on measures of immediate and delayed auditory memory, immediate memory, visual delayed memory, and general memory. Eta-squared analyses revealed that WMS-III visual indexes and WAIS-III processing speed showed particularly large effect sizes. These results suggest that symptomatic MTBI patients obtain some low WMS-III test scores comparable to those of more severely injured patients.

  11. Symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients following radiation therapy: a retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, K.S.; Ho, J.H.; Lee, A.W.; Tse, V.K.; Chan, P.K.; Wang, C.; Ma, J.T.; Yeung, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Endocrine assessment was performed in 32 relapse-free southern Chinese patients 5-17 years following radiation therapy (RT) alone for early nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Initial screening was done using questionnaires emphasizing impaired sexual function and menstrual disturbance plus measurement of serum levels of thyroxine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropic hormone, prolactin, and additionally testosterone for males only. Those showing abnormalities were subjected to detailed pituitary function tests. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction was found in 7 female patients and only 1 male patient. A delayed TSH response to thyrotropin releasing hormone suggesting a hypothalamic disorder was seen in 6 of the affected female patients, and hyperprolactinaemia in also 6. None of the patients had evidence of diabetes insipidus. Hypopituitarism became symptomatic 2-5 years after RT with a mean latent interval of 3.8 years. A practical protocol for regular endocrine assessment for NPC patients after RT has been proposed. Multiple linear regression analysis of the radiotherapeutic data from the 11 female patients indicates that the likelihood of late occurrence of symptomatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction following RT is dependent on the TDF of the target dose to the nasopharyngeal region and the height of the upper margin of the opposed lateral facial fields above the diaphragma sellae (coefficient of multiple correlation = 0.9025). Except when the sphenoid sinus or the middle cranial fossa is involved, it is advisable to set the height of the upper margin of the lateral facial field at a level no higher than the diaphragma sellae. The hypothalamus and possibly the pituitary stalk as well may sustain permanent damage by doses of radiation within the conventional radiotherapeutic range for carcinomas.

  12. A comparative study of neurotic depression in symptomatic volunteers and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Blignault, I

    1983-03-01

    A comparative study of neurotic depression in 66 symptomatic community volunteers (SVs) and 43 formal psychiatric patients is reported. Compared to the psychiatric patients the SVs were older and there was a less marked female preponderance. Thier depression was of a longer duration and vegetative symptoms (e.g. appetite and weight loss) were less marked. They were less likely to have made a suicide attempt in the past, less likely to be single or divorced, and much less likely to have experienced a disruption in an intimate relationship in the preceding year. On personality measures the SVs rated as having a more internal locus of control and a higher self-esteem. An Index of Definition cut-off point of 5 or more on the PSE for a neurotic depressive 'case' is supported by the finding that only 2% of the patients, compared with 26% of the SVs, did not rate as 'cases'.

  13. Diminished Omega-3 Fatty Acids are Associated with Carotid Plaques from Neurologically Symptomatic Patients: Implications for Carotid Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Hernan A.; Lu, Yan; Thoppil, Deepu; Fitzgerald, Tamara N.; Hong, Song; Dardik, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are prevalent in fish oil and their cardioprotective effects are thought to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study is to determine whether omega-3 fatty acids are associated with carotid plaques from neurologically symptomatic patients. Plaques were obtained from 41 patients (mean age 62 [44 – 84]; 24-asymptomatic, 17-symptomatic). Intra-plaque lipids were assessed with mass spectrometry. Compared to asymptomatic patients, significantly diminished omega-3 fatty acids DHA (545.8 ± 98 ng/g vs. 270.7 ± 19.6 ng/g, p=0.0096) and EPA (385.9 ± 68 ng/g vs. 216.4 ± 17.6 ng/g, p=0.0189) were found in carotid plaques from neurologically symptomatic patients. However, no differences were found in the levels of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (p=0.2003). Immunohistochemistry and ELISA analysis (CD68+ cells, 0.461 ± 0.04 vs. 0.312 ± 0.03, p=0.003) demonstrated an increased inflammatory infiltrate in plaques from neurologically symptomatic, compared to asymptomatic, patients. Carotid plaques from neurologically symptomatic patients are inflammatory and have decreased intra-plaque levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Future trials will determine whether interventions that increase omega-3 fatty acid incorporation into carotid plaques prevent stroke and improve the safety of carotid interventions. PMID:19733689

  14. Characteristics of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014. Results ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years). Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset. Conclusion Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg) and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy. PMID:26171862

  15. Prevalence study of iliopsoas bursitis in a cohort of 860 patients affected by symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tormenta, Sandro; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Iannessi, Francesca; Bizzi, Emanuele; Massafra, Umberto; Orlandi, Davide; Migliore, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    We used ultrasound to evaluate iliopsoas bursitis (IB) prevalence in 860 patients (568 males, 292 females, 62 ± 7 years) suffering from symptomatic Kellgren-Lawrence grade II-III-IV hip osteoarthritis. Lequesne index and visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded. Anterior hip was scanned and images recorded. Maximum IB diameter was measured and drained (volume recorded). Two radiologists evaluated the presence of IB, joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy, communication between bursa and articular space. IB was found in 19/860 (2.2%) patients (16 males, 3 females, 65 ± 11 years; grade II osteoarthritis = 4; III = 9; IV = 6). Mean bursa diameter = 2.9 ± 0.9 cm, volume = 35 ± 34 mL. Effusion was present in 9/19 patients, hypertrophy in 6/19 and communication in 9/19. In patients with no IB, effusion was detected in 27/860 and hypertrophy in 25/860 (p < 0.001 compared with IB patients). κ = 1 for all. VAS index and Lequesne index were not significantly different between patients with or without IB (p ≥ 0.468). Ultrasound can detect associate findings in grade II-IV hip osteoarthritis patients with high reproducibility.

  16. Effect of CPAP on Cardiac Function in Minimally Symptomatic Patients with OSA: Results from a Subset of the MOSAIC Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sonya; Kylintireas, Ilias; Kohler, Malcolm; Nicoll, Debby; Bratton, Daniel J.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Leeson, Paul; Neubauer, Stefan; Stradling, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent, and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on myocardial function in these patients are unknown. The MOSAIC randomized, controlled trial of CPAP for minimally symptomatic OSA assessed the effect of CPAP on myocardial function in a subset of patients. Methods: Two centers taking part in the MOSAIC trial randomized 238 patients in parallel to 6 months of CPAP (120) or standard care (118). Of these, 168 patients had echocardiograms, and 68 patients had a cardiac magnetic resonance scan (CMR). A larger group (314) from 4 centers had brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measured. Results: Mean (SD) baseline oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) were 13.5 (13.2), and 8.4 (4.0), respectively. CPAP significantly reduced ESS and ODI. Baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was well preserved (60.4%). CPAP had no significant effect on echo-derived left atrial (LA) area (−1.0 cm2, 95% CI −2.6 to +0.6, p = 0.23) or early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A) ratio (−0.01, 95% CI −0.07 to +0.05, p = 0.79). There was a small change in echo-derived LV end diastolic volume (EDV) with CPAP (−5.9 mL, 95% CI −10.6 to −1.2, p = 0.015). No significant changes were detected by CMR on LV mass index (+1.1 g/m2, 95% CI −5.9 to +8.0, p = 0.76) or LVEF (+0.8%, 95% CI −1.2 to +2.8, p = 0.41). CPAP did not affect BNP levels (p = 0.16). Conclusions: Six months of CPAP therapy does not change cardiac functional or structural parameters measured by echocardiogram or CMR in patients with minimally symptomatic mild-to-moderate OSA. Clinical Trial Registration: ISRCTN 34164388 (http://isrctn.org). Citation: Craig S, Kylintireas I, Kohler M, Nicoll D, Bratton DJ, Nunn AJ, Leeson P, Neubauer S, Stradling JR. Effect of CPAP on cardiac function in minimally symptomatic patients with OSA: results from a subset of the MOSAIC randomized trial. J Clin

  17. A symptomatic Sylvian fissure lipoma in a post-traumatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Rakan Farouk; Bangash, Mohammad Hasan; Ahamed, Naushad Ali Basheer; Addas, Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous extra-axial lesions in the Sylvian fissure are a rare entity. Their identification, however, is usually simple if a systematic radiological approach is adopted. The best line of management for these lesions is still a matter of controversy and fraught with complications. We present a case of a Sylvian fissure lipoma referred to our neurosurgery services with symptomatic seizures and in a post-traumatic patient. The radiological differentiating features of intracranial lipomas and intracranial dermoids have been discussed. The unusual location of the lesion, in combination with the history of seizures and the nature of presentation (trauma being a red-herring) make this case an interesting find. The lesion was managed conservatively with good outcomes at follow up, on anti-epileptic medications. PMID:24967029

  18. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Habegger de Sorrentino, A; Motta, P; Iliovich, E; Sorrentino, A P

    1997-01-01

    The cytopathic effect of HIV on CD4 T cells, as well as the active autoimmune mechanism occurring during infection, have been documented. Of the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS, the main one produced by the monocyte-macrophage series is tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF alpha). This cytokine induces antigens such as proteinase 3 (Pr 3) or mieloperoxidase (MPO). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are directed against this type of PMN antigens. In the present paper, the role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in HIV infected patients as responsible for autoimmune phenomena in relation to opportunistic infections, was studied. A total of 88 serum samples belonging to 49 asymptomatic and 39 symptomatic HIV infected patients were tested for ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test over a neutrophil substrate. ANCA were detected in 53.8% of symptomatic patients as compared to 4.1% in asymptomatic cases (p < 0.0001). A 95.9% correlation was observed between ANCA-positive samples and pulmonary infection (n = 20). In those ANCA (+) samples 95.9% correlation was found with pulmonary infection (n = 20). Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a frequent finding in HIV infected patients from Northeastern Argentina. When the presence of ANCA in TB(+) HIV(+) and TB(+) HIV(-) patients was studied, it was seen that positive-ANCA significantly correlated with the first group (p < 0.001). The presence of ANCA was not related to viral infections, toxoplasmosis, neurological features of AIDS, vasculitis or malignant diseases. ANCA during pulmonary infection, mostly caused by TB, as well as PMN infiltration in pulmonary parenchyma, and the deregulated immune reaction elicited by HIV, may contribute to the onset of autoimmune phenomena. The presence of human T lymphocytes reactive to heat stress proteins (Hsp), an important target of immune response against certain intracellular auto-antigens such as MPO from PMN, added to

  19. Occurrence and Prognosis of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Keun-Myoung; Won, Yong Sung; Kim, Jang Yong; Lee, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Jung, Sang Seol; Kang, Won Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other surgical diseases, but the relationship between VTE and CRC in Asian patients remains poorly understood. The present study examined the incidence of symptomatic VTE in Korean patients who underwent surgery for CRC. We also identified risk factors, incidence and survival rate for VTE in these patients Materials and Methods: The patients were identified from the CRC database treated from January 2011 to December 2012 in a single institution. These patients were classified into VTE and non-VTE groups, their demographic features were compared, and the factors which had significant effects on VTE and mortality between the two groups were analyzed. Results: We analyzed retrospectively a total of 840 patients and the incidence of VTE was 3.7% (31 patients) during the follow-up period (mean, 17.2 months). Histologic subtype (mucinous adenocarcinoma) and previous history of VTE affected the incidence of VTE on multivariate analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in survival rate between the VTE and non-VTE group, but VTE wasn’t the factor affecting survival rate on multivariate analysis. Comparing differences in survival rate for each pathologic stage, there was only a significant difference in stage II patients. Conclusion: Among CRC patients after surgery, the incidence of VTE was approximately 3% within 1 year and development of VTE wasn’t a significant risk factor for death in our study but these findings are not conclusive due to our small sample size. PMID:26217616

  20. Clinical presentation and imaging results of patients with symptomatic gluteus medius tears

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Dror; Shohat, Noam; Botser, Itamar; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common complaint. Recently, it has become well recognized that tendinopathy and tears of the gluteus medius (GM) are a cause of recalcitrant GTPS. Nevertheless, the clinical syndrome associated with GM tears is not fully characterized. We characterize the clinical history, findings on physical examination, imaging and intraoperative findings associated with symptomatic GM tears. Forty-five patients (47 hips) who underwent GM repair for the diagnosis of tear were evaluated. Pain was estimated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and hip-specific scores were administered to assess functional status. The imaging modalities were reviewed and intra operative findings were recorded. The average patient age was 54 years (17–76), 93% were females. Symptom onset was commonly insidious (75%) and the average time to diagnosis was 28 months (2–240). The most common pain location was the lateral hip (75%). The average pre-surgery VAS and modified Harris Hip Score were 6.65 (0–10) and 55.5 (12–90), respectively. All patients had pathological findings on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) ranging from tendinosis to complete tears of the GM tendon. There was a discrepancy between MRA interpretation by a radiologist and findings during surgery. Hip abductor tears are an under-recognized cause of hip pain and hip symptomatology. In this study, we further characterize the clinical presentation of this entity. The data we present here may facilitate early diagnosis, early orthopedic care and avoid unnecessary prolonged patient sufferings. PMID:27011854

  1. [Current approaches to management of patients with mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, V V; Gromova, D O

    2017-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. The prevalence of MCI among elderly people is 12-17% but the risk of progression of cognitive impairment and development of dementia during 5 years is up to 70%. Cerebral vascular diseases and initial stages of neurodegenerative processes are the cause of MCI. Clinical characteristics of MCI depend on the main etiological factor. To decrease the severity of symptoms and prevent the progression of cognitive impairment in MCI patients, pharmacotherapy and non-medication methods, including diet optimization, stimulation of mental and physical activity, are used. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic therapy is most prevalent among pharmacological methods.

  2. Temperament and character in remitted and symptomatic patients with schizophrenia: modulation by the COMT Val158Met genotype.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Fujii, Takashi; Yamamoto, Noriko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Hattori, Kotaro; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Arima, Kunimasa; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    While research on remission in schizophrenia has gained attention, personality characteristics associated with remission in schizophrenia have been under-studied. A functional valine-to-methionine (Val158Met) polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is shown to modify clinical presentation of schizophrenia despite weak or no association with the disorder itself. Studies also report that this polymorphism can affect personality traits. We aimed to examine personality traits of remitted patients with schizophrenia as compared to symptomatic patients and healthy controls and to investigate whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences their personality. Scores on the Temperament and Character Inventory were compared between 34 remitted outpatients with schizophrenia, age- and sex-matched 72 symptomatic outpatients with schizophrenia, and matched 247 healthy individuals. The effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on personality was examined in each group. The analysis of covariance, controlling for confounding variables, revealed that compared to healthy controls, symptomatic patients exhibited a pervasively altered personality profile whereas remitted patients showed alterations in more limited personality dimensions and demonstrated normal levels of novelty-seeking, reward dependence and cooperativeness. The two-way analysis of covariance, with genotype and sex as between-subject factors and confounders as covariates, revealed that Met carriers demonstrated significantly lower reward dependence and cooperativeness than Val homozygotes in symptomatic patients; while no significant genotype effect was found in remitted patients or in healthy individuals. These findings indicate that remitted patients with schizophrenia have a relatively adaptive personality profile compared to symptomatic patients. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism might have a modulating effect on the relationship between personality and remission.

  3. Angioplasty and stenting for patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Min; Mu, Jun-Shan; Ye, Jian-Xin; He, Wen-Qing; Fu, Mao-Lin; Li, Hua; Fang, Jia-Yang; Shen, Feng-Feng; Lin, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whether adding percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to background medical treatment is effective for decreasing the incidence of stroke or death in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) is still controversial. We perform a randomised controlled trial to examine the effectiveness and safety of an improved PTAS procedure for patients with ICAS. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in three hospitals in China. Eligible patients with ICAS will be randomly assigned to receive medication treatment (MT) plus PTAS or MT alone. The MT will be initiated immediately after randomisation, while the PTAS will be performed when patients report relief of alarm symptoms defined as sudden weakness or numbness. All patients will be followed up at 30 days, 3 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary end point will be the incidence of stroke or death at 30 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will be the incidence of ischaemic stroke in the territory of stenosis arteries, the incidence of in-stent restenosis, the Chinese version of the modified Rankin Scale and the Chinese version of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (CSQoL). Ethics and dissemination The study protocol is approved by institutional review boards in participating hospitals (reference number FZ20160003, 180PLA20160101 and 476PLA2016007). The results of this study will be disseminated to patients, physicians and policymakers through publication in a peer-reviewed journal or presentations in conferences. It is anticipated that the results of this study will improve the quality of the current PTAS procedure and guide clinical decision-making for patients with ICAS. Trial registration number NCT02689037 PMID:27852711

  4. Open-label Study of Initial and Repeat Treatment Cycles of Hylan G-F 20 in Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Robert; Paulsen, Günther; Fickert, Ulrich; Kresmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial and repeat treatment with hylan G-F 20 in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, open-label study in adult patients with symptomatic knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grades I-III) undergoing repeat (SC group) or initial (IC group) treatment courses (3 x 2 mL of hylan G-F 20 at weekly intervals) was conducted with a maximum follow-up of 26 weeks. Reduction of pain using the Verbal Pain Questionnaire (VPQ) and Patient Global Assessment (PTGA) scores, concomitant pain medications use, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Results: A total of 842 patients were included (SC group, n=314; IC group, n=528), of whom 616 formed the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (SC group, n=235; IC group, n=381). Of the 462 patients with follow-up at week 26, 311 (67.3%) were defined as responders. In the ITT population, VPQ scores decreased significantly at 26 weeks (p<0.001) compared with baseline. VPQ and PTGA scores decreased significantly (p<0.001) from baseline at all time points, without any significant changes in concomitant medication use. Twenty-four treatment-related AEs (TEAEs) were reported in 2.9% of patients, with most being mild or moderate in intensity and resolving without sequelae. Conclusion: Initial and repeat courses of hylan G-F 20 were effective with a favorable safety profile for knee OA. The large patient population and the study’s pragmatic design suggest that these results could be replicated in routine clinical practice. PMID:27867433

  5. Understanding missed opportunities for more timely diagnosis of cancer in symptomatic patients after presentation.

    PubMed

    Lyratzopoulos, G; Vedsted, P; Singh, H

    2015-03-31

    The diagnosis of cancer is a complex, multi-step process. In this paper, we highlight factors involved in missed opportunities to diagnose cancer more promptly in symptomatic patients and discuss responsible mechanisms and potential strategies to shorten intervals from presentation to diagnosis. Missed opportunities are instances in which post-hoc judgement indicates that alternative decisions or actions could have led to more timely diagnosis. They can occur in any of the three phases of the diagnostic process (initial diagnostic assessment; diagnostic test performance and interpretation; and diagnostic follow-up and coordination) and can involve patient, doctor/care team, and health-care system factors, often in combination. In this perspective article, we consider epidemiological 'signals' suggestive of missed opportunities and draw on evidence from retrospective case reviews of cancer patient cohorts to summarise factors that contribute to missed opportunities. Multi-disciplinary research targeting such factors is important to shorten diagnostic intervals post presentation. Insights from the fields of organisational and cognitive psychology, human factors science and informatics can be extremely valuable in this emerging research agenda. We provide a conceptual foundation for the development of future interventions to minimise the occurrence of missed opportunities in cancer diagnosis, enriching current approaches that chiefly focus on clinical decision support or on widening access to investigations.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of foot reflexology for patients with symptomatic idiopathic detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ho-Leung Jimmy; Cheon, Willy Cecilia; Wong, To; Liu, Yu Sun John; Tong, Wai Mei Anny

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether foot reflexology has beneficial effects on patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity. One hundred and nine women with symptomatic idiopathic detrusor overactivity were randomized into either foot reflexology treatment group or nonspecific foot massage control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in the diurnal micturition frequency. There was significant change in the number of daytime frequency in the reflexology group when compared with the massage group (-1.90 vs -0.55, p = 0.029). There was also a decrease in the 24-h micturition frequency in both groups, but the change was not statistically significant (-2.80 vs -1.04 p = 0.055). In the reflexology group, more patients believed to have received "true" reflexology (88.9 vs 67.4%, p = 0.012). This reflects the difficulty of blinding in trials of reflexology. Larger scale studies with a better-designed control group and an improved blinding are required to examine if reflexology is effective in improving patients' overall outcome.

  7. Understanding missed opportunities for more timely diagnosis of cancer in symptomatic patients after presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lyratzopoulos, G; Vedsted, P; Singh, H

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is a complex, multi-step process. In this paper, we highlight factors involved in missed opportunities to diagnose cancer more promptly in symptomatic patients and discuss responsible mechanisms and potential strategies to shorten intervals from presentation to diagnosis. Missed opportunities are instances in which post-hoc judgement indicates that alternative decisions or actions could have led to more timely diagnosis. They can occur in any of the three phases of the diagnostic process (initial diagnostic assessment; diagnostic test performance and interpretation; and diagnostic follow-up and coordination) and can involve patient, doctor/care team, and health-care system factors, often in combination. In this perspective article, we consider epidemiological ‘signals' suggestive of missed opportunities and draw on evidence from retrospective case reviews of cancer patient cohorts to summarise factors that contribute to missed opportunities. Multi-disciplinary research targeting such factors is important to shorten diagnostic intervals post presentation. Insights from the fields of organisational and cognitive psychology, human factors science and informatics can be extremely valuable in this emerging research agenda. We provide a conceptual foundation for the development of future interventions to minimise the occurrence of missed opportunities in cancer diagnosis, enriching current approaches that chiefly focus on clinical decision support or on widening access to investigations. PMID:25734393

  8. Comparison of flocked and rayon swabs for collection of respiratory epithelial cells from uninfected volunteers and symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Daley, Peter; Castriciano, Santina; Chernesky, Max; Smieja, Marek

    2006-06-01

    Significantly more epithelial cells were collected by flocked swabs than by rayon swabs in parallel nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs taken from 16 volunteers. Nasopharyngeal sampling of 61 symptomatic patients also yielded more cells by flocked than rayon swabs, providing better clinical specimens for diagnosis.

  9. Prevalence of pes anserine bursitis in symptomatic osteoarthritis patients: an ultrasonographic prospective study.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Fatma; Akbal, Ayla; Gökmen, Ferhat; Adam, Gürhan; Reşorlu, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of pes anserine bursitis (PAB) in patients with osteoarthritis. A total of 85 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were included in the study. The patients were divided into four groups using the Kellgren-Lawrence staging system. The knee X-rays evaluated according to this system indicated that 15.6% of patients were grade 1, 34.1% grade 2, 37.1% grade 3, and 13.5% grade 4. Ultrasonography (USG) was performed on both knees by a radiologist experienced in musculoskeletal system ultrasonography and unaware of the patients' physical examination or direct X-ray findings. The presence of PAB, longest diameter of bursitis, and area of bursitis were recorded. The average age of the 11 male and 74 female patients included in the study was 58.9 ± 9.0 years. A total of 170 knees of 85 patients were examined. The incidence of bursitis was significantly higher in females (p = 0.026). The incidence of bursitis on ultrasound was 20% (34/170). There was a statistical difference between the grades for bursitis incidence (p = 0.004). There was a significant positive correlation between both the longest length (p = 0.015, r = 0.187) and area (p = 0.003, r = 0.231) of PAB with osteoarthritis grade. The mean age of bursitis patients was higher than that of those without the condition (p = 0.038). In addition, the osteoarthritis (OA) grade and bursitis prevalence increased as the patients' age increased, and these increases were statistically significant (p < 0.001). PAB is easily evaluated with ultrasonography. Pes anserine bursitis was observed in one out of every five symptomatic OA patients and was more common in female patients and with advanced age. A positive correlation was found between OA grade and PAB size and area.

  10. Recurrent symptomatic intraocular pressure spikes during hemodialysis in a patient with unilateral anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) changes and hemodialysis has been evaluated for several decades. However, no report on an IOP rise in uveitis patients during hemodialysis has been previously documented. This report describes the case of an uveitis patient with repetitive IOP spikes associated with severe ocular pain during hemodialysis sessions, which resolved after glaucoma filtering surgery. Case presentation A 47-year-old male with diabetes and hypertension had complained of recurrent ocular pain in the left eye during hemodialysis sessions. A slit-lamp examination showed diffuse corneal epithelial edema with several white keratic precipitates and inflammatory cells (Grade 3+) in the anterior chamber of the left eye. No visible neovascularization or synechiae were visible on the iris or angle. Topical glaucoma eye-drops and intravenous mannitol before hemodialysis did not prevent subsequent painful IOP spikes in the left eye. At the end of hemodialysis, IOP averaged ~40 mmHg. After trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the left eye, his IOP stabilized in the low-teens (range, 10–14 mmHg) and no painful IOP spikes occurred during hemodialysis over the first postoperative year. Conclusion We present a case of recurrent painful IOP spikes during hemodialysis in a patient with unilateral anterior uveitis unresponsive to conventional medical treatment prior to hemodialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of repetitive symptomatic IOP rise during hemodialysis in an uveitic glaucoma patient. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the possibility that IOP may rise intolerably during hemodialysis in uveitis patients with a compromised outflow facility. PMID:23384186

  11. Impaired tracheobronchial clearance in patients with mild stable asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, J R; Pavia, D; Sheahan, N F; Agnew, J E; Clarke, S W

    1983-01-01

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was measured with the radioaerosol technique in 25 patients with stable, mild asthma, none of whom was taking systemic corticosteroids. The results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 25 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. All patients and healthy subjects were non-smokers. Ventilatory function was significantly impaired in the asthmatic group, which resulted in a more central initial tracheobronchial deposition of inhaled radioaerosol than in the control group. Despite the shorter transit path along the ciliated airways for the tracer radioaerosol in the asthmatic group, mucociliary clearance was found to be significantly poorer than in the healthy control group. This may be important with respect to bronchial mucus plugging. PMID:6879499

  12. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured. PMID:27508110

  13. Association Between Hematological Indices and Coronary Calcification in Symptomatic Patients without History of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Kassi, Mahwash; Alchalabi, Sama; Bala, Sayf Khaleel; Adigun, Rosalyn; Botero, Sharleen; Chang, Su Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) has long been shown to involve chronic low-grade subclinical inflammation. However, whether there is association between hematological indices assessed by complete blood count (CBC) and coronary atherosclerotic burden has not been well studied. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 868 patients without known CAD who presented with acute chest pain to emergency department and underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring evaluation by multi-detector cardiac computed tomography were included in our study. Clinical characteristics and CBC indices were compared among different CAC groups. Results: The cohort comprised 60% male with a mean age of 61 (SD = 14) years. Median Framingham risk of CAD was 4% (range 1-16%). Median CAC score was 0 (IQR 0-43). Higher CAC groups had significantly higher Framingham risk of CAD than lower CAC groups (P < 0.001). Among different CAC categories, there was no statistically significant difference in hemoglobin level (p 0.45), mean corpuscular volume (p 0.43), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p 0.28), mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume (p 0.36), red cell distribution width (0.42), total white blood cell counts (p 0.291), neutrophil counts (p 0.352), lymphocyte counts (p 0.92), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p 0.68), monocyte count (p 0.48), and platelet counts (p 0.25). Conclusion: Our study did not detect significant association between hematological indices assessed with CBC and coronary calcification in symptomatic patients without known CAD. PMID:25317386

  14. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  15. Cost-effectiveness of combination therapy umeclidinium/vilanterol versus tiotropium in symptomatic COPD Spanish patients

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc; Gáldiz, Juan B; Huerta, Alicia; Villacampa, Alba; Carcedo, David; Garcia-Rio, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) is a novel fixed dose combination of a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta 2 receptor antagonist (LABA) agent. This analysis evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of UMEC/VI compared with tiotropium (TIO), from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective. Methods A previously published linked equations cohort model based on the epidemiological longitudinal study ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points) was used. Patients included were COPD patients with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≤70% and the presence of respiratory symptoms measured with the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (modified Medical Research Council ≥2). Treatment effect, expressed as change in FEV1 from baseline, was estimated from a 24-week head-to-head phase III clinical trial comparing once-daily UMEC/VI with once-daily TIO and was assumed to last 52 weeks following treatment initiation (maximum duration of UMEC/VI clinical trials). Spanish utility values were derived from a published local observational study. Unitary health care costs (€2015) were obtained from local sources. A 3-year time horizon was selected, and 3% discount was applied to effects and costs. Results were expressed as cost/quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed. Results UMEC/VI produced additional 0.03 QALY and €590 vs TIO, leading to an ICER of €21,475/QALY. According to PSA, the probability of UMEC/VI being cost-effective was 80.3% at a willingness-to-pay of €30,000/QALY. Conclusion UMEC/VI could be considered as a cost-effective treatment alternative compared with TIO in symptomatic COPD patients from the Spanish NHS perspective. PMID:26848262

  16. Mid-term Clinical Results and Patient Satisfaction After Uterine Artery Embolization in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Smeets, Albert J.; Lohle, Paul N. M. Vervest, Harry A. M.; Boekkooi, P. Focco; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with symptomatic fibroids. Methods. Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were scored as disappeared, improved, unchanged or worsened. Adverse events were noted, such as vaginal dryness and discharge, menopausal complaints or fibroid expulsion. Patient satisfaction after UAE was assessed. Patient satisfaction of women embolized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles was compared with satisfaction of women embolized with calibrated microspheres. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 110 of 135 women (81%) at a median time interval of 14 months following UAE. In 10 women additional embolization or hysterectomy had been performed. Of the 110 responders, 86 (78%) were satisfied with the result of UAE. The proportion of satisfied women was higher in the group embolized with calibrated microspheres than in women embolized with PVA, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.053). Conclusion. UAE in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids leads to improvement of symptoms and patient satisfaction is good in the vast majority after a median follow-up period of 14 months.

  17. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation.

  18. Effect of Dexamethasone Intraligamentary Injection on Post-Endodontic Pain in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Esnashari, Ehsan; Salmanzadeh, Reyhaneh; Fazlyab, Mahta; Fazlyab, Mahyar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this randomized-controlled clinical trial was to assess the effect of intraligamentary (PDL) injection of dexamethasone on onset and severity of post-treatment pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: A total number of 60 volunteers were included according to the inclusion criteria and were assigned to three groups (n=20). After administration of local anesthesia and before treatment, group 1 (control) PDL injection was done with syringe containing empty cartridge, while in groups 2 and 3 the PDL injection was done with 0.2 mL of 2% lidocaine or dexamethasone (8 mg/2 mL), respectively. Immediately after endodontic treatment patients were requested to mark their level of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the next 48 h (on 6, 12, 24 and 48-h intervals). They were also asked to mention whether analgesics were taken and its dosage. Considering the 0-170 markings on the VAS ruler, the level of pain was scored as follows: score 0 (mild pain; 0-56), score 1 (moderate pain; 57-113) and score 3 (severe pain; 114-170). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Chi-square tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: After 6 and 12 h, group 1 and group 3 had the highest and lowest pain values, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.001 for 6 and 12 h, respectively). However, after 24 and 48 h the difference in the pain was not significant between groups 1 and 2 (P<0.6) but group 3 had lower pain levels (P<0.01 and P<0.8 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment PDL injection of dexamethasone can significantly reduce the post-treatment endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27790253

  19. The Effect of Haemodialysis Access Types on Cardiac Performance and Morbidities in Patients with Symptomatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Min-Kai; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chan, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether the arteriovenous type haemodialysis access affects cardiac function and whether it is still advantageous to the uremic patient with symptomatic heart disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective comparative study. Patients with heart disease and end-stage renal disease that had a new chronic access created between January 2007 and December 2008 and met the inclusion criteria were assessed. The endpoint was major adverse event (MAE)-free survivals of arteriovenous access (AVA) and tunneled cuffed double-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) groups. Whether accesses worsened heart failure was also evaluated. Results There were 43 CVC patients and 60 AVA patients. The median follow-up time from access creation was 27.6 months (IQR 34.7, 10.9~45.6). Although CVC patients were older than AVA patients (median age 78.0, IQR 14.0 vs. 67.5, IQR 16.0, respectively, p = .009), they manifested non-inferior MAE-free survival (mean 17.1, 95% CI 10.3~24.0 vs. 12.9, 95% CI 8.5~17.4 months in CVC and AVA patients, respectively, p = .290). During follow-up, more patients in the AVA group than in the CVC group deteriorated in heart failure status (35 of 57 vs. 10 of 42, respectively, odds ratio 5.1, p < .001). Preoperative-postoperative pairwise comparison of echocardiographic scans revealed an increased number of abnormal findings in the AVA group (Z = 3.91, p < .001), but not in the CVC group. Conclusions In patients with both symptomatic heart disease and end stage renal disease (ESRD), CVC patients showed non-inferior MAE-free survival in comparison to those in the AVA group. AV type access could deteriorate heart failure. Accordingly, uremic patients with symptomatic heart disease are not ideal candidates for AV type access creation. PMID:26848850

  20. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic imaging in symptomatic breast patients: team and individual performance

    PubMed Central

    Britton, P; Warwick, J; Wallis, M G; O'Keeffe, S; Taylor, K; Sinnatamby, R; Barter, S; Gaskarth, M; Duffy, S W; Wishart, G C

    2012-01-01

    Objective The combination of mammography and/or ultrasound remains the mainstay in current breast cancer diagnosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability of standard breast imaging and individual radiologist performance and to explore ways that this can be improved. Methods A total of 16 603 separate assessment episodes were undertaken on 13 958 patients referred to a specialist symptomatic breast clinic over a 6 year period. Each mammogram and ultrasound was reported prospectively using a five-point reporting scale and compared with final outcome. Results Mammographic sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curve (ROC) area were 66.6%, 99.7% and 0.83, respectively. The sensitivity of mammography improved dramatically from 47.6 to 86.7% with increasing age. Overall ultrasound sensitivity, specificity and ROC area was 82.0%, 99.3% and 0.91, respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasound also improved dramatically with increasing age from 66.7 to 97.1%. Breast density also had a profound effect on imaging performance, with mammographic sensitivity falling from 90.1 to 45.9% and ultrasound sensitivity reducing from 95.2 to 72.0% with increasing breast density. Conclusion The sensitivity ranges widely between radiologists (53.1–74.1% for mammography and 67.1–87.0% for ultrasound). Reporting sensitivity was strongly correlated with radiologist experience. Those radiologists with less experience (and lower sensitivity) were relatively more likely to report a cancer as indeterminate/uncertain. To improve radiology reporting performance, the sensitivity of cancer reporting should be closely monitored; there should be regular feedback from needle biopsy results and discussion of reporting classification with colleagues. PMID:21224304

  1. Differential gene expression in patients with subsyndromal symptomatic depression and major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zezhi; Wang, Qingzhong; Wang, Xuemei; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Zuowei; Hong, Wu; Lu, Weihong; Cao, Lan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yong; Yu, Shunying; Zhou, Yimin; Yi, Zhenghui; Fang, Yiru

    2017-01-01

    Background Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and can lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment. Although the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and SSD still remains poorly understood, a set of studies have found that many same genetic factors play important roles in the etiology of these two disorders. Nowadays, the differential gene expression between MDD and SSD is still unknown. In our previous study, we compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD and matched healthy controls (8 subjects in each group), and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures. Based on these findings, we further clarify whether these genes mRNA was different expressed in peripheral blood in patients with SSD, MDD and healthy controls (60 subjects respectively) Method With the help of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we gained gene relative expression levels among the three groups. Results We found that there are three of the forty eight co-regulated genes had differential expression in peripheral blood among the three groups, which are CD84, STRN, CTNS gene (F = 3.528, p = 0.034; F = 3.382, p = 0.039; F = 3.801, p = 0.026, respectively) while there were no significant differences for other genes. Conclusion CD84, STRN, CTNS gene may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD and healthy controls. PMID:28333931

  2. The vascular steal phenomenon is an incomplete contributor to negative cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Daniel F; Strother, Megan K; Faraco, Carlos C; Jordan, Lori C; Ladner, Travis R; Dethrage, Lindsey M; Singer, Robert J; Mocco, J; Clemmons, Paul F; Ayad, Michael J; Donahue, Manus J

    2014-09-01

    'Vascular steal' has been proposed as a compensatory mechanism in hemodynamically compromised ischemic parenchyma. Here, independent measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses to a vascular stimulus in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease are recorded. Symptomatic intracranial stenosis patients (n=40) underwent a multimodal 3.0T MRI protocol including structural (T1-weighted and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and hemodynamic (BOLD and CBF-weighted arterial spin labeling) functional MRI during room air and hypercarbic gas administration. CBF changes in regions demonstrating negative BOLD reactivity were recorded, as well as clinical correlates including symptomatic hemisphere by infarct and lateralizing symptoms. Fifteen out of forty participants exhibited negative BOLD reactivity. Of these, a positive relationship was found between BOLD and CBF reactivity in unaffected (stenosis degree<50%) cortex. In negative BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity regions, three patients exhibited significant (P<0.01) reductions in CBF consistent with vascular steal; six exhibited increases in CBF; and the remaining exhibited no statistical change in CBF. Secondary findings were that negative BOLD reactivity correlated with symptomatic hemisphere by lateralizing clinical symptoms and prior infarcts(s). These data support the conclusion that negative hypercarbia-induced BOLD responses, frequently assigned to vascular steal, are heterogeneous in origin with possible contributions from autoregulation and/or metabolism.

  3. Differential Expression of MicroRNAs in Endarterectomy Specimens Taken from Patients with Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carotid Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Birgit; Grote, Karsten; Worsch, Michael; Parviz, Behnoush; Boening, Andreas; Schieffer, Bernhard; Parahuleva, Mariana S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stroke and transient ischemic attacks are considered as clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease due to on-going vascular inflammation and finally atherothrombosis of the carotid arteries. MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) are known to be involved in vascular inflammation and plaque destabilization. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of selected miRNAs in endarterectomy specimen from carotid arteries that were taken from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Methods and Results 11 miRNAs were selected and their expression was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Therefore, samples were divided into three different groups. On the one hand we investigated the expression patterns from patients in asymptomatic (n = 14) and symptomatic (n = 10) plaques; on the other hand we took samples from normal configurated internal mammary arteries (n = 15). Out of these 11 targets we identified some miRNAs, which were up- or down-regulated in either one of the two groups. Interestingly, the expression of two miRNAs was significantly different between asymptomatic and symptomatic samples, namely miR-21 (P<0.01) and miR-143 (P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, we identified miRNA subtypes which showed different expression in endarterectomy specimen from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic plaques, suggesting that these miRNAs correlated with advanced vascular inflammation and plaque stability. They may represent new therapeutic targets for vascular proliferative diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:27631489

  4. Preserved levels of uninvolved immunoglobulins are independently associated with favorable outcome in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kastritis, E; Zagouri, F; Symeonidis, A; Roussou, M; Sioni, A; Pouli, A; Delimpasi, S; Katodritou, E; Michalis, E; Michael, M; Hatzimichael, E; Vassou, A; Repousis, P; Christophoridou, A; Kartasis, Z; Stefanoudaki, E; Megalakaki, C; Giannouli, S; Kyrtsonis, M-C; Konstantopoulos, K; Spyroupoulou-Vlachou, M; Terpos, E; Dimopoulos, M A

    2014-10-01

    Suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulins is common in multiple myeloma (MM) but the prognostic significance of this phenomenon has not been assessed. We evaluated the prognostic significance of the preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins in 1755 consecutive, unselected, patients with newly diagnosed, symptomatic MM with pre-therapy immunoglobulin levels measured by nephelometry. Suppression of at least one uninvolved immunoglobulin was observed in 87% of patients and was more common in patients with immunoglobulin A myeloma, those aged over 65 years, in patients with advanced-International Staging System (ISS) stage, extensive-bone marrow infiltration, anemia, low platelet counts, high levels of serum M-monoclonal protein or renal dysfunction. Patients with preserved immunoglobulins had a better survival than patients with suppressed immunoglobulins (median survival 55 vs 41.5 months, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins was independently associated with better survival (hazard ratio: 0.781, 95% confidence interval: 0.618-0.987, P=0.039); irrespective of the treatment. In a subset of 500 patients, which were strictly followed for disease progression, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins was associated with a significantly longer progression-free survival (60 vs 25 months, P<0.001), independently of other common prognostic factors. In conclusion, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins in newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic MM was independently associated with long term disease control and improved survival.

  5. Cognitive rehabilitation in patients with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Majid; Alavirad, Maryam; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Emsaki, Golita; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nonamnesic type of mild cognitive impairment (na-MCI) is predementia state with subtle decline incognitive domains except memory. Although cognitive rehabilitation (CR) has been investigated in amnesic type of MCI, we could not find any trial that rehabilitated na-MCI exclusively. We studied the effectiveness of CR on na-MCI. Materials and Methods: This study was a blinded, randomized clinical trial. Individuals with age of 60 years or more, complete self-directedness and diagnosis of na-MCI, based on Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive assessment tool, were selected. The 51 patients were randomly assigned into three groups: CR, lifestyle (LS) modification, and the control group (CG). Neuropsychological tests for executive functioning were assessed at the baseline, after the interventions, and 6 months later. Results: The mean score of the “design fluency” test increased significantly in CR, compared to LS and CG (P = 0.007). In “five-point” test, mean score increased significantly in CR (P = 0.03). There was higher mean score of Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults in CR (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Consideration of the MCI subtypes allows us to target specific cognitive domains, such as information processing, for better CR outcome. CR may result in better performance of executive functioning of daily living. PMID:28250778

  6. Sternum-Sparing Hybrid Repair of a Symptomatic Innominate Artery Aneurysm in a Frail Patient with Bovine Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Pellenc, Quentin; Avramenko, Alla; Mordant, Pierre; Castier, Yves

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old man with a bovine aortic arch variation, who presented a symptomatic aneurysm of the innominate artery. Standard open repair was contraindicated and an hybrid approach was performed, regarding general status (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) Performance Status score 3 and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification system score 3). Right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were revascularized surgically from the left common carotid artery. Proximal aneurysm exclusion was performed with a vascular plug. Follow-up computed tomography angiography confirmed the exclusion of the innominate artery aneurysm. Vascular plugs can be used safely through a sternum-sparing hybrid approach to treat symptomatic innominate artery aneurysms in frail patients.

  7. Anesthetic efficacy of articaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic versus asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Argueta-Figueroa, Liliana; Arzate-Sosa, Gabriel; Mendieta-Zeron, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth and if individual patient factors, pulpal disease characteristics, and previous medication are correlated to local anesthetic success. A second objective was to determine the specificity and sensibility of a cold test for prediction of anesthetic success prior to endodontic treatment. Seventy patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth received 1.6 mL of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) using a metal guide. The anesthetic solution was injected with a computer-preprogrammed delivery system for local anesthesia. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after solution deposition; later, patients rated their discomfort using the visual analog scale (VAS). The success rate for the IA NB using articaine was 64.2% in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and 86.9% in patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Cold test prior to root canal treatment had a specificity and sensibility of 12.5% and 87.1%, respectively. The anesthetic efficacy of articaine in irreversible pulpitis is moderately acceptable, and anesthetic success increases when the patient has been premedicated with NSAIDs. The cold test appears to be a favorable indicator for predicting anesthetic success.

  8. Severe symptomatic hypocalcemia following total thyroidectomy in a patient with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Gross, Justin A; Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Moore, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Patients who undergo a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure are at moderate risk for calcium and vitamin D deficiency. Those who subsequently undergo thyroid or parathyroid surgery are at high risk for developing severe symptomatic hypocalcemia if they are not monitored and adequately treated prophylactically. We describe the case of a morbidly obese 40-year-old man who had undergone RYGB surgery 6 months prior to the discovery of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. He subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy with central and bilateral neck dissection. Following surgery, he developed severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, as his calcium level fell to a nadir of 6.0 mg/dl. He required aggressive oral and intravenous repletion therapy with calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium for 10 days before hospital discharge. Providers should institute careful preoperative screening, patient counseling, and prophylactic calcium and vitamin D therapy for all thyroid surgery patients who have previously undergone RYGB surgery to prevent the development of severe and life-threatening hypocalcemia. Only a few reports of patients have been published on the dangers of thyroid and parathyroid surgery in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. We report a new case to add to the body of literature on this patient population. We also review calcium homeostasis and supplementation as they relate to this situation.

  9. Early Improvement in Psychosocial Function Predicts Longer-Term Symptomatic Remission in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, Augustus John

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between early change in psychosocial function independent of depression severity and longer-term symptomatic remission. Participants of Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial were randomly selected for model selection (n = 334) and validation (n = 331). Changes in psychosocial function (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, WSAS) from baseline to week 6 were assessed and two data-driven sub-groups of WSAS change were identified in the randomly selected model selection half. Results of analyses to predict symptomatic remission at 3 and 7 months were validated for these sub-groups in the second half (validation sample). From baseline to week 6, psychosocial function improved significantly even after adjusting for depression severity at each visit and select baseline variables (age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, income, employment, depression onset before age 18, anxious features, and suicidal ideation), treatment-arm, and WSAS score. The WSAS change patterns identified two (early improvement and gradual change) subgroups. After adjusting for baseline variables and remission status at week 6, participants with early improvement in the second half (validation sample) had greater remission rates than those with gradual change at both 3 (3.3 times) and 7 months (2.3 times) following acute treatment initiation. In conclusion, early improvement in psychosocial function provides a clinically meaningful prediction of longer-term symptomatic remission, independent of depression symptom severity. PMID:28030546

  10. Anxiety and salivary cortisol in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic panic patients and healthy volunteers performing simulated public speaking.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Parente, Alexandre C B V; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Guimarães, Francisco S; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara; Graeff, Frederico G

    2005-02-28

    Anxiety and salivary cortisol were measured in subjects performing simulated public speaking (SPS), a procedure that has been neurobiologically related to panic disorder. The subjects were divided into three groups: 18 symptomatic panic patients, 16 nonsymptomatic, drug-treated panic patients, and 17 healthy controls. In the experimental session, subjective anxiety (Visual Analogue Mood Scale) and the total score of the Bodily Symptom Scale (BSS) were higher in symptomatic patients than in controls, with nonsymptomatic patients in between. Measures of cortisol taken at home showed that the level was higher at 9:00 h than at 23:00 h in every group, indicating a normal circadian regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in panic patients. Also in every group, the level of cortisol was high at the beginning of the experimental session and decreased after 70 min. This fall parallels the decrease in anxiety and BSS ratings, and appears to reflect habituation of initial, anticipatory anxiety. Preparation and performance of speech raised anxiety and BSS scores to the initial levels, but failed to increase cortisol measured over 60 min, starting at the end of the speech. Therefore, SPS does not seem to activate the HPA axis, as reported in panic attacks.

  11. Association between gait characteristics and endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S; Casanegra, Ana I; Silva-Palacios, Federico; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether gait characteristics were associated with endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and antioxidant capacity in older patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Gait measurements of 231 symptomatic men and women with PAD were assessed during a 4-m walk test. Patients were further characterized on endothelial effects of circulating factors present in the sera using a cell culture-based bioassay on primary human arterial endothelial cells and on circulating inflammatory and vascular biomarkers. In a multivariate regression model for gait speed, the significant independent variables were age (p < 0.001), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.003), sex (p = 0.003), and history of cerebrovascular accidents (p = 0.021). In multivariate analyses for gait cadence, the significant independent predictors included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.001), and hypertension (p = 0.001). In a multivariate regression model for gait stride length, the significant independent variables were HsCRP (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), ICAM-1 (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.002), cellular reactive oxygen species production (p = 0.007), and sex (p = 0.008). Higher levels of circulating biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial cell oxidative stress were associated with slower gait speed, slower cadence, and shorter stride length in older symptomatic patients with PAD. Additionally, this profile of impaired gait was more evident in older patients, in women, and in those with diabetes, hypertension, and history of cerebrovascular accidents.

  12. The impact of type D personality on health-related quality of life in patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Edip Erdal; Canan, Fatih; Yıldırım, Osman; Cetin, Mehmet Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Haemorrhoids are one of the most common reasons that patients seek consultation from a colon and rectal surgeon. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is a significant factor in describing the burden of illness and the impact of treatment in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Type D (distressed) personality is defined as the co-occurrence of negative affect and social inhibition. Aim To assess the prevalence of type D personality in patients with haemorrhoids and to investigate whether the presence of a type D personality would affect HrQoL in patients with haemorrhoids. Material and methods One hundred and six outpatients with symptomatic haemorrhoids with no psychiatric comorbidity were consecutively enrolled, along with 96 healthy controls. The Type D Scale (DS14) and the General Health Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used in the collection of data. Results Of 106 patients evaluated, 29.2% met criteria for type D personality. Patients with haemorrhoids scored lower on bodily pain and vitality dimensions of SF-36 than did healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Patients with a type D personality were found to score lower on bodily pain domain of HrQoL than patients without a type D personality. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of type D personality with bodily pain dimension of the SF-36 in patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids (r = –0.315, p < 0.01). Conclusions Type D personality was associated with increased perceived bodily pain in patients with haemorrhoids. Consideration of type D personality construct personality traits could improve risk stratification in research and clinical practice in this patient group. PMID:25276256

  13. Relationship of Circulating CXCR4+ EPC with Prognosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yunpeng; Luo, Lan Lan; Sun, Jian; Gao, Weiwei; Tian, Ye; Park, Eugene; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Jieli; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the changes of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/CXCR4 expression in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the correlation between EPC level and the prognosis of mild TBI. 72 TBI patients (57 mild TBI, 15 moderate TBI patients) and 25 healthy subjects (control) were included. The number of circulating EPCs, CD34+, and CD133+ cells and the percentage of CXCR4+ cells in each cell population at 1,4,7,14,21 days after TBI were counted by flow cytometer. SDF-1α levels in serum were detected by ELISA assay. The patients were divided into poor and good prognosis groups based on Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and Activity of Daily Living Scale at 3 months after TBI. Correlation analysis between each detected index and prognosis of mild TBI was performed. Moderate TBI patients have higher levels of SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression than mild TBI patients (P < 0.05). The percentage of CXCR4+ EPCs at day 7 post-TBI was significantly higher in mild TBI patients with poor prognosis than the ones with good prognosis (P < 0.05). HAMA and HAMD scores in mild TBI patients were significantly lower than moderate TBI patients (P < 0.05) in early term. The percentage of CXCR4+ EPCs at day 7 after TBI was significantly correlated with the prognosis outcome at 3 months. The mobilization of circulating EPCs can be induced in mild TBI. The expression of CXCR4+ in EPCs at 7 days after TBI reflects the short-term prognosis of brain injury, and could be a potential biological marker for prognosis prediction of mild TBI. PMID:28203485

  14. The Current National Criteria for Carotid Artery Stenting Overestimates Its Efficacy in Patients Who Are Symptomatic and High Risk

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shunsuke; Bensley, Rodney P.; Glaser, Julia D.; Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Boston

    2013-01-01

    Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have established guidelines that outline patients who are considered “high risk” for complications following CEA for which CAS may provide benefit. The validity of these high risk criteria are yet unproven. In this study, we stratified patients who underwent either CAS or CEA by CMS high risk criteria and symptom status, and examined their 30-day outcomes. Methods A non-randomized, retrospective cohort study was performed by chart review of all patients undergoing CEA or CAS from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010 at our institution. Demographic data, as well as data pertaining to the presence or absence of high risk factors were collected. Patients were stratified using symptom status and high risk status as variables and 30-day adverse events (stroke, death, and/or myocardial infarction (MI)) were compared. Results 271 patients underwent CAS with 30-day complication rates of stroke (3.0%), death (1.1%), MI (1.5%), stroke/death (3.7%), and stroke/death/MI (5.2%). 830 patients underwent CEA with 30-day complication rates of stroke (2.0%), death (0.1%), MI (0.6%), stroke/death (1.9%), and stroke/death/MI (2.7%). Among symptomatic patients, physiologic high risk status was associated with increased stroke/death (6/42, 14.3% vs. 2/74, 2.7%, P<0.01), and anatomic high risk status was associated with a trend towards increased stroke/death (5/31, 16.1% vs. 0/20, 0.0%, P=0.14) in patients who underwent CAS compared to CEA. Analysis of asymptomatic patients showed no differences among the two groups overall, except for a trend towards higher rate of MI following CAS compared to CEA (3/71, 4.2% vs. 0/108, 0.0%, P=.06) in those who were physiologically high risk. Among symptomatic patients who underwent CAS, patients with physiologic and anatomic high risk factors had a higher rate of stroke/death compared to non-high risk patients (6/42, 14.3% vs. 0/24, 0.0% and 5/31, 16.1% vs. 0/24, 0.0%, respectively

  15. Therapy decisions for the symptomatic patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Mark C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to kill approximately 30,000 men per year. Since 2010, five new therapeutic agents have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). With the increasing number of therapies available to clinicians, the most effective sequence in which to implement these treatments remains unknown. The presence or absence of symptoms (i.e., bony pain, visceral crisis) is a key parameter that informs the decision-making process regarding therapy. Treatment algorithms based on: 1) asymptomatic/minimal symptoms, 2) moderate symptoms or chemotherapy ineligible or 3) symptomatic disease need to be developed. PMID:25865849

  16. Therapy decisions for the symptomatic patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Mark C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to kill approximately 30,000 men per year. Since 2010, five new therapeutic agents have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved to treat metastatic castration‑resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). With the increasing number of therapies available to clinicians, the most effective sequence in which to implement these treatments remains unknown. The presence or absence of symptoms (i.e., bony pain, visceral crisis) is a key parameter that informs the decision‑making process regarding therapy. Treatment algorithms based on: 1) asymptomatic/minimal symptoms, 2) moderate symptoms or chemotherapy ineligible or 3) symptomatic disease need to be developed.

  17. [Ictal Gerstmann's syndrome in a patient with symptomatic parietal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Shimotake, Akihiro; Fujita, Youshi; Ikeda, Akio; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Jun; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2008-03-01

    A 34-year-old man with astrocytoma in the left parietal lobe had symptomatic partial epilepsy, and he presented transient episodes of acalculia, agraphia and finger agnosia. Occasionally he had difficulty in finding appropriate letters when making an e-mail, and difficulty in writing and calculation. Neurological examinations revealed ictal symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome without right to left disorientation. No other higher cortical dysfunction or neurological deficits were noted. Scalp EEGs showed frequent, regional ictal discharges in the left parietal area lasting for 60-240 seconds. These clinico-electrographical observations strongly support that epileptic seizures produced a loss of cortical higher function manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

  18. Nasal hemophilic pseudotumor in a patient with mild hemophilia A and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiyasu; Monji, Mikio; Kai, Keita; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2017-02-01

    Hemophilic pseudotumor is a rare complication, even in patients with severe hemophilia. Herein we report on a case of hemophilic pseudotumor in a patient with mild hemophilia A and allergic rhinitis, initially suspected to be a nasal tumor. The pseudotumor was cured by supplementation with recombinant factor VIII concentrates, and medication for allergic rhinitis. Pseudotumor should always be considered in hemophiliac patients, even in those with only mild deficiency of coagulation factors.

  19. Upregulation of Dicer is more frequent in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance than in multiple myeloma patients and is associated with longer survival in symptomatic myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarasquete, María E.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Paiva, Bruno; Chillón, María C.; Alcoceba, Miguel; García-Sanz, Ramón; Hernández, Jesús M.; González, Marcos; San-Miguel, Jesús F.

    2011-01-01

    Dicer and Drosha are key enzymes in the miRNA-processing pathway which is altered in many human cancers. We analyzed Dicer and Drosha expression levels by quantitative PCR in 151 patients with monoclonal gammopathies: 102 symptomatic myeloma patients, 23 smoldering myelomas and 26 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We found that Dicer expression values were significantly higher in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in smoldering myelomas and symptomatic myeloma (mean ± SD, 0.84±0.36 vs. 0.60±0.23 and 0.62±0.51; P<0.01). Moreover, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in symptomatic myeloma patients with high expression of Dicer (not reached vs. 23.6 months; P=0.02). By contrast, no differences in the expression of Drosha among these groups of patients were observed. Our data suggest that Dicer expression may play an important role in the progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathies. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00461747 for MM patients under 65 years of age and NCT00443235 for MM patients over 65 years of age) PMID:21160068

  20. Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Antioxidant Capacity are Associated With Exercise Performance and Microcirculation in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E; Montgomery, Polly S; Sosnowska, Danuta; Casanegra, Ana I; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2015-10-01

    We determined whether exercise performance and lower extremity microcirculation were associated with endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and antioxidant capacity in 160 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). In a multivariate regression model for peak walking time, significant independent variables included ankle-brachial index (P < .001), age (P = .017), hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (P = .008), and endothelial cell nuclear factor K-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity (P = .015). In multivariate analyses for time to minimum exercise calf muscle hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2), significant independent variables included endothelial cell NF-κB activity (P = .043) and calf muscle StO2 at rest (P = .007). Endothelial cell inflammation and circulating biomarkers of inflammation and antioxidant capacity were associated with exercise performance and microcirculation of the ischemic calf musculature during exercise. The clinical implication is that interventions designed to alleviate endothelial cell inflammation and circulating inflammatory biomarkers, such as antioxidant therapy, may improve exercise performance of symptomatic patients with PAD.

  1. Topical Allium ampeloprasum subsp Iranicum (Leek) extract cream in patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids: a pilot randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ghahramani, Leila; Sobhani, Zahra; Haghighi, Ehsan Rahmanian; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2015-04-01

    Allium ampeloprasum subsp iranicum (Leek) has been traditionally used in antihemorrhoidal topical herbal formulations. This study aimed to evaluate its safety and efficacy in a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Twenty patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids were randomly allocated to receive the topical leek extract cream or standard antihemorrhoid cream for 3 weeks. The patients were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of pain, defecation discomfort, bleeding severity, anal itching severity, and reported adverse events. A significant decrease was observed in the grade of bleeding severity and defecation discomfort in both the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups after the intervention, while no significant change was observed in pain scores. There was no significant difference between the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups with regard to mean changes in outcome measures. This pilot study showed that the topical use of leek cream can be as effective as a standard antihemorrhoid cream.

  2. Elevated Red Blood Cell Distribution Width as a Simple Prognostic Factor in Patients with Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyewon; Kong, Sun-Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Hyoeun; Youn, Hye Sun; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a parameter reported in complete blood cell count tests, and has been reported as an inflammatory biomarker. Multiple myeloma (MM) is known to be associated with inflammatory microenvironments. However, the importance of RDW has been seldom studied in MM. For this study, 146 symptomatic myeloma patients with available RDW at diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics were compared between two groups, those with high (>14.5%) and normal (≤14.5%) RDW. RDW was correlated to hemoglobin, MM stage, β2-microglobulin, M-protein, bone marrow plasma cells, and cellularity (P < 0.001). During induction, overall response rates of the two groups were similar (P = 0.195); however, complete response rate was higher in the normal-RDW group than it was in the high-RDW group (P = 0.005). With a median follow-up of 47 months, the normal-RDW group showed better progression-free survival (PFS) (24.2 versus 17.0 months, P = 0.029) compared to the high-RDW group. Overall survival was not different according to the RDW level (P = 0.236). In multivariate analysis, elevated RDW at diagnosis was a poor prognostic factor for PFS (HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.24–8.32) after adjustment with other myeloma-related prognostic factors. RDW would be a simple and immediately available biomarker of symptomatic MM, reflecting the systemic inflammation. PMID:24963470

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) in the Treatment of Venous Symptomatic Chronic Portal Thrombosis in Non-cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I. Elorz, Mariana; Vivas, Isabel; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Bastarrika, Gorka; Benito, Alberto

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To present a series of cases of non-cirrhotic patients with symptomatic massive portal thrombosis treated by percutaneous techniques. All patients underwent a TIPS procedure in order to maintain the patency of the portal vein by facilitating the outflow. Methods: A total of six patients were treated for thrombosis of the main portal vein (6/6); the main right and left branches (3/6) and the splenic vein (5/6) and superior mesenteric vein (6/6). Two patients had a pancreatic malignancy; one patient with an orthotopic liver transplant had been surgically treated for a pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had idiopathic thrombocytosis, and in the remaining patient no cause for the portal thrombosis was identified. During the initial procedure in each patient one or more approaches were tried: transhepatic (5/6), transileocolic (1/6), trans-splenic (1/6) or transjugular (1/6). In all cases the procedure was completed with a TIPS with either ultrasound guidance (3/6), 'gun-shot' technique (2/6) or fluoroscopic guidance (1/6).Results: No complications were observed during the procedures. One patient had a repeat episode of variceal bleeding at 30 months, one patient remained asymptomatic and was lost to follow-up at 24 months, two patients were successfully treated surgically (cephalic duodenopancreatectomy) and are alive at 4 and 36 months. One patient remains asymptomatic (without new episodes of abdominal pain) at 16 months of follow-up. One patient died because of tumor progression at 10 months. Conclusion: Percutaneous techniques for portal recanalization are an interesting alternative even in non-acute thrombosis. Once flow has been restored in the portal vein TIPS may be necessary to obtain an adequate outflow, hence facilitating and maintaining the portal flow.

  4. Severe symptomatic intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis treated with intracranial stenting: a single center study with 58 patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Liang; Gao, Bu-Lang; Li, Tian-Xiao; Cai, Dong-Yang; Zhu, Liang-Fu; Xue, Jiang-Yu; Bai, Wei-Xing; Li, Zhao-Shuo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of intracranial stenting in a population with severe (≥70%) symptomatic intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) atherosclerotic stenosis. METHODS Fifty-eight patients with severe intracranial ICA atherosclerotic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. The baseline data, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up were prospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients had successful intracranial stenting (100%), and the mean degree of stenosis was improved from 84.3%±7.5% to 23.5%±5.1% after the stent procedure. During the 30-day perioperative period, only one patient (1.7%) had ischemic stroke. Seven patients (12.1%) had headache and dysphoria. Thirty-six patients (62.1%) had clinical follow-up for 6–68 months after stenting. Five female patients (13.9%) had ipsilateral stroke including one death, but no disabling stroke, while three other patients (8.3%) had ipsilateral temporary ischemic attack (TIA). The recurrent stroke rate was higher in patients presenting with stroke (4/17, 23.5%) than in patients presenting with TIA (1/19, 5.3%), with no statistical significance (P = 0.33). Thirteen patients (22.4%) had imaging follow-up of 5–12 months following stenting, five of whom (38.5%) had in-stent restenosis. CONCLUSION Intracranial stenting for patients with intracranial ICA atherosclerotic stenosis has a low perioperative stroke rate and decent outcome on long-term follow-up, despite a relatively high in-stent restenosis rate. PMID:26809831

  5. Treatment of 213 patients with Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts by CT-guided Percutaneous Injection of Fibrin Sealant

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kieran; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Elias, Gavin; Kathuria, Sudhir; Long, Donlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of intervention in patients with symptomatic Tarlov cysts by percutaneous, CT-guided two-needle cyst aspiration and fibrin sealant injection. Materials and Methods This study was designed to assess outcomes in patients who underwent CT-guided aspiration and injection of one or more sacral Tarlov cysts at Johns Hopkins Hospital between the years of 2003 and 2013. In all, 289 cysts were treated in 213 consecutive patients. All of these patients were followed for at least six months; 90% were followed for one year and 83% were followed for three to six years. The aspiration-injection procedure employed two needles and was carried out with local anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. In the fibrin injection stage of the procedure, a commercially available fibrin sealant was injected into the cyst through the deep needle (Tisseel VH; Baxter Healthcare, Westlake Village, California). Results One year post-procedure, excellent results had been obtained in 104 patients (54.2% of patients followed) and good or satisfactory results had been obtained in 53 patients (27.6%). Thus, 157 patients (81.8%) in all were initially satisfied with the outcome of treatment. At three to six years post-procedure, 74.0% of patients followed were satisfied with treatment. There were no significant complications. Conclusions The aspiration-injection technique described herein constitutes a safe and efficacious treatment option that holds promise for relieving cyst-related symptoms in many patients with very small risk. PMID:26405086

  6. Effect of Oral Premedication on the Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Dubey, Sandeep; Kala, Shubham; Misuriya, Abhinav; Kataria, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is generally accepted that achieving complete anaesthesia with an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is more challenging than for other teeth. Therefore, administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) 1 hour prior to anaesthetic administration has been proposed as a means to increase the efficacy of the IANB in such patients. Aim The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to determine the effect of administration of oral premedication with ketorolac (KETO) and diclofenac potassium (DP) on the efficacy of IANB in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty patients with irreversible pulpitis were evaluated preoperatively for pain using Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which they were randomly divided into three groups. The subjects received identical tablets of ketorolac, diclofenac pottasium or cellulose powder (placebo), 1 hour prior to administration of IANB with 2% lidocaine containing 1:200 000 epinephrine. Lip numbness as well as positive and negative responses to cold test were ascertained. Additionally pain score of each patient was recorded during cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation. Success was defined as the absence of pain or mild pain based on the visual analog scale readings. The data was analysed using One-Way Anova, Post-Hoc Tukey pair wise, Paired T – Test and chi-square test. Trial Registery Number is 4722/2015 for this clinical trial study. Results There were no significant differences with respect to age (p =0.098), gender (p = 0.801) and pre-VAS score (DP-KETO p=0.645, PLAC-KETO p =0.964, PLAC-DP p = 0.801) between the three groups. All patients had subjective lip anaesthesia with the IAN blocks. Patients of all the three groups reported a significant decrease in active pain after local anaesthesia (p< 0.05). The post injection VAS Score was least in group

  7. Full symptomatic recovery does not ensure full recovery of muscle‐tendon function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thomeé, Roland; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between muscle‐tendon function and symptoms in patients with Achilles tendinopathy using a validated test battery. Design A prospective non‐randomised trial. Setting Orthopaedic Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Patients 37 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy in the midportion of the tendon, with symptoms for >2 months, were evaluated at the initiation of the study and after 1 year. Intervention The patients were treated using a rehabilitation programme, under the supervision of a physical therapist, for 6 months. Main outcome measurements The patients were evaluated using the Swedish version of the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment—Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A‐S) for symptoms, and a test battery for evaluation of the lower leg muscle‐tendon function. Results There were significant improvements in the VISA‐A‐S score (p<0.00, n = 37) and the test battery (p<0.02, n = 19) at the 1‐year follow‐up. The VISA‐A‐S questionnaire had an effect size of 2.1 and the test battery had an effect size of 0.73. A low correlation (r = 0.178, p>0.05) was found between the VISA‐A‐S score and the test battery. A high correlation (r = 0.611, p<0.05) was found between the drop counter movement jump and the VISA‐A‐S score. All other tests in the test battery had low correlations (r = −0.305 to 0.155, p>0.05) with the VISA‐A‐S score. Only 25% (4/16) of the patients who had full symptomatic recovery had achieved full recovery of muscle–tendon function as measured by the test battery. Conclusion Full symptomatic recovery in patients with Achilles tendinopathy does not ensure full recovery of muscle–tendon function. The VISA‐A‐S questionnaire and the test battery are sensitive to clinically relevant changes with treatment and can be recommended for use in both the clinic and research. PMID:17261555

  8. Effect of CPAP on blood pressure in patients with minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea: a meta-analysis using individual patient data from four randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Daniel J; Stradling, John R; Barbé, Ferran; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Background CPAP reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Whether the same benefit is present in patients with minimally symptomatic OSA is unclear, thus a meta-analysis of existing trial data is required. Methods The electronic databases Medline, Embase and trial registries were searched. Trials were eligible if they included patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, had randomised them to receive CPAP or either sham-CPAP or no CPAP, and recorded BP at baseline and follow-up. Individual participant data were obtained. Primary outcomes were absolute change in systolic and diastolic BP. Findings Five eligible trials were found (1219 patients) from which data from four studies (1206 patients) were obtained. Mean (SD) baseline systolic and diastolic BP across all four studies was 131.2 (15.8) mm Hg and 80.9 (10.4) mm Hg, respectively. There was a slight increase in systolic BP of 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI −0.2 to 2.3, p=0.086) and a slight reduction in diastolic BP of 0.8 mm Hg (95% CI −1.6 to 0.1, p=0.083), although the results were not statistically significant. There was some evidence of an increase in systolic BP in patients using CPAP <4 h/night (1.5 mm Hg, 95% CI −0.0 to 3.1, p=0.052) and reduction in diastolic BP in patients using CPAP >4 h/night (−1.4 mm Hg, 95% CI −2.5 to −0.4, p=0.008). CPAP treatment reduced both subjective sleepiness (p<0.001) and OSA severity (p<0.001). Interpretation Although CPAP treatment reduces OSA severity and sleepiness, it seems not to have a beneficial effect on BP in patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, except in patients who used CPAP for >4 h/night. PMID:24947425

  9. Evaluating the psychological effects of genetic testing in symptomatic patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vansenne, Fleur; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M

    2009-10-01

    Most research on the effects of genetic testing is performed in individuals at increased risk for a specific disease (presymptomatic subjects) but not in patients already affected by disease. If results of these studies in presymptomatic subjects can be applied to patients is unclear. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effects of genetic testing in patients and describe the methodological instruments used. About 2611 articles were retrieved and 16 studies included. Studies reported great variety in designs, methods, and patient outcomes. In total, 2868 participants enrolled of which 62% were patients. Patients appeared to have a lower perceived general health and higher levels of anxiety and depression than presymptomatic subjects before genetic testing. In the long term no psychological impairment was shown. We conclude that patients differ from presymptomatic subjects and may be more vulnerable to negative effects of genetic testing. Conclusions from earlier research on presymptomatic genetic testing cannot be generalized to patients, and more standardized research is needed.

  10. Distinct antibody responses of patients with mild and severe leptospirosis determined by whole proteome microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lessa-Aquino, Carolina; Lindow, Janet C.; Randall, Arlo; Wunder, Elsio; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Algis; Cruz, Jaqueline S.; Damião, Alcineia O.; Nery, Nívison; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Costa, Federico; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Medeiros, Marco Alberto; Felgner, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. Humans usually present a mild non-specific febrile illness, but a proportion of them develop more severe outcomes, such as multi-organ failure, lung hemorrhage and death. Such complications are thought to depend on several factors, including the host immunity. Protective immunity is associated with humoral immune response, but little is known about the immune response mounted during naturally-acquired Leptospira infection. Methods and principal findings Here, we used protein microarray chip to profile the antibody responses of patients with severe and mild leptospirosis against the complete Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni predicted ORFeome. We discovered a limited number of immunodominant antigens, with 36 antigens specific to patients, of which 11 were potential serodiagnostic antigens, identified at acute phase, and 33 were potential subunit vaccine targets, detected after recovery. Moreover, we found distinct antibody profiles in patients with different clinical outcomes: in the severe group, overall IgM responses do not change and IgG responses increase over time, while both IgM and IgG responses remain stable in the mild patient group. Analyses of individual patients’ responses showed that >74% of patients in the severe group had significant IgG increases over time compared to 29% of patients in the mild group. Additionally, 90% of IgM responses did not change over time in the mild group, compared to ~51% in the severe group. Conclusions In the present study, we detected antibody profiles associated with disease severity and speculate that patients with mild disease were protected from severe outcomes due to pre-existing antibodies, while patients with severe leptospirosis demonstrated an antibody profile typical of first exposure. Our findings represent a significant advance in the understanding of the humoral immune response to Leptospira infection, and we have identified new

  11. Elevated PD-1 expression and decreased telomerase activity in memory T cells of patients with symptomatic Herpes Zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Zangeneh, Z; Golmoghaddam, H; Emad, M; Erfani, N; Doroudchi, M

    2014-11-16

    We investigated PD-1 levels on VZV-specific CD8+ T-cells of patients with zoster and the effect of PD-1 on the telomerase activity. CD3, CD8, CD137 and PD-1 expressions were analyzed on PBMCs from 9 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic individuals. The effect of PD-1 blockade at the time of stimulation on the telomerase activity of non-senescent CD57-CD45RO+CD8+CD3+ memory T-cells was evaluated. PD-1 was elevated on CD8+ T-cells in patients. The frequency of PD-1+ and CD137- cells in total CD3+CD8+ T cells of patients was elevated compared to controls. Telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells was lower than that of controls. Blockade of PD-1 at the time of stimulation increased telomerase activity of non-senescent memory T-cells, accompanied by increased CD137 expression. Low telomerase activity of the patients with reactivated zoster could be partially overcome by blocking PD-1 pathway.

  12. Six psychotropics for pre-symptomatic & early Alzheimer's (MCI), Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease modification

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    The quest for neuroprotective drugs to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD), has been largely unrewarding. Preclinical evidence suggests that repurposing quetiapine, lithium, valproate, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine for early and pre-symptomatic disease-modification in NDDs may be promising and can spare regulatory barriers. The literature of these psychotropics in early stage and pre-symptomatic AD, PD, and HD is reviewed and propitious findings follow. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase of AD: salutary human randomized controlled trial findings for low-dose lithium and, in selected patients, donepezil await replication. Pre-symptomatic AD: human epidemiological data indicate that lithium reduces AD risk. Animal model studies (AMS) reveal encouraging results for quetiapine, lithium, donepezil, and memantine. Early PD: valproate AMS findings show promise. Pre-symptomatic PD: lithium and valproate AMS findings are encouraging. Early HD: uncontrolled clinical data indicate non-progression with lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine. Pre-symptomatic HD: lithium and valproate are auspicious in AMS. Many other promising findings awaiting replication (valproate in MCI; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic AD; lithium in early PD; lithium, valproate, fluoxetine in pre-symptomatic PD; donepezil in early HD; lithium, fluoxetine, memantine in pre-symptomatic HD) are reviewed. Dose- and stage-dependent effects are considered. Suggestions for signal-enhancement in human trials are provided for each NDD stage. PMID:28123400

  13. Exploring Experiences of Delayed Prescribing and Symptomatic Treatment for Urinary Tract Infections among General Practitioners and Patients in Ambulatory Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duane, Sinead; Beatty, Paula; Murphy, Andrew W.; Vellinga, Akke

    2016-01-01

    “Delayed or back up” antibiotic prescriptions and “symptomatic” treatment may help to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in the future. However, more research needs to be conducted in this area before these strategies can be readily promoted in practice. This study explores General Practitioner (GP) and patient attitudes and experiences regarding the use of delayed or back-up antibiotic and symptomatic treatment for UTI. Qualitative face to face interviews with General Practitioners (n = 7) from one urban and one rural practice and telephone interviews with UTI patients (n = 14) from a rural practice were undertaken. Interviews were analysed using framework analysis. GPs believe that antibiotics are necessary when treating UTI. There was little consensus amongst GPs regarding the role of delayed prescribing or symptomatic treatment for UTI. Delayed prescribing may be considered for patients with low grade symptoms and a negative dipstick test. Patients had limited experience of delayed prescribing for UTI. Half indicated they would be satisfied with a delayed prescription the other half would question it. A fear of missing a serious illness was a significant barrier to symptomatic treatment for both GP and patient. The findings of this research provide insight into antibiotic prescribing practices in general practice. It also highlights the need for further empirical research into the effectiveness of alternative treatment strategies such as symptomatic treatment of UTI before such strategies can be readily adopted in practice. PMID:27537922

  14. Manual therapy in the management of a patient with a symptomatic Morton's Neuroma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sault, Josiah D; Morris, Matthew V; Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Emerson-Kavchak, Alicia J

    2016-02-01

    Patients with Morton's neuroma are rarely referred to physical therapy. This case reports the resolution of pain, increase in local pressure pain thresholds, and improvement of scores on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure following a course of joint based manual therapy for a patient who had failed standard conservative medical treatment.

  15. INITIAL SYMPTOMATIC PITUITARY METASTASIS IN A PATIENT WITH PROSTATE FOAMY GLAND CARCINOMA: TAILORING SAFE AND EFFECTIVE THERAPY.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Marin; Fröbe, Ana; Zadravec, Dijana; Pažanin, Leo; Jakšić, Blanka; Bolanča, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-06-01

    Metastases to pituitary gland are unusual and mostly asymptomatic, presenting with local symptoms in one of ten patients, and only 3%-5% of them are of prostate origin. Here we report and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of multimodal treatment in a patient with pituitary metastasis of a prostate foamy gland carcinoma. A 78-year-old male patient presented with blurred vision and headache without a previous history of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a large sellar mass, with infiltration of the surrounding structures. Maximal transsphenoidal reduction of pituitary metastasis was performed, with a histologic finding of metastatic prostate foamy gland adenocarcinoma. Evaluation of the prostate specific antigen revealed a very high level (1461 ng/mL) and foamy gland carcinoma was found on prostate needle biopsy. The patient received 3D conformal external beam radiotherapy with 6 MV photons to the sellar and parasellar region with a tumor dose of 44 Gy, followed by androgen deprivation therapy. Follow up magnetic resonance imaging done after radiotherapy showed shrinkage of the tumor process, with rapid prostate specific antigen decline to 0.3 ng/mL. The visual function was fully established and headache resolved. On the last follow up 14 months after the diagnosis, the patient was alive and free from clinical signs of disease. Tailored treatment, including limited radiotherapy in a higher palliative dose, in a patient with foamy gland symptomatic pituitary metastatic disease resulted in good local and systemic control of the disease. In older male patients with clinical and/or radiologic characteristics suggestive of metastatic pituitary disease, the prostate specific antigen test should be included as part of the work-up.

  16. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  17. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  18. Benefits of treating highly disabled migraine patients with zolmitriptan while pain is mild.

    PubMed

    Klapper, J; Lucas, C; Røsjø, Ø; Charlesworth, B

    2004-11-01

    Clinical trials of migraine therapy often require treatment when migraine pain intensity is moderate or severe, but many physicians find this practice artificial and patients often prefer to treat while pain is mild. This randomized, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in treating migraine while pain is mild, in patients who typically experience migraine attacks that are initially mild, but progress to moderate or severe. The intent-to-treat population comprised 280 patients (138 zolmitriptan; 148 placebo), with mean MIDAS grades of 29.6 (zolmitriptan) and 27.6 (placebo). Zolmitriptan 2.5 mg provided a significantly higher pain-free rate at 2 h (43.4% vs. 18.4% placebo; P < 0.0001). Significantly fewer zolmitriptan patients reported progression of headache pain to moderate or severe intensity 2 h postdose (53.7% vs. 70.4% placebo; P < 0.01), or required further medication within 24 h (46.4% vs. 71.1% placebo; P < 0.0001). The efficacy of zolmitriptan was more pronounced in patients treating during the first 15 min following pain onset. Adverse events were reported in 31.2% of patients treated with zolmitriptan (vs. 11.3% for placebo), and the incidence was lower in patients who treated early after attack onset. Zolmitriptan provides high efficacy when treating migraine while pain is mild, with the clinical benefits being more pronounced when treating early after migraine onset.

  19. [Efficacy and safety of azithromycin infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Uchimura, Keigo; Hata, Ryosuke; Tachiwada, Takashi; Oda, Keishi; Hara, Kanako; Suzuki, Yu; Akata, Kentarou; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Tokuyama, Susumu; Inoue, Naoyuki; Nishida, Chinatsu; Orihashi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yugo; Kawanami, Yukiko; Taura, Yusuke; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Obata, Hideto; Tsuda, Toru; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is one of 15-membered rings macrolide antibiotics with wide spectrum of antimicrobial efficacy for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and also atypical bacteria. So far, there had been no reports of the prospective studies evaluating efficacy and safety of AZM infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate prospectively the efficacy and safety of AZM in patients with mild or moderate CAP. AZM 500 mg was intravenously administered once daily, and the clinical efficacy were evaluated by clinical symptoms, peripheral blood laboratory findings and chest X-rays. Sixty-four patients were firstly registered, and eventually 61 and 62 patients were enrolled for the evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of AZM, respectively. The efficacy of AZM in 61 patients evaluated was 88.5%. In addition, the efficacies of AZM in each pneumonia severity index by A-DROP system by the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guideline in CAP were 85.2% in mild and 91.2% in moderate. Furthermore, the efficacy of AZM in each differentiation between suspicion of bacterial pneumonia and that of atypical pneumonia by JRS guideline in CAP were 91.7% in suspicion of atypical pneumonia, and its efficacy was high than that of bacterial pneumonia. Nineteen patients (20 cases; 15 with liver dysfunction, 4 with diarrhea, 1 with vascular pain) out of 62 patients were reported to have possible adverse effects of AZM. All of the patients with these adverse effects demonstrated mild dysfunction and continued AZM treatment, and these dysfunctions normalized soon after cessation of AZM. In conclusion, AZM is effective drug for patients with mild or moderate CAP, and we believe that it may be one of effective choice in the treatment of CAP patients who need hospitalization.

  20. Identification of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients in Surabaya, Indonesia, using five diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, M; Shiota, S; Suzuki, R; Matsuda, M; Uchida, T; Kido, Y; Kawamoto, F; Maimunah, U; Adi, P; Rezkitha, Y; Nasronudin; Nusi, I; Yamaoka, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11.5% in all patients studied, and 2.3% of Javanese patients and 18.0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0.01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA 'on' and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.

  1. Differential expression of 5-HT-related genes in symptomatic pulmonary embolism patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yun; Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Yang, Fan; Song, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Whole human genome oligo microarrays were employed to systematically investigate the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signaling pathway in peripheral blood karyocytes from pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Methods: A total of 20 PE patients and 20 healthy subjects matched in gender and age were recruited. The human genome microarrays were performed to detect the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signal pathway of two groups. The random variance model corrected t-test was used for analysis. Results: Our results showed (1) tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1)-related gene expression was markedly down-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (2) monoamine oxidases (MAO)-related gene (MAOB) expression was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (3) the expression of 17 genes of 7 5-HT receptors showed a down-regulated tendency in PE patients, and significant difference was observed in the expression of HTR1E, HTR3B, HTR4 and HTR5A between them (P < 0.05); (4) the expression of DalDAG-GEF I, Tubby, PKA and EPAC in 5-HT signal pathways was dramatically up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); the expression of SPA1, RIAM, RAPL, Talin, PKC, PLC and Pyk2 was remarkably up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); (5) the expression of integrin genes ITGA2B, ITGB1 and ITGB3 was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In PE patients, the expression of TPH1 and HTR4 was down-regulated as a negative feedback; the MAOB expression was up-regulated. Consistent with the expression of 5-HTR1E and 5-HTR4 and the abnormally activated Tubby, the expression of integrins in platelets was activated. PMID:25785024

  2. Symptomatic Diverticular Disease in Patients With Severely Reduced Kidney Function: Higher Rates of Complications and Transfusion Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Dirweesh, Ahmed; Amodu, Afolarin; Khan, Muhammad; Zijoo, Ritika; Ambreen, Bushra; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawwar, Abdelhameed; Genena, Kareem; Tahir, Muhammad; Kumar, Naresh; Debari, Vincent A.; Wallach, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diverticulosis is increasing with 5-10% of patients developing diverticulitis and 5-15% developing symptomatic bleeding. Diverticulitis can result in abscess, perforation, fistula, or obstruction. Bleeding has combined morbidity and mortality rates of 10-20%. The purpose of this study was to compare diverticulitis-related complications and transfusion requirements for diverticular bleeding in patients with normal to moderately reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and identify factors associated with these outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding treated at our hospital from January 1, 2011 to July 31, 2016. Patients were evaluated for baseline characteristics, GFR, baseline hemoglobin, medications, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS), presence of perforations or abscesses and the need for transfusion. Results Of the 291 patients included, males were 167 (58%). Perforations and abscesses complicating diverticulitis developed in 31/136 (23%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and in 13/26 (50%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio (OR): 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.423 - 8.06; P = 0.0073). Mean LOS (days) was 6.3 ± 4 in the GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 8.5 ± 4.4 in GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group (P = 0.0001). Blood transfusion for diverticular bleeding occurred in 11/78 (14%) of patients with GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 22/51 (43%) of patients with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.99 - 10.76; P = 0.0004). Among patients who needed transfusion, mean LOS was 8.5 ± 2.5 in GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 group and 9 ± 5 in those with GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.04). There were no differences in age, gender or race between the study groups. Conclusion There was a significant increase in complicated

  3. Modified Devine Exclusion for Unresectable Distal Gastric Cancer in Symptomatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, María Carmen; Martí-Obiol, Roberto; López, Fernando; Ortega, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with outlet obstruction syndrome and/or severe anemia secondary to unresectable gastric cancer (GC), partial stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy, or modified Devine exclusion, is a surgical alternative. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with unresectable distal GC treated with modified Devine exclusion as palliative surgery between February 2005 and December 2015. It consisted of a series of 10 patients with outlet obstruction syndrome and/or severe anemia. The outcomes of this technique were based on oral tolerance, blood transfusions, postoperative complications, and survival. Results Early oral tolerance and a low rate of blood transfusions were observed postoperatively. There was no postoperative mortality and a very low complication rate without anastomotic leakage. Median survival was 9 months. Conclusions Partial stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy is a safe procedure for unresectable GC which can improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:28203132

  4. [Diagnostic, symptomatic and sanitary assessment of schizophrenic patients in Liege psychiatric institutions].

    PubMed

    Sarto, D; Desseilles, M; Martin, M; Albert, A

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a diagnostic, symptomatologic and sanitary assessment of schizophrenic patients in the network of institutions of the Plate-Forme Psychiatrique Liégeoise (Liège, Belgium). The diagnosis of schizophrenia was based on the DSM IV. Demographic, social and global functioning (GAF scale) data were collected from the Résumé Psychiatrique Minimum (RPM) , a clinical summary which has been imposed for each psychiatric hospital stay by the Belgian Ministry of Public Health. Symptoms components were derived from the Psychosis Evaluation tool for Commom Use by Caregivers (PECC). In the 44 participating institutions, 793 cases of schizophrenia were reported (533 men and 260 women) with a mean age of 46.1 14.4 years. The study confirmed the predominance of men in schizophrenia (67%) but revealed that women were about 6 years higher than men. PECC symptoms were studied in a random sample of 184 patients extracted from the 793 initial patients and analysed with respect to age, sex and type of care (full-time or part-time hospitalization, ambulatory care). Negative, cognitive and total PECC scores did not vary with sex but were positively correlated with age. Hospitalized patients were significantly older than the others. The cognitive deficit was significantly higher in hospitalized patients than in other patients, while the perception of the disease tended to be more apparent in ambulatory than in hospitalized patients. Data were also related to social information and global functioning. The GAF scores increased with age but were comparable in men and women. Moreover, GAF scores were significantly lower in catatonic type schizophrenia patients than in others.

  5. Similar Neutrophil-Driven Inflammatory and Antibacterial Responses in Elderly Patients with Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanbao; Zielinski, Martin D.; Rolfe, Melanie A.; Kuntz, Melissa M.; Nelson, Heidi; Nelson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) is based on the presence of diverse symptoms, including fever (≥38.5°C), rigors, malaise, lethargy, flank pain, hematuria, suprapubic discomfort, dysuria, and urgent or frequent urination. There is consensus in the medical community that ASB warrants antibiotic treatment only for patients undergoing urological procedures that lead to mucosal bleeding, catheterized individuals whose ASB persists for more than 48 h after catheter removal, and pregnant women. Pyuria is associated with UTI and implicates host immune responses via release of antibacterial effectors and phagocytosis of pathogens by neutrophils. Such responses are not sufficiently described for ASB. Metaproteomic methods were used here to identify the pathogens and evaluate molecular evidence of distinct immune responses in cases of ASB compared to UTI in elderly patients who were hospitalized upon injury. Neutrophil-driven inflammatory responses to invading bacteria were not discernible in most patients diagnosed with ASB compared to those with UTI. In contrast, proteomic urine analysis for trauma patients with no evidence of bacteriuria, including those who suffered mucosal injuries via urethral catheterization, rarely showed evidence of neutrophil infiltration. The same enzymes contributing to the synthesis of leukotrienes LTB4 and LTC4, mediators of inflammation and pain, were found in the UTI and ASB cohorts. These data support the notion that the pathways mediating inflammation and pain in most elderly patients with ASB are not quantitatively different from those seen in most elderly patients with UTI and warrant larger clinical studies to assess whether a common antibiotic treatment strategy for elderly ASB and UTI patients is justified. PMID:26238715

  6. The Continuum of Physiological Impairment during Treadmill Walking in Patients with Mild-to-Moderate COPD: Patient Characterization Phase of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Denis E.; Maltais, François; Porszasz, Janos; Webb, Katherine A.; Albers, Frank C.; Deng, Qiqi; Iqbal, Ahmar; Paden, Heather A.; Casaburi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background To have a better understanding of the mechanisms of exercise limitation in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we compared detailed respiratory physiology in patients with COPD and healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Methods Data were collected during the pre-treatment, patient characterization phase of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Patients with COPD met Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 or 2 spirometric criteria, were symptomatic, and had evidence of gas trapping during exercise. All participants completed pulmonary function and symptom-limited incremental treadmill exercise tests. Results Chronic activity-related dyspnea measured by Baseline Dyspnea Index was similarly increased in patients with GOLD 1 (n = 41) and 2 (n = 63) COPD compared with controls (n = 104). Plethysmographic lung volumes were increased and lung diffusing capacity was decreased in both GOLD groups. Peak oxygen uptake and work rate were reduced in both GOLD groups compared with controls (p<0.001). Submaximal ventilation, dyspnea, and leg discomfort ratings were higher for a given work rate in both GOLD groups compared with controls. Resting inspiratory capacity, peak ventilation, and tidal volume were reduced in patients with GOLD 2 COPD compared with patients with GOLD 1 COPD and controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Lower exercise tolerance in patients with GOLD 1 and 2 COPD compared with controls was explained by greater mechanical abnormalities, greater ventilatory requirements, and increased subjective discomfort. Lower resting inspiratory capacity in patients with GOLD 2 COPD was associated with greater mechanical constraints and lower peak ventilation compared with patients with GOLD 1 COPD and controls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01072396 PMID:24788342

  7. [Molecular detection and genotypification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies from symptomatic adult patients in Santa Fe, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Félix; Barbaglia, Yanina; Bucci, Pamela; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2013-01-01

    Our goals were: a) to detect Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies of symptomatic adults by PCR, b) to detect the presence of the cagA gene as well as of the allelic variants of the vacA gene, and c) to correlate genotypes with the endoscopic diagnoses. H. pylori was detected in 81 % (39/48) of patients by nested PCR for hsp60. The presence of cagA was detected in 15/22 of samples and vacA s1 - m1 was the most frequent allelic combination (15/22). Gastritis, the most frequent diagnosis, was associated with genotype cagA+ in 10/13 of patients. In this group, 9/13 showed the allelic variant vacA s1- m1. The variant vacA s2 - m2 was detected in 3/3 of gastritis cases by H. pylori with the cagA- genotype. These results are the first reported in our region and provide data of epidemiological interest.

  8. Drug use and pulmonary death rates in increasingly symptomatic asthma patients in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Meier, C. R.; Jick, H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about an increase in deaths from respiratory causes in asthma patients using long acting beta agonists. According to the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society, long acting beta agonists, ipratropium bromide, and theophylline should be used to treat patients with increasing asthma severity who are already receiving treatment with short acting beta agonists and inhaled steroids. A study was therefore undertaken to compare the characteristics and short term respiratory mortality rates in first time users of one of these three drugs. METHODS: An open cohort study with a nested case-control analysis was performed on the UK based General Practice Research Database (GPRD). First time users of either salmeterol (n = 8386), ipratropium bromide (n = 4305), or theophylline (n = 4228) between 1 January 1992 and 30 April 1995 were identified and followed for 16 weeks. Drug usage patterns, predictors for respiratory mortality, and the number of deaths at 16 weeks in the three drug groups were compared. RESULTS: The three asthma drugs were most often prescribed to patients with severe asthma. Age, a concomitant diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema, number of asthma drug prescriptions, number of visits to the general practitioner, and whether or not the patient had been admitted to hospital due to the respiratory disease in the 12 months prior to the start of the new drug therapy were strong predictors for asthma mortality. After adjusting for several risk factors, the relative risk estimates of a respiratory death for ipratropium bromide and theophylline users compared with salmeterol users were 1.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 9.6) and 3.0 (95% CI 0.4 to 22.4), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the UK population studied, salmeterol, ipratropium bromide and theophylline are regularly used to treat patients with asthma of increasing severity. Salmeterol use was not associated with an increase in short term mortality compared with

  9. Hemodynamic and symptomatic effects of acute interventions on tilt in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, V. M.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Novak, V.; Low, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to alleviate symptoms in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Drugs reported to be of benefit include midodrine, propranolol, clonidine, and phenobarbital. Other measures used include volume expansion and physical countermaneuvers. These treatments may influence pathophysiologic mechanisms of POTS such as alpha-receptor dysfunction, beta-receptor supersensitivity, venous pooling, and brainstem center dysfunction. The authors prospectively studied hemodynamic indices and symptom scores in patients with POTS who were acutely treated with a variety of interventions. Twenty-one subjects who met the criteria for POTS were studied (20 women, 1 man; mean age, 28.7 +/- 6.8 y; age range, 14-39 y). Patients were studied with a 5-minute head-up tilt protocol, ECG monitoring, and noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring, all before and after the administration of an intervention (intravenous saline, midodrine, propranolol, clonidine, or phenobarbital). The hemodynamic indices studied were heart rate (ECG) and systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressure. Patients used a balanced verbal scale to record any change in their symptoms between the tilts. Symptom scores improved significantly after the patients received midodrine and saline. Midodrine and propranolol reduced the resting heart rate response to tilt (p <0.005) and the immediate and 5-minute heart rate responses to tilt (p <0.002). Clonidine accentuated the immediate decrease in blood pressure on tilt up (p <0.05). It was concluded that midodrine and intravenous saline are effective in decreasing symptoms on tilt in patients with POTS when given acutely. Effects of treatments on heart rate and blood pressure responses generally reflected the known pharmacologic mechanisms of the agents.

  10. Patients with mild to moderate body dysmorphic disorder may benefit from rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriel Almeida Arruda; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Tavares, Hermano; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-05-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. BDD is also a challenge for plastic surgeons because it is still an underdiagnosed mental disorder. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate whether patients with mild to moderate BDD are suitable for rhinoplasty, and to assess BDD severity and patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome 1 year after the intervention. All women (n = 116) seeking rhinoplasty at a university hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 were recruited for the study and assessed for BDD. The final sample consisted of 31 patients aged 32 (standard deviation (SD), 10) years with mild to moderate BDD who underwent rhinoplasty. The participants were assessed preoperatively (baseline) and 1 year postoperatively with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE). Most patients (22/31, 71%) were of African descent. Socio-demographic variables and the extent of the nasal deformities had no effect on the severity of BDD symptoms and patient satisfaction with surgery outcome. At the 1-year postoperative follow-up, there was a significant decrease from baseline in BDDE scores and time spent by patients worrying about their appearance; 25 (25/31, 81%) patients experienced complete remission from BDD and 28 (28/31, 90%) were satisfied with the results of surgery. Rhinoplasty may be indicated in the treatment of female patients with mild to moderate BDD.

  11. Submucosal uterine fibroid prolapsed into vagina in a symptomatic patient with IUS

    PubMed Central

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A female patient in her mid 40s presents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and a history of spotting/irregular light per vagina (PV) bleeding since intrauterine system (IUS) insertion 1 year ago. She is known to have submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF). The patient reported abdominal pain and sudden onset of ‘miscarriage-like’ HMB with clots 2 days ago. On speculum examination there was a smooth round-shaped mass lying over the external cervical os. On bimanual examination PV, a round-shaped smooth mass of a walnut's size was palpable in the upper third of the vagina. Subsequent ultrasound imaging revealed an SMUF prolapsed into the vagina. Further surgical treatment was undertaken. Histology showed a fibroid (leiomyoma) with no evidence of malignancy. PMID:24739657

  12. One-year outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair in patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Gotzmann, Michael; Sprenger, Isabell; Ewers, Aydan; Mügge, Andreas; Bösche, Leif

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate one-year outcomes after percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS Our study investigated consecutive patients with symptomatic severe MR who underwent MitraClip® implantation at the University Hospital Bergmannsheil from 2012 to 2014. The primary study end-point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points were degree of MR and functional status after percutaneous mitral valve repair. RESULTS The study population consisted of 46 consecutive patients (mean logistic EuroSCORE 32% ± 21%). The degree of MR decreased significantly (severe MR before MitraClip® 100% vs after MitraClip® 13%; P < 0.001), and the NYHA functional classes improved (NYHA III/IV before MitraClip® 98% vs after MitraClip® 35%; P < 0.001). The mortality rates 30 d and one year after percutaneous mitral valve repair were 4.3% and 19.5%, respectively. During the follow-up of 473 ± 274 d, 11 patients died (90% due to cardiovascular death). A pre-procedural plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level > 817 pg/mL was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 6.074; 95%CI: 1.257-29.239; P = 0.012). CONCLUSION Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® has positive effects on hemodynamics and symptoms. Despite the study patients’ multiple comorbidities and extremely high operative risk, one-year outcomes after MitraClip® are favorable. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide levels indicate poorer mid-term survival. PMID:28163835

  13. Quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in symptomatic patients with extracranial shunts

    PubMed Central

    Eide, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the outcome of management of possible shunt related symptoms using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and to identify potential methodological limitations with the current strategies of ICP assessment. Methods: The distribution of persistent symptoms related to extracranial shunt treatment was compared before and after management of shunt failure in 69 consecutive hydrocephalic cases. Management was heavily based on ICP monitoring (calculation of mean ICP and visual determination of plateau waves). After the end of patient management, all ICP curves were re-evaluated using a quantitative method and software (SensometricsTM pressure analyser). The ICP curves were presented as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg) or depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg) of different durations (0.5, 1, or 5 minutes). The numbers of ICP elevations/depressions standardised to 10 hours recording time were calculated to allow comparisons of ICP between individuals. Results: After ICP monitoring and management of the putative shunt related symptoms, the symptoms remained unchanged in as many as 58% of the cases, with the highest percentages in those patients with ICP considered normal or too low at the time of ICP monitoring. The quantitative analysis revealed a high frequency of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg lasting 0.5 to 1 minute) and ICP depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg lasting 0.5, 1, or 5 minutes), particularly in patients with ICP considered normal. Conclusions: The value of continuous ICP monitoring with ICP analysis using current criteria appears doubtful in the management of possible shunt related symptoms. This may reflect limitations in the strategies of ICP analysis. Calculation of the exact numbers of ICP elevations and depressions may provide a more accurate description of the ICP profile. PMID:12531957

  14. Poor prognosis of patients presenting with symptomatic myocardial infarction but without chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, M; Lawrance, R; Sapsford, R; Durham, N; Oldham, J; Greenwood, D; Jackson, B; Morrell, C; Robinson, M; Hall, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment of patients presenting with atypical forms of acute myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction were sought from coronary care registers, biochemistry records, and hospital management systems. Case notes were reviewed and predefined epidemiological and clinical variables were abstracted.
SETTING—20 adjacent hospitals in the former Yorkshire region.
PATIENTS—3684 consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction admitted in a three month period were identified, of whom 2096 had a first episode of confirmed acute myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—20.2% of all patients admitted with an eventual diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction presented with symptoms other than chest pain. Compared with the group presenting with chest pain, these patients were older (76.6 v 69.1 years, p < 0.001), were more often women (54.6% v 35.3%, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a history of heart failure (18.6% v 6.9%, p < 0.001). They had a higher 30 and 365 day mortality (49.2% and 61.0%, respectively) compared with patients presenting with chest pain (17.9% and 26.2%). In a Cox regression analysis the hazard ratio for presentation without chest pain was 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.97) (p < 0.001) adjusted for age, heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular impairment, and infarction with ST segment elevation as covariates. Importantly, they were also less likely to receive treatments with a proven ability to improve prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Atypical presentation of myocardial infarction without chest pain is common and associated with increased mortality. This may result in part from a failure to use beneficial treatment strategies.


Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; atypical presentation PMID:11602537

  15. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  16. A profile of symptomatic patients with silicone breast implants: a Sjögrens-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, B; Altman, C; Snadorfi, N; Greenberg, M; Tomaszewski, J

    1994-08-01

    Exposure of breast tissue to silicone has been associated with autoimmune diseases in the medical literature since the 1960's. Japanese women injected with raw silicone had features of a collagen vascular disease but did not meet criteria for a specific diagnosis. Subsequently, we have seen women with silicone breast implants that have similar problems. We performed a prospective noncontrolled study on women with silicone breast implants. Results from the first 50 consecutive women revealed the most prominent complaints in this group were fatigue (89%), generalized stiffness (75%), poor sleep (71%), and arthralgias (78%). Other problems included Raynaud's phenomenon, alopecia, adenopathy, night sweats, and frequent sore throats. Unexpectedly, half of these women complained of dry eyes and dry mouths. Positive antinuclear antibodies and or rheumatoid factors were discovered in 38% of patients although the anti-SSA antibody was found in only one patient and anti-SSB in none. Labial salivary gland biopsies in 5 cases showed mononuclear cell infiltrates compatible with Sjögren's syndrome in 4. The infiltrating cells were predominantly CD68 positive monocyte/macrophages, which is different from what is found in Sjögren's syndrome. These findings may indicate the presence of a unique syndrome associated with silicone implants that is characterized by musculoskeletal pain and autoimmune features.

  17. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  18. Editorial Commentary: The Time Has Come to Try Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Your Patients With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma injections, in a systematic review and meta-analysis of 10 Level I randomized control trials, were found to provide more pain relief and better functional outcomes than hyaluronic acid in patients with knee osteoarthritis at 12 months after injection. The time has come for those of us who have not yet tried platelet-rich plasma injections in our patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to do so.

  19. Diminished supraspinal pain modulation in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shivshil; Yang, Eric; Canlas, Bryan; Kadokana, Mawj; Heald, Jason; Davani, Ariea; Song, David; Lin, Lisa; Polston, Greg; Tsai, Alice; Lee, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain conditions are highly prevalent in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Supraspinal diffuse axonal injury is known to dissociate brain functional connectivity in these patients. The effect of this dissociated state on supraspinal pain network is largely unknown. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to compare the supraspinal pain network in patients with mild traumatic brain injury to the gender and age-matched healthy controls with the hypothesis that the functional connectivities of the medial prefrontal cortices, a supraspinal pain modulatory region to other pain-related sensory discriminatory and affective regions in the mild traumatic brain injury subjects are significantly reduced in comparison to healthy controls. Results The mild traumatic brain injury group (N = 15) demonstrated significantly (P < 0.01, cluster threshold > 150 voxels) less activities in the thalamus, pons, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortices than the healthy control group (N = 15). Granger Causality Analyses (GCA) indicated while the left medial prefrontal cortices of the healthy control group cast a noticeable degree of outward (to affect) causality inference to multiple pain processing related regions, this outward inference pattern was not observed in the mild traumatic brain injury group. On the other hand, only patients’ bilateral anterior cingulate cortex received multiple inward (to be affected) causality inferences from regions including the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and the inferior parietal lobe. Resting state functional connectivity analyses indicated that the medial prefrontal cortices of the mild traumatic brain injury group demonstrated a significantly (P < 0.01, F = 3.6, cluster size > 150 voxels) higher degree of functional connectivity to the inferior parietal lobe, premotor and secondary somatosensory cortex

  20. Incidence and Predictors of Angiographic Vasospasm, Symptomatic Vasospasm and Cerebral Infarction in Chinese Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Axier, Aximujiang; Amuti, Maiwulanjiang; Guohua, Zhu; Xiaojiang, Cheng; Kadeer, Kaheerman; Xixian, Wang; Geng, Dangmurenjiafu; Maimaitili, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most common neurological complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome and mortality. Reports on incidence and predictors of CVS in Chinese patients with aSAH were scarce. We aimed to estimate the incidence and predictors of angiographic vasospasm (AV), symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and cerebral infarction in Chinese patients with aSAH. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 542 consecutive aSAH patients admitted to neurosurgery department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi city of China between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. AV, SV and cerebral infarction were defined based on clinical data and neuroimaging findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of AV, SV or cerebral infarction. Results 343 (63.3%) patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of them, 182(53.1%) developed AV, 99 (28.9%) developed SV, and 87 (25.4%) developed cerebral infarction. A history of hypertension, poor modified Fisher grade (3–4) and poor Hunt-Hess grade (4–5) on admission were common risk factors for AV, SV and cerebral infarction. Patients from Uyghur ethnic group or other minorities were less likely to develop AV, SV or cerebral infarction, compared to those from Han ethic group after adjustment of other potential confounders. Additionally, age ≥53 years, leukocyte count ≥11× 109/L on admission and being current or former smokers were independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. Leukocyte count ≥11× 109/L on admission and aneurysm size ≥ 10 mm were independent risk factors of SV. Serum glucose level ≥7.0 mmol/L on admission was an independent risk factor of AV. Conclusion Risk factors of different definitions of CVS were diverse in Chinese patients with aSAH; however, risk factors of SV and cerebral infarction seem to be similar. We recommend

  1. Alzheimer's disease biomarker discovery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients: experimental approaches and future clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lap; Fivecoat, Hayley; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Current treatments for AD are not as effective as needed, nor is there any definitive antemortem diagnostic. Understanding the biological processes that occur during AD onset and/or progression will improve disease diagnosis and treatment. Recent applications of microarray technologies for analysis of messenger (m) RNA expression profiles have elucidated distinct changes in the brain as a function of AD dementia initiation and progression. However, mRNA analysis underestimates post-transcriptional modifications and therefore provides only a partial view of the molecular changes in the AD brain. Combining mRNA studies with protein expression analysis may provide a more global picture of the biological processes associated with AD dementia. Information gathered could lead to the development of select biological indices (biomarkers) for guiding AD diagnosis and therapy. We will provide a brief background on AD, followed by a review on the applications of microarray, proteomics, as well as microRNA expression profile analysis to develop novel diagnostic strategies that may be useful for the diagnosis AD and for monitoring disease progression. The availability of biomarkers that promote early disease diagnosis, particularly among asymptomatic patients, will lead to the application of personalized medicine in AD.

  2. Noise-induced tinnitus: auditory evoked potential in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos-Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the central auditory pathways in workers with noise-induced tinnitus with normal hearing thresholds, compared the auditory brainstem response results in groups with and without tinnitus and correlated the tinnitus location to the auditory brainstem response findings in individuals with a history of occupational noise exposure. METHOD: Sixty individuals participated in the study and the following procedures were performed: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25–8 kHz and auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: The mean auditory brainstem response latencies were lower in the Control group than in the Tinnitus group, but no significant differences between the groups were observed. Qualitative analysis showed more alterations in the lower brainstem in the Tinnitus group. The strongest relationship between tinnitus location and auditory brainstem response alterations was detected in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and bilateral auditory brainstem response alterations compared with patients with unilateral alterations. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the occurrence of a possible dysfunction in the central auditory nervous system (brainstem) in individuals with noise-induced tinnitus and a normal hearing threshold. PMID:25029581

  3. Mild coarctation of the aorta: to touch or not to touch the patient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Randles, Amanda; Rikhtegar Nezami, Farhad; Partida, Ramon; Nakamura, Kenta; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Bhatt, Ami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is an aortic obstruction. A peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PKdP) of greater than 20 mmHg warns severe COA and the need for interventional/surgical repair. The optimal method and timing of intervention remain uncertain especially for mild COA (PKdP <20 mmHg); even it is unclear if mild COA should be treated at all. Although it was recently suggested that treatment strategies for mild COA may need to be redefined as transcatheter interventions emerge, benefits of such interventions are unclear. We investigated the effects of transcatheter interventions on the aorta and left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics in 11 patients with mild COA using a developed computational fluid dynamics and lumped parameter modeling framework along with particle image velocimetry and clinical measurements. Such interventions can improve aortic hemodynamics to some extent (e.g., time-averaged wall shear stress and kinetic energy were reduced by about 20%). However there is no concomitant effect on the LV hemodynamics (e.g., stroke work and LV pressure were reduced by only less than 4%). Our computational approach can effectively predict clinical conditions. Herein one must question intervention for mild COA, as it has limited utility in reducing myocardial strain.

  4. Incidence, risk factors, and treatment outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in Taiwanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective cohort study of 245 patients in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Chang, Tsung-Yen; Jaing, Tang-Her; Lee, Mel S; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hung, Iou-Jih; Yang, Chao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) is a potentially disabling complication encountered in children who receive chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Considering the possible effect of ethnic difference on the clinical features of symptomatic ON in pediatric ALL, we retrospectively evaluated 245 children with ALL who were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, between 2002 and 2011. Six (2.4 %) patients developed symptomatic ON in a total of 17 sites during the follow-up period. Diagnosis of ON was confirmed by X-ray in seven, magnetic resonance imaging in two, and bone scan in three patients. The estimated cumulative incidence of symptomatic ON in newly diagnosed ALL was 3.4 % at 8 years. Four patients received ON-directed surgical interventions, including total hip replacement in three and arthroplasty in one. The incidence of ON was significantly higher among girls (P = 0.03), patients >10 years old (P = 2.2 × 10(-4)), and patients who had received more intensive chemotherapy regimen (P = 0.02). These results indicate that the incidence and risk factors in our institute were similar to those observed in Western countries. Future studies surveying the impact on the quality of life of childhood ALL survivors in Taiwan are warranted.

  5. Symptomatic Management of Multiple Sclerosis–Associated Tremor Among Participants in the NARCOMS Registry

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber R.; Rinker, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tremor affects 25% to 58% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with poor prognosis and increased disability. MS-related tremor is difficult to treat, and data regarding patient-reported characterization and response to treatment are limited. We describe the symptomatic treatment of tremor in 508 enrollees in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry who self-reported tremor. Methods: From 777 surveys sent to NARCOMS participants who indicated mild or greater tremor using the Tremor and Coordination Scale, we compiled data regarding disability, tremor severity, symptomatic medication use, and reported response to medications. Results: Symptomatic medications reported to reduce tremor were used by 238 respondents (46.9%). Symptomatic medication use was associated with increased rates of unemployment and disability, and many other characteristics were similar between groups. Symptomatic drug use was more likely in participants reporting moderate (53.9%) or severe (51.3%) tremor than in those with mild (36.6%) or totally disabling (35.0%) tremor. This disparity held true across multiple tremor severity scores. The most commonly used drug classes were anticonvulsants (50.8%) and benzodiazepines (46.2%), with gabapentin and clonazepam used most often in their respective classes. Conclusions: Tremor in MS remains poorly treated; less than half of the participants reported benefit from symptomatic medications. Patients with moderate-to-severe tremor are more likely to report tremor benefit than are those with mild or disabling tremor. γ-Aminobutyric acid–active medications were most commonly reported as beneficial. PMID:27252602

  6. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Mourão, Arnaldo Prata; de Oliveira, Paulo Márcio Campos; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results The effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion Optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25741117

  7. Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0%) of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1%) of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628). However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59), emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82), increased amount of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion), and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93) were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery. PMID:27877032

  8. A Case of Unexpected Symptomatic Vasospasm after Clipping Surgery for an Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Kameda, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao

    2016-03-01

    Delayed symptomatic vasospasm after clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm is rarely reported. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic vasospasm 11 days after clipping surgery for an unruptured aneurysm. We could not predict the existence of vasospasm until ischemic symptoms developed. We retrospectively found mild vasospasm in the computed tomography angiogram taken 8 days after the operation. The patient complained of a prolonged unexpected headache 1 week after the operation. We should recognize prolonged unexpected headache as a warning sign of vasospasm.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in symptomatic patients from Damascus city and its suburbs.

    PubMed

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Mariri, Ayman; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2017-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. However, there is limited information on the prevalent genetic variability of G. duodenalis in Syria. This study aimed to evaluate the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages causing humans infection in the city of Damascus and its suburbs. 40 symptomatic giardiasis patients were recruited in this study. Fecal samples were genotyped using PCR/RFLP assay targeting the β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. HaeIII, BspL1 and RsaI restriction enzymes were used to differentiate between G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages. Our data showed that 65% of isolates were of assemblage A; 45% belonged to sub-assemblage AII and 20% to sub-assemblage AI. Assemblage B was detected in 27.5% of isolates; 12.5% fit in sub-assemblage BIV, 5% fit in sub-assemblage BIII and 10.5% fit in Discordant genotype BIII/BIV. Mixed genotypes (AII+BIII and AI+BIV) were identified in 3 isolates (7.5%). Significant correlation was found between Giardia AII sub-assemblage and weight loss symptom (P-value=0.05) as well as between contact with domestic animals (cats, P-value=0.027). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between sub-assemblage AI and livestock breeding (P-value=0.000). In conclusion genotyping of human Giardia duodenalis isolates suggests anthroponotic transmission for the route of infection in Damascus and its suburbs. Further studies are needed to screen a wide geographic areas in Syria and to estimate the prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in our population.

  10. Symptomatic suspected gluten exposure is common among patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet

    PubMed Central

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Graff, Lesley A; Rigaux, Lisa; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND A gluten-free diet is the only recommended treatment for coeliac disease. AIM To determine the prevalence and characteristics of reactions to gluten among persons with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. METHODS Adults with biopsy proven, newly diagnosed coeliac disease were prospectively enrolled. A survey related to diet adherence and reactions to gluten was completed at study entry and 6 months. The Celiac Symptom Index (CSI), Celiac Diet Assessment Tool (CDAT) and Gluten-Free Eating Assessment Tool (GF-EAT) were used to measure coeliac disease symptoms and gluten-free diet adherence. RESULTS Of the 105 participants, 91% reported gluten exposure <1 per month and median CDAT score was 9 (IQR 8-11), consistent with adequate adherence. A suspected symptomatic reaction to gluten was reported by 66%. Gluten consumption was unsuspected until a reaction occurred (63%) or resulted from problems ordering in a restaurant (29%). The amount of gluten consumed ranged from cross-contact (30%) to a major ingredient (10%). Median time to symptom onset was 1 hour (range 10 min to 48 h), and median symptom duration was 24h (range 1 h to 8 days). Common symptoms included abdominal pain (80%), diarrhea (52%), fatigue (33%), headache (30%) and irritability (29%). CONCLUSION Reactions to suspected gluten exposure are common among patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. Eating at restaurants and other peoples’ homes remain a risk for unintentional gluten exposure. When following individuals with coeliac disease, clinicians should include questions regarding reactions to gluten as part of their assessment of gluten-free diet adherence. PMID:27443825

  11. Tooth Size in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypodontia and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare tooth size between subjects with mild, moderate and severe hypodontia and a control group. Material and Methods: The study comprised 120 patients with hypodontia divided into three groups of 40 mild (≤2 teeth congenitally missing), 40 moderate (3-5 teeth congenitally missing) and 40 severe (≥6 teeth congenitally missing) hypodontia; and 40 age and sex matched controls. Tooth size was recorded by measuring the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of all fully erupted teeth on study models using digital callipers and compared between all hypodontia and control groups using Two-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests of subgroup comparison. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed patients with hypodontia had significantly smaller mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions compared with controls (p<0.05). Furthermore patients with more severe hypodontia demonstrated significantly smaller tooth dimensions than those in the mild and moderate hypodontia subgroups (p<0.05). The most affected tooth in terms of tooth size reduction was the maxillary lateral incisor and the least affected tooth was the mandibular first molar. Conclusion: Patients with hypodontia have smaller tooth dimensions than control. Tooth size appears to be affected by the degree of hypodontia, with severe hypodontia having a greater effect on tooth size reduction. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding the aetiology of hypodontia and aid the multidisciplinary management of this complex condition. PMID:27583048

  12. Complete Genome Sequences, before and after Mammalian Cell Culture, of Zika Virus Isolated from the Serum of a Symptomatic Male Patient from Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, Celia; Torres-Flores, Jesús M.; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Piten-Isidro, Elvira; Rivero-Arrieta, Amaranta Y.; Luna-Villalobos, Yara A.; Martínez-Vargas, Liliane; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofía L.; Torres, Klintsy J.; Lira, Rosalia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus associated with severe congenital malformations and neurological complications. Although the ZIKV genome is well characterized, there is limited information regarding changes after cell isolation and culture adaptation. We isolated, and passaged in Vero cells, ZIKV from the serum of a symptomatic male patient and compared the viral genomes before and after culture. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were characteristic among serum-circulating genomes, while such diversity decreased after cell culture. PMID:28336600

  13. Complete Genome Sequences, before and after Mammalian Cell Culture, of Zika Virus Isolated from the Serum of a Symptomatic Male Patient from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boukadida, Celia; Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Piten-Isidro, Elvira; Rivero-Arrieta, Amaranta Y; Luna-Villalobos, Yara A; Martínez-Vargas, Liliane; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofía L; Torres, Klintsy J; Lira, Rosalia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E

    2017-03-23

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus associated with severe congenital malformations and neurological complications. Although the ZIKV genome is well characterized, there is limited information regarding changes after cell isolation and culture adaptation. We isolated, and passaged in Vero cells, ZIKV from the serum of a symptomatic male patient and compared the viral genomes before and after culture. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were characteristic among serum-circulating genomes, while such diversity decreased after cell culture.

  14. Determinants of exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently have reduced exercise tolerance, which is multifactorial but mainly due to bronchial obstruction. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to determine the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in patients with mild-to-moderate or severe disease. Methods Cardiopulmonary exercise testing with blood gas analysis at peak exercise was performed in 102 patients aged 28 ± 11 years: 48 patients had severe lung disease (FEV1 < 50%, group 1) and 54 had mild-to-moderate lung disease (FEV1 ≥ 50%, group 2). VO2 peak was measured and correlated with clinical, biological, and functional parameters. Results VO2 peak for all patients was 25 ± 9 mL/kg/min (65 ± 21% of the predicted value) and was < 84% of predicted in 82% of patients (100% of group 1, 65% of group 2). VO2 peak was correlated with body mass index, C-reactive protein, FEV1, FVC, RV, DLCO, VE/VCO2 peak, VD/VT, PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-a)O2, and breathing reserve. In multivariate analysis, FEV1 and overall hyperventilation during exercise were independent determinants of exercise capacity (R2 = 0.67). FEV1 was the major significant predictor of VO2 peak impairment in group 1, accounting for 31% of VO2 peak alteration, whereas excessive overall hyperventilation (reduced or absent breathing reserve and VE/VCO2) accounted for 41% of VO2 alteration in group 2. Conclusion Exercise limitation in adult patients with CF is largely dependent on FEV1 in patients with severe lung disease and on the magnitude of the ventilatory response to exercise in patients with mild-to-moderate lung disease. PMID:24884656

  15. Outcome of hip arthroscopy in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis—A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Mikael; Ahldén, Mattias; Jonasson, Pall; Thomeé, Christoffer; Swärd, Leif; Collin, David; Baranto, Adad; Karlsson, Jón; Thomeé, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a common cause of hip pain. The arthroscopic management of patients with femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) has been reported to yield good outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report on outcome following the arthroscopic treatment of patients with FAI in the presence of mild to moderate OA. Seventy-five patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for FAI, all with preoperative radiological signs of mild to moderate OA were prospectively included in this study. A 2-year follow-up, using web-based patient-reported outcome measures, including the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome (HAGOS), EQ-5D, Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) for physical activity level and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for overall hip function, was performed, complemented by a radiographic evaluation. At follow-up (mean 26 months, SD 5), five patients (7%) had undergone total hip arthroplasty, leaving 70 patients for the analysis. Preoperative scores compared with those obtained at the 2-year follow-up revealed significant improvements (P < 0.0001) for all measured outcomes; the iHOT-12 (42 versus 65), VAS for global hip function (48 versus 68), HSAS (2.5 versus 3), EQ5D index (0.62 versus 0.76), EQ VAS (69 versus 75) and different HAGOS subscales (54 versus 72, 47 versus 67, 56 versus 75, 40 versus 61, 33 versus 56, 31 versus 55). At follow-up, 56 (82%) patients reported that they was satisfied with the outcome of surgery. Arthroscopic treatment for patients with FAI in the presence of mild to moderate OA resulted in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in outcome measures related to pain, symptoms, function, physical activity level and quality of life in the majority of patients. PMID:27026820

  16. Factors Influencing Cognitive Functioning Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in OIF/OEF Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19 (2004), 825–834. [5] H.G. Belanger, T. Kretzmer, R. Yoash-Gantz, T. Pickett and L.A. Tupler...Poppe, N. Davis, B. Schmaus and S.E. Hobbs, Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trau- ma patients with and without mild TBI, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21...Koffler, C.R. Reynolds and C.H. Silver, Neuropsychological evalua- tion in the diagnosis and management of sports-related con- cussion, Archives of

  17. Exogenous lactate infusion improved neurocognitive function of patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bisri, Tatang; Utomo, Billy A.; Fuadi, Iwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies showed a better recovery of cognitive function after administration of exogenous lactate during moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. However, the study evaluating lactate effect on mild traumatic brain injury is still limited. Aims: To evaluate the effect of exogenous lactate on cognitive function in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, single blind, randomized controlled study on 60 mild traumatic brain injury patients who were undergoing neurosurgery. Materials and Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned into hyperosmolar sodium lactate (HSL) group or hyperosmolar sodium chloride (HSS) group. Patients in each group received either intravenous infusion of HSL or NaCl 3% at 1.5 ml/KgBW within 15 min before neurosurgery. During the surgery, patients in both groups received maintenance infusion of NaCl 0.9% at 1.5 ml/KgBW/hour. Statistical Analysis: Cognitive function, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score at 24 h, 30 and 90 days post-surgery, was analyzed by Anova repeated measures test. Results: The MMSE score improvement was significantly better in HSL group than HSS group (P < 0.001). In HSL group the MMSE score improved from 16.00 (13.75-18.00) at baseline to 21.00 (18.75-22.00); 25.00 (23.75-26.00); 28.00 (27.00-29.00) at 24 h, 30, 90 days post-surgery, respectively. In contrast, in HSS group the MMSE score almost unchanged at 24 h and only slightly increased at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Conclusions: Hyperosmolar sodium lactate infusion during mild traumatic brain injury improved cognitive function better than sodium chloride 3%. PMID:27057222

  18. Treatment of symptomatic thoracic disc herniations with lateral interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Rhiannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic thoracic herniated discs have historically been treated using open exposures (i.e., thoracotomy), posing a clinical challenge given the approach related morbidity. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is one modern minimally disruptive alternative to thoracotomy. The direct lateral technique for lumbar pathologies has seen a sharp increase in procedural numbers; however application of this technique in thoracic pathologies has not been widely reported. Methods This study presents the results of three cases where LIF was used to treat symptomatic thoracic disc herniations. Indications for surgery included thoracic myelopathy, radiculopathy and discogenic pain. Patients were treated with LIF, without supplemental internal fixation, and followed for 24 months postoperatively. Results: Average length of hospital stay was 5 days. One patient experienced mild persistent neuropathic thoracic pain, which was managed medically. At 3 months postoperative all patients had returned to work and by 12 months all patients were fused. From preoperative to 24-month follow-up there were mean improvements of 83.3% in visual analogue scale (VAS), 75.3% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 79.2% and 17.4% in SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS), respectively. Conclusions LIF is a viable minimally invasive alternative to conventional approaches in treating symptomatic thoracic pathology without an access surgeon, rib resection, or lung deflation. PMID:27683683

  19. Indacaterol/glycopyrronium in symptomatic patients with COPD (GOLD B and GOLD D) versus salmeterol/fluticasone: ILLUMINATE/LANTERN pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmeier, Claus; Zhong, Nanshan; Humphries, Michael J; Mezzi, Karen; Fogel, Robert; Bader, Giovanni; Patalano, Francesco; Banerji, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background Indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) is approved for maintenance treatment of adult patients with COPD. This post hoc analysis explored the efficacy and safety of IND/GLY versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in symptomatic (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] B and GOLD D) patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Patients and methods Data from LANTERN and ILLUMINATE studies were pooled and analyzed. In both studies, symptomatic COPD patients were randomized to once-daily IND/GLY 110 μg/50 μg or twice-daily SFC 50 μg/500 μg. End points were pre-dose trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), standardized area under the curve for FEV1 from 0 to 12 hours (FEV1 AUC0–12 hours), peak FEV1, peak forced vital capacity (FVC), pre-dose trough FVC, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) total score, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, rescue medication use and safety. Results A total of 1,263 patients were classified as either GOLD B (n=809) or GOLD D (n=454). At week 26, IND/GLY demonstrated statistically significant improvement in all lung function parameters versus SFC in patients in both the GOLD B and GOLD D subgroups. TDI total score and rescue medication use were significantly improved with IND/GLY versus SFC in the overall population and in the GOLD B (TDI total score only) and GOLD D (rescue medication only) subgroups. IND/GLY also reduced the rate of exacerbations in the pooled population. Overall safety profile was comparable with a higher incidence of pneumonia in the SFC-treated group. Conclusion In this pooled analysis, IND/GLY demonstrated superior efficacy compared with SFC in patients in the GOLD B and GOLD D subgroups and supported its use in symptomatic COPD patients. PMID:28008244

  20. Different modulation of decorin production by lung fibroblasts from patients with mild and severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Noordhoek, Jacobien A; Postma, Dirkje S; Chong, Luis L; Menkema, Lorian; Kauffman, Henk F; Timens, Wim; van Straaten, Jeanette F M; van der Geld, Ymke M

    2005-03-01

    We have previously reported diminished immunohistochemical staining of decorin in lung tissue from patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study is to investigate whether this diminished staining is due to a quantitative abnormal production of decorin by pulmonary fibroblasts in vitro. Therefore, we measured decorin (Western blot), collagen type I (ELISA), and fibronectin (ELISA) production by fibroblasts obtained from lung tissue of patients with severe and mild emphysema at basal culture conditions and after modulation with transforming growth factor-beta1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interferon-gamma. Decorin production at basal culture conditions was significantly higher in fibroblast cultures from patients with severe emphysema compared to fibroblasts from mild emphysema. After stimulation with transforming growth factor-beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor, decorin production was significantly more reduced in fibroblast cultures from patients with severe emphysema whereas collagen type I and fibronectin production were not affected. We conclude that decorin production by lung fibroblasts of patients with severe emphysema is dysregulated after modulation with cytokines known to be important in smoking associated inflammation. This dysregulation of decorin production may contribute to the impaired lung tissue repair, present in patients with emphysema, since these alterations in the extracellular matrix may cause diminished cytokine binding and neutralization.

  1. Hippocampal subfield volumetry in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinwei; Li, Deyu; Li, Qiongling; Li, Yuxia; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Shuyu; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Memory impairment is a typical characteristic of patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The hippocampus, which plays an important role in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, is a heterogeneous structure that consists of several anatomically and functionally distinct subfields. However, whether distinct hippocampal subfields are differentially and selectively affected by svMCI pathology and whether these abnormal changes in hippocampal subfields are different between svMCI and aMCI patients are largely unknown. A total of 26 svMCI patients, 26 aMCI patients and 26 healthy controls matched according to age, gender and years of education were enrolled in this study. We utilized an automated hippocampal subfield segmentation method provided by FreeSurfer to estimate the volume of several hippocampal subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) areas, the dentate gyrus (DG), the subiculum and the presubiculum. Compared with controls, the left subiculum and presubiculum and the right CA4/DG displayed significant atrophy in patients with svMCI. Interestingly, we also found significant differences in the volume of the right CA1 between the svMCI and aMCI groups. Taken together, our results reveal region-specific vulnerability of hippocampal subfields to svMCI pathology and identify distinct hippocampal subfield atrophy patterns between svMCI and aMCI patients. PMID:26876151

  2. Screening for Patients with Mild Alzheimer Disease Using Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Aykan, Umit; Akdemir, M. Orcun; Yildirim, Ozlem; Varlibas, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We compared the visual field performances of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) with normal subjects and detected visual field impairment attributable to the magnocellular pathway using frequency doubling technology—Matrix (FDT-Matrix). We recruited 43 patients with mild AD (mean age: 68.0 ± 7.2 years) and 33 controls who are visually and cognitively normal (mean age: 64.1 ± 6.4 years). All participants had at least two reliable FDT-Matrix 30-2 tests. Reliability indices, global indices (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation), and glaucoma hemifield test results were measured with FDT-Matrix. The mean test duration was significantly longer in patient group compared with controls (p = 0.002). Among the reliability indices, false negatives were higher in patient group than controls (p = 0.003). There were statistically significant differences in mean deviation and pattern standard deviation values (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and glaucoma hemifield test results (p < 0.001) between the patient and the control group. Our results imply that the pathogenesis of cognitive deterioration may not only be confined to the cortical area but also to the magnocellular pathway. We underline that FDT testing can be useful for the identification of early impairment and the follow-up of patients with AD. PMID:28167993

  3. On-going palliative care enhances perceived control and patient activation and reduces symptom distress in patients with symptomatic heart failure: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S; Liao, Solomon; Motie, Marjan; De Michelis, Nathalie; Lombardo, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of research about the impact of palliative care (PC) on perceived control (i.e. one’s perceived influence over outcomes or events in the environment) and activation (i.e. ability to self-manage) in patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF). Likewise, little is known about the association between perceived control, activation, and symptom distress in this patient population. We hypothesized that patients with advanced HF who received ongoing PC services (i.e. ≥2 PC consultations) vs no access or a single PC consultation would have greater improvements in perceived control and activation and greater reductions in symptom distress three months post-discharge for HF exacerbation. Methods Forty-two patients (average age 53.9±8.0 years; predominantly male (72%), White (61%) and married (69%)) participated in the study. However, only 36 (85.7%) patients completed an outpatient PC consultation of which 29 (69%) patients returned for additional follow-up visits with the PC team. Data on perceived control, activation, and symptom distress were collected at baseline and three months. Parametric statistical models were applied to draw conclusions. Results Findings showed that the patients who received ≥2 PC consultations had greater improvements in perceived control and activation than their counterparts; these increases were associated with greater reductions in symptom distress. Conclusion Our findings suggest that on-going PC interventions enhance perceived control and activation in patients with advanced HF and open up the possibility of planning larger studies to assess the effect of PC on these variables as possible mediators to improvements in self-management and clinical outcomes. PMID:24443421

  4. Prevalence and significance of reversible radionuclide ischemic perfusion defects in symptomatic aortic valve disease patients with or without concomitant coronary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pfisterer, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Bruendler, H.; Cueni, T.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and significance of exercise-induced localized perfusion defects in symptomatic patients with aortic valve disease, thallium-201 rest and exercise studies were performed in a consecutive series of 29 such patients prior to left heart catheterization with coronary arteriography. Eight patients had repeat studies after aortic valve replacement. Twelve of 17 patients with predominant aortic regurgitation (AR) had distinct LV apical defects during exercise despite normal coronary arteries, while 10 of 12 patients with aortic valve disease and associated coronary artery disease (CAD) had localized perfusion defects in LV areas other than the apex. In patients with AR, reversible apical perfusion defects can occur without CAD; these apical defects are probably a reflection of severe LV volume overload in AR. LV perfusion defects in areas other than the apex are specific for CAD in aortic valve disease, and concomitant CAD may not provoke regional LV perfusion deficits in aortic stenosis patients with severe LV hypertrophy.

  5. Brain State Before Error Making in Young Patients With Mild Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2015-10-01

    In the present experiment, children with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a control group carried out a memory recognition task. The key question was if errors of the patient group are foreshadowed by attention lapses, by weak motor preparation, or by both. Reaction times together with event-related potentials associated with motor preparation (frontal late contingent negative variation), attention (parietal P300), and response evaluation (parietal error-preceding positivity) were investigated in instances where 3 subsequent correct trials preceded an error. The findings indicated that error responses of the patient group are foreshadowed by weak motor preparation in correct trials directly preceding an error.

  6. [Analysis of the blood and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuko; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the blood cell count and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (CwG). As a control group, age matched patients presenting with only gastroenteritis during the same period were compared. The results showed significant differences between the two groups regarding such factors as the sex ratio, serum uric acid, and serum chloride levels. All CwG patients showed hyperuricemia (10.0 +/- 2.2 mg/dL, mean +/- SD). The patients in both groups showed similar levels of metabolic acidosis. The patients with CwG therefore have both hyperuricemia and metabolic acidosis, which may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of CwG.

  7. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ally, Brandon A; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance.

  8. Characterization of T2 hyperintensity lesions in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caban, Jesus J.; Green, Savannah A.; Riedy, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often an invisible injury that is poorly understood and its sequelae can be difficult to diagnose. Recent neuroimaging studies on patients diagnosed with mild TBI (mTBI) have demonstrated an increase in hyperintense brain lesions on T2-weighted MR images. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the multi-modal and morphological properties of T2 hyperintensity lesions among service members diagnosed with mTBI. A total of 790 punctuate T2 hyperintensity lesions from 89 mTBI subjects were analyzed and used to characterize the lesions based on different quantitative measurements. Morphological analysis shows that on average, T2 hyperintensity lesions have volumes of 23mm3 (+/-24.75), a roundness measure of 0.83 (+/-0.08) and an elongation of 7.90 (+/-2.49). The frontal lobe lesions demonstrated significantly more elongated lesions when compared to other areas of the brain.

  9. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. Methods The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2–4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. Results One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2–4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2–4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. Conclusions In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months

  10. Perception of acute airway function changes by patients with mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, Kestutis; Ragaisiene, Sandra; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sakalauskas, Rainundas

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perception of dyspnea during acute bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation in patients with mild asthma with normal lung function who never experienced severe asthma exacerbations in the past. We studied 83 mild, stable asthmatic patients aged 18-58 years. All patients underwent the methacholine challenge followed by the bronchodilation test with salbutamol. The perceptual sensitivity of changes in airway function was analyzed by linear regression coefficients, slope alpha(constr), and slope alpha(dilat). Additionally, the perception score was determined at a 20% decrease in FEV(1) (PS(20)) during the methacholine challenge. The finding was that perceptual sensitivity for bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation, expressed as slope alpha(constr) and slope alpha(dilat), was similar in the study subjects (mean +/- SD, 0.09 +/- 0.05 and 0.10 +/- 0.05, respectively). The two subgroups under assessment were named poor perceivers when PS(20) < 1 (n = 19) and good perceivers when PS(20) > or = 1 (n = 64). While assessing them, the values of slope alpha(constr) did not differ from the values of slope alpha(dilat) in either of the subgroups of poor perceivers or good perceivers. However, the poor perceivers sensed changes in airway function significantly less than the good perceivers did, although overlapping values of slope alpha were observed. In conclusion, this study indicates that perceptual sensitivity during acute bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation is comparably the same in mild, stable asthmatic patients. However, some of these asthmatic patients may display a diminished perception of dyspnea, which can lead to the deterioration of their asthma without their noticing the corresponding symptoms. Thus, they may delay treatment for acute asthma.

  11. Neurocognitive Function Differentiation from the Effect of Psychopathologic Symptoms in the Disability Evaluation of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Sung; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Soon-Sub; Cheon, Eun-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined whether the relationship between the neuropsychological performance of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their psychopathological characteristics measured by disability evaluation are interrelated. In addition, we assessed which psychopathological variable was most influential on neuropsychological performance via statistical clustering of the same characteristics of mild TBI. Methods A total of 219 disability evaluation participants with mild brain injury were selected. All participants were classified into three groups, based on their psychopathological characteristics, via a two-step cluster analysis using validity and clinical scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS), Korean Memory Assessment Scale (K-MAS) and the Korean Boston Naming Test (K-BNT) were used to evaluate the neurocognitive functions of mild TBI patients. Results Over a quarter (26.9%) experienced severe psychopathological symptoms and 43.4% experienced mild or moderate psychopathological symptoms, and all of the mild TBI patients showed a significant relationship between neurocognitive functions and subjective and/or objective psychopathic symptoms, but the degree of this relationship was moderate. Variances of neurocognitive function were explained by neurotic and psychotic symptoms, but the role of these factors were different to each other and participants did not show intelligence and other cognitive domain decrement except for global memory abilities compared to the non-psychopathology group. Conclusion Certain patients with mild TBI showed psychopathological symptoms, but these were not directly related to cognitive decrement. Psychopathology and cognitive decrement are discrete aspects in patients with mild TBI. Furthermore, the neurotic symptoms of mild TBI patients made positive complements to decrements or impairments of

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a Chinese herbal Sophora flower formula in patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Man, Kee-Ming; Chen, Wen-Chi; Wang, Hwei-Ming; Chen, Huey-Yi; Shen, Jui-Lung; Chen, Lieh-Der; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Yu, De-Xin; Chiang, Feng-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica (Huaihua) are used in China, Japan and Korea for treating haematemesis and bleeding haemorrhoids. This study compared the clinical safety and efficacy of a Sophora flower formula with a placebo for the conservative treatment of symptomatic haemorrhoids. The study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. The clinical effective rate, symptom score and the incidence of important clinical events were used as observation indices to evaluate the effect of the Sophora flower formula. The results showed that after 7 days of treatment, improvement was observed in 87.0% of the patients' major symptoms in the Sophora flower formula group compared with 81.8% of those in the placebo group. After 14 days, 78.2% patients in the Sophora flower formula group were asymptomatic, whereas 40.9% of those in the placebo group exhibited residual symptoms. However, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant. As the bowel habits of the patients improved and as the patients took sitz baths, their symptoms improved drastically, regardless of the use of the Sophora flower formula. These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese Sophora flower formula is clinically safe; however, its effects on haemorrhoids need to be studied in a larger sample size and with different dosages. The present study results may be a potential clinical reference for physicians prescribing medications for patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids.

  13. Randomized study of lafutidine vs lansoprazole in patients with mild gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Ryuta; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Seiji; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Yoshinaga, Fumiya; Nagata, Shinji; Inoue, Masafumi; Komatsu, Hirohisa; Onogawa, Seiji; Kushiyama, Yoshinori; Mukai, Shinichi; Todo, Hiroko; Okanobu, Hideharu; Manabe, Noriaki; Tanaka, Shinji; Haruma, Ken; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy of the second-generation H2RA lafutidine with that of lansoprazole in Japanese patients with mild gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Patients with symptoms of GERD and a diagnosis of grade A reflux esophagitis (according to the Los Angeles classification) were randomized to receive lafutidine (10 mg, twice daily) or lansoprazole (30 mg, once daily) for an initial 8 wk, followed by maintenance treatment comprising half-doses of the assigned drug for 24 wk. The primary endpoint was the frequency and severity of heartburn during initial and maintenance treatment. The secondary endpoints were the sum score of questions 2 and 3 in the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), and the satisfaction score. RESULTS: Between April 2012 and March 2013, a total of 53 patients were enrolled, of whom 24 and 29 received lafutidine and lansoprazole, respectively. After 8 wk, the frequency and severity of heartburn was significantly reduced in both groups. However, lafutidine was significantly inferior to lansoprazole with regard to the severity of heartburn during initial and maintenance treatment (P = 0.016). The sum score of questions 2 and 3 in the GSRS, and satisfaction scores were also significantly worse in the lafutidine group than the lansoprazole group (P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0048, respectively). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of lafutidine was inferior to that of lansoprazole, even in Japanese patients with mild GERD. PMID:27340360

  14. A case of constitutional trisomy 3 mosaicism in a teenage patient with mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kekis, Mariana; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Deeg, Carol; Calloway, Inga; McKinney, Aimee; Shuss, Christine; Hickey, Scott; Astbury, Caroline

    2016-11-01

    Constitutional mosaicism for trisomy 3 is extremely rare, with only a few postnatally diagnosed cases reported in the literature. We report a case of constitutional trisomy 3 mosaicism in a 16-year-old female, who presented with chronic joint pain, easy bruising, joint hypermobility and dysmorphic features, including long, thin facies, over-folded dysplastic ears, and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS) with cleft palate. The patient was small at birth, had cleft palate repair, developed chronic joint pain at age 12, and has a history of mild leukopenia and mild thrombocytopenia. Microarray analysis was consistent with a mosaic gain of an entire chromosome 3. FISH analysis of peripheral blood and buccal cells showed the presence of the supernumerary chromosome 3 in a low percentage of cells in both tissues, suggesting that the nondisjunction event occurred prior to the germ cell layer differentiation. Since trisomy 3 has been observed somatically in lymphoma, a Hematology/Oncology consultation was provided for the patient. The oncologist's evaluation for malignancy was unremarkable. A review of findings from other trisomy 3 patients reported in the literature reveals a diverse phenotypic spectrum and does not show a correlation between the proportion of abnormal cells observed in peripheral blood and the patients' clinical features or severity. This case demonstrates that the clinical presentation of an individual with trisomy 3 is highly individualized and the clinical course is difficult to predict.

  15. The "hidden" semantic category dissociation in mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Emiliano

    2007-03-02

    In patients manifesting mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), lexical semantic tasks are known to be influenced by several variables which should be adequately taken into account when studying semantic category dissociations. The following study provides indexes of three new variables (imageability (I), percentage of name agreement (pNA) and number of target alternatives (nTA)) and investigates their role in naming in a group of people with AD and in matched older adults controls. Forty young healthy participants rated I, pNA and nTA of 155 stimuli (including living and non-living items) from and sets. Forty-eight people with mild-moderate AD and 40 older adults were given the two naming tests and their naming ratings were analysed with a two-way ANOVA (two groupsxtwo categories) to assess category specificity and the effect of interaction. The influence of relevant concomitant variables in naming was measured using a multiple regression analysis. Semi-partial correlations were carried out to assess the independent contribution of each variable to naming. We found that living items were more imageable and had fewer lexical alternatives and higher name agreement than non-living items. We also found that controls significantly named better than AD patients (F=37.551, p<.001), whilst the two-way ANOVA showed no significant effect of category (F=.649, p=.423). Notably category effect emerged when assessing its independent contribution performing a semi-partial correlation (beta=-.278, p<.001) which kept the effect of relevant concomitant variables under control. Our results confirm that category dissociation does emerge in mild-moderate AD patients when the effect of relevant concomitant variables is adequately taken into account. The hypothesis that the highly correlated properties of items from biological categories may play a protective effect on living things, making them less prone to impairment in the early stages of AD, is discussed.

  16. Trunk sway in mildly disabled multiple sclerosis patients with and without balance impairment.

    PubMed

    Findling, Oliver; Sellner, Johann; Meier, Niklaus; Allum, John H J; Vibert, Dominique; Lienert, Carmen; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2011-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a broad range of neurological symptoms. Most common is poor balance control. However, knowledge of deficient balance control in mildly affected MS patients who are complaining of balance impairment but have normal clinical balance tests (CBT) is limited. This knowledge might provide insights into the normal and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying stance and gait. We analysed differences in trunk sway between mildly disabled MS patients with and without subjective balance impairment (SBI), all with normal CBT. The sway was measured for a battery of stance and gait balance tests (static and dynamic posturography) and compared to that of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Eight of 21 patients (38%) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 1.0-3.0 complained of SBI during daily activities. For standing on both legs with eyes closed on a normal and on a foam surface, patients in the no SBI group showed significant differences in the range of trunk roll (lateral) sway angle and velocity, compared to normal persons. Patients in the SBI group had significantly greater lateral sway than the no SBI group, and sway was also greater than normal in the pitch (anterior-posterior) direction. Sway for one-legged stance on foam was also greater in the SBI group compared to the no SBI and normal groups. We found a specific laterally directed impairment of balance in all patients, consistent with a deficit in proprioceptive processing, which was greater in the SBI group than in the no SBI group. This finding most likely explains the subjective symptoms of imbalance in patients with MS with normal CBT.

  17. Effects of a multidisciplinar cognitive rehabilitation program for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Luciane F.; Nunes, Paula V.; Yassuda, Monica S.; Aprahamian, Ivan; Santos, Franklin S.; Santos, Glenda D.; Brum, Paula S.; Borges, Sheila M.; Oliveira, Alexandra M.; Chaves, Gisele F. S.; Ciasca, Eliane C.; Ferreira, Rita C. R.; de Paula, Vanessa J. R.; Takeda, Oswaldo H.; Mirandez, Roberta M.; Watari, Ricky; Falcão, Deusivania V. S.; Cachioni, Meire; Forlenza, Orestes V.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognition, quality of life, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: The present study was a single-blind, controlled study that was conducted at a university-based day-hospital memory facility. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers and involved a 12-week stimulation and psychoeducational program. The comparison group consisted of 16 Alzheimer's patients in waiting lists for future intervention. INTERVENTION: Group sessions were provided by a multiprofessional team and included memory training, computer-assisted cognitive stimulation, expressive activities (painting, verbal expression, writing), physiotherapy, and physical training. Treatment was administered twice a week during 6.5-h gatherings. MEASUREMENTS: The assessment battery comprised the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Cognitive Test, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's disease, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Test scores were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study by raters who were blinded to the group assignments. RESULTS: Measurements of global cognitive function and performance on attention tasks indicated that patients in the experimental group remained stable, whereas controls displayed mild but significant worsening. The intervention was associated with reduced depression symptoms for patients and caregivers and decreased neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's subjects. The treatment was also beneficial for the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION: This multimodal rehabilitation program was associated with cognitive stability and significant improvements in the quality of life for Alzheimer's patients. We also observed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. These results support the notion that structured nonpharmacological interventions can yield adjunct and

  18. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  19. Type and occurrence of serious complications in patients after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sivak, S; Nosal, V; Bittsansky, M; Dluha, J; Dobrota, D; Kurca, E

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health and socio-economic problem, and 70-90% of all TBIs are classified as mild. Mild TBIs and concussions are mostly considered to be non-serious conditions with symptoms subsiding within a few days or weeks. However in 10-15% of patients, the symptoms persist one year after concussion and mostly include headache, fatigue, irritability, and cognitive problems (e.g. memory, concentration). These persisting symptoms negatively influence patient daily activities as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Second-impact syndrome (SIS) is a very rare but usually fatal condition and occurs when repeated brain injuries lead to a catastrophic diffuse brain swelling. There is no scientific evidence on the incidence and risk of SIS. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in patients with a history of repetitive brain trauma. CTE presents with behavioural, cognitive, and motor symptoms. The literature to date lacks prospective epidemiological studies of the incidence of CTE. In recent medical literature, there is a description of 110 athletes with postmortem diagnosis of CTE (Tab. 1, Ref. 37).

  20. Intermittent and on-demand use of proton pump inhibitors in the management of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2003-03-01

    The epidemic of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in industrialized nations is currently spreading to less-developed ones, with more than half of the patients having symptomatic or mild erosive GERD. The long-term management of GERD has been dominated by daily maintenance treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) to prevent relapse. It is common, however, for many patients with mild disease and infrequent symptom relapses to use a PPI only when symptoms demand. Patients with symptomatic or mild erosive GERD are therefore ideal for on-demand or intermittent treatment. The efficacy of such a strategy of intermittent treatment, or treatment of symptoms on demand, has recently been evaluated in four randomized controlled studies. These trials demonstrate that such therapeutic strategies reduce symptoms, improve quality of life, and are cost effective. In clinical practice, the author has found these treatment strategies suitable for approximately 60% of newly diagnosed patients with GERD for the long-term management of symptomatic GERD of mild or moderate severity.

  1. High education may offer protection against tauopathy in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rolstad, Sindre; Nordlund, Arto; Eckerström, Carl; Gustavsson, Marie H; Blennow, Kaj; Olesen, Pernille J; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wallin, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of brain and cognitive reserve stem from the observation that premorbid factors (e.g., education) result in variation in the response to brain pathology. Potential early influence of reserve on pathology, as assessed using the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers total tau (t-tau) and amyloid-beta42, and cognition was explored in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who remained stable over a two-year period. A total of 102 patients with stable MCI grouped on the basis of educational level were compared with regard to biomarker concentrations and cognitive performance. Stable MCI patients with higher education had lower concentrations of t-tau as compared to those with lower education. Also, educational level predicted a significant proportion of the total variance in t-tau concentrations. Our results suggest that higher education may offer protection against tauopathy.

  2. Effects of Rotator Cuff Pathology and Physical Therapy on In Vivo Shoulder Motion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With a Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Baumer, Timothy G.; Chan, Derek; Mende, Veronica; Dischler, Jack; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S.; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical therapy (PT) is often prescribed for patients with rotator cuff tears. The extent to which PT influences strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcomes has been studied extensively, but the effect of PT on in vivo joint kinematics is not well understood. Purpose: To assess the influence of symptomatic rotator cuff pathology and the effects of PT on shoulder motion, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear and 25 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects were recruited. Shoulder motion was measured using a biplane radiography imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex dynamometer, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Data were acquired from the patients before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy. Data were acquired at 1 time point for the control subjects. Results: Compared with the control subjects, patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had significantly worse pain/function scores (P < .01); less ROM (P < .01); lower abduction (ABD), external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) strength (P < .01); less scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05); and lower glenohumeral joint elevation (P < .01). Physical therapy resulted in improved pain/function scores (P < .01), increased ROM (P < .02), increased scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05), increased glenohumeral joint elevation (P = .01), and decreased acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (P = .02). Conclusion: Compared with age-matched controls, patients had worse pain/function scores, less ROM, and lower ABD, ER, and IR strength. Patients also had less scapulothoracic anteroposterior tilt, less glenohumeral joint elevation, and an altered glenohumeral joint contact path. PT resulted in improved pain/function scores, increased ROM, greater posterior

  3. T cell subtypes and reciprocal inflammatory mediator expression differentiate P. falciparum memory recall responses in asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria patients in southeastern Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Joseph J.; Cicéron, Micheline; Raccurt, Christian P.; Beau De Rochars, Valery E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is responsible for maintaining malarial disease within human populations in low transmission countries such as Haiti. Investigating differential host immune responses to the parasite as a potential underlying mechanism could help provide insight into this highly complex phenomenon and possibly identify asymptomatic individuals. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals who were diagnosed with malaria in Sud-Est, Haiti by comparing the cellular and humoral responses of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Plasma samples were analyzed with a P. falciparum protein microarray, which demonstrated serologic reactivity to 3,877 P. falciparum proteins of known serologic reactivity; however, no antigen-antibody reactions delineating asymptomatics from symptomatics were identified. In contrast, differences in cellular responses were observed. Flow cytometric analysis of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the proportion of T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+ CD127-), and increases in unique populations of both NKT-like cells (CD3+ CD8+ CD56+) and CD8mid T cells in asymptomatics compared to symptomatics. Also, CD38+/HLA-DR+ expression on γδ T cells, CD8mid (CD56-) T cells, and CD8mid CD56+ NKT-like cells decreased upon exposure to infected erythrocytes in both groups. Cytometric bead analysis of the co-culture supernatants demonstrated an upregulation of monocyte-activating chemokines/cytokines in asymptomatics, while immunomodulatory soluble factors were elevated in symptomatics. Principal component analysis of these expression values revealed a distinct clustering of individual responses within their respective phenotypic groups. This is the first comprehensive investigation of immune responses to P. falciparum in Haiti, and describes unique cell-mediated immune repertoires that delineate individuals

  4. T cell subtypes and reciprocal inflammatory mediator expression differentiate P. falciparum memory recall responses in asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria patients in southeastern Haiti.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jason S; Campo, Joseph J; Cicéron, Micheline; Raccurt, Christian P; Boncy, Jacques; Beau De Rochars, Valery E M; Cannella, Anthony P

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is responsible for maintaining malarial disease within human populations in low transmission countries such as Haiti. Investigating differential host immune responses to the parasite as a potential underlying mechanism could help provide insight into this highly complex phenomenon and possibly identify asymptomatic individuals. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals who were diagnosed with malaria in Sud-Est, Haiti by comparing the cellular and humoral responses of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Plasma samples were analyzed with a P. falciparum protein microarray, which demonstrated serologic reactivity to 3,877 P. falciparum proteins of known serologic reactivity; however, no antigen-antibody reactions delineating asymptomatics from symptomatics were identified. In contrast, differences in cellular responses were observed. Flow cytometric analysis of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the proportion of T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+ CD127-), and increases in unique populations of both NKT-like cells (CD3+ CD8+ CD56+) and CD8mid T cells in asymptomatics compared to symptomatics. Also, CD38+/HLA-DR+ expression on γδ T cells, CD8mid (CD56-) T cells, and CD8mid CD56+ NKT-like cells decreased upon exposure to infected erythrocytes in both groups. Cytometric bead analysis of the co-culture supernatants demonstrated an upregulation of monocyte-activating chemokines/cytokines in asymptomatics, while immunomodulatory soluble factors were elevated in symptomatics. Principal component analysis of these expression values revealed a distinct clustering of individual responses within their respective phenotypic groups. This is the first comprehensive investigation of immune responses to P. falciparum in Haiti, and describes unique cell-mediated immune repertoires that delineate individuals

  5. Cingulum fiber diffusivity and CSF T-tau in patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Stenset, Vidar; Bjørnerud, Atle; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Hofoss, Dag; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Gjerstad, Leif; Fladby, Tormod

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and CSF biomarkers are useful diagnostic tools to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal controls, and may help predict conversion to dementia. Total Tau protein (T-tau) and DTI parameters are both markers for axonal damage, thus it is of interest to determine if DTI parameters are associated with elevated CSF T-tau levels in patients with cognitive impairment. For this purpose, patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and MCI were recruited from a university based memory clinic. Regions of interest were used to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (DR) and axial diffusivity (DA) in known white matter tracts in patients with MCI (n=39) and SCI (n=8) and 26 cognitively healthy controls. Significant lower FA and higher DR values were observed in patients with pathological vs. patients with normal CSF T-tau levels and vs. controls in left posterior cingulum fibers. T-tau values were negatively correlated with FA and positively correlated with DR values in the posterior cingulum fibers. Cingulum fiber diffusivity was related to T-tau pathology in SCI/MCI patients and altered DR may suggest that loss of myelin contributes to early white matter changes in patients at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  6. High MET amplification level as a resistance mechanism to osimertinib (AZD9291) in a patient that symptomatically responded to crizotinib treatment post-osimertinib progression.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Agarwal, Nikita; Ali, Siraj M

    2016-08-01

    Third-generation EGFR TKI has been approved in the US and EU for the treatment of EGFR mutant T790M+ NSCLC patients that are resistant to first- or second generation EGFR TKIs. Here we report a patient who developed resistance to osimertinib after a confirmed partial response for 9 months. Pre-osimertinib and post-osimertinib tumor biopsy revealed the emergence of high level of MET amplification (30 copies) post osimertinib treatment. Patient was treated with single agent crizotinib, a known MET inhibitor, with transient symptomatic benefit. MET amplification is one potential resistance mechanism to osimertinib and combination of osimertinib and a MET inhibitor should be investigated post-osimertinib progression in EGFR mutant T790M+ NSCLC patients whose harbored acquired MET amplification.

  7. Mild degenerative changes of hip cartilage in elderly patients: an available sample representative of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Yan, Junwei; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA. PMID:25400727

  8. Mild degenerative changes of hip cartilage in elderly patients: an available sample representative of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Yan, Junwei; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA.

  9. Comparison of Histologic Characteristics of Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistently Normal or Mildly Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xue, Li; Yan, Rong; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Mei-Juan; Hai-Jun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) who seldom undergo liver biopsy. We aimed to determine histologic characteristics of a large cohort of Chinese CHB patients undergoing liver biopsy and to evaluate the utility of ALT and HBV DNA values at the time of biopsy in predicting liver disease in this population. This prospective study enrolled 230 treatment-naïve patients with persistently normal or mildly elevated ALT. All patients had a liver biopsy. ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and HBV DNA levels were some of the other parameters measured. Using Scheuer's classification, significant histology was defined as stage ≧2 fibrosis and/or stage 1 fibrosis plus≧ grade 2 inflammation. Liver disease was observed in 34.4% and 61.8% of patients with normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT, respectively. Patients with mildly elevated ALT levels had significantly more events, including liver disease, elevated AST, and moderate to severe inflammation and liver fibrosis, than patients with normal ALT (all P≤0.005). A total of 107 patients (46.5%) had liver disease and 123 (53.5%) did not. PLT and ALT were significantly associated with liver disease (both P<0.001). Patients with elevated ALT, lower platelet count and HBV DNA < 7 log10copies/mL may have histologically significant changes associated with liver disease. Multivariate analysis showed that PLT and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with normal ALT while gender and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with mildly elevated ALT. Assessing liver damage via biopsy in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT may help to identify those who would benefit from antiviral therapy. PMID:24260428

  10. Comparison of SPECT/CT and MRI in Diagnosing Symptomatic Lesions in Ankle and Foot Pain Patients: Diagnostic Performance and Relation to Lesion Type

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seunggyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Yeon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Arya, Amitabh; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types. Materials and Methods Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests. Results In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016). Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P < 0.001), and its area under curve on ROC analysis was 0.787. In the analysis of each lesion type, the specificity of SPECT/CT was poor in joint lesions compared with other lesion types and MRI (P < 0.001, respectively). MRI exhibited lower specificity than SPECT/CT in bone lesions (P = 0.004) and ligament/tendon lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusions SPECT/CT has MRI-comparable diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity. PMID:25668182

  11. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  12. Decline of human tactile angle discrimination in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajia; Ogasa, Takashi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Abe, Koji; Wu, Jinglong

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to differentiate between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal-aged controls (NC) in the field of clinical drug discovery. In this study, we developed a tactile angle discrimination system and examined whether the ability to discriminate tactile angle differed between patients with MCI and AD and the NC group. Thirty-seven subjects were divided into three groups: NC individuals (n=14); MCI patients (n=10); and probable AD patients (n=13). All subjects were asked to differentiate the relative sizes of the reference angle (60°) and one of eight comparison angles by passive touch. The accuracy of angle discrimination was measured and the discrimination threshold was calculated. We discovered that there were significant differences in the angle discrimination thresholds of AD patients compared to the NC group. Interestingly, we also found that ability to discriminate tactile angle of MCI patients were significantly lower than that of the NC group. This is the first study to report that patients with MCI and AD have substantial performance deficits in tactile angle discrimination compared to the NC individuals. This finding may provide a monitor and therapeutic approach in AD diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Patients with mild Alzheimer's disease produced shorter outgoing saccades when reading sentences.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gerardo; Schumacher, Marcela; Castro, Liliana; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2015-09-30

    In the present work we analyzed forward saccades of thirty five elderly subjects (Controls) and of thirty five mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) during reading regular and high-predictable sentences. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. The pattern of forward saccade amplitudes as a function of word predictability was clearly longer in Controls. Our results suggest that Controls might use stored information of words for enhancing their reading performance. Further, cloze predictability increased outgoing saccades amplitudes, as this increase stronger in high-predictable sentences. Quite the contrary, patients with mild AD evidenced reduced forward saccades even at early stages of the disease. This reduction might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. Our findings might be relevant for expanding the options for the early detection and monitoring of in the early stages of AD. Furthermore, eye movements during reading could provide a new tool for measuring a drug's impact on patient's behavior.

  14. Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: A Multi- Center, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Won; Lee, Hyeonggon; Hong, Jong Woo; Kim, Kayoung; Kim, Taehyun; Byun, Hye Jin; Ko, Ji Won; Youn, Jong Chul; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Nam-Jin; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Ki Woong

    2017-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the effect of Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (MCET) consisting of cognitive training, cognitive stimulations, reality orientation, physical therapy, reminiscence therapy, and music therapy in combination in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia. This study was a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over study (two 8-week treatment phases separated by a 4-week wash-out period). Sixty-four participants with MCI or dementia whose Clinical Dementia Rating was 0.5 or 1 were randomized to the MCET group or the mock-therapy (placebo) group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, week 9, and week 21. Fifty-five patients completed the study. Mini-Mental State Examination (effect size = 0.47, p = 0.013) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (effect size = 0.35, p = 0.045) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy group. Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist frequency (effect size = 0.38, p = 0.046) and self-rated Quality of Life - Alzheimer's Disease (effect size = 0.39, p = 0.047) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy. MCET improved cognition, behavior, and quality of life in people with MCI or mild dementia more effectively than conventional cognitive enhancing activities did.

  15. Brain MRI volumetry in a single patient with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, David E; Castelvecchi, Cody; Ochs, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    This letter to the editor describes the case of a 42 year old man with mild traumatic brain injury and multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms which persisted for a few years after the injury. Initial CT scans and MRI scans of the brain showed no signs of atrophy. Brain volume was measured using NeuroQuant®, an FDA-approved, commercially available software method. Volumetric cross-sectional (one point in time) analysis also showed no atrophy. However, volumetric longitudinal (two points in time) analysis showed progressive atrophy in several brain regions. This case illustrated in a single patient the principle discovered in multiple previous group studies, namely that the longitudinal design is more powerful than the cross-sectional design for finding atrophy in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  16. Crofelemer for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jose G; Chin-Beckford, Nafeesa

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea remains a common condition that affects people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite the widespread use of potent antiretroviral therapy. It is important that providers control this condition, as the persistence of diarrhea affects the quality of life of patients and may contribute to decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Strategies to control diarrhea in patients with HIV infection include switching to a new antiretroviral regimen and/or the use of specific medications to control the diarrhea. This review aims to provide a concise evaluation of a newly approved medication (crofelemer) that has a novel mechanism of action and has received approval for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV on anti-retroviral therapy.

  17. Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joana B.; Mijalkov, Mite; Kakaei, Ehsan; Mecocci, Patricia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilka; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simmon; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disconnection syndrome characterized by abnormalities in large-scale networks. However, the alterations that occur in network topology during the prodromal stages of AD, particularly in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those that show a slow or faster progression to dementia, are still poorly understood. In this study, we used graph theory to assess the organization of structural MRI networks in stable MCI (sMCI) subjects, late MCI converters (lMCIc), early MCI converters (eMCIc), and AD patients from 2 large multicenter cohorts: ADNI and AddNeuroMed. Our findings showed an abnormal global network organization in all patient groups, as reflected by an increased path length, reduced transitivity, and increased modularity compared with controls. In addition, lMCIc, eMCIc, and AD patients showed a decreased path length and mean clustering compared with the sMCI group. At the local level, there were nodal clustering decreases mostly in AD patients, while the nodal closeness centrality detected abnormalities across all patient groups, showing overlapping changes in the hippocampi and amygdala and nonoverlapping changes in parietal, entorhinal, and orbitofrontal regions. These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. PMID:27178195

  18. Mild Hypothermia May Offer Some Improvement to Patients with MODS after CPB Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoqi; Gu, Tianxiang; Xiu, Zongyi; Shi, Enyi; Yu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the effect of mild hypothermia on function of the organs in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. METHODS: The patients were randomly divided into two groups, northermia group (n=71) and hypothermia group (n=89). We immediately began cooling the hypothermia group when test results showed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, meanwhile all patients of two groups were drawn blood to test blood gas, liver and kidney function, blood coagulation function, and evaluated the cardiac function using echocardiography from 12 to 36 hours. We compared the difference of intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rate and mortality within one month after intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: Among the 160 patients, 36 died, 10 (11.24%) patients were from the hypothermia group and 26 (36.6%) from the northermia group (P <0.05). In northermia group, 45 (63.38%) patients used intra-aortic balloon pump and 4 (5.63%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; in hypothermia group, 35 (39.32%) patients used intra-aortic balloon pump and 2 (2.25%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation( P <0.05). The patients' heart rate decreased significantly in the hypothermia group. The heart rate of hypothermia group is significantly slower than the northermia group at the 36th hour (P <0.05). But the mean arterial pressure of hypothermia group is significantly higher than the northermia group at the 36th hour (P <0.05). In hypothermia group, PO2, SvO2 and lactate were improved significantly compared to pre-cooling (P <0.05), and they were significantly better than the northermia group at the 36th hour (P <0.05%). Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time have no significantly difference between the two groups (P >0.05). But the platelet count has significantly difference between the two groups at the 36th hour (P <0.05). The aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and creatinine were

  19. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  20. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Omalizumab in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic/Spontaneous Urticaria Who Remain Symptomatic on H1 Antihistamines: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Sarbjit S; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Maurer, Marcus; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Bülbül Baskan, Emel; Bradley, Mary S; Canvin, Janice; Rahmaoui, Abdelkader; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Alpan, Oral; Spector, Sheldon; Rosén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    ASTERIA I was a 40-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous omalizumab as add-on therapy for 24 weeks in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria/spontaneous urticaria (CIU/CSU) who remained symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine treatment at licensed doses. Patients aged 12–75 years with CIU/CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with approved doses of H1 antihistamines were randomized (1:1:1:1) in a double-blind manner to subcutaneous omalizumab 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg or placebo every 4 weeks for 24 weeks followed by 16 weeks of follow-up. The primary end point was change from baseline in weekly itch severity score (ISS) at week 12. Among randomized patients (N=319: placebo n=80, omalizumab 75 mg n=78, 150 mg n=80, 300 mg n=81), 262 (82.1%) completed the study. Compared with placebo (n=80), mean weekly ISS was reduced from baseline to week 12 by an additional 2.96 points (95% confidence interval (CI): −4.71 to −1.21; P=0.0010), 2.95 points (95% CI: −4.72 to −1.18; P=0.0012), and 5.80 points (95% CI: −7.49 to −4.10; P<0.0001) in the omalizumab 75-mg (n=77), 150-mg (n=80), and 300-mg groups (n=81), respectively. The omalizumab 300-mg group met all nine secondary end points, including a significant decrease in the duration of time to reach minimally important difference response (⩾5-point decrease) in weekly ISS (P<0.0001) and higher percentages of patients with well-controlled symptoms (urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) ⩽6: 51.9% vs. 11.3% P<0.0001) and complete response (UAS7=0: 35.8% vs. 8.8% P<0.0001) versus placebo. During the 24-week treatment period, 2 (2.9%), 3 (3.4%), 0, and 4 (5.0%) patients in the omalizumab 75-mg, 150-mg, 300-mg, and placebo groups, respectively, experienced a serious adverse event. Omalizumab 300 mg administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks reduced weekly ISS and other symptom scores versus placebo in CIU/CSU patients

  2. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 20) of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the interaction

  3. Lack of contextual-word predictability during reading in patients with mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Gerardo; Manes, Facundo; Rotstein, Nora P; Colombo, Oscar; Mandolesi, Pablo; Politi, Luis E; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we analyzed the effect of contextual word predictability on the eye movement behavior of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to age-matched controls, by using the eyetracking technique and lineal mixed models. Twenty AD patients and 40 age-matched controls participated in the study. We first evaluated gaze duration during reading low and highly predictable sentences. AD patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to controls, both in sentences of low or high predictability. In controls, highly predictable sentences led to shorter gaze durations; by contrary, AD patients showed similar gaze durations in both types of sentences. Similarly, gaze duration in controls was affected by the cloze predictability of word N and N+1, whereas it was the same in AD patients. In contrast, the effects of word frequency and word length were similar in controls and AD patients. Our results imply that contextual-word predictability, whose processing is proposed to require memory retrieval, facilitated reading behavior in healthy subjects, but this facilitation was lost in early AD patients. This loss might reveal impairments in brain areas such as those corresponding to working memory, memory retrieval, and semantic memory functions that are already present at early stages of AD. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were still retained by AD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with early AD process well-defined words embedded in sentences of high and low predictability. Evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior might provide a useful tool for a more precise early diagnosis of AD.

  4. Diagnosis and management challenges in patients with mild haemophilia A and discrepant FVIII measurements.

    PubMed

    Trossaert, M; Lienhart, A; Nougier, C; Fretigny, M; Sigaud, M; Meunier, S; Fouassier, M; Ternisien, C; Negrier, C; Dargaud, Y

    2014-07-01

    Thirty per cent of patients with mild haemophilia A (MHA) present markedly different FVIII: C level when assayed by one-stage clotting and two-stage chromogenic assays. It is, therefore, a real clinical challenge to predict the individual bleeding risk of these patients. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the bleeding tendency of these patients with the results of a panel of phenotypic and genotypic tools. Thirty-six patients with MHA were included in this multicentre prospective clinical study. The severity of bleeding symptoms was evaluated using the ISTH/SSC score. FVIII:C levels were measured using an activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage FVIII assay (FVIII: C1) and three commercial chromogenic kits (FVIII:CR). FVIII antigen levels, thrombin generation measurement and FVIII gene mutation analysis were also performed. Our results showed that a one-stage FVIII: C assay cannot rule out the diagnosis of MHA, a combined use of FVIII:C1 with a FVIII:CR is suitable for detecting MHA. We observed that FVIII:CR results better reflected the clinical bleeding tendency of patients compared to FVIII:C1. We also observed a relationship between thrombin generation (TG) capacity and FVIII:CR of these patients. FVIII gene mutation analysis showed mutations previously reported in MHA patients with discrepant FVIII:C measurements, but with no predictive value of the individual bleeding phenotype of patients. Overall, we observed a relationship between chromogenic FVIII:C results, TG assay and bleeding tendency of patients with discrepant FVIII:C measurements, while FVIII:C1 was not well correlated with clinical bleeding phenotype in this particular population.

  5. Do patients with mild to moderate psoriasis really have a sedentary lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Demirel, Reha; Genc, Abdurrahman; Ucok, Kagan; Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Ozuguz, Pinar; Toktas, Muhsin; Sener, Umit; Karabacak, Hatice; Karaca, Semsettin

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare aerobic exercise capacity, daily physical activity, pulmonary functions, resting metabolic rate, and body composition parameters in patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. A total of 60 participants (30 [15 men, 15 women] patients with psoriasis, and 30 [15 men, 15 women] healthy controls) ranging in age from 22-57 were included in the study. Maximal aerobic capacity was determined by Astrand exercise protocol. Daily physical activity was measured with an accelerometer. Resting metabolic rate was determined with an indirect calorimeter. Pulmonary function tests were performed with a portable spirometer. Body composition was established with a bioelectric impedance analysis system. Skinfold thicknesses and body circumference measurements were carried out. Short Form 36 quality of life questionnaire was applied to all participants. In both genders, daily physical activity parameters were found to be higher in the psoriasis group compared to the control. Maximal aerobic capacity, resting metabolic rate, pulmonary function tests, body fatness, body fat distributions, and quality of life were not statistically different between patients with psoriasis and controls in males and females. We suggest that patients with psoriasis who do not have psoriatic arthritis or severe psoriasis are well in performing daily physical activities. In addition, we suggest that this lifestyle helped to prevent impairments of body fatness, body fat distributions, resting metabolic rate, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with mild to moderate psoriasis.

  6. Mental Rotation as an Indicator of Motor Representation in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bourrelier, Julien; Kubicki, Alexandre; Rouaud, Olivier; Crognier, Lionel; Mourey, France

    2015-01-01

    This internal representation of movement of part(s) of the body is involved during Implicit Motor Imagery tasks (IMI); the same representations are employed in the laterality judgment task. Few studies have looked at the consequences of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on the processes of motor preparation but none showed evidence of an alteration of action representation in patient with amnestic MCI. In the present study, the IMI task was used to assess the action representation abilities in MCI patients and healthy counterparts. A total of 24 elderly participants aged between 65 and 90 years old (12 women, 73.4 ± 6 years, mean ± S.D.) were recruited: 12 patients with MCI (MCI group) and 12 healthy aged adults (HAA group). The results showed that MCI patients have significantly a greater response time (RT) than HAA subjects only in IMI task and more precisely when performing their mental rotation at the challenging conditions. Furthermore, the IMI task related to the non-dominant hand induced a significant increase of RT only in MCI subjects. At the light of these results, we assume that MCI patients are able to engage themselves in IMI processes, still showing a compelling impairment of this mental ability across its complexity. PMID:26779010

  7. Mnemonic strategy training partially restores hippocampal activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Stilla, Randall F.; Giddens, Michelle; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits typify patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are generally attributed to medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Although the hippocampus is perhaps the most commonly studied neuroanatomical structure in these patients, there have been few attempts to identify rehabilitative interventions that facilitate its functioning. Here, we present results from a randomized, controlled, single-blind study in which patients with MCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) were randomized to either 3 sessions of mnemonic strategy training (MS) or a matched-exposure control group (XP). All participants underwent pre- and post-training fMRI scanning as they encoded and retrieved object-location associations. For the current report, fMRI analyses were restricted to the hippocampus, as defined anatomically. Before training, MCI patients showed reduced hippocampal activity during both encoding and retrieval, relative to HEC. Following training, the MCI MS group demonstrated increased activity during both encoding and retrieval. There were significant differences between the MCI MS and MCI XP groups during retrieval, especially within the right hippocampus. Thus, MS facilitated hippocampal functioning in a partially restorative manner. We conclude that cognitive rehabilitation techniques may help mitigate hippocampal dysfunction in MCI patients. PMID:22368035

  8. Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions. PMID:24348504

  9. Identification of progressive mild cognitive impairment patients using incomplete longitudinal MRI scans.

    PubMed

    Thung, Kim-Han; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-01

    Distinguishing progressive mild cognitive impairment (pMCI) from stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI) is critical for identification of patients who are at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), so that early treatment can be administered. In this paper, we propose a pMCI/sMCI classification framework that harnesses information available in longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which could be incomplete, to improve diagnostic accuracy. Volumetric features were first extracted from the baseline MRI scan and subsequent scans acquired after 6, 12, and 18 months. Dynamic features were then obtained using the 18th month scan as the reference and computing the ratios of feature differences for the earlier scans. Features that are linearly or non-linearly correlated with diagnostic labels are then selected using two elastic net sparse learning algorithms. Missing feature values due to the incomplete longitudinal data are imputed using a low-rank matrix completion method. Finally, based on the completed feature matrix, we build a multi-kernel support vector machine (mkSVM) to predict the diagnostic label of samples with unknown diagnostic statuses. Our evaluation indicates that a diagnosis accuracy as high as 78.2 % can be achieved when information from the longitudinal scans is used-6.6 % higher than the case using only the reference time point image. In other words, information provided by the longitudinal history of the disease improves diagnosis accuracy.

  10. Initial clinical experience with a novel vertebral augmentation system for treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures: A case series of 26 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat vertebral compression fractures although procedural polymethylmethacrylate cement leakage remains common. We report herein our initial experience with a novel vertebral augmentation technique designed to treat symptomatic vertebral osteoporotic fractures and osteolytic metastases with minimal cement extravasation. Methods Forty-two vertebral fractures were identified in 26 consecutive patients (mean age 74 ± 9 years). All patients were treated with a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation device (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Indications for surgery included recent (≤ 3 months) symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fracture (n = 34) and pathologic vertebral fractures (e.g. metabolic bone disease, myeloma, metastasis) (n = 8) located between T10 and S1. Patient outcomes were evaluated pre-treatment and at 2- and 6-month follow-up visits. Postoperative cement extravasation was assessed with computed tomography. Patient-reported back pain was quantified using an 11-point numeric scale. Back-specific functional disability was self-reported with the Oswestry Disability Index on a 0 to 100% scale. Results No cases of intraoperative hypotension, respiratory disturbance, neurological deterioration, infection, or death were observed. There were 2 (4.8%) levels where anterior cement leakage was visible radiographically in patients with osteolyses. No intracanal leakage was observed. Back pain scores improved 71% (p < 0.001) from pre-treatment to the 6-month follow-up. Back function improved 56% from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions The initial clinical experience with the Kiva® System demonstrated significant improvements in back pain and function with minimal and clinically insignificant procedural cement leakage. PMID:21939548

  11. Modulatory effects of acupuncture on brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ting-ting; Wang, Dan; Huang, Ju-ke; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Xu; Liang, Jiu-ping; Yin, Liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Jia, Xin-yan; Shi, Jiao; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hao-bo; Chen, Shang-jie

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture. The needles were either twirled at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints, including Sishencong (EX-HN1), Yintang (EX-HN3), Neiguan (PC6), Taixi (KI3), Fenglong (ST40), and Taichong (LR3), or at related sham acupoints at a depth of approximately 15 mm, an angle of ± 60°, and a rate of approximately 120 times per minute. Acupuncture was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks, five times per week, on weekdays. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that connections between cognition-related regions such as the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex increased after acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus acted as central brain hubs. Patients in the Tiaoshen Yizhi group exhibited improved cognitive performance after acupuncture. In the sham acupoint acupuncture group, connections between brain regions were dispersed, and we found no differences in cognitive function following the treatment. These results indicate that acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints can regulate brain networks by increasing connectivity between cognition-related regions, thereby improving cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  12. Non-Coronary Patients with Severe Chest Pain Show More Irrational Beliefs Compared to Patients with Mild Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Saeidi, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite providing insufficient medical evidence of the existence of a real cardiac condition, patients with non-coronary chest pain still interpret their pain incorrectly. The present study, therefore, sought to compare the irrational beliefs in non-coronary patients with mild chest pain against those with severe chest pain. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The statistical population comprised non-coronary patients who presented to the Heart Emergency Center of Kermanshah city, Iran. Using a matching method, 96 participants were selected and studied in two groups of 48. The instruments used were the Comorbidity Index, Brief Pain Index, and the Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (short-form). The multivariate analysis of variance, chi-square test, and t-test were used for data analysis. Results Controlling for the effects of age and comorbid conditions, the severity of three types of irrational beliefs, including emotional irresponsibility (P<0.001), hopelessness changes (P<0.001), and problem avoiding (P=0.002) was higher among patients with severe chest pain (according to effect level). However, in terms of demand for approval, no difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.180). Conclusion Non-coronary patients with severe chest pain showed a greater number of irrational beliefs in comparison to patients with mild pain. Irrational beliefs are common mental occurrences in patients with non-coronary chest pain, and they should be attended to by health professionals, especially in severe non-coronary chest pain. Further investigation to determine the association between irrational beliefs and non-coronary chest pain is necessary. PMID:26217482

  13. Symptomatic pheochromocytoma with normal urinary catecholamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zianni, Dimitra; Tzanela, Marinella; Klimopoulos, Serafim; Thalassinos, N C

    2004-01-01

    A 61-year old female presented with paroxysmal hypertension and a 4.5cm left adrenal mass on CT scan. Repeated measurements of 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines, total catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were within normal range. A further scintigraphic study with (131)I -metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) revealed selective concentration of the radiotracer, corresponding to the CT mass. After adequate preoperative treatment, successful surgical excision of the tumor was performed and the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a cystic pheochromocytoma with a 2cm solid tumor. On reevaluation three months later using (131)I-MIBG, no evidence of remaining or recurrent disease was found. The patient, off any antihypertensive medication, reported mild recurrent hypertension and panic attacks that were adequately controlled with antidepressants. This is a rare case of a symptomatic pheochromocytoma without elevated urine catecholamines and metanephrines. According to the literature, plasma free metanephrines would be the ideal test for biochemical detection of the tumor. However, in the event that they are not available and there is a high clinical suspicion for the presence of pheochromocytoma, as in our patient, we suggest performance of a functional nuclear medicine study, such as (131)I-MIBG, to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  14. CEREBRAL ATROPHY, APOLIPOPROTEIN E ε4, AND RATE OF DECLINE IN EVERYDAY FUNCTION AMONG PATIENTS WITH AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alosco, Michael L.; Jerskey, Beth A.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Ott, Brian R.; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) demonstrate decline in everyday function. In this study, we investigated whether whole brain atrophy and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are associated with the rate of functional decline in MCI. METHODS Participants were 164 healthy controls, 258 MCI patients, and 103 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), enrolled in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). They underwent brain MRI scans, APOE genotyping, and completed up to 6 biannual Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Random effects regressions were used to examine trajectories of decline in FAQ across diagnostic groups, and to test the effects of ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) and APOE genotype on FAQ decline among MCI patients. RESULTS Rate of decline in FAQ among MCI patients was intermediate between that of controls and mild AD patients. Patients with MCI who converted to mild AD declined faster than those who remained stable. Among MCI patients, increased VBR and possession of any APOE ε4 allele were associated with faster rate of decline in FAQ. In addition, there was a significant VBR by APOE ε4 interaction such that patients who were APOE ε4 positive and had increased atrophy experienced the fastest decline in FAQ. CONCLUSIONS Functional decline occurs in MCI, particularly among patients who progress to mild AD. Brain atrophy and APOE ε4 positivity are associated with such declines, and patients who have elevated brain atrophy and are APOE ε4 positive are at greatest risk of functional degradation. These findings highlight the value of genetic and volumetric MRI information as predictors of functional decline, and thus disease progression, in MCI. PMID:20813341

  15. Unspeakable motion: Selective action-verb impairments in Parkinson's disease patients without mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Lopera, Francisco; Pineda, David; Baena, Ana; Ospina, Paula; Alzate, Diana; Buriticá, Omar; Moreno, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Agustín; Cuetos, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show marked impairments in processing action verbs, and to a lesser extent, concrete (specially, manipulable) nouns. However, it is still unclear to what extent deficits in each of these categories are influenced by more general cognitive dysfunctions, and whether they are modulated by the words' implied motility. To examine these issues, we evaluated 49 non-demented PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers in an oral production task. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). Participants named pictures of actions varying in motion content (low and high) and of objects varying in manipulability (low and high). The PD-MCI group showed deficits across all four categories. However, PD-nMCI patients exhibited a selective difficulty for high-motion action verbs. This finding corroborates and refines previous results suggesting that disturbances of action-related lexico-semantic information in PD constitute a sui generis alteration manifested early in the course of the disease's physiopathology. Moreover, it suggests that the grounding of action verbs on motor circuits could depend on fine-grained intracategorical semantic distinctions.

  16. Mitochondrial Alterations in Peripheral Mononuclear Blood Cells from Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    PubMed

    Delbarba, A; Abate, G; Prandelli, C; Marziano, M; Buizza, L; Arce Varas, N; Novelli, A; Cuetos, F; Martinez, C; Lanni, C; Memo, M; Uberti, D

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidences of mitochondrial defects in AD peripheral cells are still inconclusive. Here, some mitochondrial-encoded and nuclear-encoded proteins, involved in maintaining the correct mitochondria machine, were investigated in terms of protein expression and enzymatic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients and healthy subjects. In addition mitochondrial DNA copy number was measured by real time PCR. We found some differences and some similarities between AD and MCI patients when compared with healthy subjects. For example, cytochrome C and cytochrome B were decreased in AD, while MCI showed only a statistical reduction of cytochrome C. On the other hand, both AD and MCI blood cells exhibited highly nitrated MnSOD, index of a prooxidant environment inside the mitochondria. TFAM, a regulator of mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, was decreased in both AD and MCI patients' blood cells. Moreover also the mitochondrial DNA amount was reduced in PBMCs from both patient groups. In conclusion these data confirmed peripheral mitochondria impairment in AD and demonstrated that TFAM and mtDNA amount reduction could be two features of early events occurring in AD pathogenesis.

  17. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cancer Clinical Trials: Measuring Symptomatic Adverse Events With the National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes Version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE).

    PubMed

    Kluetz, Paul G; Chingos, Diana T; Basch, Ethan M; Mitchell, Sandra A

    2016-01-01

    Systematic capture of the patient perspective can inform the development of new cancer therapies. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are commonly included in cancer clinical trials; however, there is heterogeneity in the constructs, measures, and analytic approaches that have been used making these endpoints challenging to interpret. There is renewed effort to identify rigorous methods to obtain high-quality and informative PRO data from cancer clinical trials. In this setting, PROs are used to address specific research objectives, and an important objective that spans the product development life cycle is the assessment of safety and tolerability. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Hematology and Oncology Products (OHOP) has identified symptomatic adverse events (AEs) as a central PRO concept, and a systematic assessment of patient-reported symptomatic AEs can provide data to complement clinician reporting. The National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) is being evaluated by multiple stakeholders, including the FDA, and is considered a promising tool to provide a standard yet flexible method to assess symptomatic AEs from the patient perspective. In this article, we briefly review the FDA OHOP's perspective on PROs in cancer trials submitted to the FDA and focus on the assessment of symptomatic AEs using PRO-CTCAE. We conclude by discussing further work that must be done to broaden the use of PRO-CTCAE as a method to provide patient-centered data that can complement existing safety and tolerability assessments across cancer clinical trials.

  18. Comparative evaluation of MRS and SPECT in prognostication of patients with mild to moderate head injury.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Sharma, Anurag; Sharma, Karamchand; Das, Lakshman

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have only been individually studied in patients with head injury. This study aimed to comparatively assess both in patients with mild to moderate head injury. Patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9-14 who underwent MRS and/or SPECT were evaluated in relation to various clinical factors and neurological outcome at 3months. There were 56 SPECT (Tc99m-ethylcysteinate dimer [ECD]) studies and 41 single voxel proton MRS performed in 53 patients, with 41 patients having both. Of the 41 who underwent MRS, 13 had a lower N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio, 14 had a higher choline (Cho)/Cr ratio, 19 were normal, and nine had bilateral MRS abnormalities. Of the 56 who underwent SPECT, 22 and 19 had severe and moderate hypoperfusion, respectively. Among those in Traumatic Coma Data Bank CT scan category 1 and 2, 50% had MRS abnormalities, whereas 64% had SPECT hypoperfusion, suggesting greater incremental validity of SPECT over MRS. In univariate analyses, GCS, moderate/severe hypoperfusion and bilateral SPECT changes were found to have significant association with unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 13.2, 15.9, and 4.4, and p values <0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively). Patients with lower NAA/Cr ratio in MRS had more unfavorable outcomes, however this was not significant. In multivariate analysis employing binary logistic regression, GCS and severe hypoperfusion on SPECT were noted to have significant association with unfavorable outcome, independent of age, CT scan category, and MRS abnormalities (p values=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). To conclude, ECD-SPECT seems to have greater sensitivity, incremental validity and prognostic value than single voxel proton MRS in select patients with head injury, with only severe hypoperfusion in SPECT significantly associated with unfavorable outcome independent of other confounding factors.

  19. Asymptomatic Mild Hyperperfusion for the Prediction of Clinical Outcome in Postoperative Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Manabu; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Mutoh, Tomoko; Totsune, Tomoko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the main causes of poor outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The early identification of DCI by noninvasive imaging modalities would provide valuable information of therapeutic intervention for improving the patient outcomes. We aimed to describe the clinical features of cerebral blood flow (CBF) data obtained from the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the risk period for DCI after SAH. Material/Methods Clinical data from 94 SAH patients who underwent surgical clipping of anterior circulation aneurysms were reviewed retrospectively. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT images were visually and semiquantitatively analyzed on days 7 and 14 after SAH. Results In all cases, the areas of hypoperfusion were found in the middle cerebral artery territories. By contrast, the areas of mild hyperperfusion were always detected on the surgical side, the prevalence which increased from days 7 (n=28; 30%) to 14 (n=48; 51%) without neurological defects. Univariate analysis revealed that the hyperperfusion on day 14 had a significant relationship with functional outcome at 3 months (P=0.04). Multivariate analysis including age, clinical SAH grade, DCI, and hyperperfusion on day 14 showed that DCI (P=0.004; odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02–0.48) and hyperperfusion on day 14 (P=0.002; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.40–4.29) were independently associated with functional outcome at 3 months. Conclusions Delayed mild hyperperfusion around the surgical site can predict good prognosis after SAH, although it may hinder the CBF diagnosis of focal ischemia attributable to DCI. PMID:28093563

  20. Risk Factors for Worsening of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients Admitted with Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhouxiang; Xu, Lubai; Wang, Xiangyu; Yang, Dinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for developing more severe pancreatitis, including moderately severe (MSAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), in patients admitted with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP). Material/Methods Patients admitted with MAP to our hospital from March 2013 to May 2016 were included and prospectively evaluated. Possible risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP were age, blood glucose level on admission, etiology, sex, Ranson score, amylase level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, serum calcium level, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), whether this was the first episode of AP, and method of administration of octreotide. The effects of variables for developing MSAP or SAP were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Mortality, hospital duration, and rate of ICU transfer of patients were compared between patients who developed MSAP or SAP and patients who did not. Results A total of 602 patients admitted with MAP were recruited into this study (256 men and 346 women). Seventy-four patients (12.3%) developed MSAP or SAP. According to univariate logistic regression analyses, the results indicated that there were 5 significant differences between patients who developed MSAP or SAP and those who did not: VFA (>100 cm2) (p=0.003), BMI (≥25 kg/m2) (p=0.001), Ranson score(p=0.004), APACHE-II (≥5) (p=0.001), and blood glucose level on admission (>11.1 mmol/L) (p=0.040). Further multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BMI (≥25 kg/m2) (p=0.005), APACHE-II (≥5) (p=0.001), and blood glucose level on admission (>11.1 mmol/L) (p=0.004) were independent risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP in patients admitted with MAP. Moreover, patients who developed MSAP or SAP had a mortality rate of 5.4%. Conclusions Significant risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP in patients admitted with MAP

  1. Risk Factors for Worsening of Acute Pancreatitis in Patients Admitted with Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhouxiang; Xu, Lubai; Wang, Xiangyu; Yang, Dinghua

    2017-02-26

    BACKGROUND The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for developing more severe pancreatitis, including moderately severe (MSAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), in patients admitted with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients admitted with MAP to our hospital from March 2013 to May 2016 were included and prospectively evaluated. Possible risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP were age, blood glucose level on admission, etiology, sex, Ranson score, amylase level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, serum calcium level, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), whether this was the first episode of AP, and method of administration of octreotide. The effects of variables for developing MSAP or SAP were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Mortality, hospital duration, and rate of ICU transfer of patients were compared between patients who developed MSAP or SAP and patients who did not. RESULTS A total of 602 patients admitted with MAP were recruited into this study (256 men and 346 women). Seventy-four patients (12.3%) developed MSAP or SAP. According to univariate logistic regression analyses, the results indicated that there were 5 significant differences between patients who developed MSAP or SAP and those who did not: VFA (>100 cm²) (p=0.003), BMI (≥25 kg/m²) (p=0.001), Ranson score(p=0.004), APACHE-II (≥5) (p=0.001), and blood glucose level on admission (>11.1 mmol/L) (p=0.040). Further multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BMI (≥25 kg/m²) (p=0.005), APACHE-II (≥5) (p=0.001), and blood glucose level on admission (>11.1 mmol/L) (p=0.004) were independent risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP in patients admitted with MAP. Moreover, patients who developed MSAP or SAP had a mortality rate of 5.4%. CONCLUSIONS Significant risk factors for developing MSAP or SAP in patients admitted

  2. Homovanillic acid in CSF of mild stage Parkinson's disease patients correlates with motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Alessandro; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Olivola, Enrica; Galati, Salvatore; Cerroni, Rocco; D'Angelo, Vincenza; Hainsworth, Atticus H; Saviozzi, Valentina; Fedele, Ernesto; Liguori, Claudio

    2017-05-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), several efforts have been spent in order to find biochemical parameters able to identify the progression of the pathological processes at the basis of the disease. It is already known that advanced PD patients manifesting dyskinesia are featured by the high homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine (DA) ratio, suggesting the increased turnover of DA in these patients. Less clear is whether similar changes affect mild and moderate stages of the disease (between 1 and 2.5 of Hoehn & Yahr -H&Y- stage). Hence, here we tested whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of DA and its major metabolites, either 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) or HVA, correlate with motor performance in mild and moderate PD patients. CSF samples were collected after 2 days of anti-PD drugs washout, via lumbar puncture (LP) performed 130 min following administration of oral levodopa (LD) dose (200 mg). LP timing was determined in light of our previous tests clarifying that 2 h after oral LD administration CSF DA concentration reaches a plateau, which was un-respective of PD stage or duration. DA, DOPAC and HVA were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography in a group of 19 patients, distributed in two groups on the basis of the H&Y stage with a cut-off of 1.5. In these PD patients, HVA was correlated with DOPAC (R = 0,56, p < 0,01) and both HVA and DOPAC CSF levels increased in parallel with the motor impairment. More importantly, HVA correlated with motor impairment measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Score -III (UPDRS) (R = 0.61; p < 0.0001). The present findings showed the early alteration of the DA pre-synaptic machinery, as documented by the progressive increase of CSF HVA concentrations, which also correlated with PD motor impairment. Therefore, we suggest the potential use of measuring the CSF HVA level as a possible biomarker of PD stage changes in order to monitor the effectiveness of PD-modifying pharmacological therapies.

  3. Clinical aspects of symptomatic hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas; Höybye, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia (HN) is a common condition, with a large number of etiologies and a complicated treatment. Although chronic HN has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome, sodium-increasing treatments in chronic stable and asymptomatic HN have not proven to increase life expectancy. For symptomatic HN, in contrast, the necessity for urgent treatment has broadly been accepted to avoid the development of fatal cerebral edema. On the other hand, a too rapid increase of serum sodium in chronic HN may result in cerebral damage due to osmotic demyelinisation. Recently, administration of hypertonic saline bolus has been recommended as first-line treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe symptomatic HN. This approach is easy to memorize and holds the potential to greatly facilitate the initial treatment of symptomatic HN. First-line treatment of chronic HN is fluid restriction and if ineffective treatment with tolvaptan or in some patients other agents should be considered. A number of recommendations and guidelines have been published on HN. In the present review, the management of patients with HN in relation to everyday clinical practice is summarized with focus on the acute management. PMID:27609587

  4. SEARCH 8Es: A novel point of care ultrasound protocol for patients with chest pain, dyspnea or symptomatic hypotension in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jung Hwan; Jeon, Jin; Toh, Hong-Chuen; Noble, Vicki Elizabeth; Kim, Jun Su; Kim, Young Sik; Do, Han Ho; Ha, Young Rock

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate a problem-oriented focused torso bedside ultrasound protocol termed “Sonographic Evaluation of Aetiology for Respiratory difficulty, Chest pain, and/or Hypotension” (SEARCH 8Es) for its ability to narrow differential diagnoses and increase physicians’ diagnostic confidence, and its diagnostic accuracy, for patients presenting with dyspnea, chest pain, or symptomatic hypotension. Methods This single-center prospective observational study was conducted over 12 months in an emergency department and included 308 patients (184 men and 124 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 19.1 years) with emergent cardiopulmonary symptoms. The paired t-test was used to compare the number of differential diagnoses and physician’s level of confidence before and after SEARCH 8Es. The overall accuracy of the SEARCH 8Es protocol in differentiating 13 diagnostic entities was evaluated based on concordance (kappa coefficient) with the diagnosis made by the inpatient specialists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Results SEARCH 8Es narrows the number of differential diagnoses (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.7; p < 0.001) and improves physicians’ diagnostic confidence (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9; p < 0.001) significantly. The overall kappa coefficient value was 0.870 (p < 0.001), with the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value at 90.9%, 99.0%, 89.7%, and 99.0%, respectively. Conclusion The SEARCH 8Es protocol helps emergency physicians to narrow the differential diagnoses, increase diagnostic confidence and provide accurate assessment of patients with dyspnea, chest pain, or symptomatic hypotension. PMID:28355246

  5. Disruptions in Resting State Functional Connectivity and Cerebral Blood Flow in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sours, Chandler; Zhuo, Jiachen; Roys, Steven; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanthan; Gullapalli, Rao P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often occult to conventional imaging techniques. However, there is growing evidence that mTBI patients who lack evidence of structural intracranial injury may develop post-concussive syndrome (PCS). We investigated longitudinal alterations in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in brain networks in a population of 28 patients compared to 28 matched control participants. Rs-FC and cerebral blood flow (CBF) within the nodes of the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Task Positive Network (TPN) were assessed at three time points including acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages following mTBI. Participants received the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) to assess cognitive performance. Main findings indicate that despite normalized cognitive performance, chronic mTBI patients demonstrate increased rs-FC between the DMN and regions associated with the salience network (SN) and TPN compared to the control populations, as well as reduced strength of rs-FC within the DMN at the acute stage of injury. In addition, chronic mTBI patients demonstrate an imbalance in the ratio of CBF between nodes of the DMN and TPN. Furthermore, preliminary exploratory analysis suggests that compared to those without chronic PCS, patients with chronic PCS reveal an imbalance in the ratio of CBF between the DMN nodes and TPN nodes across multiple stages of recovery. Findings suggest that the altered network perfusion with the associated changes in rs-FC may be a possible predictor of which mTBI patients will develop chronic PCS. PMID:26241476

  6. Factor VIII mutation and desmopressin-responsiveness in 62 patients with mild haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Nance, D; Fletcher, S N; Bolgiano, D C; Thompson, A R; Josephson, N C; Konkle, B A

    2013-09-01

    Utilization of the synthetic vasopressin analogue (1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, DDAVP) in treatment of mild haemophilia A (MHA, specific clotting factor VIII activity level 0.05-0.4 IU mL(-1) ) is convenient and effective for many but not all patients. Genetic testing for patients with MHA is increasingly recognized as providing valuable information for patient care beyond informing reproductive decisions, and as more patients are genotyped, mutation data can be utilized to individualize treatment decisions. To determine if genetic information informs response to DDAVP, a retrospective chart review was performed under Institutional Review Board approval to extract patient data with MHA, genetic mutation results, and response to DDAVP challenge. 62 patients met inclusion criteria. Complete responses (C) presented in mean value IU mL(-1) (range), were recorded for 32 of 62(52%) subjects: pre 0.19(0.04-0.45) and post 0.78(0.5-1.95); partial responses (P) were recorded for 15 of 62(24%) subjects: pre 0.1(0.06-0.15) and post 0.4(0.3-0.47); responses that were not clinically significant (N) were recorded for 15 of 62(24%) subjects: pre 0.17(0.02-0.34) and post 0.25(0.03-0.44). Subjects (related and unrelated) with the same mutation showed a trend towards a similar response to DDAVP. Eight genotypes were common to two or more subjects (n = 26). Two genotypes were concordant in all subjects [p.Ser2192Ile n = 3(C), p.Ala2220Pro n = 2(P)]. Of mutations in the C1 or C2 domains, 13 of 15(87%) subjects responded to DDAVP [C = 9(60%); P = 4(27%); n = 2(13%)]. Baseline FVIII:C did not predict magnitude of response to DDAVP. Genetic mutation results can assist with predicting DDAVP responsiveness, but baseline FVIII:C may not.

  7. Chewing gum may be an effective complementary therapy in patients with mild to moderate depression.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Furkan Muhammed; Aydın, Nazan; Satı-Kırkan, Tülay

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that chewing gum may relieve stress and depression. There have, however, not been a significant number of studies on clinical usage of chewing gum. In the present study, 30 patients with mild to moderate depression were given either medication combined with chewing gum, or medication only, for 6 weeks. Turkish adaptation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) was used to measure depression levels. Assessments were conducted by the same physician both before, and after treatment. The physician who was responsible for the assessment was not aware of the group allocation. Changes in main HAM-D scores and each item were analyzed by independent samples t test and Chi-Square test, respectively. Those patients who were administrated chewing gum responded better to the treatment than patients who took medication only. The most beneficial effect of chewing gum was observed on the gastrointestinal symptoms, e.g. loss of appetite, and flatulence among others. These results indicate that chewing gum may not be directly effective on depressed mood; however, it may reduce the symptoms originating from depression.

  8. A multi-contrast MRI study of microstructural brain damage in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Granziera, C.; Daducci, A.; Donati, A.; Bonnier, G.; Romascano, D.; Roche, A.; Bach Cuadra, M.; Schmitter, D.; Klöppel, S.; Meuli, R.; von Gunten, A.; Krueger, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate pathological mechanisms underlying brain tissue alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using multi-contrast 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Forty-two MCI patients and 77 healthy controls (HC) underwent T1/T2* relaxometry as well as Magnetization Transfer (MT) MRI. Between-groups comparisons in MRI metrics were performed using permutation-based tests. Using MRI data, a generalized linear model (GLM) was computed to predict clinical performance and a support-vector machine (SVM) classification was used to classify MCI and HC subjects. Results Multi-parametric MRI data showed microstructural brain alterations in MCI patients vs HC that might be interpreted as: (i) a broad loss of myelin/cellular proteins and tissue microstructure in the hippocampus (p ≤ 0.01) and global white matter (p < 0.05); and (ii) iron accumulation in the pallidus nucleus (p ≤ 0.05). MRI metrics accurately predicted memory and executive performances in patients (p ≤ 0.005). SVM classification reached an accuracy of 75% to separate MCI and HC, and performed best using both volumes and T1/T2*/MT metrics. Conclusion Multi-contrast MRI appears to be a promising approach to infer pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain tissue alterations in MCI. Likewise, parametric MRI data provide powerful correlates of cognitive deficits and improve automatic disease classification based on morphometric features. PMID:26236628

  9. Dual task-related gait changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nascimbeni, Alberto; Caruso, Shiva; Salatino, Adriana; Carenza, Marinella; Rigano, Marta; Raviolo, Andrea; Ricci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) entails a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s dementia. In MCI patients gait impairment, which increases the risk of falls and institutionalization, is an early motor sign. A dual-task (DT) paradigm might improve the observation of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate motor-cognitive interference in a sample of MCI patients and a group of matched healthy controls submitted to DT conditions. To this end, three different cognitive tasks were used: counting backwards, short story recall and a phonemic fluency task. Overall, the patients, compared with the healthy participants, performed worse on the cognitive tasks and showed some degree of gait impairment. In the DT conditions, both groups showed significant gait disruption independently of the concomitant cognitive task. As regards cognitive performance, counting backwards worsened during dual tasking, while short story recall improved in both groups. Overall, our results suggest that the use of a DT paradigm does not improve the early detection of MCI. Our findings of enhanced story recall during walking might have interesting implications for rehabilitation of memory function. PMID:26214028

  10. The effects of nebivolol on fibrinolytic parameters in mild and moderate hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Tarighi, Bahman; Kurum, Turhan; Demir, Muzaffer; Azcan, Sen Nur

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nebivolol (5 mg daily) on plasma levels of hemostatic and fibrinolytic endothelial function markers in mild or moderate hypertensive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five (22 female, 13 male; mean ± SD 54.7±11.3 years of age) mild and moderate hypertensive patients were included the study. The mean systolic blood pressure [BP] was 160 mmHg (range 150 mmHg to 165 mmHg) and the mean diastolic BP was 100 mmHg (range 90 mmHg to 100 mmHg). Plasma tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA-Ag), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen (PAI-1-Ag), PAI-1 activity, tPA-Ag/PAI-1-Ag index, fibrinogen and euglobulin lysis time were determined before and after two months of therapy. tPA-Ag and PAI-Ag levels were measured by ELISA. After this period, treatment with nebivolol (5 mg/day) in all patients was associated with a significant decrease in systolic BP and diastolic BP (P<0.001 for each), heart rate (P<0.01), fibrinogen (P<0.005) and euglobulin lysis time (P<0.01). The tPA-Ag and tPA-Ag/PAI-1-Ag index levels were increased significantly (P<0.001 for each) in all patients, but the PAI-1-Ag (P>0.05) and PAI-1 activity (P>0.05) did not show significant change. In the present study, there was no correlation between decreases in arterial BP and decreases in fibrinolytic parameters (P>0.05), but there was a positive, statistically significant correlation between fibrinogen and body mass index (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that, compared with no treatment, a two-month treatment trial with nebivolol was associated with a more favourable modification of hemostatic and fibrinolytic status in addition to antihypertensive effects. PMID:17593991

  11. Injury of the Ascending Reticular Activating System in Patients With Fatigue and Hypersomnia Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on patients with post-traumatic fatigue and hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower portion of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) between the pontine reticular formation (RF) and the intralaminar thalamic nucleus (ILN) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Two patients with mild TBI resulting from a car accident were enrolled in this study. Patient 1 was a 51-year-old woman showed abnormalities as 6.9 (cut off: 3.7 points) and 18 (cut off: 10) on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale at 11 months after onset. Patient 2 was a 64-year-old woman who revealed abnormalities on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale with 6.8 and 19 at 3 months after onset. In both patients, the upper ARAS in which the neural connectivity of the ILN to the cerebral cortex did not show significant abnormalities. However, we observed the narrowing of the left dorsal lower ARAS between the pontine RF and the ILN in both patients and the tearing (patient 1) and narrowing (patient 2) of the left ventral lower ARAS between the pontine RF and the hypothalamus. Injuries of the dorsal and ventral lower ARAS were demonstrated in patients with fatigue and hypersomnia following mild TBI. We believe that these injuries of the ARAS might be a pathogenetic mechanism of fatigue and hypersomnia in patients with TBI. PMID:26871783

  12. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis.

    PubMed

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-10-31

    BACKGROUND Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9-1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. CASE REPORT An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate mid-thoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. CONCLUSIONS Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program.

  13. A Low Vision Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Potter, Guy; McConnell, Eleanor; Tripp, Fay; Sanders, Linda L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Cousins, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design and pilot test a low vision rehabilitation program for patients with macular disease and cognitive deficits. Methods The Memory or Reasoning Enhanced Low Vision Rehabilitation (MORE-LVR) program was created by a team representing optometry, occupational therapy, ophthalmology, neuropsychology, and geriatrics. Key components of MORE-LVR are: 1) repetitive training with a therapist twice weekly over a 6-week period, 2) simplified training experience addressing no more than three individualized goals in a minimally distracting environment, 3) involvement of an informal companion (friend or family member). Eligible patients were recruited from an LVR clinic; measures were compared before and after the 6 week program. Results Twelve non-demented patients (mean age 84.5 years, 75% female) who screened positive for cognitive deficits completed the MORE-LVR intervention. Participants demonstrated improved scores on the National Eye Institute’s Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) composite score (47.2±16.3 to 54.8±13.8, p=0.01) and near activities score (21.5±14.0 to 41.0±23.1, p=0.02), timed performance measures (writing a grocery list [p=0.03], filling in a crossword puzzle answer [p=0.003]), a score indicating satisfaction with independence (p=0.05), and logical memory (p=0.02). All patients and companions reported progress toward at least one individualized goal; >70% reported progress toward all three goals. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates feasibility of an LVR program for macular disease patients with mild cognitive deficits. Participants demonstrated improvements in vision-related function and cognitive measures and expressed high satisfaction. Future work is needed to determine if MORE-LVR is superior to usual outpatient LVR for persons with co-existing visual and cognitive impairments. PMID:23619914

  14. 2-year postoperative evaluation of a patient with a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect repaired with particulated juvenile cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Kevin F; Daner, William; Yao, Jian Q

    2010-06-01

    This case report describes the early results of a 36-year-old man who underwent repair of a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect with transplanted particulated juvenile articular cartilage. At 2 years postoperatively, the patient has experienced substantial clinical improvement in both pain and function when evaluated with both International Knee Documentation Committee subjective evaluation and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score outcome measures. Two-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates fill of the defect with repair tissue and near complete resolution of preoperative subchondral bone edema. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to report clinical results of this new technique at 2 years postoperatively.

  15. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, E; Christoulas, D; Kastritis, E; Bagratuni, T; Gavriatopoulou, M; Roussou, M; Papatheodorou, A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, E; Kanellias, N; Liakou, C; Panagiotidis, I; Migkou, M; Kokkoris, P; Moulopoulos, L A; Dimopoulos, M A

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. PMID:27716740

  16. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiong; Jiang, Biao; Huang, Xian-Hong; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities. Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system, such as English. However, these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems. The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients. The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Methods: In this study, we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients, 14 patients with a-MCI, and 16 elderly healthy controls. We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Results: Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese, writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD. The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline, both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence. Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups. The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P = 0.024) and control group (P = 0.018). In addition, the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P = 0.013) and a-MCI groups (P = 0.037) than that of control group. However, errors such as totally no response, visuospatial impairment, paragraph agraphia, ideograph, and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group. Besides, we also found a high occurrence rate of

  17. Prognosis after surgical replacement with a bioprosthetic aortic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis: systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Gordon H; O’Brien, Kathleen; Bain, Eva; Stein, Madeleine; Bhagra, Sai; Sit, Daegan; Kamran, Rakhshan; Chang, Yaping; Devji, Tahira; Mir, Hassan; Manja, Veena; Schofield, Toni; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Agoritsas, Thomas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Otto, Catherine M; Vandvik, Per O

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of survival, stroke, atrial fibrillation, structural valve deterioration, and length of hospital stay after surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) with a bioprosthetic valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, PubMed (non-Medline records only), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane CENTRAL from 2002 to June 2016. Study selection Eligible observational studies followed patients after SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve for at least two years. Methods Reviewers, independently and in duplicate, evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias for patient important outcomes. We used the GRADE system to quantify absolute effects and quality of evidence. Published survival curves provided data for survival and freedom from structural valve deterioration, and random effect models provided the framework for estimates of pooled incidence rates of stroke, atrial fibrillation, and length of hospital stay. Results In patients undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve, median survival was 16 years in those aged 65 or less, 12 years in those aged 65 to 75, seven years in those aged 75 to 85, and six years in those aged more than 85. The incidence rate of stroke was 0.25 per 100 patient years (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.54) and atrial fibrillation 2.90 per 100 patient years (1.78 to 4.79). Post-SAVR, freedom from structural valve deterioration was 94.0% at 10 years, 81.7% at 15 years, and 52% at 20 years, and mean length of hospital stay was 12 days (95% confidence interval 9 to 15). Conclusion Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing SAVR with a bioprosthetic valve can expect only slightly lower survival than those without aortic stenosis, and a low incidence of stroke and, up to 10 years, of structural valve deterioration. The rate of deterioration

  18. Efficacy of desloratadine, 5 mg, compared with fexofenadine, 180 mg, in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, William E; Lumry, William R; Meltzer, Eli O; Pearlman, David S

    2006-01-01

    This is the first U.S.-based study to compare efficacy and safety of desloratadine with fexofenadine in subjects with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). In this double-blind study, subjects were randomized to desloratadine, 5 mg (n = 290),fexofenadine, 180 mg (n = 288), or placebo (n = 144) once daily for 15 days. Primary end point was mean change from baseline to study end in morning instantaneous total symptom score (AM NOW TSS) excluding congestion. Secondary measures included change from baseline in the morning/evening reflective TSS (AM/PM PRIOR TSS) excluding congestion, AM NOW individual symptom score (AM NOW ISS) including congestion, and the AM/PM PRIOR ISS including congestion. Subjects self-evaluated their symptoms on a five-point scale. Mean AM NOW TSSs were significantly reduced from baseline at day 15 with desloratadine (p = 0.006) and fexofenadine (p = 0.024) versus placebo. Desloratadine and fexofenadine were not statistically different (p = 0.491); the upper limit of the 95% CI for desloratadine to fexofenadine (0.259) was within the prespecified noninferiority margin of 0.7 U. Decrease in mean AM/PM PRIOR TSS excluding congestion was comparable between desloratadine and fexofenadine (p = 0.405; CI = 0.221) but was significantly greater with both active treatments versus placebo (desloratadine, p < 0.001;fexofenadine, p = 0.003). Desloratadine and fexofenadine provided greater reduction in the AM NOW ISS and AM/PM PRIOR ISS (both including congestion) versus placebo; reductions were comparable between active treatments. All treatments were well tolerated. Desloratadine, 5 mg, and fexofenadine, 180 mg, provide comparable efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of SAR. Both treatments are significantly more effective than placebo.

  19. In vivo bone tunnel remodeling in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction: a retrospective comparison of articular and extra-articular fixation

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Dominic T.; Rasch, Helmut; Hirschmann, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background there is only a paucity of studies dealing with bone remodeling within the tunnels after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tendon graft type and surgical fixation technique on bone tunnel remodeling in patients with symptomatic knees after ACL reconstruction. Methods in a retrospective study 99mTc-HDP bone tracer uptake (BTU) in SPECT/CT of 57 knees with symptoms of pain and/or instability after ACL reconstruction was investigated. All 57 knees were subdivided according their anatomy (femur and tibia), fixation (articular versus extra-articular fixation) and graft types into eight groups: femoral-articular versus extra-articular fixation using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and hamstring autografts; tibial-articular versus extra-articular fixation using patellar tendon and hamstring autografts; BTU grading for each area of the localisation scheme were recorded. Tunnel diameter and length was measured in the CT scans. Results BTU was higher for the articular fixation in the femur and for the extra-articular fixation in the tibial tunnel. Patellar tendon graft fixation showed a significantly higher BTU in the superior-lateral and posterior-central area of the tibia, meaning the areas of the tibial tunnel near the entrance into the joint. Tunnel enlargement correlated significantly with increased BTU (p<0.05). Conclusion assessment of in vivo bone tunnel remodelling in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction revealed different patterns of BTU with regards to graft and fixation method. PMID:26958543

  20. Proximal Arterial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Low NIHSS Scores Should Not Be Considered as Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Chang, Jane; Lee, Ji Sung; Choi, Kang-Ho; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated acute mild stroke patients have substantial 90-day disability rates and worse outcomes than those who are treated with thrombolysis. There is little information regarding which patients with acute mild stroke will benefit from thrombolysis. We sought to investigate factors that are associated with early neurological deterioration (END) and poor prognosis in patients with acute mild stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutively registered patients with acute mild stroke (NIHSS ≤3) at our tertiary stroke center between October 2008 and December 2011. END was defined as an increase in NIHSS ≥2 points between hospital days 0 and 5. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–1 at 90 days post-stroke were defined as favorable outcomes. Results A total of 378 (mean age, 65.9±13.0 years) patients were included in this study. END occurred in 55 patients (14.6%). IV-thrombolysis was performed in only 9 patients. Symptomatic arterial occlusion on the initial MRA was independently associated with END (OR, 2.206; 95% CI, 1.219–3.994; p = 0.009) by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 119 patients with symptomatic arterial occlusion, ICA occlusion was independently associated with END (OR, 8.606; 95% CI, 2.312–32.043; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that symptomatic arterial occlusion may be an important predictor of END in patients with acute mild stroke. It may therefore be important to consider that acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic arterial occlusion and low NIHSS scores may not represent mild stroke in acute periods. PMID:23976971

  1. Predictive value of von Willebrand factor for adverse clinical outcome in hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Iida, M; Nihei, M; Yamazaki, M; Sawaguchi, M; Honjo, H; Kodama, I; Kamiya, K

    2008-04-01

    Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of endothelial dysfunction/damage, are elevated in high-risk hypertensive patients and in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR). Patients with mild-to-moderate AR, frequently detected in hypertensive elderly, have additional left ventricular morphological and functional dysfunctions. We hypothesized that hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate AR may have enhanced endothelial and/or left ventricular dysfunctions that may lead to a deteriorated prognosis. We measured vWF, prothrombin F1+2 (F 1+2) as a marker of thrombin generation, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in 104 hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate AR and 66 hypertensive patients without AR. The left ventricular diameter at systole (LVDs) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVWT) were determined by echocardiography and indexed by body surface area (LVDs/BSA and LVWT/BSA). VWF (median, interquartile range (IQR) 154, 120-196%) and BNP (34.7 pg ml(-1), 15-65%) levels were greater in patients with AR than in those without AR (135, 98-175% and 20, 10.3-49 pg ml(-1)). All patients were prospectively followed up for cardiac events during the period of median 43 months (IQR 31-81). Patients with AR had an increased risk of cardiac events (regression ratio (RR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.87) when compared to those without AR. A multivariate Cox hazard analysis indicated that log vWF (RR 4.93) and log BNP (RR 1.9) were independent predictors in patients with AR. VWF was an independent predictor of clinical outcome in hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate AR.

  2. An fMRI study of neural pathways following acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Wang, Hu; Zhong, Chongguang; You, Youbo; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In the current study, we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to explore the causal interactions of brain networks involving acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The fMRI experiment was performed with two different paradigms: namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA) at acupoint KI3. Results demonstrated that deep acupuncture could modulate the abnormal regions in MCI group. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. This may relate to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. However, the most significant causal interactions were found in the sensorimotor regions in HC group. This may because acupuncture has a greater modulatory effect on patients with a pathological imbalance. This paper provides the preliminary neurophysiological evidence for the potential efficacy effect of acupuncture on MCI.

  3. Clinical features and biomarkers of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Matthew T; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2015-05-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the incidence and potential long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and young adults. While parents, school systems, and athletic programs are clamoring for evidence-based guidelines, the field remains primitive in understanding the factors resulting in a spectrum of individual outcomes, most of which are complete, but some of which are not. In this article, we discuss the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, course, and outcomes of mTBI, with a focus on the pediatric population as the context for reviewing the mechanisms and pathophysiology mediating, and biomarkers reflective of, more significant concussion-induced brain injury. Our goal is to present a general overview of the features of mTBI in the pediatric population in order to provide a conceptual model for pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. This model emphasizes the importance of establishing actionable, noninvasive biomarkers that are reflective of brain injury and that may identify those pediatric patients who can benefit from earlier and more aggressive interventions. We will focus on the specific features of mTBI in pediatric patients; although given the relative lack of research in the pediatric population, we will also extrapolate from research on adults.

  4. Study on EEG power and coherence in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory task.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng-yan

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) power and coherence at rest and during a working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-five patients (17 males, 18 females; 52-71 years old) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls (17 males, 17 females; 51-63 years old) were recruited in the present study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 35 patients with MCI and 34 normal controls revealed that the scores of MCI patients did not differ significantly from those of normal controls (P>0.05). Then, EEGs at rest and during working memory task with three levels of working memory load were recorded. The EEG power was computed over 10 channels: right and left frontal (F3, F4), central (C3, C4), parietal (P3, P4), temporal (T5, T6) and occipital (O1, O2); inter-hemispheric coherences were computed from five electrode pairs of F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6 and O1-O2 for delta (1.0-3.5 Hz), theta (4.0-7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (8.0-10.0 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5 -13.0 Hz), beta-1 (13.5-18.0 Hz) and beta-2 (18.5-30.0 Hz) frequency bands. All values of the EEG power of MCI patients were found to be higher than those of normal controls at rest and during working memory tasks. Furthermore, the values of EEG power in the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands of patients with MCI were significantly high (P<0.05) in comparison with those of normal controls. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the EEG powers and MMSE scores. In addition, during working memory tasks, the EEG coherences in all bands were significantly higher in the MCI group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in EEG coherences between two groups at rest. These findings comprise evidence that MCI patients have higher EEG power at rest, and higher EEG power and coherence during working conditions. It suggests that MCI may be associated with compensatory processes at rest and during working

  5. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in employable patients after acute coronary event in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Annett; Heidler, Maria-Dorothea; Haubold, Kathrin; Schikora, Martin; Reibis, Rona; Wegscheider, Karl; Jöbges, Michael; Völler, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adequate cognitive function in patients is a prerequisite for successful implementation of patient education and lifestyle coping in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. Although the association between cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairments (CIs) is well known, the prevalence particularly of mild CI in CR and the characteristics of affected patients have been insufficiently investigated so far. Methods In this prospective observational study, 496 patients (54.5 ± 6.2 years, 79.8% men) with coronary artery disease following an acute coronary event (ACE) were analyzed. Patients were enrolled within 14 days of discharge from the hospital in a 3-week inpatient CR program. Patients were tested for CI using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) upon admission to and discharge from CR. Additionally, sociodemographic, clinical, and physiological variables were documented. The data were analyzed descriptively and in a multivariate stepwise backward elimination regression model with respect to CI. Results At admission to CR, the CI (MoCA score < 26) was determined in 182 patients (36.7%). Significant differences between CI and no CI groups were identified, and CI group was associated with high prevalence of smoking (65.9 vs 56.7%, P = 0.046), heavy (physically demanding) workloads (26.4 vs 17.8%, P < 0.001), sick leave longer than 1 month prior to CR (28.6 vs 18.5%, P = 0.026), reduced exercise capacity (102.5 vs 118.8 W, P = 0.006), and a shorter 6-min walking distance (401.7 vs 421.3 m, P = 0.021) compared to no CI group. The age- and education-adjusted model showed positive associations with CI only for sick leave more than 1 month prior to ACE (odds ratio [OR] 1.673, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.79; P = 0.03) and heavy workloads (OR 2.18, 95% confidence interval 1.42–3.36; P < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of CI in CR was considerably high, affecting more than one-third of cardiac patients. Besides age and education

  6. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patients than controls. In MCI subjects, adiponectin level was negatively correlated with leptin, IL-1 β levels and BMI. Leptin concentration was correlated with IL-1 β level. Univariate logistic regression models revealed that the factors which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with T2DM were higher levels of HbA1c, leptin, IL-1 β and triglycerides, as well as lower levels of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similarly, previous CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, hypoglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, increased number of co-morbidities, older age, fewer years of formal education were found to be associated with MCI. The multivariable model indicated fewer years of formal education, previous CVD, hypertension, increased number of co-morbidities, higher HbA1c and IL-1 β levels and lower adiponectin level. Elderly diabetic patients with MCI have higher levels of leptin and IL-1 β and lower levels of adiponectin. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these markers in the progression to dementia.

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Trial of Ipilimumab Versus Placebo in Asymptomatic or Minimally Symptomatic Patients With Metastatic Chemotherapy-Naive Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Beer, Tomasz M; Kwon, Eugene D; Drake, Charles G; Fizazi, Karim; Logothetis, Christopher; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Ganju, Vinod; Polikoff, Jonathan; Saad, Fred; Humanski, Piotr; Piulats, Josep M; Gonzalez Mella, Pablo; Ng, Siobhan S; Jaeger, Dirk; Parnis, Francis X; Franke, Fabio A; Puente, Javier; Carvajal, Roman; Sengeløv, Lisa; McHenry, M Brent; Varma, Arvind; van den Eertwegh, Alfonsus J; Gerritsen, Winald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ipilimumab increases antitumor T-cell responses by binding to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. We evaluated treatment with ipilimumab in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without visceral metastases. Patients and Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, phase III trial, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to four doses. Ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo maintenance therapy was administered to nonprogressing patients every 3 months. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Four hundred patients were randomly assigned to ipilimumab and 202 to placebo; 399 were treated with ipilimumab and 199 with placebo. Median OS was 28.7 months (95% CI, 24.5 to 32.5 months) in the ipilimumab arm versus 29.7 months (95% CI, 26.1 to 34.2 months) in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95.87% CI, 0.88 to 1.39; P = .3667). Median progression-free survival was 5.6 months in the ipilimumab arm versus 3.8 with placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95.87% CI, 0.55 to 0.81). Exploratory analyses showed a higher prostate-specific antigen response rate with ipilimumab (23%) than with placebo (8%). Diarrhea (15%) was the only grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse event (AE) reported in ≥ 10% of ipilimumab-treated patients. Nine (2%) deaths occurred in the ipilimumab arm due to treatment-related AEs; no deaths occurred in the placebo arm. Immune-related grade 3 to 4 AEs occurred in 31% and 2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion Ipilimumab did not improve OS in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The observed increases in progression-free survival and prostate-specific antigen response rates suggest antitumor activity in a patient subset.

  8. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0–6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0–6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (−1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  9. Cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain among cancer and non-cancer patients: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Woo, Aaron; Lechner, Breanne; Fu, Terence; Wong, C Shun; Chiu, Nicholas; Lam, Henry; Pulenzas, Natalie; Soliman, Hany; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chow, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Defining cut points (CPs) for varying levels of pain intensity is important for assessing changes in patient's functional status, and guiding the development and evaluation of treatment options. We aimed to summarize CPs identified in the literature for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the numeric rating scale (NRS), and recommend optimal CPs for cancer and non-cancer patients. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (inception to May 2015) for studies that used CPs to classify pain intensity on the NRS among patients with cancer or non-cancer conditions leading to acute or chronic pain. A CP was defined as the upper bound of a mild or moderate pain category. Of 1,556 identified articles, 27 were included for review. Among patients with cancer pain, mild-moderate pain CPs ranged from 1 to 4 (mean, 3.5±1.08), with CP4 being the most recommended CP (80%). For moderate-severe pain, CPs ranged from 4 to 7 (mean, 6.2±0.92), and CP6 (50%) was the optimal CPs. Among patients with non-cancer pain, mild-moderate pain CPs ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 3.62±0.78), and CP4 was the most frequently used CP (52.9%). For moderate-severe non-cancer pain, CPs ranged from 4 to 8 (mean, 6.5±0.99), and CP6 (41.2%) was the most frequently recommended CP. A wide range of CPs for mild, moderate, and severe pain categories were identified in the literature among both cancer and non-cancer patient populations. Further studies are needed to delineate more accurate and precise CPs for pain intensity.

  10. Diabetes and Hypertension Consistently Predict the Presence and Extent of Coronary Artery Calcification in Symptomatic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Ibrahimi, Pranvera; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Henein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, exercise, and the number of risk factors) to coronary artery calcification (CAC) presence and extent has never before been assessed in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We included only English language studies that assessed at least three conventional risk factors apart from age, gender, and ethnicity, but excluded studies in which all patients had another confirmed condition such as renal disease. Results: In total, 10 studies, comprising 15,769 patients, were investigated in the systematic review and seven studies, comprising 12,682 patients, were included in the meta-analysis, which demonstrated the importance of diabetes and hypertension as predictors of CAC presence and extent, with age also predicting CAC presence. Male gender, dyslipidaemia, family history of coronary artery disease, obesity, and smoking were overall not predictive of either CAC presence or extent, despite dyslipidaemia being a key risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Conclusion: Diabetes and hypertension consistently predict the presence and extent of CAC in symptomatic patients. PMID:27608015

  11. The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure secondary to ischemic heart disease: a prospective case series clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ang-Peng; Mohamed, Abdul-Latiff; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a progressive cardiovascular disorder and, in most cases, begins with atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. The prognosis of patients with heart failure is poor, even with improvement on the management of all forms of ischemic heart disease. There have been studies on heart failure using a single nutrient or a combination of multiple nutrients. Results are mixed. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of multiple micronutrient supplementation using the quality of life measure on patients with heart failure secondary to ischemic heart disease. This prospective case series followed 12 patients for a period between 3 to 8 months, using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) as the sole outcome measure. The primary outcome was a score change over time between the start and endpoint of treatment. Change in MLHFQ mean total score was 27.08 ± 20.43 and mean symptoms score was 4.67 ± 3.34. Paired t-test showed a difference between baseline and endpoint of treatment (P < 0.001), which was statistically significant. A high dose of multiple micronutrients may have beneficial effects on cardiac function in patients with symptomatic heart failure. This study indicates the need for long-term controlled studies to test the efficacy and safety of this economic approach in managing heart failure. PMID:26417534

  12. Different phenotypes of monocytes in patients with new-onset mild acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man-Li; Jiang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Xin-Rui; Ding, Li-Li; Wang, Hong-Juan; Meng, Qing-Qing; Gao, Pu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the numbers of different subsets of monocytes and their associations with the values of clinical measures in mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) patients. METHODS The study included one group of 13 healthy controls and another group of 24 patients with new-onset MAP. The numbers of different subsets of monocytes were examined in these two groups of subjects by flow cytometry. The concentrations of plasma interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 were determined by cytometric bead array. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores of individual patients were evaluated, and the levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as the activities of amylase and lipase were measured. RESULTS In comparison with that in the controls, significantly increased numbers of CD14+CD163-, CD14+CD163-MAC387+ M1 monocytes, but significantly reduced numbers of CD14+CD163+IL-10+ M2 monocytes were detected in the MAP patients (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly higher levels of plasma IL-10 and IL-12 were observed in the MAP patients (P < 0.01 for all). More importantly, the levels of plasma CRP were positively correlated with the numbers of CD14+CD163- (R = 0.5009, P = 0.0127) and CD14+CD163-MAC387+ (R = 0.5079, P = 0.0113) M1 monocytes and CD14+CD163+CD115+ M2 monocytes (R = 0.4565, P = 0.0249) in the patients. The APACHE II scores correlated with the numbers of CD14+CD163+CD115+ (R = 0.4581, P = 0.0244) monocytes and the levels of plasma IL-10 (R = 0.4178, P = 0.0422) in the MAP patients. However, there was no significant association among other measures tested in this population. CONCLUSION Increased numbers of CD14+CD163- and CD14+ CD163-MAC387+ monocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of MAP, and increased numbers of CD14+CD163+CD115+ monocytes may be a biomarker for evaluating the severity of MAP. PMID:28293095

  13. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Musso, Sabrina; Catania, Valentina; Ruggeri, Federica; Raggi, Alberto; Muratore, Stefano; Prestianni, Giuseppina; Bonforte, Cinzia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively); however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation (CS), cognitive training (CT), and CR. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of group intensive cognitive activation (g-ICA) in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as eleven patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group (CG). The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of 2 months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention. Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation. Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible of important

  14. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  15. Residual α-L-iduronidase activity in fibroblasts of mild to severe Mucopolysaccharidosis type I patients.

    PubMed

    Oussoren, Esmee; Keulemans, Joke; van Diggelen, Otto P; Oemardien, Linda F; Timmermans, Remco G; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Ruijter, George J G

    2013-08-01

    Three major clinical subgroups are usually distinguished in Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: Hurler (MPS IH, severe presentation), Hurler-Scheie (MPS IH/S, intermediate) and Scheie (MPS IS, mild). To facilitate treatment with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, early diagnosis is important for MPS IH patients. Although screening for MPS I in newborns would allow detection at an early age, it may be difficult to predict the phenotype on the basis of the genotype in these infants. Extra diagnostic tools are thus required. Based on the hypothesis that distinct MPS I phenotypes may result from differences in residual α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) activity, we modified the common IDUA assay using the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-l-iduronide to allow quantification of low IDUA activity in MPS I fibroblasts. Enzyme incubation was performed with high protein concentrations at different time points up to 8h. Mean residual IDUA activity was 0.18% (range 0-0.6) of the control value in MPS IH fibroblasts (n=5); against 0.27% (range 0.2-0.3) in MPS IH/S cells (n=3); and 0.79% (range 0.3-1.8) in MPS IS fibroblasts (n=5). These results suggest that residual IDUA activity and severity of the MPS I phenotype are correlated. Two MPS IS patients with rare (E276K/E276K) or indefinite (A327P/unknown) IDUA genotypes had residual IDUA activity in the MPS IS range, illustrating the usefulness of our approach. IDUA(E276K) was very unstable at 37°C, but more stable at 23°C, suggesting thermal instability. We conclude that this procedure for determining residual IDUA activity in fibroblasts of MPS I patients may be helpful to predict MPS I phenotype.

  16. Effect of Acetazolamide on Visual Function in Patients With Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension and Mild Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Acetazolamide is commonly used to treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), but there is insufficient information to establish an evidence base for its use. OBJECTIVE To determine whether acetazolamide is beneficial in improving vision when added to a low-sodium weight reduction diet in patients with IIH and mild visual loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of acetazolamide in 165 participants with IIH and mild visual loss who received a low-sodium weight-reduction diet. Participants were enrolled at 38 academic and private practice sites in North America from March 2010 to November 2012 and followed up for 6 months (last visit in June 2013). All participants met the modified Dandy criteria for IIH and had a perimetric mean deviation (PMD) between −2 dB and −7 dB. The mean age was 29 years and all but 4 participants were women. INTERVENTIONS Low-sodium weight-reduction diet plus the maximally tolerated dosage or acetazolamide (up to 4 g/d) or matching placebo for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The planned primary outcome variable was the change in PMD from baseline to month 6 in the most affected eye, as measured by Humphrey Field Analyzer. Perimetric mean deviation is a measure of global visual field loss (mean deviation from age-corrected normal values), with a range of 2 to −32 dB; larger negative values indicate greater vision loss. Secondary outcome variables included changes in papilledema grade, quality of life (Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [VFQ-25] and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey), headache disability, and weight at month 6. RESULTS The mean improvement in PMD was greater with acetazolamide (1.43 dB, from −3.53 dB at baseline to −2.10 dB at month 6; n = 86) than with placebo (0.71 dB, from −3.53 dB to −2.82 dB;n = 79); the difference was 0.71 dB (95% CI, 0 to 1.43 dB; P= .050). Mean improvements in papilledema grade (acetazolamide: −1

  17. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Dysphagia in the Mild or Moderate Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Concept of Subclinical Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Gürgör, Nevin; Çakır, Ahmet; Arıcı, Şehnaz; İncesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Swallowing mechanism and neurogenic dysphagia in MS have been rarely studied by electromyographical (EMG) methods. This study aims to evaluate the presence of subclinical dysphagia in patients with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) using electrophysiological methods. A prospective study of 51 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and 18 age-matched healthy adults was investigated. We used electromyography to measure the activity of the submental muscles during swallowing. Electrophysiological recordings of patients were obtained during relapse, after relapse, and at any time in remission period. Clinical dysphagia was found in 12% of MS patients, while electrophysiological swallowing abnormalities were encountered in 33% of patients. Subclinical dysphagia was determined in 35% of patients during an MS relapse, in 20% of patients after a relapse, and in 25% of all 51 patients in the remission period based on EMG findings. Duration of swallowing signal of submental muscles in all MS patients was found to be longer than in normal subjects (p = 0.001). During swallowing of 50 ml of sequential water, the compensatory respiratory cycles occurred more often in MS patients than normal subjects, especially during a relapse (p = 0.005). This is the first study investigating swallowing abnormalities and subclinical dysphagia from the electrophysiological aspect in MS patients with mild disability. The electrophysiological tests described in this study are useful to uncover subclinical dysphagia since they have the advantage of being rapid, easy to apply, non-invasive, and without risk for the patients.

  18. Use of the Corus® CAD Gene Expression Test for Assessment of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease Likelihood in Symptomatic Non-Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose; Lima, Joao A C; Kraus, William E; Douglas, Pamela S; Rosenberg, Steven

    2013-08-26

    The determination of the underlying etiology of symptoms suggestive of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD, ≥50% stenosis in a major coronary artery) is a common clinical challenge in both primary care and cardiology clinics. Usual care in low to medium risk patients often involves a family history, risk factor assessment, and then stress testing with or without non-invasive imaging. If positive, this is often followed by invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Despite extensive adoption of this usual care paradigm, more than 60% of patients referred for angiography do not have obstructive CAD. In order to robustly identify those symptomatic patients without obstructive CAD, who can avoid subsequent cardiac testing and look elsewhere for the cause of their symptoms, a recently described whole blood gene expression score (GES: Corus® CAD, CardioDx, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) has been developed and validated in two multi-center trials. This paper reviews the published literature and assessments by independent parties regarding the analytical and clinical validity as well as the clinical utility of the Corus® CAD test.

  19. Clinical and radiological outcome of anterior–posterior fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for symptomatic disc degeneration: a retrospective comparative study of 133 patients

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, James D.; Safriel, Yair; Gilbert, Thomas J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Transfeldt, Ensor E.; Wroblewski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Abundant data are available for direct anterior/posterior spine fusion (APF) and some for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), but only few studies from one institution compares the two techniques. One-hundred and thirty-three patients were retrospectively analyzed, 68 having APF and 65 having TLIF. All patients had symptomatic disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Only those with one or two-level surgeries were included. Clinical chart and radiologic reviews were done, fusion solidity assessed, and functional outcomes determined by pre- and postoperative SF-36 and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and a satisfaction questionnaire. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. The mean operating room time and hospital length of stay were less in the TLIF group. The blood loss was slightly less in the TLIF group (409 vs. 480 cc.). Intra-operative complications were higher in the APF group, mostly due to vein lacerations in the anterior retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative complications were higher in the TLIF group due to graft material extruding against the nerve root or wound drainage. The pseudarthrosis rate was statistically equal (APF 17.6% and TLIF 23.1%) and was higher than most published reports. Significant improvements were noted in both groups for the SF-36 questionnaires. The mean ODI scores at follow-up were 33.5 for the APF and 39.5 for the TLIF group. The patient satisfaction rate was equal for the two groups. PMID:19125304

  20. Evaluation of the effects of temporomandibular joint disk displacement and its progression on dentocraniofacial morphology in symptomatic patients using lateral cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakar, Olcay; Calisir, Funda; Oztas, Evren; Marsan, Gülnaz

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of disk displacement (DD) and its progression on dentocraniofacial morphology in symptomatic patients and compare the results with asymptomatic volunteers. Skeletal and dental Class I female patients with DD, diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lateral cephalometric analysis were included in the study. Subjects were grouped as follows: control group with bilateral normal disk position (group 1, n=12), unilateral DD with reduction (group 2, n=16), bilateral DD with reduction (group 3, n=26), unilateral DD without reduction (group 4, n=12), and bilateral DD without reduction (group 5, n=8). Thirty-two (32) cephalometric variables were measured, and statistically significant differences were found in 11. Dental and soft tissue measurements did not reveal any differences, but variables related to the mandible showed statistically significant differences. Progression of DD was associated with an increase in all angular measurements related to vertical skeletal relationships and articular angle and a decrease in the ratio of posterior face height to anterior face height indicating clockwise rotation of the mandible. Similarly, the height of ramus was decreased with the progression of DD. The results of this study demonstrated that the presence of DD in skeletal Class I female patients effects facial morphology, and its progression makes the differences more significant and remarkable. These results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in the management of DD.

  1. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Ciuceis, Carolina; Pilu, Annamaria; Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Paini, Anna; Belotti, Eugenia; Zani, Francesca; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-04-01

    It has been reported that the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflects the endogenous vascular repair ability, with the EPCs pool declining in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, their relationship with hypertension and the effects of anti-hypertensive treatment remain unclear. We randomized 29 patients with mild essential hypertension to receive barnidipine up to 20 mg or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) up to 25 mg. Circulating EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Mononuclear cells were cultured with endothelial basal medium supplemented with EGM SingleQuots. EPCs were identified by positive double staining for both FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin I and Dil-labeled acethylated low-density lipoprotein. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly reduced. No difference was observed between drugs. An increase in the number of EPCs was observed after 3 and 6 months of anti-hypertensive treatment (p < 0.05). Barnidipine significantly increased EPCs after 3 and 6 months of treatment, whereas no effect was observed with HCT. No statistically significant correlation was observed between EPCs and clinical BP values. Our data suggest that antihypertensive treatment may increase the number of EPCs. However, we observed a different effect of barnidipine and HCT on EPCs, suggesting that, beyond its BP lowering effect, barnidipine may elicit additional beneficial properties, related to a healthier vasculature.

  2. A prospective longitudinal survey of erectile function status in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients treated with dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Masanori; Ando, Toshiyuki; Matsushima, Masashi; Yuge, Kazuyuki; Ito, Yujiro; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively evaluated erectile function (EF) using the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and the erectile hardness score (EHS) as well as urinary statuses using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after a daily treatment with 0.5 mg dutasteride (DUT). Significant improvements were observed in IPSS and OABSS in 98 patients with the DUT treatment, and the effects were similar between 28 patients with potency with baseline SHIM of 8 or greater and 70 severe erectile dysfunction (ED) patients at baseline. In the 28 patients with potency, significant decreases were observed in SHIM and EHS after 3, 6, and 12 months of the DUT treatment, with the severity of ED according to SHIM deteriorating in half of these patients after 12 months of the DUT treatment. Eighteen out of 28 patients (64.3%) with potency at baseline had awareness of the occurrence of ED before the DUT treatment, were younger, and had higher SHIM and EHS just before the DUT treatment than their counterparts. Regular assessments of EF may be needed, especially in younger patients and those with higher levels of EF before the administration of DUT.

  3. RAGE and AGEs in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs; RAGE) binds to both AGEs and amyloid-beta peptides. RAGE is involved in chronic complications of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to investigate the roles of RAGE, AGEs and the Gly82Ser polymorphism of RAGE in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Of the 167 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients recruited, 82 satisfied the diagnostic criteria for MCI, and 85 matched control individuals were classified as non-MCI. Demographic data were collected, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations, serum AGE-peptide (AGE-P) levels, RAGE Gly82Ser genotype and neuropsychological test results were examined. Results The MCI group exhibited a decreased sRAGE level (0.87±0.35 vs. 1.05±0.52 ng/ml, p<0.01) and an increased serum AGE-P level (3.54±1.27 vs. 2.71±1.18 U/ml, p<0.01) compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each unit reduction in the sRAGE concentration increased the MCI risk by 54% (OR 0.46[95% CI 0.22–0.96], p = 0.04) and that each unit increase in the AGE-P level increased the MCI risk by 72% in the type 2 diabetes patients (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.31–2.28], p<0.01). The serum sRAGE level was negatively correlated with the score on the trail making test-B (TMT-B) (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), which indicates early cognitive deficits related to diabetes. Moreover, the AGE-P level was positively correlated with multiple cognitive domains (all p<0.05). No significant differences in the neuropsychological test results or serum RAGE concentrations between the different RAGE genotypes or in the RAGE genotype frequencies between the MCI and control groups were identified (all p>0.05). Conclusions The RAGE pathway partially mediates AGE-induced MCI in diabetic patients. The serum AGE-P level may serve as a serum biomarker of MCI in these individuals, and sRAGE represents a predictor and even a potential intervention target of

  4. The importance of parkinsonian signs for gait and balance in patients with Alzheimer's disease of mild degree.

    PubMed

    Tangen, Gro Gujord; Bergland, Astrid; Engedal, Knut; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    Parkinsonian signs are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild degree and predict functional decline, but their relationship with gait speed and balance is unclear. The aims of this study were to describe characteristics of patients with parkinsonian signs among 98 patients with AD of mild degree (with no comorbid Parkinson's disease), and to examine associations between parkinsonian signs with gait speed and balance. A cross sectional study at a memory clinic was conducted. Presence of each parkinsonian sign (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor) was derived from the UPDRS, regular gait speed was recorded over 10m and balance were assessed using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest). Bradykinesia was present in 30.6% of the sample, rigidity in 13.3% and tremor only in one patient. Patients with bradykinesia were older, had worse cognitive impairment and worse gait and balance performance than those without bradykinesia. More men than women had rigidity. Bradykinesia was significantly associated with mini-BESTest after adjusting for demographic factors (p<0.001, explaining 13.3% of the variance), but was not significantly associated with gait speed. Rigidity was not associated with either gait speed or balance. We conclude that assessment of bradykinesia should be included in examination of balance control in patients with AD of mild degree.

  5. Relation between injury of the periaqueductal gray and central pain in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Park, So Min; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a pivotal role in pain modulation. We attempted to examine the relation between injury of the PAG and central pain in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-one patients with mild TBI with central pain and 31 healthy control subjects were recruited for this study. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for evaluation of central pain. The region of interest was defined for the PAG and the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured. The FA value was significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the ADC value was observed between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). VAS score of the patient group showed significant moderate negative correlation with the FA (r = −0.38), while no significant correlation was observed between VAS score and the ADC value (P < 0.05). We demonstrated injury of the PAG in patients with central pain following mild TBI and the degree of injury of the PAG was closely related to the degree of central pain. PMID:27368020

  6. Perceived Social Support and Its Impact on Mental Fatigue in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, En quan; Zeng, Ben qiang; Tian, Jing lun; Du, Bing; Tian, Xiao bing; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although mental fatigue was well-recognized as one of the long-term consequences following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) that required ongoing support, evidences for the optimal management remained inadequate. Aims: To investigate the temporal profile of mental fatigue during the first year after MTBI and examine the impact of perceived social support on the recovery from post-MTBI fatigue. Study Design: Observational case-control study. Methods: This study was conducted among post-MTBI patients admitted to the emergency department in a tertiary-care hospital in Sichuan, China. During four waves of assessments at 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months, mental fatigue was assessed through Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) whereas social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: There were 65.1%, 37.1%, 34.8% and 32.5% individuals being identified as those with mental fatigue at 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. The scores of MFS didn’t change substantially since 3 months post-injury. Compared to non-fatigued MTBI patients, those with long-lasting post- MTBI fatigue reported extremely lower level of perceived social support. Moreover, improved social support at 1 week was negatively associated with the occurrence of long-lasting fatigue. Conclusion: Sufficient social support could significantly decrease the occurrence of long-lasting mental fatigue among MTBI cases. It seemed of great importance to modify the emphasis of rehabilitation to include assessment and improvement of perceived social support at earlier stages after injury. PMID:27403383

  7. Cognitive Deficits in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Surgical Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daren C.; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Rocque, Brandon G.; Wilbrand, Stephanie M.; Mitchell, Carol C.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Dempsey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The role played by vessel disease in stroke-related cognition dysfunction is unclear. We assessed the impact of significant atherosclerotic disease on cognition—even in patients asymptomatic for stroke. We hypothesized that patients would perform poorly relative to controls, but that symptomatic/asymptomatic status (history of stroke/transient ischemic attack) would have no effect. Fifty-two carotid endarterectomy candidates with >60% carotid stenosis and 17 controls underwent a 60-min neuropsychological test protocol. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients showed deficits in executive function, delayed verbal recall, and general knowledge. Patients symptomatic for stroke also performed worse on tests of language and motor/visuomotor ability. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients differed in working memory and language task performance. Although all patients showed deficits in executive function and memory, only symptomatic patients showed additional deficits in language and motor function. Cognitive abnormalities in patients viewed as “asymptomatic” for stroke underscore the need for early identification and treatment. PMID:26663810

  8. Mild balanoposthitis.

    PubMed Central

    Fornasa, C V; Calabrŏ, A; Miglietta, A; Tarantello, M; Biasinutto, C; Peserico, A

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To identify and study cases of mild balanoposthitis (MBP) with penile pathology among patients observed at a dermatology clinic over an 18-month period. MATERIALS--The study included 321 patients with penile pathology. The term MBP was used to describe balanoposthitis of a localised, inflammatory nature with few, non-specific symptoms and a tendency to become chronic or recur. Two hundred and seventy had diseases clearly identifiable by clinical examination or laboratory tests; 51 cases were diagnosed as MBP and these patients had blood tests (to evaluate immune status) and microbiological examination; when these proved negative, a series of patch tests was also used. RESULTS--Of the 51 patients diagnosed as having MBP, the cause was ascertained in 34 cases (infection, mechanical trauma, contact irritation, contact allergy, etc.), whereas no specific aetiological factor was detected to explain the symptoms in the remaining 17 cases. PMID:8001949

  9. Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Lung Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Two Primary Malignancies in a Patient with Symptomatic Goiter

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Deepu; Delumpa, Leah; Bray, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    In rare instances, patients may be diagnosed with two different primary malignancies. Though such synchronous malignancies have been documented in sporadic case reports, the overwhelming majority of malignancies involving multiple organs can be attributed to a primary source. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma are rarely diagnosed within the same year. Our case report presents a patient who was diagnosed with these two malignancies during her same hospital visit. Biopsies results proved that the two malignancies were in fact separate entities and not a consequence of metastasis from a primary source. PMID:26290667

  10. Metabolic alterations in the sera of Chinese patients with mild persistent asthma: a GC-MS-based metabolomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun; Guo, Zhi-guo; He, Bei; Yao, Wan-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To character the specific metabolomics profiles in the sera of Chinese patients with mild persistent asthma and to explore potential metabolic biomarkers. Methods: Seventeen Chinese patients with mild persistent asthma and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Serum samples were collected, and serum metabolites were analyzed using GC-MS coupled with a series of multivariate statistical analyses. Results: Clear intergroup separations existed between the asthmatic patients and control subjects. A list of differential metabolites and several top altered metabolic pathways were identified. The levels of succinate (an intermediate in tricarboxylic acid cycle) and inosine were highly upregulated in the asthmatic patients, suggesting a greater effort to breathe during exacerbation and hypoxic stress due to asthma. Other differential metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and phenylalanine, were also identified. Furthermore, the differential metabolites possessed higher values of area under the ROC curve (AUC), suggesting an excellent clinical ability for the prediction of asthma. Conclusion: Metabolic activity is significantly altered in the sera of Chinese patients with mild persistent asthma. The data might be helpful for identifying novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for asthma. PMID:26526201

  11. Clinical significance of CD81 expression by clonal plasma cells in high-risk smoldering and symptomatic multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Paiva, B; Gutiérrez, N-C; Chen, X; Vídriales, M-B; Montalbán, M-Á; Rosiñol, L; Oriol, A; Martínez-López, J; Mateos, M-V; López-Corral, L; Díaz-Rodríguez, E; Pérez, J-J; Fernández-Redondo, E; de Arriba, F; Palomera, L; Bengoechea, E; Terol, M-J; de Paz, R; Martin, A; Hernández, J; Orfao, A; Lahuerta, J-J; Bladé, J; Pandiella, A; Miguel, J-F San

    2012-08-01

    The presence of CD19 in myelomatous plasma cells (MM-PCs) correlates with adverse prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). Although CD19 expression is upregulated by CD81, this marker has been poorly investigated and its prognostic value in MM remains unknown. We have analyzed CD81 expression by multiparameter flow cytometry in MM-PCs from 230 MM patients at diagnosis included in the Grupo Español de Mieloma (GEM)05>65 years trial as well as 56 high-risk smoldering MM (SMM). CD81 expression was detected in 45% (103/230) MM patients, and the detection of CD81(+) MM-PC was an independent prognostic factor for progression-free (hazard ratio=1.9; P=0.003) and overall survival (hazard ratio=2.0; P=0.02); this adverse impact was validated in an additional series of 325 transplant-candidate MM patients included in the GEM05 <65 years trial. Moreover, CD81(+) SMM (n=34/56, 57%) patients had a shorter time to progression to MM (P=0.02). Overall, our results show that CD81 may have a relevant role in MM pathogenesis and represent a novel adverse prognostic marker in myeloma.

  12. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kovać, Damir; Kudelić, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts.

  13. Can the Oxford Scores be used to monitor symptomatic progression of patients awaiting knee or hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Naylor, Justine M; Kamalasena, Gihan; Hayen, Andrew; Harris, Ian A; Adie, Sam

    2013-10-01

    We report the week-to-week variation of the Oxford Knee and Oxford Hip Score (OKS, OHS) in individuals with severe osteoarthritis. People waitlisted for knee (n=51) or hip arthroplasty (n=52) were assessed twice, 1-week apart. There were no major week-to-week systematic biases in the scores. Limits of agreement (LOA) for both scores were wide (OKS, -9.5 to 6.6; OHS, -7.7 to 7). For most individual questions, the answers varied by ≤ 1 point in over 90% of participants. The week-to-week 95% LOA for the Oxford scores are unacceptably large, but variations within the individual questions are minimal. Consequently, reference to variation in the individual questions may be more useful for monitoring a patient's preoperative clinical change than changes in the total Oxford score. We conclude that the total scores are not suitable for monitoring the progression of OA in individual patients.

  14. Classification of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients with and without Cognitive Decline Using Non-invasive Carotid Plaque Strain Indices as Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Jackson, Daren C; Mitchell, Carol C; Varghese, Tomy; Wilbrand, Stephanie M; Rocque, Brandon G; Hermann, Bruce P; Dempsey, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular cognitive decline may be caused by micro-emboli generated by carotid plaque instability. We previously found that maximum strain indices in carotid plaque were significantly correlated with cognitive function. In the work described here, we examined these associations with a larger sample size, as well as evaluated the performance of these maximum strain indices in predicting cognitive impairment. Ultrasound-based strain imaging and cognition assessment were conducted on 75 human patients. Patients underwent one of two standardized cognitive test batteries, either the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) or the National Institute of Neurologic Disorder and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards (60 min). Scores were standardized within each battery to allow these data to be combined across all participants. Radiofrequency signals for ultrasound strain imaging were acquired on the carotid arteries using either a Siemens Antares with a VFX 13-5 linear array transducer or a Siemens S2000 with an 18 L6 linear array transducer. The same hierarchical block-matching motion tracking algorithm developed in our laboratory was used to estimate accumulated axial, lateral, and shear strain indices in carotid plaque, with inclusion of adventitia regardless of the ultrasound system and transducer used. Associations between cognitive z-scores and maximum strain indices were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Maximum strain indices were also employed to predict cognitive impairment using receiver operating characteristic analysis. All correlations between maximum strain indices and total cognition were statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that these indices have good utility in predicting cognitive impairment. Maximum lateral strain indices provided an area under the curve of 0.85 for symptomatic patients and 0.68 for asymptomatic patients. Our

  15. Naming ability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: what changes occur with the evolution of the disease?

    PubMed Central

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Naming deficit is a linguistic symptom that appears in the initial phase of Alzheimer's disease, but the types of naming errors and the ways in which this deficit changes over the course of the disease are unclear. We analyzed the performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease on naming tasks during the mild and moderate phases and verified how this linguistic skill deteriorates over the course of the disease. METHODS: A reduced version of the Boston Naming Test was administered to 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, 30 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease and 30 healthy controls. Errors were classified as verbal semantic paraphasia, verbal phonemic paraphasia, no response (pure anomia), circumlocution, unrelated verbal paraphasia, visual errors or intrusion errors. RESULTS: The patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease had significantly fewer correct answers than did both the control group and the group with mild Alzheimer's disease. With regard to the pattern of errors, verbal semantic paraphasia errors were the most frequent errors in all three groups. Additionally, as the disease severity increased, there was an increase in the number of no-response errors (pure anomia). The group with moderate Alzheimer's disease demonstrated a greater incidence of visual errors and unrelated verbal paraphasias compared with the other two groups and presented a more variable pattern of errors. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on nominative tasks worsened as the disease progressed in terms of both the quantity and the type of errors encountered. This result reflects impairment at different levels of linguistic processing. PMID:26106961

  16. Angioplasty and Stenting of Symptomatic Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, R.; Sharifipour, E.; Mansourizadeh, R.; Sohrabi, B.; Nayebi, A.R; Haririan, S.; Farhoudi, M.; Charsouei, S.; Najmi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has recently become a noteworthy treatment option for significant stenosis involving the vertebral artery (VA) in selected patients. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and mid-term follow up results of 206 cases received PTA with or without stent implant to treat their symptomatic atherosclerotic VA stenosis in all segments (V1-V4). In a prospective mono-arm trial from October 2008 to July 2012 in a single center, 239 lesions affecting the intra or extracranial VA (171 in V1, 17 in V2, 14 in V3, 21 in V4 and 16 in combined segments) were treated by PTA with or without stent implant. Non-disabling stroke patients who had failed conservative medical treatment and had angiographic evidence of >50% stenosis in the dominant VA with clinical signs and symptoms of VB stenosis were included in this study. They were mean followed for 13.15±5.24 months after treatment. Overall, 206 patients underwent the procedure. A stent was implemented in 199 patients (96.6%). The periprocedural complication rate was 7.2%. The procedural (technical) success rate was 97.6%. Of the total 239 lesions, 223 were treated with stent implant. Clinical success was achieved in all 206 symptomatic patients after the procedure. Restenosis occurred in 15.9% after a mean 10.8 (6-24) months. Of those, 63.1% and 34.2% had mild and moderate stenosis that was treated medically, whereas one case (2.6%) with severe restenosis underwent balloon angioplasty. No deaths occurred during the follow-up period. The follow-up complication rate was 6.3%. TIA occurred in 4.4%, a minor stroke in 1.4% and a major stroke in one patient. The overall patient event-free survival was 92.4%. These results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of PTA with or without stent implant, with a high technical success rate, a low complication rate, a low restenosis rate and durable clinical success in patients with symptomatic VA stenosis. This

  17. Higher HIV RNA Viral Load in Recent Patients with Symptomatic Acute HIV Infection in Lyon University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Baratin, Dominique; Ferry, Tristan; Chidiac, Christian; Ronin, Vincent; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006–2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. PMID:26799390

  18. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4·0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3·2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·28, 95% CI 0·77–2·11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8·5% in the stenting group compared with 5·2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events

  19. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongmei; Liao, Zhongxing; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O'Reilly, Michael; Gold, Kathryn A.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ≥2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ≥2 among patients who received a low (≤20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  20. Volumetric index of Tl-201 uptake in symptomatic patients after high - dose radiation treatment for high-grade gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, P.A.; Garada, B.M.; Loeffler, J.S. |

    1995-05-01

    To verify the utility of a volumetric estimation of Tl-201 uptake in the context of possible astrocytoma recurrence after surgery, radiotherapy plus stereotactic boost (radiosurgery/brachitherapy), we analyzed sequential Tl-201/Tc99m-HMPAO brain SPECT studies of 28 patients (18 m/10 f). These were categorized as having tumor mass recurrence (TM), infiltrating tumor cells but no definite tumor mass (IT), or radiation changes and necrosis (RCN) after stereotactic biopsy and/or craniotomy. SPECT studies were obtained with a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera (CERASPECT, Digital Scinitgraphics, Inc.) and image acquisition was performed after intravenous Tl-201 (18.5 MBq) and Tc-99m HMPAO (740 MBq). In order to include relevant information about tumor burden, a volumetric index of Tl-201 uptake was expressed in cm{sup 3} related to voxel size (4.6 x 10{sup -3} cc) within an elliptical ROI that included the tumor area. Only voxels with a threshold {ge} 2 in relation to the average scalp Tl-201 uptake were included and this total number of voxels expressed in cc was compared to previously established maximal tumor/scalp Tl-201 uptake ratios (T/S) and histopathology. Results are presented as the median (min-max) and differences were considered significant for p<0.05. Differences were significant between all groups for both ratios and volume indices and correlation between the two variables was 0.90. In conclusion, the volumetric index of Tl-201 is similar to the maximal Tl-201 T/S ratios in discriminating tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis, suggesting a future role for the volumetric index estimation in the evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient follow-up.

  1. Correlation of Clinical Neuromusculoskeletal and Central Somatosensory Performance: Variability in Controls and Patients With Severe and Mild Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Byl, Nancy N.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Roberts, Tim; McKenzie, Alison

    2002-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia (FHd) is a recalcitrant, disabling movement disorder, characterized by involuntary co-contractions of agonists and antagonists, that can develop in patients who overuse or misuse their hands. The aim of this study was to document clinical neuromusculoskeletal performance and somatosensory responses (magnetoencephalography) in healthy controls and in FHd subjects with mild versus severe hand dystonia. The performance of healthy subjects (n = 17) was significantly better than that of FHd subjects (n = 17) on all clinical parameters. Those with mild dystonia (n = 10) demonstrated better musculoskeletal skills, task-specific motor performance, and sensory discrimination, but the performance of sensory and fine motor tasks was slower than that of patients with severe dystonia. In terms of somatosensory evoked field responses (SEFs), FHd subjects demonstrated a significant difference in the location of the hand representation on the x and y axes, lower amplitude of SEFs integrated across latency, and a higher ratio of mean SEF amplitude to latency than the controls. Bilaterally,. those with FHd (mild and severe) lacked progressive sequencing of the digits from inferior to superior. On the affected digits, subjects with severe dystonia had a significantly higher ratio of SEF amplitude to latency and a significantly smaller mean volume of the cortical hand representation than those with mild dystonia. Severity of dystonia positively correlated with the ratio of SEF mean amplitude to latency (0.9029 affected, 0.8477 unaffected; p<0.01). The results of the present study strengthen the evidence that patients with FHd demonstrate signs of somatosensory degradation of the hand that correlates with clinical sensorimotor dysfunction, with characteristics of the dedifferentiation varying by the severity of hand dystonia. If these findings represent aberrant learning, then effective rehabilitation must incorporate the principles of neuroplasticity. Training must

  2. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVIII. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-2 gene in isolates from symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Tahar, Rachida; Escalante, Ananias

    2004-03-01

    Merozoite surface antigen-2 (MSA-2) is a polymorphic genetic marker that is highly discriminatory for characterizing Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Genetic diversity of isolates obtained from symptomatic patients residing in Yaounde, Cameroon was analyzed by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of amplification products. Of 137 isolates, 25 (18%) had only FC27-type alleles, 40 (29%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 72 (53%) had multiple parasite populations with both alleles. Of 295 fragments, 145 (49.2%) and 150 (50.8%) belonged to FC27 and 3D7 alleles, respectively. There were 23 different MSA-2 alleles (10 FC27-type and 13 3D7-type that yielded 44 different combinations in multiple infections). DNA sequencing showed distinct individual sequences. Sequences belonging to the FC27 allelic family were relatively conserved, with most of the polymorphism arising from differences in the number of repeat units. In contrast, the sequences within the GSA-rich region in 3D7 allelic family were less conserved, but many of the sequences in Cameroonian isolates have been identified in other isolates from geographically distant origins. Our results show an extensive diversity of the central region of MSA-2 in size, allelic family, combinations of these two features in multiple infections, and sequence variations underlying the complex population structure of P. falciparum clinical isolates in Yaounde, Cameroon.

  3. Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anaemia and oral iron supplementation have been associated negatively with quality of life, and with adverse effects, respectively, in subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hence, the risk-benefit ratio of oral iron is not understood in this patient group. The present case–control study investigated whether dietary iron intake impacts on quality of life in IBD patients. Methods Quality of life, habitual dietary iron intakes and iron requirements were assessed in 29 patients with inactive or mildly active IBD as well as in 28 healthy control subjects. Results As expected, quality of life was worse in IBD patients as a whole in comparison to healthy controls according to EuroQol score and EuroQol VAS percentage (6.9 ± 1.6 vs 5.3 ± 0.6; p< 0.0001 and 77 ± 14% vs 88 ± 12%; p=0.004 respectively). For IBD subjects, 21/29 were iron deplete based upon serum iron responses to oral iron but, overall, were non-anaemic with mean haemoglobin of 13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL, and there was no difference in their quality of life compared to 8/29 iron replete subjects (Hb 14.0 ± 0.8 g/dL). Interestingly, total dietary iron intake was significantly negatively associated with quality of life in IBD patients, specifically for non-haem iron and, more specifically, for fortificant iron. Moreover, for total non-haem iron the negative association disappeared when fortificant iron values were subtracted. Finally, further sub-analysis indicated that the negative association between (fortificant) dietary iron intake and quality of life in IBD patients is driven by findings in patients with mildly active disease rather than in patients with quiescent disease. Conclusions Iron deficiency per se (i.e. without concomitant anaemia) does not appear to further affect quality of life in IBD patients with inactive or mildly active disease. However, in this preliminary study, dietary iron intake, particularly fortificant iron, appears to be significantly negatively

  4. Serum ZAG Levels Were Associated with eGFR Mild Decrease in T2DM Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Weihong; Niu, Meng; Zheng, Caixia; Qu, Bin; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ping; Wang, O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes of serum zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with eGFR mild decrease. Subjects and Methods. A total of 438 T2DM patients (61.3 ± 4.0 y) were recruited and the demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters were all collected. Serum ZAG levels were determined by commercially available ELISA kits. Results. The proportion of T2DM patients with the high tertile ZAG levels was 11.9% higher in patients with mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 mL/min/1.73 m2) than those with the low tertile ZAG levels (P = 0.038). The probability of the eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 in patients with the high ZAG levels was 94% higher than those with the low serum ZAG levels after adjusting for age, gender, and education [OR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.17–3.23), P = 0.0094]. This phenomenon was more likely to be observed in the condition of uACR ≥ 2.7 mg/mmol, WC ≥ 90 cm for men, or WC ≥ 85 cm for women. Conclusion. Serum ZAG levels were firstly found to be related with eGFR in T2DM patients. The patients with the high tertile ZAG levels were more likely to have mildly eGFR decrease, especially for female patients with higher uACR and bigger WC. PMID:28352283

  5. [Evaluation of the impact of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease on the result of surgical treatment with the use of endoscopic techniques and postoperative pharmacological treatment in patients with chronic sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Nieckarz, Rafał; Szaleniec, Joanna; Hartwich, Patryk; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Hydzik-Sobocińska, Karolina; Muszyński, Piotr; Markiewicz, Beata; Turczynowski, Łukasz; Składzień, Jacek; Strek, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that in Europe 10% of adults suffer from chronic sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis can be caused by many different diseases that share chronic inflammation of the sinuses as a common symptom. Rhinitis can be caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus, which successively can result in chronic sinusitis. The current gold standard for diagnosing GERD is--bothersome for the patient--24 h esophageal pH monitoring. This method can be unpleasant for the patients, which makes it less acceptable. Because of that the criteria for symptomatic GERD were made an alternative diagnostic way. We acknowledge that the presence of heartburn and stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus at least once a week can be diagnosed as symptomatic GERD. The aim of the study is the assessment of the frequency of symptomatic GERD in patients operated because of chronic sinusitis and impact of symptomatic GERD on the follow-up treatment up to 12 months after endoscopic nasal surgery. The authors analysed 144 patients operated at the JUCM Otolaryngological Clinic in Kraków between 2011 and 2013 because of sinusitis. The inclusion criteria were: diagnosed chronic sinusitis, indications for endoscopic sinus surgery, and a written consent for the research. Each patient was examined laryngologically and surveyed. Patients were divided into two groups: with and without symptomatic GERD. We analysed the symptoms in patients treated for sinusitis with or without GERD before, between 3 and 6 as well as in the 12th month after endonasal surgery. Moreover, we analysed the intensity of the global symptoms (expressed in the VAS scale) and separately for each of the 13 symptoms of chronic sinusitis (expressed on a scale 0 - 3). We established that 33 out of the 144 patients (22.9%) qualified for the first survey reported the symptoms of GERD. In the second survey, which was conducted between 3 and 6 month after ESS, 24 out of 119 (20%) people reported the

  6. Polymorphisms in K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps in parasites isolated from symptomatic malaria patients in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Anyirékun Fabrice; Sorgho, Hermann; Zongo, Issaka; Bazié, Thomas; Nikiéma, Frédéric; Sawadogo, Amadé; Zongo, Moussa; Compaoré, Yves-Daniel; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in western Cambodia is threatening to revert the recent advances made toward global malaria control and elimination. Known resistance-mediating polymorphisms in the K13, pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes are of greatest importance for monitoring the spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Methods: Samples for the present study were collected from 244 patients with uncomplicated malaria in health centers of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Blood sample was collected on filter paper before the subject received any treatment. The parasite DNA was then extracted and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to evaluate the prevalence of polymorphism of pfcrtK76T, pfmdr1 (N86Y, Y184F), and pfdhps (A437G, K540E). The K13 gene polymorphism was analyzed by nested PCR followed by sequencing. Results: The overall results showed 2.26% (5/221) of K13 synonymous mutant alleles (two C469C, one Y493Y, one G496G, and one V589V), 24.78%, 19.58%, 68.75%, 60.9%, 53.7%, 63.8%, and 64.28%, respectively, for mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1-86Y, pfmdr1-184F, pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps 437G. We did not report any mutation at codon 540 of pfdhps. Conclusion: These results provide baseline prevalence of known drug resistance polymorphisms and suggest that artemisinin combination therapies may retain good efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso. PMID:28004634

  7. [Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis with Cell Culture, DFA and PCR Methods in the Genital Swab Samples of Symptomatic Patients].

    PubMed

    Ozüberk, Osman Özüberk; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ozçelik, Bülent; Ekmekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is considered the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. C.trachomatis causes eye infections such as trachoma and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, newborn pneumonia, genitourinary system infections and suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis namely lymphogranuloma venerum. The aim of this study was to investigate C.trachomatis by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods in the clinical samples sent to the microbiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of genital infections. A total of 50 swab samples obtained from adult patients (49 female, 1 male) who were admitted to Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between February-March 2010, were included in the study. C.trachomatis antigens were investigated by a commercial DFA (PathoDx, Remel, USA) method. McCoy cell cultures prepared in microplate wells were used for the isolation of C.trachomatis. The growth of C.trachomatis in cell cultures was confirmed by DFA and iodine staining methods. C.trachomatis DNA was investigated by commercially available PCR (Chlamydia trachomatis 330/740 IC; Sacace, Italy) method. In our study, 4 (8%) of the 50 swab samples were found positive with DFA, 1 (2%) was positive with cell culture, and 1 (2%) was positive with PCR. The only sample that gave positive results with all of the three methods was an urethral swab. Three cervical swab samples that were found positive only with DFA method was evaluated as false positivity. When cell culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of DFA method were estimated as 100% and 94%, respectively, while those rates for PCR were 100% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, although cell culture is still the gold standard in the diagnosis of C.trachomatis. infections, since it is time consuming and difficult to apply, more rapid and reliable PCR methods may be applied in diagnosis. DFA method which is

  8. Efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for patients with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C.; Soobiah, Charlene; Berliner, Shirra; Ho, Joanne M.; Ng, Carmen H.; Ashoor, Huda M.; Chen, Maggie H.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Straus, Sharon E.

    Background: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effectiveness for mild cognitive impairment is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Our eligibility criteria were studies of the effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine on mild cognitive impairment reporting cognition, function, behaviour, global status, and mortality or harms. We identified relevant material by searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, Embase), the references of included studies, trial registries and conference proceedings, and by contacting experts. Two reviewers independently screened the results of the literature search, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results: We screened 15 554 titles and abstracts and 1384 full-text articles. Eight randomized clinical trials and 3 companion reports met our inclusion criteria. We found no significant effects of cognitive enhancers on cognition (Mini–Mental State Examination: 3 randomized clinical trials [RCTs], mean difference [MD] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.22 to 0.50; Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale — cognition subscale: 3 RCTs, standardized MD −0.07, 95% CI−0.16 to 0.01]) or function (Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study activities of daily living inventory: 2 RCTs, MD 0.30, 95% CI −0.26 to 0.86). Cognitive enhancers were associated with higher risks of nausea, diarrhea and vomiting than placebo. Interpretation: Cognitive enhancers did not improve cognition or function among patients with mild cognitive impairment and were associated with a greater risk of gastrointestinal harms. Our findings do not support the use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24043661

  9. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  10. Management of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Sun, Yongdong; Huang, Xin; Luan, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus on the optimal treatment of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Most previous reports concerning the management methods were either sporadic case reports or a series of limited cases. This study is to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts by analyzing the outcomes of a cohort of patients who were treated with different strategies. Methods and Findings We reviewed the outcomes of 15 patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts who were managed by three different modalities from 1998 through 2010. Six patients underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication. Seven patients underwent a modified surgical procedure, during which the cerebrospinal fluid leak aperture was located and repaired. Two patients were treated with medication and physical therapy. Outcomes of the patients were assessed by following up (13 months to 10 years). All of the six patients treated with microsurgical cyst fenestration and cyst wall imbrication experienced complete or substantial relief of their preoperative symptoms. However, the symptoms of one patient reappeared eight months after the operation. Another patient experienced a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six of the seven patients treated with the modified surgical operation experienced complete or substantial resolution of their preoperative symptoms, with only one patient who experienced temporary worsening of his preoperative urine incontinence, which disappeared gradually one month later. No new postoperative neurological deficits, no cerebrospinal fluid leaks and no recurrence were observed in the seven patients. The symptoms of the two patients treated with conservative measures aggravated with time. Conclusions Microsurgical operation should be a treatment consideration in patients with symptomatic sacral perineural cysts. Furthermore, the surgical procedure with partial cyst removal and aperture repair

  11. Clinical Effect and Mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granules in Thalassemia Patients with Mild, Moderate, or Severe Anemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Sun, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wen-Juan; Fang, Su-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    Yisui Shengxue granules, which is a Chinese traditional medicine, can increase hemoglobin, red blood cells, and Ret of thalassemia patients with mild, moderate, and severe anemia and thus relieve clinical anemia symptoms. Studies on mechanism found that Yisui Shengxue granules can increase the proliferation ability of hematopoietic stem cells. Emodin promoted colony forming of hematopoietic stem cells. Yisui Shengxue granules can increase the activity of GSH-PX in bone marrow blood and decreased the severity of inclusion bodies on the cytomembrane of RBCs. YSSXG attenuated anemia symptoms in patients with thalassemia mostly by increasing the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and decreasing the hemolysis of RBCs.

  12. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Cláudia; Coutinho, Gabriel; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Assunção, Naima; Teldeschi, Alina; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and micro-linguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group) were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups' performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD.

  13. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Cláudia; Coutinho, Gabriel; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Assunção, Naima; Teldeschi, Alina; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and micro-linguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group) were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups' performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD. PMID:26074814

  14. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, G.; Schlierf, G.; Wirth, A.; Mautner, H.P.; Scheurlen, H.; Thumm, M.; Roth, H.; Schwarz, F.; Kohlmeier, M.; Mehmel, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 (69 to 304) mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress.

  15. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  16. Mild typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Topley, J M

    1986-01-01

    A series of 100 Zimbabwean children aged between 5 months and 13 years with culture positive typhoid fever is presented. The disease was found to be fairly mild with a low prevalence of complications, and no patient in the series died. Possible explanations for the relative mildness of typhoid in this paediatric population are discussed. PMID:3954441

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of latrepirdine in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of latrepirdine on cognition and global function in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Sixty-four research centers in Australia, Europe, and North America. PATIENTS Four hundred three patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and baseline cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10-26). INTERVENTION Latrepirdine (20 mg) vs matching placebo administered orally 3 times daily for 26 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The co-primary outcome measures were cognition as measured by the change in Mini-Mental State Examination score from baseline to week 26 and global function at week 26 as measured by the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview, which ranges from 1 (marked improvement) to 7 (marked worsening). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included behavior, daily function, motor function, and safety. RESULTS The mean change in Mini-Mental State Examination score among participants randomized to latrepirdine (1.5-point improvement) did not differ significantly from that among participants randomized to placebo (1.3-point improvement) (P=.39). Similarly, the distribution of the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview did not differ significantly among those randomized to latrepirdine compared with placebo (P=.84). No significant treatment effects were detected on the secondary efficacy outcome measures. The incidence of adverse events was similar between those randomized to latrepirdine (68.5%) and placebo (68.0%). CONCLUSION In patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and cognitive impairment, treatment with

  18. Symptomatic posterior mediastinal angioleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Yeong-Dae

    2008-08-30

    We report a case of a symptomatic angioleiomyoma in the left posterior mediastinum. A 66-year-old woman presented with left back and flank pain for 6 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed 4.3 cm round mass. The mass was initially diagnosed as nerve sheath tumor, because of her symptoms and its close location to the sympathetic trunk and intercostal nerve. It was uneventfully removed through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathology revealed an angioleiomyoma.

  19. Cochlear implantation for symptomatic hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, K; Fukushiama, K; Oda, Y; Masuda, A; Hayashi, S; Nagayasu, N; Yoshino, T; Kashihara, K; Takahashi, K; Masuda, Y

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the effectiveness of cochlear implantation for hereditary deafness has been reported. We performed cochlear implantation for two patients with symptomatic hereditary deafness. Deafness in one patient was thought to be a result of albinism-deafness syndrome and in the other patient, a result of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia syndrome. Since their speech perception abilities improved dramatically, we believe that cochlear implantation should be actively performed for these two syndromes.

  20. [Effects of combined action of radon baths and transcranial magnetotherapy on cerebral circulation in patients in an intermediate period of a mild craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Moliavchikova, O V; Cherevashchenko, L A; Grinzaĭd, Iu M; Aĭvazov, V N; Zhuravlev, M E

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose combined therapy improving cerebral circulation in patients in an intermediate period of a mild craniocerebral trauma. The combination consists of radon baths and transcranial magnetotherapy which raise blood volume filling, relieve vascular resistance, improve venous outflow.

  1. The correlation between symptomatic fatigue to definite measures of gait in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon

    2016-02-01

    There is a general consensus relating to the multidimensional aspects of fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), however, the exact impact of this symptom on gait is not fully understood. Our primary aim was to examine the relationship between definite parameters of gait with self-reported symptomatic fatigue in PwMS according to their level of neurological impairment. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait were studied using an electronic walkway. The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) questionnaire, a patient-rated measure of walking ability was collected. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) questionnaire was used to determine the level of symptomatic fatigue. One hundred and one PwMS (61 women) were included in the study analysis. Subjects were divided into mild and moderate neurological impaired groups. Fatigue was correlated with 5 (out of 14) spatiotemporal parameters. However, correlation scores were all <0.35, thus considered as weak correlations. In the mild group, the double support period was the only variable positively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.28, P=0.05). In the moderate group, step and stride length were solely negatively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.32, P=0.03). In contrast to the definite gait parameters, the MSWS-12 self-questionnaire was moderately positively correlated to the level of fatigue. Scores for the total, mild and moderate groups were 0.54, 0.57 and 0.51; P<0.01, respectively. The present results indicate that modifications in spatio-temporal parameters of gait are not closely related to symptomatic fatigue in PwMS. On the contrary, the self-reported MSWS-12 questionnaire is predisposed to level of fatigue in PwMS.

  2. Retrospective cohort study of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in patients with mild-to-moderate alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Steven Douglas; Gelblum, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caprylic triglyceride (CT) in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in routine clinical practice via review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Methods Participants were outpatients aged ≥50 years with a diagnosis of probable mild-to-moderate AD who had received CT for ≥6 months. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the patient’s condition as rated by the treating physician using a physician’s overall assessment. Results A total of 55 patients were included. The physician’s overall assessment indicated that ~80% of patients who had CT added to ongoing pharmacotherapy were stable or improved. Mini-Mental State Examination scores also remained stable over 15 months of therapy (20.6 ± 3.0 at baseline and 20.1 ± 5.6 at follow-up, P = 0.5233, n = 27). Caregiver assessments indicated that most patients were stable or improved with respect to memory and ability to carry out activities of daily living. The most frequent adverse events with CT involved the gastrointestinal system. Conclusion Results from this chart review indicate that addition of CT to pharmacotherapy was associated with stable disease or improvement over a follow-up period of 18.8 months. PMID:24187497

  3. Comparing Cognitive Failures and Metacognitive Beliefs in Mild Traumatic Brain Injured Patients and Normal Controls in Kashan

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Shafiei, Elham; Fakharian, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Head trauma is associated with multiple destructive cognitive symptoms and cognitive failure. Cognitive failures include problems with memory, attention and operation. Cognitive failures are considered as a process associated with metacognition. Objectives: This study aimed to compare cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild Traumatic Brain Injured (TBI) patients and normal controls in Kashan. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 40 TBI patients referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan city and 40 normal controls in Kashan. Traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls were selected by convenience sampling. Two groups filled out the demographic sheet, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30). The data were analyzed by the SPSS-19 software with multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between TBI and controls in total scores and subscales of CFQ and MCQ (F = 0.801, P = 0.61). Conclusions: Based on these findings, it seems that mild brain injuries don't make significant metacognitive problems and cognitive failures. PMID:26101761

  4. Impact of Gender on the Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium in Symptomatic Patients With Normal Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Elsemiek M; Timmer, Jorik R; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Mouden, Mohamed; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L

    2016-12-01

    The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score provides independent prognostic value on top of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We sought to determine whether the prognostic value of the CAC score in patients with normal SPECT MPI is gender specific. We studied 3,705 consecutive symptomatic patients without a history of coronary artery disease with normal SPECT MPI. All patients underwent concomitant CAC scoring, which was categorized as CAC score 0, 1 to 99, 100 to 399, 400 to 999, or ≥1,000. Major adverse cardiac events were defined as revascularization, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or all-cause mortality. The median CAC score was 9 in women (interquartile range 0 to 113) and 47 in men (interquartile range 1 to 307, p <0.001). The annual event rate was lower in women than in men (1.6% and 2.7%, respectively, p <0.001). When stratified by CAC score, annual event rates were similar (for women and men, respectively: CAC score 0, 0.6% and 0.5%, p = 0.95; CAC score 1 to 99, 0.9% and 1.2%, p = 0.45; CAC score 100 to 399, 2.7% and 3.8%, p = 0.23; CAC score 400 to 999, 3.8% and 5.3%, p = 0.34; CAC score ≥1,000, 8.4% and 8.7%, p = 0.99). The CAC score was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events in both genders (CAC score ≥1,000: hazard ratio for women 8.5, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 18.1; hazard ratio for men 14.8, 95% confidence interval 5.3 to 41.1). In conclusion, risk for events is similar for both genders when stratified by CAC score, wherein a high CAC score carries a high risk for events despite normal SPECT MPI. Our findings do not reveal a gender-specific prognostic value of the CAC score.

  5. A Symptomatic Case of Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Lower Limb Spastic Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Alfawareh, Mohammad; Alotaibi, Tariq; Labeeb, Abdallah; Audat, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 18 Final Diagnosis: Hemangioma Symptoms: Pain • weaknes of lower limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Decompression and fixation Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Despite being the most common tumor of the spine, vertebral hemangioma is rarely symptomatic in adults. In fact, only 0.9–1.2% of all vertebral hemangiomas may be symptomatic. When hemangiomas occur in the thoracic vertebrae, they are more likely to be symptomatic due to the narrow vertebral canal dimensions that mandate more aggressive management prior to the onset of severe neurological sequelae. Case Report: An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a one-month history of mild to moderate midthoracic back pain, radiating to both lower limbs. It was associated with both lower limb weakness and decreased sensation. There was no history of bowel or bladder incontinence. Neurological examination revealed lower limb weakness with power 3/5, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, bilateral sustained clonus, impaired sensation below the umbilicus, spasticity, and a positive Babinski sign. A CT scan showed a diffuse body lesion at the 8th thoracic vertebra with coarse trabeculations, corduroy appearance, or jail-bar sign. The patient underwent decompression and fixation. Biopsy of permanent samples showed proliferation of blood vessels with dilated spaces and no malignant cells, consistent with hemangioma. Postoperatively, spasticity improved, and the patient regained normal power. Conclusions: Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas are rare but should be considered as a differential diagnosis. They can present with severe neurological symptoms. When managed appropriately, patients regain full motor and sensory function. Decompression resulted in quick relief of symptoms, which was followed by an extensive rehabilitation program. PMID:27795545

  6. Preventing Progression in Men with Mild Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Potential Role for Phytotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Yan Kit; Marihart, Sibylle; Harik, Mike; Djavan, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is increasing with the aging population worldwide. Throughout the 20th century, men with minimally symptomatic BPH were generally advised to defer treatment. Treatment deferral or watchful waiting has always appeared reasonable because mild lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction are not bothersome and are often regarded as part of the aging process, progression is usually slow, and symptoms often regress spontaneously. This review examines the evidence of the natural history of BPH, highlighting the group of patients with mild symptoms, the risk factors for progression, and the potential role of phytotherapy in this group of men. PMID:16985600

  7. Symptomatic female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): genetic and clinical characterization.

    PubMed

    Giliberto, Florencia; Radic, Claudia Pamela; Luce, Leonela; Ferreiro, Verónica; de Brasi, Carlos; Szijan, Irene

    2014-01-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and is characterized by muscle degeneration and death. DMD affects males; females being asymptomatic carriers of mutations. However, some of them manifest symptoms due to a translocation between X chromosome and an autosome or to a heterozygous mutation leading to inactivation of most of their normal X chromosome. Six symptomatic female carriers and two asymptomatic were analyzed by: I) Segregation of STRs-(CA)n and MLPA assays to detect a hemizygous alteration, and II) X chromosome inactivation pattern to uncover the reason for symptoms in these females. The symptomatic females shared mild but progressive muscular weakness and increased serum creatin kinase (CK) levels. Levels of dystrophin protein were below normal or absent in many fibers. Segregation of STRs-(CA)n revealed hemizygous patterns in three patients, which were confirmed by MLPA. In addition, this analysis showed a duplication in another patient. X chromosome inactivation assay revealed a skewed X inactivation pattern in the symptomatic females and a random inactivation pattern in the asymptomatic ones. Our results support the hypothesis that the DMD phenotype in female carriers of a dystrophin mutation has a direct correlation with a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern.

  8. Strong Association Between Endometriosis and Symptomatic Leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Nezhat, Camran; Li, Anjie; Abed, Sozdar; Balassiano, Erika; Soliemannjad, Rose; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Farr

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The relationship between leiomyoma and endometriosis is poorly understood. Both contribute to considerable pain and may cause subfertility or infertility in women. We conducted this retrospective study to assess the rate of coexistence of endometriosis in women with symptomatic leiomyoma. The primary outcome measured was the coexistence of histology-proven endometriosis in women with symptomatic leiomyoma. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a data-based collection of medical records of 244 patients treated at a tertiary medical center, who were evaluated for symptomatic leiomyoma from March 2011 through December 2015. Of those, 208 patients underwent laparoscopic or laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy or hysterectomy. All patients provided consent for possible concomitant diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. The remaining 36 patients underwent medical therapy and were excluded from the study. All patients who had myomectomy or supracervical hysterectomy underwent minilaparotomy for extracorporeal morcellation and specimen removal beginning in April 2012. Results: Of the 208 patients with the presenting chief concern of symptomatic leiomyoma and who underwent surgical therapy, 181 had concomitant diagnoses of leiomyoma and endometriosis, whereas 27 had leiomyoma. Of the 27 patients, 9 also had adenomyosis. Patients with only fibroid tumors were, on average, 4.0 years older than those with endometriosis and fibroids (mean age, 44 vs 40 ± SD). Patients with both pathologies were also more likely to present with pelvic pain and nulliparity than those with fibroid tumors alone. Conclusions: In our patient population, 87.1% of patients with a chief concern of symptomatic fibroids also had a diagnosis of histology-proven endometriosis, which affirms the need for concomitant diagnosis and intraoperative treatment of both conditions. Overlooking the coexistence of endometriosis in women with symptomatic leiomyoma may lead to suboptimal

  9. Association of self-reported recurrent mild hypoglycemia with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Andrea On Yan; Ho, Tony S.T.; Lau, Eric S.H.; Ko, Gary T.C.; Ozaki, Risa; Tsang, Chiu-Chi; Kong, Alice P.S.; Ma, Ronald C.W.; So, Wing-Yee; Chow, Francis C.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Severe hypoglycemia is an established risk marker for cardiovascular complications of diabetes, but whether mild hypoglycemia confers similar risks is unclear. We examined the association of self-reported recurrent mild hypoglycemic events with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. From June 2007 to May 2015, 19,019 patients in Hong Kong underwent comprehensive assessment of metabolic and complication status using the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation program. Recurrent mild hypoglycemic event was determined by self-report of mild-to-moderate hypoglycemic symptoms at least once monthly in previous 3 months. Incident cardiovascular events were identified using hospital discharge diagnosis codes and death using Hong Kong Death Registry. Patients reporting recurrent mild hypoglycemia (n = 1501, 8.1%) were younger, had longer disease duration, worse glycemic control, and higher frequencies of vascular complications at baseline. Over 3.9 years of follow-up, respective incidences of CVD and all-cause death were 18.1 and 10.3 per 1000 person-years and 15.4 and 9.9 per 1000 person-years in patients with and without recurrent mild hypoglycemia. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, recurrent mild hypoglycemia was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality. In subgroup analysis, mild hypoglycemia was related to CVD in patients with chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.84, P = 0.0435) and those on insulin (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.86, P = 0.0402) adjusted for confounders. Mild hypoglycemia by self-report was frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes and was associated with increased risk of CVD in susceptible groups. PMID:27828844

  10. A Quick Screening Model for Symptomatic Bacterascites in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Long-Chuan; Xu, Long; He, Wen-Hua; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis can be made when a patient has an ascites polymorphonuclear leukocyte count ≥250/mm3. However, symptomatic bacterascites, which is a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with signs of infection but an ascites polymorphonuclear leukocyte count <250/mm3, cannot be confirmed until the time-consuming ascites culture becomes positive. Currently, early indicators for symptomatic bacterascites remain undetermined. Aims: To develop a quick screening model for early detection of symptomatic bacterascites in cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Data on patients with cirrhotic ascites from two hospitals (from 2010 to 2014) were collected retrospectively. Patients with symptomatic bacterascites were enrolled in the case group and compared with patients without any infection in the control group. Logistic regression analysis was used to build a model for screening symptomatic bacterascites, and a receiver operating characteristics curve was used to assess the model. Results: In total, 103 patients were enrolled in the case group and 204 patients were enrolled in the control group. A screening model was constructed based on body temperature, abdominal tenderness, blood neutrophil percentage, blood total bilirubin, prothrombin time, and ascites nucleated leukocyte count. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.939; a screening score of 0.328 was the best cutoff value. Conclusion: Patients with suspected symptomatic bacterascites can be quickly screened according to the developed model, and a screening score ≥0.328 indicates symptomatic bacterascites. PMID:27488322

  11. Microscopic colitis in patients with mild duodenal damage: A new clinical and pathological entity (“lymphocytic enterocolitis”)?

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Gabriele Antonio; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Sapone, Nicoletta; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Saracco, Giorgio Maria; Astegiano, Marco; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the potential association between mild duodenal damage and microscopic colitis (MC). METHODS We retrospectively included 105 consecutive patients with type I Marsh-Oberhuber duodenal damage and negativity for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysium and anti-tissue transglutaminase. The following parameters were analyzed: Sex, age at execution of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, duodenal damage, and number of intraepithelial lymphocytes at biopsies, prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, age at execution of colonoscopy, macroscopic and microscopic features of colonoscopy, family history of gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases, smoking habits, biochemical parameters of inflammation and autoimmunity, use of proton pump inhibitors or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adverse reactions to drugs or foods, pathologies known to be associated with celiac disease or MC, living on a gluten-free diet or on a gluten-low diet for at least 1 mo. RESULTS Colonoscopy was performed in 59 patients, but only in 48 of them biopsies were taken in the entire colon. Considering the latter cohort, the diagnosis of MC was met in 25 (52.1%) patients while in 18 patients other pathologic findings were reported: 13 (27%) cases of nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease, 2 (4.2%) cases of Crohn’s disease, 2 (4.2%) cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and 1 (2.1%) case of autoimmune enteritis. Five (10.4%) patients had a normal colonoscopic result. Matching the groups by age, and considering only patients who underwent colonoscopy (42.7 ± 15.5 years) vs those who did not undergo colonoscopy (36.9 ± 10.6 years), a statistical difference was found (P = 0.039). Focusing on symptoms, diarrhea was statistically more prevalent in MC group than in patients who did not undergo colonoscopy (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION Mild duodenal damage is associated with MC in more than half of the cases. This association supports the hypothesis of a link between these two entities. PMID:27895976

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Short, Jody L.; Majid, Arshad; Hussain, Syed I.

    2011-01-01

    Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is responsible for approximately 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States. The risk of recurrent stroke may be as high as 35% in patient with critical stenosis >70% in diameter narrowing. Recent advances in medical and endovascular therapy have placed ICAD at the forefront of clinical stroke research to optimize the best medical and endovascular approach to treat this important underlying stroke etiology. Analysis of symptomatic ICAD studies lead to the question that whether angioplasty and/or stenting is a safe, suitable, and efficacious therapeutic strategy in patients with critical stenoses that are deemed refractory to medical management. Most of the currently available data in support of angioplasty and/or stenting in high risk patients with severe symptomatic ICAD is in the form of case series and randomized trial results of endovascular therapy versus medical treatment are awaited. This is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the endovascular approach with angioplasty and/or stenting of symptomatic ICAD. PMID:21359195

  13. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  14. The Efficacy of a Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits.

  15. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Curiati, Pedro K.; Magaldi, Regina M.; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Bottino, Cassio M.C.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females) with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09), better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06) and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = −0.012, p = 0.07) at baseline. Conclusion Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings. PMID:25493090

  16. Frequency of Factors that Complicate the Identification of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Level I Trauma Center Patients

    PubMed Central

    Furger, Robyn E.; Nelson, Lindsay D.; Brooke Lerner, E.; McCrea, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Determine the frequency of factors that complicate identification of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in emergency department (ED) patients. Setting Chart review. Materials & Methods Records of 3,042 patients (age 18-45) exposed to a potential mechanism of mTBI were reviewed for five common complicating factors and signs of mTBI. Results Most patients (65.1%) had at least one complicating factor: given narcotics in the ED (43.7%), on psychotropic medication (18.4%), psychiatric diagnosis (15.3%), alcohol consumption near time of admission (14.2%), and pre-admission narcotic prescription (8.9%). Conclusion Our findings highlight the frequency of these confounding factors in this population. Future research should identify how these factors interact with performance on assessment measures to improve evidence-based mTBI assessment in this population. PMID:27134757

  17. Just lying there, remembering: improving recall of prose in amnesic patients with mild cognitive impairment by minimising interference.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Cowan, Nelson; Beschin, Nicoletta; Perini, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The hallmark of amnesia is poor explicit long-term memory along with normal short-term memory. It is often stated that information encountered by amnesic patients is forgotten within 1 minute of presentation. However, previous work has not distinguished between forgetting as a function of time versus the interfering material occupying that time. We show that there is a marked benefit of reduced interference in amnesic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that is characterised by anterograde amnesia in the absence of other neuropsychological deficits and carries an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The result suggests that long-term memory is encoded in these patients to a greater extent than had been realised but that their memory is highly vulnerable to interference.

  18. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli.

  19. Delayed audiovisual integration of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease compared with normal aged controls.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglong; Yang, Jiajia; Yu, Yinghua; Li, Qi; Nakamura, Naoya; Shen, Yong; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Yu, Shengyuan; Abe, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The human brain can anatomically combine task-relevant information from different sensory pathways to form a unified perception; this process is called multisensory integration. The aim of the present study was to test whether the multisensory integration abilities of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) differed from those of normal aged controls (NC). A total of 64 subjects were divided into three groups: NC individuals (n = 24), MCI patients (n = 19), and probable AD patients (n = 21). All of the subjects were asked to perform three separate audiovisual integration tasks and were instructed to press the response key associated with the auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli in the three tasks. The accuracy and response time (RT) of each task were measured, and the RTs were analyzed using cumulative distribution functions to observe the audiovisual integration. Our results suggest that the mean RT of patients with AD was significantly longer than those of patients with MCI and NC individuals. Interestingly, we found that patients with both MCI and AD exhibited adequate audiovisual integration, and a greater peak (time bin with the highest percentage of benefit) and broader temporal window (time duration of benefit) of multisensory enhancement were observed. However, the onset time and peak benefit of audiovisual integration in MCI and AD patients occurred significantly later than did those of the NC. This finding indicates that the cognitive functional deficits of patients with MCI and AD contribute to the differences in performance enhancements of audiovisual integration compared with NC.

  20. Immune Responses in Acute and Convalescent Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Disease during the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, Kristin G.-I.; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Tunheim, Gro; Berdal, Jan Erik; Hauge, Anna Germundsson; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Peters, Bjoern; Oftung, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of immune responses influencing clinical severity during pandemic influenza infection is important for improved treatment and vaccine development. In this study we recruited 46 adult patients during the 2009 influenza pandemic and characterized humoral and cellular immune responses. Those included were either acute hospitalized or convalescent patients with different disease severities (mild, moderate or severe). In general, protective antibody responses increased with enhanced disease severity. In the acute patients, we found higher levels of TNF-α single-producing CD4+T-cells in the severely ill as compared to patients with moderate disease. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a subset of acute patients with peptide T-cell epitopes showed significantly lower frequencies of influenza specific CD8+ compared with CD4+ IFN-γ T-cells in acute patients. Both T-cell subsets were predominantly directed against the envelope antigens (HA and NA). However, in the convalescent patients we found high levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells directed against conserved core antigens (NP, PA, PB, and M). The results indicate that the antigen targets recognized by the T-cell subsets may vary according to the phase of infection. The apparent low levels of cross-reactive CD8+ T-cells recognizing internal antigens in acute hospitalized patients suggest an important role for this T-cell subset in protective immunity against influenza. PMID:26606759

  1. Protected by nature? Effects of strenuous physical exercise on FVIII activity in moderate and mild haemophilia A patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Groen, W G; den Uijl, I E M; van der Net, J; Grobbee, D E; de Groot, Ph G; Fischer, K

    2013-07-01

    Increase of factor VIII activity (FVIII) after physical exercise has been reported in healthy subjects and small-scale studies in patients with coagulopathies. The aim was to study whether moderate and mild haemophilia A patients are able to increase their endogenous FVIII activity levels by physical activity. We studied changes in FVIII activity levels after high-intensity exercise in 15 haemophilia A patients, 20-39 years, eight with moderate, seven with mild haemophilia. Patients cycled until volitional exhaustion, blood samples were drawn before and 10 min after the exercise test. FVIII activity increased 2.5 times (range 1.8-7.0 times), for both severities. Absolute increases were markedly different: median 7 IU dL(-1) (range 3-9 IU dL(-1) ) in patients with moderate, compared to 15 IU dL(-1) (range 6-62 IU dL(-1) ) in mild haemophilia patients. VWF and VWFpp increased independently of severity; median 50% (range 8-123%) and median 165% (range 48-350%), respectively, reflecting acute release of VWF. These observations may be used to promote high-intensity activities before participating in sports for moderate and mild haemophilia A patients, to reduce bleeding risk. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical significance of exercise on different levels of intensity in patients with mild and moderate haemophilia A.

  2. Prolonged and symptomatic bradycardia following a single dose of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hans; Fischer, Hans-Jörg; Weber, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fingolimod-related bradycardia is usually asymptomatic, reaches its nadir within 6 hours post-dose and recovers spontaneously. Here we report the case of a 30-year-old MS patient with vagotonia who developed symptomatic bradycardia with 33 beats per minute at nadir 39 hours after a single dose of fingolimod. Bradycardia was responsive to atropine, but returned within 2 hours. Overall, it took a week until the patient recovered. Extended monitoring is advised in patients with symptomatic bradycardia.

  3. Information and Communication Technology to Support Self-Management of Patients with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairments: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Jeremiah; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild acquired cognitive impairment (MACI) is a new term used to describe a subgroup of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are expected to reach a stable cognitive level over time. This patient group is generally young and have acquired MCI from a head injury or mild stroke. Although the past decade has seen a large amount of research on how to use information and communication technology (ICT) to support self-management of patients with chronic diseases, MACI has not received much attention. Therefore, there is a lack of information about what tools have been created and evaluated that are suitable for self-management of MACI patients, and a lack of clear direction on how best to proceed with ICT tools to support self-management of MACI patients. Objective This paper aims to provide direction for further research and development of tools that can support health care professionals in assisting MACI patients with self-management. An overview of studies reporting on the design and/or evaluation of ICT tools for assisting MACI patients in self-management is presented. We also analyze the evidence of benefit provided by these tools, and how their functionality matches MACI patients’ needs to determine areas of interest for further research and development. Methods A review of the existing literature about available assistive ICT tools for MACI patients was conducted using 8 different medical, scientific, engineering, and physiotherapy library databases. The functionality of tools was analyzed using an analytical framework based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and a subset of common and important problems for patients with MACI created by MACI experts in Sweden. Results A total of 55 search phrases applied in the 8 databases returned 5969 articles. After review, 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most articles reported case reports and exploratory research. Out of the 7 articles, 4 (57

  4. Recognition of personally familiar scenes in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease: effects of spatial frequency and luminance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Ti; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    Many community-residing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have way-finding problems, particularly at twilight or on rainy days. In an attempt to understand the mechanism, we prepared pictures of street scenes, including 8 personally familiar and 8 unfamiliar, divided into Low Spatial Frequency (LSF) and Low Luminance (LL) conditions to simulate foggy or rainy days and nighttime. Each picture was presented from the most difficult (level 10) to the easiest (level 1). The participants, including 20 very mild AD patients and 20 normal controls (NC) with equal basic visual acuity, were asked to judge whether a picture was familiar or not and to describe how they came to that conclusion. The accuracy of familiar scene recognition was measured by the number of pictures successfully recognized and the ability thereof by the level needed. Compared with NC, AD patients showed poorer accuracy (2.7 ± 0.2 versus 3.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SEM, p = 0.003 under LSF; 2.8 ± 0.2 versus 3.8 ± 0.1, p = 0.001 under LL) and poorer ability (2.2 ± 0.4 versus 4.3 ± 0.4 p = 0.000 under LSF; 2.9 ± 0.3 versus 5.2 ± 0.5, p = 0.000 under LL) for both conditions. The AD patients used a global element to help judge when personally familiar scenes were displayed, which was the method NC usually adopted when presented with novel scenes. In summary, this study demonstrated poorer recognition ability in very mild AD patients when personally familiar street scenes were displayed, and the underlying mechanisms may include impaired visual search performance and efficiency. The deficits also reflect their difficulty in real life situations when their familiar environments become blurred or dark.

  5. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item.

  6. The relationship between degree of facet tropism and amount of dynamic disc bulge in lumbar spine of patients symptomatic for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Do, Duc H; Taghavi, Cyrus E; Fong, Winston; Kong, Min Ho; Morishita, Yuichiro; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Facet tropism has been investigated as a predisposing factor for degenerative changes in the lumbar spine; however, no prior study has evaluated the relationship between disc bulge and facet tropism. In this study, we used kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI) to investigate the association between degree of facet tropism and amount of disc bulge in the lumbar spine in relation to age. kMRIs in the flexion, neutral, and extension positions were performed on 410 consecutive patients with low back pain. T2-weighted midsagittal and axial mid-disc cuts were analyzed to measure disc bulge and facet angle. Facet asymmetry was calculated and classified as: no facet tropism, <6°; mild facet tropism, 6-11°; or severe facet tropism, ≥11°. Maximal static bulge (MSB), maximal dynamic bulge (MDB), and age in the facet tropism groups were compared by age subpopulations and MDB categories, defined by the positions between which the largest change in disc bulge occurs. We found the severe facet tropism group to be associated with a nearly significant increase in MSB and MDB over the no facet tropism group in the older subpopulation at the L4-L5 level only, and a larger MDB in the L4-L5 MDB category [E-N], where the greatest change in disc bulge occurs between neutral and extension positions (p = 0.013). Our findings suggest that severe facet tropism is associated with increased disc bulge at L4-L5 in only a subset of older age patients, but may in large part be due to biomechanical factors that define the [E-N] category.

  7. Symptomatic Control of Neuroendocrine Tumours with Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Larbi, Emmanuel; Middleton, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, increases progression-free survival in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Patients with neuroendocrine tumours and symptomatic carcinoid have inferior health-related quality of life than those without symptoms. We aimed to evaluate the effect of everolimus on symptomatic control of neuroendocrine tumours. Fifteen patients with metastatic neuroendocrine disease pre-treated with depot octreotide received combination everolimus and octreotide (midgut = 8, pancreatic = 3, other = 4). Reasons for initiation of everolimus were progressive disease (PD) by response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (n = 5), worsening syndromic symptomology (n = 5), or both (n = 5). Symptomatic and objective response and toxicity were evaluated using standard criteria. 7/10 patients who were syndromic had improvements in symptomology, with a mean duration of symptom control 13.9 months (range 1-39). All 10 symptomatic patients had non pancreatic neuroendocrine (pNET) primaries, and with everolimus, 6/10 had reduced stool frequency, 3/7 had a reduction of asthenia, and 5/7 had reduced frequency and severity of flushing. Sixty percent of patients experienced any grade toxicities, including the following: 40% grade 1/2 stomatitis, 7% grade 3/4 stomatitis, 20% grade 1/2 rash, 13% diarrhoea, and one case of pneumonitis. In this cohort of 15 patients, we demonstrated that 70% of non pNET individuals with common carcinoid syndrome symptoms resistant to depot octreotide had improvement in these symptoms on institution of everolimus, with meaningful durations of symptom control. Although this data is observational, to our knowledge, this represents the largest analysis of carcinoid syndrome control with combined everolimus and octreotide.

  8. Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Urban; Eriksson, Johan; Forsgren, Lars; Domellöf, Magdalena E.; Elgh, Eva; Lundquist, Anders; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up) compared 28 patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI with 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with MCI under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p < 0.001, uncorrected). Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p < 0.001, uncorrected) was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI between baseline and follow-up, while patients without MCI were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI. Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson's disease and MCI. The longitudinal evolution of MCI in Parkinson's disease translates into additional task-evoked posterior cortical changes. PMID:25120418

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p < 0.0001). Distinct profiles were also evident for each AD severity group. An increase in telomere number and aggregation concomitant with a decrease in telomere length from normal to severe AD defines the individual stages of the disease (p < 0.0001).

  10. Exercise-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Enhances Memory Consolidation in Both Normal Aging and Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Sabrina K.; Cotman, Carl W.; Cahill, Lawrence F.

    2013-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population. PMID:22914593

  11. Exercise-induced noradrenergic activation enhances memory consolidation in both normal aging and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F

    2012-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.

  12. The Modified Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI-mod) for Patients with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration, Alzheimer's Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, Noora-Maria; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jokelainen, Jari; Krüger, Johanna; Hall, Anette; Pikkarainen, Maria; Soininen, Hilkka; Remes, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    While behavioral symptoms are both early and prevalent features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), they can be present in other types of dementia as well, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and even mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) was specifically developed to capture the behavioral and personality changes in bvFTD; it has also been modified into a self-administered caregiver questionnaire (FBI-mod). We examined the utility of the FBI-mod in differentiating bvFTD (n = 26), primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n = 7), AD (n = 53), and MCI (n = 50) patients, and investigated how the FBI-mod may be associated with neuropsychological measures. The bvFTD patients scored significantly higher as compared to all other patient groups on the FBI-mod Total (p < 0.005), Negative (p < 0.005), and Positive (p < 0.01) scores. The cut-off point for the FBI-mod Total score that best discriminated the bvFTD and AD patients in our sample was 16, thus substantially lower than reported for the original FBI. For the bvFTD group, only mild correlations emerged between the FBI-mod and the cognitive measures. However, significant correlations between the FBI-mod and depressive symptoms as measured by the BDI-II were found for bvFTD. This suggests that while behavioral symptoms appear independent from cognitive deficits in bvFTD, they may nevertheless be interrelated with depressive symptoms. We conclude that the FBI-mod is an easily administered behavioral scale that can aid in differential diagnosis of bvFTD and should be used in clinical practice. The FBI-mod may further be considered as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  13. Post-traumatic anosmia in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): A systematic and illustrated review

    PubMed Central

    Proskynitopoulos, Phileas J.; Stippler, Martina; Kasper, Ekkehard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a disorder associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is prevalent in up to 20% of patients suffering from TBI. Nevertheless, most studies focusing on the relationship between OD and TBIs do not differentiate between the different types of TBI (mild, medium, and severe). In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of the existing literature for the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and OD in order to examine their relationship, focusing on its neurosurgical management and the radiographic characteristics. Methods: The MEDLINE database was systematically reviewed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. We found 66 articles, of which 10 fulfilled our criteria. Results: All except two studies reported a significant association between trauma severity and olfaction. Two studies found a negative correlation between TBI severity and olfactory bulb volume with one reporting an r value of −0.62). Three studies reported an association between the observation of radiographic intracranial hemorrhage or skull base fractures and the history of TBI. Conclusion: According to our search results, we conclude that OD is a prevalent but underdiagnosed problem in mTBI. Because OD is associated with a significant decrease in quality of life, we think that neurosurgical teams need to asses olfactory function in mTBI patients when they report to clinics. To illustrate this scenario, we include two distinct cases of patients with anosmia after mTBI in this review. Finally, we suggest a treatment algorithm for patients with mTBI so that a possible OD can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. PMID:27213113

  14. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level and relation with size of hippocampus in patients with mild cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Daghighi, Mohammad-Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Ahmadi, Pegah; Reshadatjoo, Mahmoud; Golestani, Sahar; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Karkon-Shayan, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive disorders and dementia are common problems, and Alzheimer's disease is one of the major leading causes of death worldwide. Thyroid hormone disorders as a common problem effect on hippocampus size which as a prognostic factor in dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and the size of hippocampus in patients with mild cognitive disorders. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 41 patients with symptoms of mild cognitive disorders whom referred to take the brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) in a radiology center under the direction of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran) were evaluated. The right and left hippocampal and brain volume was calculated by MRI at coronal T1-weighted. Serum TSH level was also measured in these patients. Correlation between serum TSH level and hippocampal volume size was evaluated. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.05:1 with mean age of 54.09 ± 3.11 years. Mean serum TSH level of patients was 1.55 ± 1.45 uU/ml. The right and left hippocampal volumes were 1.61 ± 0.42 and 1.62 ± 0.39 ml, respectively. There were slight negative correlations between the right and left hippocampal volumes with TSH level (r = −0.133 and r = −0.092, respectively). Correlations between the right and left hippocampal volumes with TSH level were not statistically significant (P = 0.406, P = 0.566, respectively). Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, there was a weak negative correlation between serum level of TSH with the right and left hippocampal and brain volume ratio, but the correlation was not statistically significant. It seems that controlling of clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism may have a role in slowing of dementia progression and also have a preventive role. PMID:27942104

  15. XPA gene mutations resulting in subtle truncation of protein in xeroderma pigmentosum group A patients with mild skin symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshito; Endo, Yoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shintaro; Iijima, Masahiro; Tomita, Yasushi; Kuru, Satoshi; Takigawa, Masahiro; Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2010-10-01

    Comparisons of the clinical manifestations with gene mutations in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) have suggested that those with mutations closer to the C-terminal coding region of the XPA gene have milder neurological and cutaneous symptoms. Here we report on four middle-aged, newly diagnosed Japanese XPA patients whose unusually mild symptoms, especially those affecting the skin, implicate a reduced association of a subtle defect in the C-terminus of XPA protein with skin lesions. All patients had a heterozygous G → C transversion at the splice acceptor site of XPA intron 3. We identified previously unreported heterozygous mutations in exon 6: a single-base insertion (690insT) in one patient and a four-base insertion (779insTT and 780insTT) in the other patients. These mutations led to the frameshift that created new premature termination codons, resulting in the production of truncated XPA proteins. They were longer than any previously reported truncated XPA protein, suggesting that the minimal cutaneous symptoms in these patients are due to a higher residual level of XPA protein activity and that the subtle defect in the C-terminus of XPA protein is more closely related to neurological impairment than to cutaneous abnormalities.

  16. The Effects of Acupuncture at Real or Sham Acupoints on the Intrinsic Brain Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Baohui; Min, Baoquan; Wang, Zhenchang; Zhou, Aihong; Li, Yong; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that acupuncture can modulate a widely distributed brain network in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Acupuncture at different acupoints could exert different modulatory effects on the brain network. However, whether acupuncture at real or sham acupoints can produce different effects on the brain network in MCI or AD patients remains unclear. Using resting-state fMRI, we reported that acupuncture at Taixi (KI3) induced amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) change of different brain regions in MCI patients from those shown in the healthy controls. In MCI patients, acupuncture at KI3 increased or decreased ALFF in the different regions from those activated by acupuncture in the healthy controls. Acupuncture at the sham acupoint in MCI patients activated the different brain regions from those in healthy controls. Therefore, we concluded that acupuncture displays more significant effect on neuronal activities of the above brain regions in MCI patients than that in healthy controls. Acupuncture at KI3 exhibits different effects on the neuronal activities of the brain regions from acupuncture at sham acupoint, although the difference is only shown at several regions due to the close distance between the above points. PMID:26064166

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization as a Treatment for Medial Knee Pain in Patients with Mild to Moderate Osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Yuji; Korchi, Amine Mohamed; Shinjo, Takuma; Kato, Shojiro

    2015-04-15

    PurposeOsteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability. Mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis that is resistant to nonsurgical options and not severe enough to warrant joint replacement represents a challenge in its management. On the basis of the hypothesis that neovessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain, previous work demonstrated that transcatheter arterial embolization for chronic painful conditions resulted in excellent pain relief. We hypothesized that transcatheter arterial embolization can relieve pain associated with knee osteoarthritis.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis using imipenem/cilastatin sodium or 75 μm calibrated Embozene microspheres as an embolic agent has been performed in 11 and three patients, respectively. We assessed adverse events and changes in Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores.ResultsAbnormal neovessels were identified within soft tissue surrounding knee joint in all cases by arteriography. No major adverse events were related to the procedures. Transcatheter arterial embolization rapidly improved WOMAC pain scores from 12.2 ± 1.9 to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 month after the procedure, with further improvement at 4 months (1.7 ± 2.2) and WOMAC total scores from 47.3 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 5.4 at 1 month, and to 6.3 ± 6.0 at 4 months. These improvements were maintained in most cases at the final follow-up examination at a mean of 12 ± 5 months (range 4–19 months).ConclusionTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis was feasible, rapidly relieved resistant pain, and restored knee function.

  18. Outcomes of Mild to Moderate Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Operations: A Meta-Analysis of 2,488 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ibrahim; Koksal, Cengiz; Erkin, Alper; Sacli, Hakan; Demirtas, Mucahit; Percin, Bilal; Diler, Mevriye Serpil; Kirali, Kaan

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analysis examined the prognosis of patients who were found to have mild to moderate functional tricuspid regurgitation during mitral valve operations. Overall, this meta-analysis included 2,488 patients in 10 studies. Compared with the group without tricuspid valve annuloplasty, the probability of not progressing to moderate to severe functional tricuspid regurgitation was significantly higher in the tricuspid valve annuloplasty group. A more aggressive surgical approach involving concomitant tricuspid repair with mitral valve operations may be considered to avoid the development of moderate to severe functional tricuspid regurgitation in the follow-up.

  19. Increased Water Diffusion in the Parcellated Cortical Regions from the Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Han; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Ng, Shu-Hang; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Huang, Chin-Chang; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The loss of cortical neuron environment integrity is the hallmark of neurodegeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). To reveal the microenvironment changes in cerebral cortex, the current study aimed to examine the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) in parcellated brain among AD, aMCI patients and normal controls (NC). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data with the whole brain coverage were acquired from 28 AD (aged 69.4 ± 8.2 year old), 41 aMCI patients (aged 68.2 ± 6.4 year old) and 40 NC subjects (aged 65.7 ± 6.4 year old). Subsequently, the MD values were parcellated according to the standard automatic anatomic labeling (AAL) template. Only the 90 regions located in the cerebral cortex were used in the final analysis. The mean values of MD from each brain region were extracted and compared among the participant groups. The integrity of the white matter tracts and gray matter atrophy was analyzed using the track-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry approaches, respectively. Results: Significant differences of MD were noticed both in aMCI and AD patients, in terms of the affected regions and the amount of increase. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and cingulum were the most significantly affected regions in AD patients. From all the 90 cerebral cortex regions, significant increase of MD in the AD patients was found in 40 regions, compared to only one (fusiform gyrus on the right) in aMCI patients. In the disease affected regions, the MD from aMCI patients is in state between NC and AD patients. Conclusions: Increased MD in the specific regions of the brain shows the feasibility of MD as an indicator of the early stage cortical degeneration in aMCI and AD patients.

  20. Increased Water Diffusion in the Parcellated Cortical Regions from the Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sung-Han; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Ng, Shu-Hang; Cheng, Jur-Shan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Huang, Chin-Chang; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The loss of cortical neuron environment integrity is the hallmark of neurodegeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). To reveal the microenvironment changes in cerebral cortex, the current study aimed to examine the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) in parcellated brain among AD, aMCI patients and normal controls (NC). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data with the whole brain coverage were acquired from 28 AD (aged 69.4 ± 8.2 year old), 41 aMCI patients (aged 68.2 ± 6.4 year old) and 40 NC subjects (aged 65.7 ± 6.4 year old). Subsequently, the MD values were parcellated according to the standard automatic anatomic labeling (AAL) template. Only the 90 regions located in the cerebral cortex were used in the final analysis. The mean values of MD from each brain region were extracted and compared among the participant groups. The integrity of the white matter tracts and gray matter atrophy was analyzed using the track-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry approaches, respectively. Results: Significant differences of MD were noticed both in aMCI and AD patients, in terms of the affected regions and the amount of increase. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and cingulum were the most significantly affected regions in AD patients. From all the 90 cerebral cortex regions, significant increase of MD in the AD patients was found in 40 regions, compared to only one (fusiform gyrus on the right) in aMCI patients. In the disease affected regions, the MD from aMCI patients is in state between NC and AD patients. Conclusions: Increased MD in the specific regions of the brain shows the feasibility of MD as an indicator of the early stage cortical degeneration in aMCI and AD patients. PMID:28123367

  1. Presence of lacunar infarctions is associated with the spatial navigation impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Ping; He, Wen-Wen; Ding, Hong; Nedelska, Zuzana; Hort, Jakub; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Lacunar cerebral infarction (LI) is one of risk factors of vascular dementia and correlates with progression of cognitive impairment including the executive functions. However, little is known on spatial navigation impairment and its underlying microstructural alteration of white matter in patients with LI and with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our aim was to investigate whether the spatial navigation impairment correlated with the white matter integrity in LI patients with MCI (LI-MCI). Thirty patients with LI were included in the study and were divided into LI-MCI (n=17) and non MCI (LI-Non MCI) groups (n=13) according neuropsychological tests.The microstructural integrity of white matter was assessed by calculating a fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. The spatial navigation accuracy, separately evaluated as egocentric and allocentric, was assessed by a computerized human analogue of the Morris Water Maze tests Amunet. LI-MCI performed worse than the CN and LI-NonMCI groups on egocentric and delayed spatial navigation subtests. LI-MCI patients have spatial navigation deficits. The microstructural abnormalities in diffuse brain regions, including hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus and other brain regions may contribute to the spatial navigation impairment in LI-MCI patients at follow-up. PMID:27861154

  2. Presence of lacunar infarctions is associated with the spatial navigation impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a DTI study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Feng; Wu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Qing-Ping; He, Wen-Wen; Ding, Hong; Nedelska, Zuzana; Hort, Jakub; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yun

    2016-11-29

    Lacunar cerebral infarction (LI) is one of risk factors of vascular dementia and correlates with progression of cognitive impairment including the executive functions. However, little is known on spatial navigation impairment and its underlying microstructural alteration of white matter in patients with LI and with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our aim was to investigate whether the spatial navigation impairment correlated with the white matter integrity in LI patients with MCI (LI-MCI). Thirty patients with LI were included in the study and were divided into LI-MCI (n=17) and non MCI (LI-Non MCI) groups (n=13) according neuropsychological tests.The microstructural integrity of white matter was assessed by calculating a fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. The spatial navigation accuracy, separately evaluated as egocentric and allocentric, was assessed by a computerized human analogue of the Morris Water Maze tests Amunet. LI-MCI performed worse than the CN and LI-NonMCI groups on egocentric and delayed spatial navigation subtests. LI-MCI patients have spatial navigation deficits. The microstructural abnormalities in diffuse brain regions, including hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus and other brain regions may contribute to the spatial navigation impairment in LI-MCI patients at follow-up.

  3. The efficacy of a home-mechanical traction unit for patients with mild to moderate cervical osteoarthrosis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bagheripour, Batoul; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Amiri, Ali; Akbari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traction has been suggested to be an effective treatment for symptoms of neck disorder in patients with no contraindications. However, according to previous researches, the effectiveness of traction is controversial, particularly compared to other conservative treatments. This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sustained traction, using an over-the-door home cervical traction unit in combination with routine physical therapy on reducing cervical osteoarthrosis symptoms including neck pain, medication use and disability level compared to routine physical therapy alone. Methods: In this double- blinded pilot study with a pre-post test design and a control group, 20 women with mild to moderate osteoarthrosis were systematically assigned to the over-the-door home cervical traction (mean±SD age: 50.5±4.45yrs) or control groups (mean±SD age: 55.6±7.34yrs). Pain, level of disability, and drug consumption were evaluated before and after 10 sessions of intervention. Data were analyzed using parametric or non-parametric statistic including the paired-sample t-test, independent sample t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney u test for intra and inter groups comparison based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test results. Results: Patients in both groups showed a significant decrease in pain intensity and disability level (p<0.05). Despite the greater improvement in pain levels and disability in the experimental group compared to the controls, the differences were not significant (p>0.05). No significant differences were found in terms of drugs consumption within and between the groups at the end of the treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed that applying sustained traction using an over-the-door home cervical traction unit was not significantly superior to the routine physical therapy and ergonomic training to manage symptoms including neck pain and disability in a small group of mild to moderate cervical osteoarthrosis patients. PMID:27493930

  4. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-06

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis.

  5. Structural and functional connectional fingerprints in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seong-Jin; Kim, Jonghoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional volume atrophy and functional degeneration are key imaging hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We jointly explored regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity to better characterize neuroimaging data of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). All data were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We compared regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity in 10 subcortical regions using structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Neuroimaging data of normal controls (NC) (n = 35), MCI (n = 40), and AD (n = 30) were compared. Significant differences of regional volumes and functional connectivity measures between groups were assessed using permutation tests in 10 regions. The regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity of identified regions were used as features for the random forest classifier to distinguish among three groups. The features of the identified regions were also regarded as connectional fingerprints that could distinctively separate a given group from the others. We identified a few regions with distinctive regional atrophy and functional connectivity patterns for NC, MCI, and AD groups. A three label classifier using the information of regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity of identified regions achieved classification accuracy of 53.33% to distinguish among NC, MCI, and AD. We identified distinctive regional atrophy and functional connectivity patterns that could be regarded as a connectional fingerprint. PMID:28333946

  6. The use of metacognitive strategies to decrease false memories in source monitoring in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Deason, Rebecca G; Nadkarni, Neil A; Tat, Michelle J; Flannery, Sean; Frustace, Bruno; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-02-03

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI. Because the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures compared to words) has been shown to be present in both patients with MCI and healthy older controls, we investigated whether pictures could help patients with MCI use a recall-to-reject strategy in a simulation of real-world source memory task. In this experiment, patients with MCI and healthy older adults were asked to simulate preparing for and then taking a trip to the market. Subjects first studied 30 pictures of items in their "cupboard," followed by a list of 30 words of items on their "shopping list." At test, participants saw 90 pictures (30 cupboard, 30 list, 30 new) organized as they would be if walking down the market aisles, and are provided with either standard or metacognitive instructions. With standard instructions, they were asked if they needed to buy the item. With the metacognitive instructions, they were asked a series of questions to help guide them through a recall-to-reject strategy to highlight the different sources of memories. Results showed that the metacognitive instructions did significantly reduce the false memory rates for patients with MCI. Further studies need to investigate how to best implement these practical strategies into the everyday lives of patients.

  7. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Klopp, R; Niemer, W; Weiser, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel on variables related to microcirculation were investigated using vital microscopy techniques in patients with vestibular vertigo. In a non-randomized, open study, 16 patients given Vertigoheel were compared with 16 untreated patients. Measurements were carried out in two areas (defined by selecting 60 blood-cell perfused nodal points of arterioles, venules, and capillaries with a mean diameter > or = 40 microm): the cuticulum/subcuticulum of the inside left lower arm and an area 5 mm behind the left earlobe. After 12 weeks of treatment, patients receiving the homeopathic preparation exhibited an increased number of nodal points, increased flow rates of erythrocytes in both arterioles and venules, increased vasomotion, and a slight reduction in hematocrit vs. baseline. None of these changes were observed in the control group and the differences between treatment groups were statistically significant. Partial oxygen pressure increased significantly in the Vertigoheel group compared with the control group. In addition, in Vertigoheel patients, significantly increased numbers of cell-wall adhering leucocytes were observed, accompanied by increased local concentrations of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1. The microcirculatory changes were associated with a reduction in the severity of vertigo in the actively treated patients, both as assessed by the treating physician and by the patients themselves. The data support a pharmacological effect on microcirculation from the treatment.

  8. Transaldolase deficiency in two new patients with a relative mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Stradomska, Teresa J; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Salomons, Gajja S; Taybert, Joanna; Pawłowska, Joanna; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2009-05-01

    Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency is a recently described inborn error of metabolism of the pentose phosphate pathway that so far has been diagnosed in only eight patients. In this article, we report the clinical course and biochemical findings of two newly identified patients with TALDO deficiency-two sons of consanguineous parents from Polish origin, presenting with neonatal onset of bleeding diathesis, haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Subsequently the patients had persistent thrombocytopenia, a bleeding tendency, impaired liver function and fibrosis. Their physical and psychomotor development progressed normally.

  9. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Franke, Katja; Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.

  10. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07–1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options. PMID:23826273

  11. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Tarun; Saxena, Manjari

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) > 70%) were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group). Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing,Brahmari, and Omkara, etc.) for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful) with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara. Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises (pranayama), mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy. PMID:21234211

  12. Connectivity analysis of normal and mild cognitive impairment patients based on FDG and PiB-PET images.

    PubMed

    Son, Seong-Jin; Kim, Jonghoon; Seo, Jongbum; Lee, Jong-min; Park, Hyunjin

    2015-09-01

    Connectivity analysis allows researchers to explore interregional correlations, and thus is well suited for analysis of complex networks such as the brain. We applied whole brain connectivity analysis to assess the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To detect early AD progression, we focused on distinguishing between normal control (NC) subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET) were acquired for 75 participants. A graph network was implemented using correlation matrices. Correlation matrices of FDG and PiB-PET were combined into one matrix using a novel method. Group-wise differences between NC and MCI patients were assessed using clustering coefficients, characteristic path lengths, and betweenness centrality using various correlation matrices. Using connectivity analysis, this study identified important regions differentially affected by AD progression.

  13. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  15. Mild neurological impairment may indicate a psychomotor endophenotype in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Mohammad; Paast, Negin; Karim, Hamid Reza; Faghfori, Sara; Memari, Amir Hossein

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show any neurological soft signs compared to healthy controls. Furthermore we sought to examine the role of common symptoms related to BPD, such as depression, anxiety or impulsivity, in association with neurological soft signs. Thirty patients with borderline personality disorder and thirty hospital-based controls were examined for neurological soft signs. The total score of neurological soft signs in BPD was significantly higher than controls. In terms of subscales, patients had higher scores in Sensory Integration and Motor Coordination and other neurological soft signs compared to control group. Multiple regression analysis showed that the impulsivity score was the best significant predictor of neurological soft signs in BPD. The increase of neurological soft signs in patients with BPD may address a non-focal neurological dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.

  16. Mild Reinforcement Learning Deficits in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Chung; Waltz, James A; Gold, James M; Chan, Tracey Chi Wan; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have identified reinforcement learning (RL) deficits in schizophrenia. Most have focused on chronic patients with longstanding antipsychotic treatment, however, and studies of RL in early-illness patients have produced mixed results, particularly regarding gradual/procedural learning. No study has directly contrasted both rapid and gradual RL in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples. We examined probabilistic RL in 34 FEP patients and 36 controls, using Go/NoGo (GNG) and Gain vs Loss-Avoidance (GLA) paradigms. Our results were mixed, with FEP patients exhibiting greater impairment in the ability to use positive, as opposed to negative, feedback to drive rapid RL on the GLA, but not the GNG. By contrast, patients and controls showed similar improvement across the acquisition. Finally, we found no significant between-group differences in the postacquisition expression of value-based preference in both tasks. Negative symptoms were modestly associated with RL measures, while the overall bias to engage in Go-responding correlated significantly with psychosis severity in FEP patients, consistent with striatal hyperdopaminergia. Taken together, FEP patients demonstrated more circumscribed RL impairments than previous studies have documented in chronic samples, possibly reflecting differential symptom profiles between first-episode and chronic samples. Our finding of relatively preserved gradual/procedural RL, in briefly medicated FEP patients, might suggest spared or restored basal ganglia function. Our findings of preserved abilities to use representations of expected value to guide decision making, and our mixed results regarding rapid RL, may reflect a lesser degree of prefrontal cortical functional impairment in FEP than in chronic samples. Further longitudinal research, in larger samples, is required.

  17. Choroidal changes observed with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in patients with mild Graves orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Özkan, B; Koçer, Ç A; Altintaş, Ö; Karabaş, L; Acar, A Z; Yüksel, N

    2016-07-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the choroidal thickness in patients with Graves orbitopathy (GO) using enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).MethodsThirty-one patients with GO were evaluated prospectively. All subjects underwent ophthalmologic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, biomicroscopic, and fundus examination. Choroidal thickness was measured at the central fovea. In addition, visual evoked potential measurement and visual field evaluation were performed.ResultsThe mean choroidal thickness was 377.8±7.4 μ in the GO group, and 334±13.7 μ in the control group. (P=0.004). There was a strong correlation between the choridal thickness and the clinical activity scores (CAS) of the patients (r=0.281, P=0.027). Additionally, there was a correlation between the choroidal thickness and the visual-evoked potential (VEP) P100 latency measurements of the patients (r=0.439, P=0.001).ConclusionsThe results of this study demonstrate that choroid is thicker in patients with GO. The choroidal thickness is also correlated with the CAS and VEP P100 latency measurements in these patients.

  18. Comparison of clinical burden between patients with erosive hand osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis in symptomatic community-dwelling adults: the Keele clinical assessment studies

    PubMed Central

    Kloppenburg, Margreet; Marshall, Michelle; Nicholls, Elaine; Rosendaal, Frits R.; van der Windt, Danielle A.; Peat, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in the general population the clinical impact of erosive OA in interphalangeal joints (IPJs) compared with symptomatic radiographic hand OA and inflammatory arthritis. Methods. Standardized assessments with hand radiographs were performed in participants of two population-based cohorts in North Staffordshire with hand symptoms lasting ≥1 day in the past month. Erosive OA was defined as the presence of an eroded or remodelled phase in ≥1 IPJ using the Verbruggen–Veys method. Radiographic hand OA was defined as the presence of ≥1 IPJ/first carpometacarpal joint with a Kellgren–Lawrence score of ≥2. Diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis were based on medical records. Hand pain and disability were assessed with the Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index (AUSCAN). Linear regression analyses were used to compare clinical determinants between groups and calculate mean differences with 95% CIs, adjusted for age and sex. Results. Of 1076 participants with hand symptoms [60% women, mean age 64.8 years (s.d. 8.3 years)]; 80 persons (7.4%) had erosive OA. The population prevalence of erosive OA in ≥1 IPJ was 2.4% (95% CI 1.8, 3.0). Persons with erosive OA reported more pain and disability than persons with symptomatic radiographic hand OA [adjusted mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 0.3, 2.3) and 2.3 (95% CI 0.4, 4.2), respectively]. Individuals with inflammatory arthritis (n = 44) reported more pain and disability than those with erosive OA [adjusted mean difference 1.7 (95% CI 0.05, 3.4) and 6.3 (95% CI 2.8, 9.9), respectively]. Conclusion. While erosive OA has a greater impact than symptomatic radiographic hand OA in the general population, it is not as severe in terms of hand pain and disability as inflammatory RA. PMID:24046470

  19. Mild developmental delay and obesity in two patients with mosaic 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shino; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    We identified mosaic 1p36 deletions in two patients with developmental delay, distinctive features, and obesity, who can walk alone and communicate with others. Thus, their neurological defects are milder than those in typical patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome because most patients with 1p36 deletion cannot acquire expressive language. Chromosomal microarray testing revealed 3.0 and 4.5 Mb aberrations in the subtelomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 1. Mean signal ratios of the identified aberrations were -0.4 and -0.5, indicating mosaicism, which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with a mosaic ratio of 70% and 77%, respectively. Previous studies demonstrated that deletion of the distal 2-3 Mb region would be responsible for hyperphagia and obesity seen in patients. On the other hand, the severity of the neurological defect often correlates with the size of the terminal deletion of 1p36, and patients with larger deletions of 1p36 would usually show severely impaired developmental milestones and be immobile and aphasic. In such cases, hyperphagia and obesity could be clinically masked. In this study, two patients with mosaic deletions of 1p36 showed obesity as a consequence of hyperphagia. This study suggests that patients with 1p36 deletion would be at risk for hyperphagia and obesity when they have both risk factors, that is, (1) deletions including the 2-3 Mb critical region and (2) milder phenotypes that allow them to reach food on their own and to overeat.

  20. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration.

  1. [Long-term effect of inhaled budesonide in patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive lung disease. The Osterbro Study].

    PubMed

    Vestbo, J; Sørensen, T; Lange, P; Brix, A; Torre, P; Viskum, K

    2000-01-24

    We compared the effect of inhaled budesonide with placebo on decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms in a three-year study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, nested in an ongoing epidemiological survey. Patients were non-asthmatic subjects with a decreased ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and vital capacity (VC); i.e., FEV1/VC < or = 0.7. All included patients had an FEV1 which was irreversible to both inhaled terbutaline and prednisolone. Two hundred and ninety patients were randomized to receive either budesonide, 1200 mcg. daily for six months followed by 800 mcg. daily for 30 months, or placebo for 36 months. Patients had a mean age of 59 years and their mean FEV1 was 2.37 liters or 86% of predicted. Crude FEV1 declines were 41.8 ml/year in the placebo group and 45.1 ml/year in the budesonide group. Using a regression model in the intention-to-treat population, patients in the placebo group had an FEV1 decline of 49.1 ml/year in contrast to 46.0 ml/year in the budesonide group; the estimated difference 3.1 ml/year (95% confidence interval--12.8-19.0) was statistically insignificant, p = 0.70. No effect of inhaled budesonide was seen on respiratory symptoms or number of exacerbations. These findings question the role of longterm inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of mild-moderate COPD.

  2. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration. PMID:28066203

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily barnidipine in the clinical management of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spieker, C

    1998-01-01

    Four multicentre trials have investigated the efficacy and tolerability of treatment with once-daily, modified-release capsules of barnidipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. In two of these trials, the clinical profile of barnidipine was compared with those of amlodipine and nitrendipine, which belong to the same class of drug as barnidipine, in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group manner. In one study, 37 patients received amlodipine and 79 patients received barnidipine. In a second study, 46 patients received nitrendipine and 96 received barnidipine. In each trial, a 4-week placebo run-in phase was followed by a 12-week comparative phase. Changes in sitting and standing diastolic and systolic blood pressures were assessed, and adverse events were recorded. Both studies demonstrated that the antihypertensive efficacy of barnidipine was equivalent to each comparator agent, but barnidipine tended to produce fewer class I adverse reactions. The long-term efficacy and safety of barnidipine were demonstrated in an open-label study. In total, 106 patients were followed for the first year of the study, during which time they received barnidipine at a dose titrated to achieve a sitting diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg; if necessary, another antihypertensive agent was added to achieve normalization of blood pressure. Seventy-nine of these patients, most of whom were maintained on barnidipine monotherapy, were followed for a second year, and 32 patients, all of whom received barnidipine monotherapy throughout the study period, were followed for a third year. Blood pressure normalization after 1 year of follow-up was achieved in 91% of patients, and was maintained for the second and third years in 91% and 81% of patients, respectively. The incidence of adverse events, possibly or probably attributable to barnidipine, was 22%, 14% and 3%, respectively, during each successive year

  4. Quality of life, side effects and efficacy of lisinopril compared with metoprolol in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Moeller, J; Poulsen, D L; Kornerup, H J; Bech, P

    1991-06-01

    In a double-blind, parallel-group multicentre study in general practice, lisinopril (10-20 mg once daily) was compared with metoprolol (100-200 mg once daily) in 360 patients whose diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was in the range 91-115 mmHg despite diuretic treatment. Following a three week run-in period during which the diuretic was withdrawn, monotherapy with either lisinopril or metoprolol was given for two months with dose doubled after one month if DBP remained greater than 90 mmHg. Quality of life was assessed using established and validated questionnaires at the time of cessation of diuretic treatment and again after two months's active treatment. Both metoprolol and lisinopril achieved statistically significant BP reduction relative to baseline (P less than 0.001). Significantly fewer adverse events were experienced on lisinopril and metoprolol than on diuretic treatment. Frequency of withdrawals due to adverse events were statistically significantly lower on lisinopril than metoprolol P = 0.01. Before treatment approximately 35% of the patients had quality of life problems measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), which was reduced to 17% on lisinopril and 23% on metoprolol. Thus both metoprolol and lisinopril were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension with lisinopril being better tolerated. From patients' self-assessments of quality of life, lisinopril was found to be superior to metoprolol in some aspects of emotional, cognitive and social functioning.

  5. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes.

  6. Intragenic ILRAPL1 deletion in a male patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs, deafness, and behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Barone, Chiara; Bianca, Sebastiano; Luciano, Daniela; Di Benedetto, Daniela; Vinci, Mirella; Fichera, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 2% of the population, with affected males outnumbering affected female, partly due to disturbances involving X-linked genes. To date >90 genes associated with X-linked intellectual disability have been identified and, among these, IL1RAPL1 (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1), was first described and mapped to Xp21.3-22.1 in 1999. Intragenic deletions of IL1RAPL1, only rarely identified, have mostly been associated with nonspecific intellectual disability (IDX) and autism spectrum disorder. Array-CGH analysis performed in our patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs and changes in behavior identified a 285 Kb deletion in chromosome Xp21.3-21.2, with breakpoints lying in IL1RAPL1 gene intron 2 and intron 3. This is the first patient reported in literature with deletion of only exon 3 of IL1RAPL1 gene. Our patient also exhibits bilateral progressive neurosensorial deafness, which has not been previously associated with IL1RAPL1 mutations.

  7. Patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve exhibit distinct regional microrna signatures in mildly dilated ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Albinsson, Sebastian; Della Corte, Alessandro; Alajbegovic, Azra; Krawczyk, Katarzyna K; Bancone, Ciro; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena; De Feo, Marisa; Forte, Amalia

    2017-01-19

    MicroRNAs are able to modulate gene expression in a range of diseases. We focused on microRNAs as potential contributors to the pathogenesis of ascending aorta (AA) dilatation in patients with stenotic tricuspid (TAV) or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Aortic specimens were collected from the 'concavity' and the 'convexity' of mildly dilated AAs and of normal AAs from heart transplant donors. Aortic RNA was analyzed through PCR arrays, profiling the expression of 84 microRNAs involved in cardiovascular disease. An in silico analysis identified the potential microRNA-mRNA interactions and the enriched KEGG pathways potentially affected by microRNA changes in dilated AAs. Distinct signatures of differentially expressed microRNAs are evident in TAV and BAV patients vs. donors, as well as differences between aortic concavity and convexity in patients only. MicroRNA changes suggest a switch of SMC phenotype, with particular reference to TAV concavity. MicroRNA changes potentially affecting mechanotransduction pathways exhibit a higher prevalence in BAV convexity and in TAV concavity, with particular reference to TGF-β1, Hippo, and PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathways. Actin cytoskeleton emerges as potentially affected by microRNA changes in BAV convexity only. MicroRNAs could play distinct roles in BAV and TAV aortopathy, with possible implications in diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Symptomatic Carpal Bossing

    PubMed Central

    Radmer, Sebastian; Fresow, Robert; Tabibzada, Arash Mehdi; Kamusella, Peter; Scheer, Fabian; Andresen, Reimer

    2015-01-01

    Context Carpal bossing is an osseous formation at the dorsal portion of the quadrangular joint, which rarely becomes symptomatic. However, in some patients it causes pain, restricted mobility and can lead to complications like tendon rupture, inflammatory and degenerative joint disease. Aim In this article, we present our experiences with this rare disorder in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings. Settings Design This is a multicenter and interdisciplinary observation made by orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists in the years 2010 to 2015. Retrospective observational study. The follow up period was 2 years. Materials and Methods In the observed time period, eight patients were diagnosed with symptomatic carpal bossing. Symptoms were pain at palmar flexion and limited mobility of the wrist in combination with a palpable protuberance over the quadrangular joint. All patients underwent X-ray, CT and MRI examinations. A conservative treatment strategy was initiated for 6 weeks in all patients, followed by a wedge resection when symptoms were persisting and disabling. Results After the conservative treatment schedule, five patients were asymptomatic. Three patients had persisting pain and were thus recommended for surgery. In the postoperative course, two patients were asymptomatic. One patient developed a type 1 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the first postoperative year, which was successfully treated with pain-adapted physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy with analgesics and calcitonin, and a triple CT-guided thoracic sympathetic nerve blockade. Conclusion Carpal bossing is a mostly asymptomatic entity, which in our experience gets symptomatic due to direct trauma or repetitive stress, especially in competitive racket sports players. It can be diagnosed by thorough clinical examination and multimodal diagnostic imaging. Conservative treatment comprises an excellent prognosis, however surgery, either wedge resection or arthrodesis, must be

  10. Studies of Implicit Prototype Extraction in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Denton, Stephen E.; Zaki, Safa R.; Murphy-Knudsen, Anne F.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of incidental category learning support the hypothesis of an implicit prototype-extraction system that is distinct from explicit memory (Smith, 2008). In those studies, patients with explicit-memory impairments due to damage to the medial-temporal lobe performed normally in implicit categorization tasks (Bozoki, Grossman, & Smith, 2006;…

  11. Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Mahapatra, A; Pawar, S J; Sousa, J; Athale, S D

    1999-09-01

    Two unique cases of chronic calcified subdural hematomas are reported in children as a long-term complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Both the patients had undergone shunt procedures in infancy for congenital hydrocephalus. In one patient, the cause of the hydrocephalus was aqueduct stenosis, while in the second patient, a lumbar meningomyelocele was associated with hydrocephalus. In both these patients, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done in infancy. In one of them, following the shunt surgery, a bilateral subdural collection was noticed which required burr hole evacuation. Both the patients remained asymptomatic for 9 years, when they presented to our center with acute raised intracranial pressure and contralateral hemiparesis. Both the patients had a relatively short history and had altered sensorium at admission. Surprisingly, in both the patients, the CT scan showed significant mass effect producing calcified subdural hematomas. The shunt systems were found to be working well at surgery. Craniotomy and excision of the calcified subdural hematomas was undertaken. Postoperatively, the patients showed satisfactory recovery, and at discharge the patients were doing well. At the follow-up at the outpatient clinic, the patients were asymptomatic.

  12. Mild clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients in a Latin American country: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sarmiento-Aguilar, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is characterized by fluctuating clinical behaviour, which is influenced by various factors. There are no data from Latin America that evaluate the clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of elderly onset Crohn disease compared with younger onset in the Mexican population. METHODS: The present analysis was a case-control study that included 132 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of Crohn disease between 1983 and 2013 in an inflammatory bowel disease clinic of a tertiary care centre. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 (IBM Corporation, USA) and descriptive statistics, χ2 and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Student’s t test for numerical variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify associated risk factors and OR was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (73 men and 59 women) were divided into two groups according to age at diagnosis: 27 cases (>60 years of age) and 105 controls (≤60 years of age). Factors influencing the clinical course of Crohn disease in the elderly were: female sex (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.06 to 6.10]; P=0.02); colonic location (OR 0.22 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.89]; P=0.02); mild clinical behaviour of disease (OR 10.08 [95% CI 3.74 to 27.17]; P=0.0001); response to medical treatment (OR 2.85 [95% CI 1.08 to 7.48]; P=0.02); frequent use of sulfasalazine (OR 4.46 [95% CI 1.22 to 16.28]; P=0.03); less use of azathioprine (OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 1.03]; P=0.04); and long-term remission (OR 4.96 [95% CI 1.70 to 14.48]; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with Crohn disease had a mild clinical course characterized by the lack of escalation to immunosuppressive and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, as well as long-term remission. PMID:25996614

  13. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A; Olivera-Perez, Henry M; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1-42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1-42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1-42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in ApoE ε3/ε3

  14. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A.; Olivera-Perez, Henry M.; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1–42 (Aβ1–42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1–42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1–42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1–42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1–42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in

  15. [Cognitive enhancement effect of piracetam in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Tariska, P; Paksy, A

    2000-05-28

    Effectiveness and tolerability of two piracetam-containing drugs were compared in the frame of an open, multicentre, Phase-IV, prospective study with group and self control carried out in 9 Hungarian centres in 1998. Patients with cognitive decline from Alzheimer's disease and/or cerebrovascular origin have received the drug, in the first 4 weeks in 4800, later 2400 mg daily doses. One hundred four patients finished the study. No relevant difference with statistically significant degree was registered between the two groups. Based on this fact in this study data of the 104 patients were examined together. Authors examined two problems. The first: on which cognitive function is more effective the drug. Five factors of the modified Mini-Mental State Examination were separated and compared. Nearly all of them significantly increased especially the factors of memory, and concentration-psychomotor speed. The second examined field: are there certain subgroups with prognostic value about the effectiveness of piracetam treatment. Neither the duration of the illness, nor etiologic diagnosis, severity of cognitive decline, or former treatment with piracetam did influence significantly the efficacy. In case of depressive symptoms such connection was established: the more pronounced the severity of these symptoms the higher improvement can be expected in cognitive functions. This was also stressed by the logistic regression analysis. Authors described an original evaluation method of the trail-making test, which could widen the application of this popular test in psychopharmacologic studies. Final conclusions: the cognitive enhancer effect of piracetam appeared in a few weeks. This treatment could be effective even in Alzheimer's disease, in case of more pronounced cognitive decline, longer duration of the illness, and in case of former piracetam treatment as well. The degree of cognitive improvement was most pronounced in patients with comorbid depressive symptoms.

  16. Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptide determination as a screening test for the detection of patients with mild left ventricular impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Omland, T.; Aakvaag, A.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of measuring the cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and brain natriuretic peptide, as screening tests for identifying patients with mild left ventricular impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the cardiac natriuretic peptides. SETTING: Cardiac catheterisation unit, Norwegian central hospital. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of 254 patients undergoing diagnostic left-sided cardiac catheterisation. One hundred and twenty eight of these patients had a history of previous myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of normal and impaired left ventricular function, as evaluated by logistic regression analysis and estimation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (an index of overall diagnostic accuracy). Ventricular function was assessed by the measurement of left ventricular end diastolic pressure and angiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma brain natriuretic peptide was the best predictor of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (> or = 15 mm Hg) (P < 0.001), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (< or = 45%) (P < 0.001), and the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 45% and left ventricular end diastolic pressure > or = 15 mm Hg (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC function for the detection of left ventricular dysfunction were 0.789 for brain natriuretic peptide, 0.665 for atrial natriuretic factor, and 0.610 for N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide seemed to be a better indicator of left ventricular function than plasma atrial natriuretic factor or N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of circulating atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and

  17. Prognostic significance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing for 10-year survival in patients with mild to moderate heart failure.

    PubMed

    Koike, A; Koyama, Y; Itoh, H; Adachi, H; Marumo, F; Hiroe, M

    2000-12-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the prognostic significance of exercise variables, they have focused only on short-term prognosis in relatively severe heart failure. This study was carried out to determine whether the indices obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing have prognostic significance during a 10-year follow-up in mild to moderate heart failure. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients with cardiac disease performed 4 min of 20-W warm-up, followed by a symptom-limited incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. In addition to the measurements of peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and gas exchange (anaerobic) threshold, the time constant of VO2 kinetics during the onset of warm-up exercise was calculated using a single exponential equation. Data on mortality were available for follow-up in 260 patients. After 3,331+/-610 days of follow-up, 29 cardiovascular-related deaths occurred. The time constant of VO2 in the nonsurvivors was 76.7+/-43.3 s and was significantly prolonged compared with that of survivors (55.3+/-30.6 s, p=0.001). Peak VO2 and gas exchange threshold were both significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for 10 years of follow-up demonstrated a survival rate of 89.0% for patients with a normal VO2 time constant (< 80 s) and 71.7% for those with a longer time constant (> or = 80 s), showing a significant difference in survival (p=0.0028). Respiratory gas parameters obtained during exercise testing, particularly the time constant of VO2 kinetics, were found to be useful for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. These results suggest that cardiopulmonary exercise testing could be more applicable in ambulatory patients with minimal symptoms or minimal functional impairment.

  18. The effect of obesity on patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from KNHANES 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung-Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Chung, Hee Soon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A low body mass index has been associated with high mortalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and studies reveal that obesity aggravates the clinical effects of COPD. We investigated the impact of obesity on patients newly identified with COPD. Patients and methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2010 to 2012. Through analyses of data from this survey, we compared concurrent comorbid diseases, symptoms, and lung functions between an obese and nonobese group of patients with COPD. Results In total, 618 participants were diagnosed with COPD and the average forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) was 79.47%±0.69%. Of the total, 30.5% of the subjects were categorized into an obese group. Subjects in the obese group were likely to have metabolic syndrome (P<0.001), hypertension (P=0.02), and a higher number of comorbidities compared to the nonobese group (2.3±0.1 vs 2.0±0.1, P=0.02). In addition, subjects in the obese group showed a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) than subjects in the nonobese group, even after adjusting for covariates (average FVC%, 89.32±1.26 vs 92.52%±0.72%, P=0.037). There were no significant differences in the adjusted FEV1% and adjusted FEV1/FVC between the groups. Conclusions Among subjects newly identified with mild COPD, participants in the obese group had more comorbid conditions and showed a lower FVC compared with subjects in the nonobese group, even after adjustment of covariates. These findings show that a combination of obesity and COPD may be a severe phenotype; therefore, early attention should be paid to obesity for the management of COPD patients. PMID:28280320

  19. Cerebrospinal Aβ11-x and 17-x levels as indicators of mild cognitive impairment and patients' stratification in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, J-D; Promé, S; Salvetat, N; Rubrecht, L; Cobo, S; du Paty, E; Galéa, P; Mathieu-Dupas, E; Ranaldi, S; Caillava, C; Crémer, G-A; Rieunier, F; Robert, P; Molina, F; Laune, D; Checler, F; Fareh, J

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the concentrations of Aβ11-x and Aβ17-x peptides (x=40 or 42), which result from the combined cleavages of β-amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) by β'/α or α/γ-secretases, respectively, were assessed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Specific multiplexed assays were set up using new anti-40 and anti-42 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the capture of these N-truncated Aβ peptides and anti-11 or anti-17 mAbs for their detection. The specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of such assays were assessed using synthetic peptides and human cell models. Aβ11-x and Aβ17-x were then measured in CSF samples from patients with AD (n=23), MCI (n=23) and controls with normal cognition (n=21). Aβ11-x levels were significantly lower in patients with MCI than in controls. Compared with the combined quantification of Aβ1-42, total Tau (T-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau; AlzBio3, Innogenetics), the association of Aβ11-40, Aβ17-40 and T-Tau improved the discrimination between MCI and controls. Furthermore, when patients with MCI were classified into two subgroups (MCI ⩽1.5 or ⩾2 based on their CDR-SB (Cognitive Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes) score), the CSF Aβ17-40/Aβ11-40 ratio was significantly higher in patients with CDR-SB ⩽1.5 than in controls, whereas neither Aβ1-42, T-Tau nor P-Tau allowed the detection of this subpopulation. These results need to be confirmed in a larger clinical prospective cohort. PMID:23860482

  20. Effects of change in FreeSurfer version on classification accuracy of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Fjell, Anders M

    2016-05-01

    Studies have found non-negligible differences in cortical thickness estimates across versions of software that are used for processing and quantifying MRI-based cortical measurements, and issues have arisen regarding these differences, as obtained estimates could potentially affect the validity of the results. However, more critical for diagnostic classification than absolute thickness estimates across versions is the inter-subject stability. We aimed to investigate the effect of change in software version on classification of older persons in groups of healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Using MRI samples of 100 older normal controls, 100 with mild cognitive impairment and 100 Alzheimer's Disease patients obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we performed a standard reconstruction processing using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite versions 4.1.0, 4.5.0 and 5.1.0. Pair-wise comparisons of cortical thickness between FreeSurfer versions revealed significant differences, ranging from 1.6% (4.1.0 vs. 4.5.0) to 5.8% (4.1.0 vs. 5.1.0) across the cortical mantle. However, change of version had very little effect on detectable differences in cortical thickness between diagnostic groups, and there were little differences in accuracy between versions when using entorhinal thickness for diagnostic classification. This lead us to conclude that differences in absolute thickness estimates across software versions in this case did not imply lacking validity, that classification results appeared reliable across software versions, and that classification results obtained in studies using different FreeSurfer versions can be reliably compared. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1831-1841, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Treatment of acute and remote symptomatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2009-07-01

    In principle, the use of anticonvulsant drugs does not differ between acute and remote symptomatic seizures, but control of acute symptomatic seizures requires simultaneous treatment of the underlying etiology. Prevention of remote seizures when the risk is known to be high has been the subject of intense efforts at antiepileptogenesis, but the optimal duration of treatment after an injury is not yet known. Appropriate evaluation of a seizure depends on individual circumstances, but findings on examination, laboratory tests (serum electrolytes, magnesium, glucose, assessment of hepatic and renal function), and brain imaging (CT scan or MRI) are necessary to determine the most likely cause. Lumbar puncture is always required when there is suspicion of meningitis or encephalitis. Preferred medications for treatment of acute symptomatic seizures or status epilepticus are those available for intravenous use, such as benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin or phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, and phenobarbital. Diazepam is also available as a gel for rectal administration. Seizures that occur in patients with epilepsy because of missed antiepileptic drugs or inadequate serum levels should be treated with additional doses of their regular medications; loading doses can be administered with minimal toxicity in tolerant patients. Surgery is rarely necessary in the acute setting except for intracerebral lesions with rapidly rising intracranial pressure and impending herniation. After seizures are controlled, the provoking condition must also be determined and treated.

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Standard Care With IV Thrombolysis Versus Without IV Thrombolysis for Mild Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay Chol; Jang, Min Uk; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong‐Moo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Soo‐Joo; Cha, Jae‐Kwan; Kim, Dae‐Hyun; Park, Sang Soon; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon‐Tae; Cho, Ki‐Hyun; Yu, Kyung‐Ho; Oh, Mi‐Sun; Lee, Byung‐Chul; Cho, Yong‐Jin; Kim, Dong‐Eog; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Gorelick, Philip B.; Bae, Hee‐Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background One third of patients presenting with initially mild strokes have unfavorable outcomes, and the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in this population has not been proven. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of standard care with IVT versus without IVT in mild stroke patients. Methods and Results Using a multicenter stroke registry database, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and had initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores ≤5. Multivariable logistic analysis and propensity score matching were used to adjust for baseline imbalances between the patients who did and did not receive IVT. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs of IVT were estimated for 3‐month modified Rankin Scale scores of 0 to 1 and symptomatic. Of 13 117 patients with stroke who were hospitalized between April 2008 and May 2012, 1386 met the eligibility criteria, and 194 (14.0%) were treated with IVT. For a modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 1 at 3 months, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.96 (95% CI, 1.28 to 3.00; P=0.002) by multivariable logistic analysis and 1.68 (1.10 to 2.56; P=0.02) by propensity score matching analysis, respectively. There was a statistically nonsignificant excess of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratios=3.76 [0.95 to 16.42; P=0.06] and 4.81 [0.84 to 49.34; P=0.09]), respectively. Conclusions In this observational registry‐based study, standard care with IVT is more effective than not receiving IVT in mild ischemic stroke patients, and there is a statistically nonsignificant risk of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:25628404

  3. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism during mild hypothermia in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, S; Suzuki, A; Hadeishi, H; Yasui, N; Hatazawa, J

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and O2 metabolism during hypothermia (33-34 degrees C) was evaluated in 5 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by positron emission tomography (PET). Their preoperative clinical condition was WFNS scale IV or V. The patients received surface cooling postoperatively, and were maintained in a hypothermic state during transfer for radiological examination. Positron emission tomography revealed a decrease in cerebral blood flow and O2 metabolic rate. Cerebral blood flow was 34.8+/-15.1 ml/100 ml/min and the O2 metabolic rate was 1.85+/-0.61 ml/100 ml/min in areas of the middle cerebral artery ipsilateral to the ruptured aneurysms, whereas these values were 30.8+/-7.1 and 2.21+/-0.45 ml/100 ml/min, respectively, on the contralateral side. This represents a decrease of 37+/-27% compared to normal cerebral blood flow and 52+/-16% compared to normal O2 metabolic rate (p < 0.02) in the ipsilateral areas, and decreases of 44+/-13% and 43+/-12%, respectively, on the contralateral side. The present results reflected the luxury perfusion state in almost all cases and provide the first PET evidence of decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate of O2 during hypothermia in humans.

  4. White matter diffusivity predicts memory in patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment and normal CSF total tau levels.

    PubMed

    Grambaite, Ramune; Stenset, Vidar; Reinvang, Ivar; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M; Fladby, Tormod

    2010-01-01

    Subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI) are etiologically heterogeneous conditions. This poses problems for assessment of pathophysiological mechanisms and risk of conversion to dementia. Neuropsychological, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings serve to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other etiological subgroups. Tau-molecules stabilize axonal microtubuli; high CSF total tau (T-tau) reflects ongoing axonal damage consistent with AD. Here, we stratify patients by CSF T-tau pathology to determine if memory network diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) predicts memory performance in the absence of elevated T-tau. We analyzed neuropsychological test results, hippocampus volume (HcV) and white matter diffusivity in 45 patients (35 with normal T-tau). The T-tau pathology group showed more hippocampus atrophy and memory impairment than the normal T-tau group. In the T-tau normal group: (1) memory was related with white matter diffusivity [fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (DR)], and (2) FA of the genu corpus callosum was a unique predictor of variance for verbal learning, and HcV did not contribute to this prediction. The smaller sample size in the T-tau pathology group precludes firm conclusions. In the normal T-tau group, white matter tract and memory changes may be associated with normal aging, or with non-tau related pathological mechanisms.

  5. Image quality and signal distribution in 1.5-T and 3-T MRI in mild traumatic brain injury patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maija E.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Ylinen, Aarne; Öhman, Juha; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Clear standards are lacking in the imaging modalities of the deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality by signal distribution between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI in turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) images in normal hospital settings and to find preferences for which field to use in MTBI patients. We studied 40 MTBI patients with TSE and GRE; 20 patients were imaged at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T. The imaging parameters were optimized separately for the two scanners. Histograms of the signal distribution in 22 ROIs were fitted to a 1-peak Gaussian model and the resulting peak positions were scaled in respect to the peak positions of genu of the corpus callosum and the caudate nuclei. Correlation of the contrast of the ROIs in reference to genu of the corpus callosum between both the two scanners and the two imaging sequences was good. Image contrast was similar at both in the TSE images; in the GRE images contrast improved from 1.5 T to 3 T. However, based on peak positions and widths, a slight drawback in the separability between the ROIs was observed when 1.5 T MRI was replaced by 3 T. No clear improvement in tissue contrast or separability of 3 T was found compared to 1.5 T. Imaging of MTBI with 3 T should therefore be based on other advantages of high-field imaging, such as improved SNR and spatial resolution.

  6. Symptomatic Os Infranaviculare

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kwon Jae

    2013-01-01

    The author observed a new accessory bone of the foot in the distal portion of navicular, which articulated with the medial cuneiform and the intermediate cuneiform, and named it os infranaviculare. A degenerative change was observed between the accessory bone and the navicular; this caused midfoot pain to the patient during weight-bearing. Thus, the patient was treated by excision of the accessory bone. The symptom was relieved at one-year postoperative. PMID:23730481

  7. Effects of carotid artery stenting on cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and carotid stenosis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, YONG; WANG, YAN JIANG; YAN, JIA CHUAN; ZHOU, RUI; ZHOU, HUA DONG

    2013-01-01

    Carotid stenosis is known to be an independent risk factor in the transformation process of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and is treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS); however, the effects of CAS on cognitive function are unclear. In this study, 240 patients were prospectively assigned to a CAS or control group according to patient preference and underwent detailed neuropsychological examinations (NPEs) before and 6 months after treatment. Cerebral perfusion was assessed with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). Among the 240 patients included in the study, 208 patients completed NPEs at baseline and 6 months after therapy. The patients in the two groups did not differ with regard to baseline characteristics, educational level, vascular risk factors (VRFs) and NPEs prior to therapy. Significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; before, 24.6±1.7 vs. after, 24.8±1.9; P=0.016), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA; before, 23.7±1.7 vs. after, 24.1±2.0; P=0.006), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME; before, 13.8±2.2 vs. after, 14.0±2.3; P=0.031) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-digital span (WAIS-DS; before, 6.7±2.1 vs. after, 6.9±2.3; P=0.040) were observed in the CAS group; however, improvements were not observed in the control group. Of the 84 patients in the CAS group who received CTP follow-up, 72 (86%) presented improvements in ipsilateral brain perfusion 6 months after the procedure; however, no improvement was observed in the control group. Close correlations were identified between the change in perfusion and the change in MMSE (r=0.575) and MOCA (r=0.574). CAS improves global cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis and MCI and the improvement of cognition is closely related to the improvement of cerebral perfusion. PMID:23596467

  8. Effects of carotid artery stenting on cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Wang, Yan Jiang; Yan, Jia Chuan; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Hua Dong

    2013-04-01

    Carotid stenosis is known to be an independent risk factor in the transformation process of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and is treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS); however, the effects of CAS on cognitive function are unclear. In this study, 240 patients were prospectively assigned to a CAS or control group according to patient preference and underwent detailed neuropsychological examinations (NPEs) before and 6 months after treatment. Cerebral perfusion was assessed with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). Among the 240 patients included in the study, 208 patients completed NPEs at baseline and 6 months after therapy. The patients in the two groups did not differ with regard to baseline characteristics, educational level, vascular risk factors (VRFs) and NPEs prior to therapy. Significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; before, 24.6±1.7 vs. after, 24.8±1.9; P=0.016), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA; before, 23.7±1.7 vs. after, 24.1±2.0; P=0.006), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME; before, 13.8±2.2 vs. after, 14.0±2.3; P=0.031) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-digital span (WAIS-DS; before, 6.7±2.1 vs. after, 6.9±2.3; P=0.040) were observed in the CAS group; however, improvements were not observed in the control group. Of the 84 patients in the CAS group who received CTP follow-up, 72 (86%) presented improvements in ipsilateral brain perfusion 6 months after the procedure; however, no improvement was observed in the control group. Close correlations were identified between the change in perfusion and the change in MMSE (r=0.575) and MOCA (r=0.574). CAS improves global cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis and MCI and the improvement of cognition is closely related to the improvement of cerebral perfusion.

  9. Validity of conducting clinical dysphagia assessments for patients with normal to mild cognitive impairment via telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth C; Sharma, Shobha; Burns, Clare; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    To assess the validity of conducting clinical dysphagia assessments via telerehabilitation, 40 individuals with dysphagia from various etiologies were assessed simultaneously by a face-to-face speech-language pathologist (FTF-SLP) and a telerehabilitation SLP (T-SLP) via an Internet-based videoconferencing telerehabilitation system. Dysphagia status was assessed using a Clinical Swallowing Examination (CSE) protocol, delivered via a specialized telerehabilitation videoconferencing system and involving the use of an assistant at the patient's end of the consultation to facilitate the assessment. Levels of agreement between the FTF-SLP and T-SLP revealed that the majority of parameters reached set levels of clinically acceptable levels of agreement. Specifically, agreement between the T-SLP and FTF-SLP ratings for the oral, oromotor, and laryngeal function tasks revealed levels of exact agreement ranging from 75 to 100% (kappa = 0.36-1.0), while the parameters relating to food and fluid trials ranged in exact agreement from 79 to 100% (kappa = 0.61-1.0). Across the parameters related to aspiration risk and clinical management, exact agreement ranged between 79 and 100% (kappa = 0.49-1.0). The data show that a CSE conducted via telerehabilitation can provide valid and reliable outcomes comparable to clinical decisions made in the FTF environment.

  10. Laparoscopic Resection of Symptomatic Gastric Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Zelisko, Andrea; Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diverticula are rare and usually asymptomatic. This report, however, describes two examples of symptomatic gastric diverticula successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Both patients were male and in their sixth decade of life. One patient was relatively healthy with no past medical history, whereas the other patient had chronic pain issues and at presentation was also undergoing evaluation for hyperaldosteronism. The patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, and change in bowel function. In both cases, a gastric diverticulum was identified by CT scan, and precise anatomic position was determined by upper endoscopy. After discussion with the treating teams, including a gastroenterologist and surgeon, surgical treatment and resection was elected. Successful laparoscopic removal was accomplished in both patients, and they were discharged home after tolerating liquid diets. Both patients reported resolution of their abdominal symptoms at follow-up. PMID:24680154

  11. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  12. Factors Related to Noncompliance in Screening and Tracking Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients in a Single Community

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmin; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Jong Woo; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Young Jong; Jeon, Jun Hee; Lee, Mee Ae; Kim, Jae Gwang

    2017-01-01

    Objective We assessed the cumulative conversion rates (CCR) from minor cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia among individuals who failed to participate in annual screening for dementia. Additionally, we analyzed the reasons for failing to receive follow-up screening in order to develop better strategies for improving follow-up screening rates. Methods We contacted MCI patients who had not visited the Dongdaemun-gu Center for Dementia for annual screening during the year following their registration. We compared the CCR from MCI to dementia in the following two groups: subjects registered as having MCI in the Dongdaemun-gu Center for Dementia database and subjects who failed to revisit the center, but who participated in a screening test for dementia after being contacted. The latter participants completed a questionnaire asking reasons for not previously visiting for follow-up screening. Results The final diagnoses of the 188 subjects who revisited the center only after contact were 19.1% normal, 64.9% MCI and 16.0% dementia. The final diagnoses of the 449 subjects in the Dongdaemun-gu Center for Dementia database were 25.6% normal, 46.1% MCI and 28.3% dementia. The CCR of the revisit-after-contact group was much lower than anticipated. The leading cause for noncompliance was “no need for tests” at 28.2%, followed by “other reasons” at 23.9%, and “I forgot the appointment date” at 19.7%. Conclusion Considering the low dementia detection rate of the group who revisited only after contact and the reasons they gave for noncompliance, there appears to be a need for ongoing outreach and education regarding the course and prognosis of MCI. PMID:28326107

  13. Economical comparison of APCC vs. rFVIIa for mild-to-moderate bleeding episodes in haemophilia patients with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hay, J W; Zhou, Z Y

    2011-09-01

    To construct a cost-minimization model comparing activated prothrombin complex concentrates (APCC) vs. recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in haemophilia patients with inhibitors from a US third party payer perspective. A literature-based decision model was used to model inhibitor treatment costs and outcomes. As existing clinical trials fail to demonstrate differences in the relative efficacy or safety of APCC vs. rFVIIa, we assumed the same efficacy for both products in the base-case. Regimens of APCC (75 IU kg⁻¹ × 2 doses) and rFVIIa (90 μg kg⁻¹× 3 doses) were assumed according to manufacturer recommendations. If the first-line treatment failed, patients chose to continue the current treatment or switch to another drug. All costs were adjusted to 2009 US dollars. Sensitivity analyses on the infusion frequency, efficacy, unit price, switch rate, re-bleed rate and body weight were performed to assess model robustness. In the base-case, the total medical cost to treat a bleed with APCC or rFVIIa as first-line medication was US$25,969 and US$35,838, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that results were insensitive to the efficacy of rFVIIa, unit price of APCC or rFVIIa, switch rate, re-bleed rate or body weight. The rFVIIa will reach cost neutrality when the efficacy of APCC is as low as 60%, or rFVIIa is infused only twice for each line, or APCC is infused three times for each line. Two-way sensitivity analyses showed that results were quite sensitive to the assumed infusion frequency for both products. First-line APCC compared with rFVIIa can be a cost-saving alternative for home treatment of mild-to-moderate bleeds in haemophilia patients with inhibitors.

  14. Role of antioxidant property of carvedilol in mild to moderate hypertensive patients: A prospective open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Ayashi, Saleh; Assareh, Ahmad Reza; Jalali, Mohammad Taha; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Carvedilol is a nonselective third generation β-blocker that does not display the negative effects of traditional β-blockers. Regarding the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and distinct metabolic properties of carvedilol which are similar to that of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), the present study intends to investigate the effects of carvedilol treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble lectin-like ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (sLOX-1) as markers of oxidative stress in association to lipid profiles, apolipoproteins (apo), and PON1 activity in hypertensive patients. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on forty patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Subjects were studied before and after 2 months treatment with carvedilol, 25 mg daily. Lipids and lipoproteins were measured using a biochemistry analyzer. PON and arylesterase activity were assayed using paraoxon and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. MDA was quantified using a chemical colorimetric assay. ELISA was used to measure sLOX-1. Results: Our results showed that carvedilol treatment decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as much as forty and 16 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). It also increased HDL, total cholesterol, and serum PON1 activity (P < 0.05), but the levels of triglyceride, LDL, apo A-I, and apo B did not significantly change. There was an inverse correlation between serum PON1 activity and serum MDA. Conclusion: This study confirmed the antihypertensive effect of the drug and its beneficial metabolic effects through augmenting HDL and PON1 activity. We propose that the antioxidant effects of carvedilol can be partially attributed to increased PON-1 activity. PMID:27756946

  15. Impact of Resveratrol on Glucose Control, Hippocampal Structure and Connectivity, and Memory Performance in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan-Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake. Serum levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c and insulin were determined before and after intervention. Moreover, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3T) (n = 14 vs. 16) was conducted to analyze hippocampus volume, microstructure and RSFC, and neuropsychological testing was conducted to assess learning and memory (primary endpoint) at both time points. In comparison to the control group, resveratrol supplementation resulted in lower glycated hemoglobin A1c concentration with a moderate effect size (ANOVARMp = 0.059, Cohen's d = 0.66), higher RSFC between right anterior hippocampus and right angular cortex (p < 0.001), and led to a moderate preservation of left anterior hippocampus volume (ANOVARMp = 0.061, Cohen's d = 0.68). No significant differences in memory performance emerged between groups. This proof-of-concept study indicates for the first-time that resveratrol intake may reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c, preserves hippocampus volume, and improves hippocampus RSFC in at-risk patients for dementia. Larger trials with longer intervention time should now determine if these benefits can be validated and extended to cognitive function.

  16. Impact of Resveratrol on Glucose Control, Hippocampal Structure and Connectivity, and Memory Performance in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A. Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Tesky, Valentina A.; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan-Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50–80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake. Serum levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c and insulin were determined before and after intervention. Moreover, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3T) (n = 14 vs. 16) was conducted to analyze hippocampus volume, microstructure and RSFC, and neuropsychological testing was conducted to assess learning and memory (primary endpoint) at both time points. In comparison to the control group, resveratrol supplementation resulted in lower glycated hemoglobin A1c concentration with a moderate effect size (ANOVARM p = 0.059, Cohen's d = 0.66), higher RSFC between right anterior hippocampus and right angular cortex (p < 0.001), and led to a moderate preservation of left anterior hippocampus volume (ANOVARM p = 0.061, Cohen's d = 0.68). No significant differences in memory performance emerged between groups. This proof-of-concept study indicates for the first-time that resveratrol intake may reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c, preserves hippocampus volume, and improves hippocampus RSFC in at-risk patients for dementia. Larger trials with longer intervention time should now determine if these benefits can be validated and extended to cognitive function. PMID:28326010

  17. Estimation of Tau and Phosphorylated Tau181 in Serum of Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Kumar, Rahul; Rai, Nitish; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Kusum; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Tripathi, Manjari; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Dey, Aparajit B.; Dey, Sharmistha

    2016-01-01

    The elevated level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau and phosphorylated Tau181 (p-Tau181) proteins are well established hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Elevated level of p-Tau181 can differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative disease. However, the expression level of these proteins in serum of AD patient is not well set up. This study sought to evaluate the level of Tau and p-Tau181 in serum of AD, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients for an alternative approach to establish protein-based markers by convenient way. Blood samples were collected from 39 AD patients, 37 MCI patients and 37 elderly individuals as controls. The levels of Tau and p-Tau181 in the serum of the different groups were measured by label free real time Surface Plasmon Resonance technology by using specific antibodies, and were further confirmed by the conventional western blot method. An appropriate statistical analysis, including Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), was performed. The concentrations of serum Tau and p-Tau181 were significantly higher (p<0.00001) in AD (Tau; 47.49±9.00ng/μL, p-Tau181; 0.161±0.04 ng/μL) compared to MCI (Tau; 39.26±7.78 ng/μL, p-Tau181; 0.135±0.02 ng/μL) and were further higher compared to elderly controls (Tau; 34.92±6.58 ng/μL, p-Tau181; 0.122±0.01 ng/ μL). A significant (p<0.0001) downhill correlation was found between Tau as well as p-Tau181 levels with HMSE and MoCA score. This study for the first time reports the concentration of Tau and p-Tau181 in serum of AD and MCI patients. The cutoff values of Tau and p-Tau181 of AD and MCI patients with sensitivity and specificity reveal that serum level of these proteins can be used as a predictive marker for AD and MCI. PMID:27459603

  18. CE the effect of varying diagnostic terminology within patient discharge information on expected mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Chloe B; Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if systematic variation of the diagnostic terminology embedded within written discharge information (i.e., concussion or mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI) would produce different expected symptoms and illness perceptions. We hypothesized that compared to concussion advice, mTBI advice would be associated with worse outcomes. Sixty-two volunteers with no history of brain injury or neurological disease were randomly allocated to one of two conditions in which they read a mTBI vignette followed by information that varied only by use of the embedded terms concussion (n = 28) or mTBI (n = 34). Both groups reported illness perceptions (timeline and consequences subscale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) and expected Postconcussion Syndrome (PCS) symptoms 6 months post injury (Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, NSI). Statistically significant group differences due to terminology were found on selected NSI scores (i.e., total, cognitive and sensory symptom cluster scores (concussion > mTBI)), but there was no effect of terminology on illness perception. When embedded in discharge advice, diagnostic terminology affects some but not all expected outcomes. Given that such expectations are a known contributor to poor mTBI outcome, clinicians should consider the potential impact of varied terminology on their patients.

  19. Improving patient access and choice: Assisted Bibliotherapy for mild to moderate stress/anxiety in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reeves, T; Stace, J M

    2005-06-01

    Current traditional methods of mental healthcare service delivery, based on 'specialists' providing 'outpatient appointments' for formal therapy, are often inappropriate for the needs of patients in primary care. The estimated numbers of adults with mental health problems are immense, and it is this, combined with Department of Health initiatives aimed at improving choice and access, which make it essential that new ways of delivering services are explored. This trial examines the use of an assisted self-help treatment package for mild to moderate stress/anxiety [Assisted Bibliotherapy (AB)] with an adult clinical population referred by their general practitioner. Assisted Bibliotherapy is a brief intervention (8 weeks), with limited therapist contact (20-min sessions). Non-parametric statistical testing of scores from the Zung Anxiety Scale and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) questionnaire indicated positive results. There was significant improvement at post-treatment, which was maintained at 3 month follow-up. The results from this trial and a previous trial of AB by Kupshik & Fisher in 1999, indicate that it is an effective treatment which could be used as part of a stepped care approach to managing and treating stress/anxiety in primary care.

  20. Myotubular myopathy caused by multiple abnormal splicing variants in the MTM1 RNA in a patient with a mild phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Vasli, Nasim; Laugel, Vincent; Böhm, Johann; Lannes, Béatrice; Biancalana, Valérie; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Mutations impacting on the splicing of pre-mRNA are one important cause of genetically inherited diseases. However, detection of splice mutations, that are mainly due to intronic variations, and characterization of their effects are usually not performed as a first approach during genetic diagnosis. X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy is a severe congenital myopathy due to mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin. Here, we screened a male patient showing an unusually mild phenotype without respiratory distress by western blot with specific myotubularin antibodies and detected a strong reduction of the protein level.The disease was subsequently linked to a hemizygous point mutation affecting the acceptor splice site of exon 8 of MTM1, proven by protein, transcript and genomic DNA analysis. Detailed analysis of the MTM1 mRNA by RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed multiple abnormal transcripts with retention of a truncated exon 8, and neighboring exons 7 and 9 but exclusion of several other exons, suggesting a complex effect of this mutation on the splicing of non-adjacent exons. We conclude that the analysis of RNA by RT-PCR and sequencing is an important step to characterize the precise impact of detected splice variants. It is likely that complex splice aberrations due to a single mutation also account for unsolved cases in other diseases. PMID:22258523

  1. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application. Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration. Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767–0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602–0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study

  2. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application.Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration.Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767-0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602-0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study cohort. The impact

  3. Deficient Pain Modulatory Systems in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain and Chronic Post-Traumatic Headache: Implications for its Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Riabinin, Miri; Feingold, Yelena; Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the prevalence rate of chronic post-traumatic headache (CPTHA) after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) reaches up to 95%, its mechanism is unknown, and little is known about the characteristics of the pain system in this condition. Our aim was to investigate the capabilities of two pain modulatory systems among individuals with CPTHA and study their association with CPTHA, here for the first time. Forty-six subjects participated; 16 with TBI and CPTHA, 12 with TBI without CPTHA, and 18 healthy controls. Testing included the measurement of heat-pain (HPT) and pressure-pain (PPT) thresholds in the forehead and forearm, pain adaptation to tonic noxious heat, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM).The participants completed a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) questionnaire. The two TBI groups did not differ in the TBI and background characteristics. However, TBI patients with CPTHA had significantly higher HPT and lower PPT in the cranium and higher PTSD symptomatology than TBI patients without CPTHA and healthy controls. Adaptation to pain and CPM were diminished in the CPTHA group compared with the two control groups. The intensity of CPTHA correlated negatively with cranial PPT, magnitude of pain adaptation, and CPM. CPTHA intensity correlated positively with PTSD symptomatology. CPTHA appears to be characterized by cranial hyperalgesia and dysfunctional pain modulation capabilities, which are associated with CPTHA magnitude. It is concluded that damage to pain modulatory systems along with chronic cranial sensitization underlies the development of CPTHA. PTSD may reinforce CPTHA and vice versa. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25068510

  4. Management of symptomatic urolithiasis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yung-Shun; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Wang, Chii-Jye; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Long, Cheng-Yu; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

    2007-05-01

    Urinary calculi during pregnancy present not only a diagnostic challenge but also a management dilemma. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with diagnosis and management of symptomatic urolithiasis in pregnant women. A total of 18 pregnant women were treated for urolithiasis at the Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, between 1999 and 2004. The incidence of symptomatic urolithiasis during pregnancy was 0.35%. Of the 20 stones found, nine were on the right side and 11 were on the left, and two patients had bilateral urinary stones. Most urolithiasis cases during pregnancy (55.5%) occurred in the third trimester. Flank pain (94.4%) was the most common clinical presentation. Conservative management was successful in 10 patients until the end of pregnancy and then definite treatment was performed. In four patients, a double-J stent was inserted successfully for persistent pain. In three cases with persistent pain, failure of double-J stent placement was treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy under epidural anesthesia. One patient received percutaneous nephrostomy for persistent renal colic and pyonephrosis. Ultrasonographic evaluation of pregnant women with suspected renal colic is a reasonable diagnostic procedure. Ureteroscopy is another choice when conservative treatment fails.

  5. A randomized, controlled, crossover study in patients with mild and moderate asthma undergoing treatment with traditional Chinese acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Hong Jin; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M; de Arruda Martins, Milton; Lin, Chin An

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to verify the effects of acupuncture as an adjuvant treatment for the control of asthma. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, crossover trial conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. A total of 74 patients with mild/moderate, persistent asthma were randomized into two therapeutic groups: Group A – 31 patients underwent 10 real weekly acupuncture sessions, followed by a 3-week washout period and 10 sham weekly acupuncture sessions; and Group B - 43 patients underwent 10 sham weekly acupuncture sessions, followed by a 3-week washout period and 10 real weekly acupuncture sessions. Patients used short- and long-acting β-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids when necessary. Prior to treatment and after each period of 10 treatment sessions, the patients were evaluated for spirometry, induced sputum cell count, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Questionnaire on Quality of Life-Asthma (QQLA) questionnaires. Daily peak flow and symptom diaries were registered. The level of significance adopted was 5% (α=0.05). RESULTS: In Group B, after real acupuncture, there was a decrease in eosinophils (p=0.035) and neutrophils (p=0.047), an increase in macrophages (p=0.001) and an improvement in peak flow (p=0.01). After sham acupuncture treatment, patients experienced less coughing (p=0.037), wheezing (p=0.013) and dyspnea (p=0.014); similarly, after real acupuncture, patients reported less coughing (p=0.040), wheezing (p=0.012), dyspnea (p<0.001) and nocturnal awakening episodes (p=0.009). In Group A, there was less use of rescue medication (p=0.043). After the sham procedure, patients in Group A experienced less coughing (p=0.007), wheezing (p=0.037), dyspnea (p<0.001) and use of rescue medication (p<0.001) and after real acupuncture, these patients showed improvements in functional capacity (p=0.004), physical aspects (p=0.002), general health status (p<0

  6. Effectiveness of Anise Oil for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Active and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mosaffa-Jahromi, Maryam; Tamaddon, Ali-Mohammad; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Salehi, Alireza; Seradj, Seyed Hassan; Pasalar, Mehdi; Jafari, Peyman; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent disorder among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. The current study was performed to evaluate the effect of a traditional Persian medicine product, anise oil, in removing the symptoms of mild to moderate depression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In a randomized double-blinded active and placebo controlled clinical trial, 120 participants with mild to moderate depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores were categorized into 3 equal groups and received anise oil, Colpermin, and placebo. The results at the end of trial (week 4) and follow-up (week 6) demonstrated significant priority against active and placebo groups. Although the mechanism is unknown yet, anise oil could be a promising choice of treatment for depressed patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Poor Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; McCauley, Stephen R.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Amanda; Hanten, Gerri; Mendez, Donna; McCarthy, James J.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although most patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover within 3 months, a subgroup of patients experience persistent symptoms. Yet, the prevalence and predictors of persistent dysfunction in patients with mTBI remain poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we evaluated predictors of symptomatic and cognitive dysfunction in adolescents and young adults with mTBI, compared with two control groups—patients with orthopedic injuries and healthy uninjured individuals. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months post-injury. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as exhibiting a symptom score higher than 90% of the orthopedic control (OC) group, and poor cognitive outcome was defined as exhibiting cognitive performance poorer than 90% of the OC group. At 3 months post-injury, more than half of the patients with mTBI (52%) exhibited persistently elevated symptoms, and more than a third (36.4%) exhibited poor cognitive outcome. The rate of high symptom report in mTBI was markedly greater than that of typically developing (13%) and OC (17%) groups; the proportion of those with poor cognitive performance in the mTBI group exceeded that of typically developing controls (15.8%), but was similar to that of the OC group (34.9%). Older age at injury, female sex, and acute symptom report were predictors of poor symptomatic outcome at 3 months. Socioeconomic status was the only significant predictor of poor cognitive outcome at 3 months. PMID:25970233

  8. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome.

  9. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst.

  10. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  11. Experience with symptomatic spinal epidural cysts.

    PubMed

    Freidberg, S R; Fellows, T; Thomas, C B; Mancall, A C

    1994-06-01

    Epidural cysts, either synovial or ganglion, are an unusual cause of epidural compressive syndromes. We report a series of 26 patients with cysts, including 1 cervical, 2 thoracic, and 23 lumbar. Complaints at the time of admission and findings were similar to those associated with other epidural lesions at the same locations. The surgical technique is similar to that for other spinal lesions, with a wide exposure to enable a clear view of the cyst and surrounding structures, and is governed by imaging studies. Patients with cervical and thoracic lumbar cysts were free of symptoms and signs postoperatively. Of the 23 patients with lumbar cysts, 15 were free of symptoms after an operation, 7 had symptomatic improvement but had some pain and neurological findings, and 1 patient had no improvement. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging permit accurate preoperative evaluation.

  12. Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Paul Osemeke; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas; Nwosu, Monica Nonyelum

    2016-01-01

    Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic