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Sample records for mile island incident

  1. The psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident.

    PubMed

    Cleary, P D; Houts, P S

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident. The results are based on data from a panel study of 403 persons living within five miles of Three Mile Island (TMI), and a telephone survey of 1,506 people living within 55 miles of that area. Active coping strategies were associated with continued high levels of distress. Having more friends was related to reduced distress, but introspection, taking protective actions, being active in organizations, and seeking out others were all related to higher levels of distress. High self-esteem was related to a decrease in symptoms and psychotropic drug use, and avoidance behaviors were related to higher than expected numbers of symptoms. Efforts to profile those who used different coping strategies were relatively unsuccessful. The results emphasize the need to consider the nature of the stressor when developing models of coping and response to stressful situations. PMID:6470471

  2. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O.; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional

  3. In the Shadow of Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Clough, Ida; Wheeler, Brenda

    1979-01-01

    Describes how teachers turned the reality of the nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island into a learning experience for children by recreating the sequence of events through creative dramatics. (CM)

  4. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  5. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: The collision of evidence and assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, S.; Richardson, D.; Armstrong, D.; Crawford-Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation readings and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit {plus_minus} standard error was 0.020 {plus_minus} 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 {plus_minus} 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 {plus_minus} 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 {plus_minus} 0.013, 0.103 {plus_minus} 0.035, and 0.139 {plus_minus} 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: the collision of evidence and assumptions.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Richardson, D; Armstrong, D; Crawford-Brown, D

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation reading and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit +/- standard error was 0.020 +/- 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 +/- 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 +/- 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 +/- 0.013, 0.103 +/- 0.035, and 0.139 +/- 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. PMID:9074881

  7. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  8. Good Engineering + Poor Communication = Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted from a communication failure. Following an incident at an Ohio plant a year and a half earlier, B. M. Dunn, manager of Emergency Core Cooling Systems Analysis at Babcock and Wilcox (engineers), wrote a memorandum making specific recommendations on written instructions for nuclear…

  9. Three mile island. The silent disaster.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Fisher, J H

    1981-04-24

    From Wednesday, March 28, 1979, to Wednesday, April 4, 1979, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, was in a state of near-panic in response to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. The Dauphin County Office of Emergency Preparedness quickly attempted to develop a plan to evacuate not only the population of an area 20 miles in radius from the plant but the short-term and long-term care medical facilities as well. For medical evacuation, a system of classification of patients was defined and matched to needed transportation. Furthermore, a critical coordinating link was established with the Hospital Association of Pennsylvania to identify and categorize relocation beds in receiving hospitals far from the incident site in the event of evacuation. Just as this incident was unusual, so too were the planning activities unique since they were never before conceived or accomplished. PMID:7009905

  10. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  11. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Cutter, S; Barnes, K

    1982-06-01

    The responses of the residents to the nuclear power plant arcident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania illustrate the factors influencing pre-impact coping responses of populations exposed to technological hazards. Confusion itnd ambiguous information influenced both the decision to evaluate and to remain in place. Proximity to the facility, stage in life cycle and the actions of friends and neighbors influenced the decision to evacuate. PMID:20958525

  12. The Three Mile Island Population Registry.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Tokuhata, G K; Digon, E; Caldwell, G G; Stein, G F; Lutz, G; Gur, D

    1983-01-01

    Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and health-related information was collected on each person to provide baseline data for future short- and long-term epidemiologic studies of the effects of the accident. Individual radiation doses were estimated on the basis of residential location and the amount of time each person spent in the 5-mile area during the 10 days after the accident. Health and behavioral resurveys of the population will be conducted approximately every 5 years. Population-mobility, morbidity, and mortality will be studied yearly by matching the TMI Population Registry with postal records, cancer registry records, and death certificate data. Because the radiation dose from TMI was extremely small, any increase in morbidity or mortality attributable to the accident would be so small as not to be measurable by present methods; however, adverse health effects as a result of psychological stress may occur. Also, a temporary increase in reporting of disease could occur because of increased surveillance and attention to health. PMID:6419276

  13. Three Mile Island: meltdown of democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, E.J.

    1983-03-01

    Strong local opposition to a start-up of Unit 1 at Three Mile Island continues because citizen distrust of General Public Utilities was found in post-accident studies to have been justified. Several citizen groups have monitored the Unit 2 clean-up activities and have not been reassured by either the President's Commission or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Efforts to improve public relations by distributing radiation kits or other strategies have been outweighed by evidence of government manipulation of early bomb test data and poor industry planning. Arguments over who is responsible for the accident and who is liable for the cost have further undermined credibility. Area residents have received three recent legal signals that their position may prevail. (DCK)

  14. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: radiation emissions.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M C; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1990-09-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation. Overall, the pattern of results does not provide convincing evidence that radiation releases from the Three Mile Island nuclear facility influenced

  15. Asian-Pacific Islander Profile - Wason MIles

    NASA Video Gallery

    Wason Miles brought two decades of experience as a life-support technician in the U.S. Air Force when he joined the staff of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in 2009. Miles, a native of Hawai'i...

  16. Three Mile Island zeolite vitirification demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Knowlton, D.E.; Shupe, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The cleanup of the high-activity-level water at Three Mile Island (TMI) provides an opportunity to further develop waste management technology. Approximately 790,000 gallons of high-activity-level water at TMI's Unit-2 Nuclear Power Station will be decontaminated at the site using the submerged demineralizer system (SDS). In the SDS process, the cesium and strontium in the water are sorbed onto zeolite that is contained within metal liners. The Department of Energy has asked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to take a portion of the zeolite from the SDS process and demonstrate, on a production scale, that this zeolite can be vitrified using the in-can melting process. This paper is a brief overview of the TMI zeolite vitrification program. The first section discusses the formulation of a glass suitable for immobilizing SDS zeolite. The following section describes a feed system that was developed to feed zeolite to the in-can melter. It also describes the in-can melting process and the government owned facilities in which the demonstrations will take place. Finally, the schedule for completing the program activities is outlined.

  17. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  18. Chronic Stress and Three Mile Island: Toxic Exposure and Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laura M.; And Others

    Although many researchers expected the psychological effects of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant to be short-lived, area residents continued to show elevated levels of stress. To examine stress levels of TMI residents 28 months after the accident, 141 subjects were chosen from nearby areas, and from a town 80 miles away.…

  19. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  20. The East European Press and Three-Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Owen V.

    This report of the investigation into East European newspaper treatment of the accident at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the spring of 1979 focuses on the Czech and Slovak media, particularly on the Slovak Communist Party's daily newspaper, "Pravda." The response of the media of other East European countries to energy…

  1. Local Coverage of Three Mile Island during 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Local newspaper coverage of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident was examined in a study to determine what changes, if any, were made by local media and what lessons they had learned from it. Data were collected through interviews with 21 media representatives. TMI coverage in the six newspapers was examined using each…

  2. Heads from "Post" and "Times" on Three-Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Michael; Dan, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Reports that during the week of the 1979 crisis at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the "New York Post" gave less factual information than "The New York Times" in both its main headlines and subheadlines; also notes that the information the "Post" did give was more sensationalized. (GT)

  3. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear...) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides an overview of GPUN's...

  4. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  5. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  6. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  7. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  8. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  9. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  10. Early dismantlement of Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.; Heisey, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear station ceased commercial operation following the March 1979 accident. Following completion of an extensive cleanup effort that included removal and shipment of the damaged core, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a possession-only license (POL) amendment on September 14, 1993. Postdefueling monitored storage (PDMS) technical specifications were issued on December 28, 1993. Entry into PDMS required that the licensee demonstrate that the plant was in a safe and stable condition and posed no risk to public health and safety.

  11. Utilization of medical care following the Three Mile Island crisis.

    PubMed

    Houts, P S; Hu, T W; Henderson, R A; Cleary, P D; Tokuhata, G

    1984-02-01

    Four studies are reported on how utilization of primary health care was affected by the Three Mile Island (TMI) crisis and subsequent distress experienced by persons living in the vicinity of the plant. The studies concerned: 1) Blue Cross-Blue Shield records of claims by primary care physicians in the vicinity of TMI; 2) utilization rates in a family practice located near the facility; 3) interviews with persons living within five miles of TMI following the crisis; and 4) responses to a questionnaire by primary care physicians practicing within 25 miles of TMI. All four studies indicated only slight increases in utilization rates during the year following the crisis. One study found that persons who were upset during the crisis tended to be high practice utilizers both before and after the crisis. These results suggest that, while patterns of physician utilization prior to the TMI crisis predicted emotional response during the crisis, the impact of the TMI crisis on subsequent physician utilization was small. PMID:6691524

  12. Tourist visitation impacts of the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes tourist visitation impacts of the March 27, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. A review of the literature, supplemented with recollections from Pennsylvanian public officials, are used to specify a conventional tourism impact model which holds that depressed 1979 summer tourism season was more influenced by gasoline shortages and possibly other confounding variables (such as rainy local weather conditions and a polio outbreak) than by the nuclear accident. Regression analysis using monthly visitation data for Hershey Chocolate World, Gettysburg National Park, The Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitor Bureau, and several state parks as dependent variables provide support for this model. Potential tourism implications of an accident at Yucca Mountain are briefly discussed in light of our findings.

  13. Psychological adaptation among residents following restart of Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1995-01-01

    Psychological adaptation is examined in a sample of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island following the restart of the nuclear generating facility which had been shut down since the 1979 accident. Findings indicate a lowering of psychological symptoms between 1985 and 1989 in spite of increased lack of control, less faith in experts and increased fear of developing cancer. The suggestion is made that reduced stress might have been related to a process of adaptation whereby a cognition of emergency preparedness was integrated by some of these residents as a modulating cognitive element. Findings also indicate that "loss of faith in experts" is a persistently salient cognition consistent with the "shattered assumptions" theory of victimization. PMID:7712058

  14. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, M A; Baum, A

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern. PMID:6739683

  15. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Davidson, L M; Fleming, R; Baum, A

    1987-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems. PMID:3611754

  16. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially. PMID:17736229

  17. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, M A; Baum, A

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern.

  18. Electric-utility returns and risk in the light of Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, L.D.; D'Souza, R.E.

    1982-11-11

    The impact of the Three Mile Island nuclear-generating-unit failure on the performance of nuclear-dependent electric utilities is examined in this article. A comparative examination of the time series of abnormal returns and risk measures on nuclear-dependent utilities and nondependent utilities prior to the TMI incident, at the time of the incident, and subsequent to it was performed by the authors. The results are consistent with a hypothesis that investors associate a decline in future profitability or increased risk with nuclear-associated utilities. However, the more-objective measures indicate a clear reduction in risk for nuclear-associated utilities since the TMI incident, both in relation to the market as a whole and in relation to electric utilities which are not nuclear-associated. 4 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. The geology of Six Mile Reef, eastern Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Denny, J.F.; Williams, S.J.; Moser, M.S.; Forfinski, N.A.; Stewart, H.F.; Doran, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    Digital terrain models, which can be produced from multibeam bathymetric data, are ordered arrays of depths for a number of sea-floor positions sampled at regularly spaced intervals. These models provide valuable base maps for marine geological interpretations that help define the variability of the sea floor (one of the primary controls of benthic habitat diversity), improve our understanding of the processes that control the distribution and transport of bottom sediments and the distribution of benthic habitats, and provide a detailed framework to guide and assist future research, monitoring, and management activities. The bathymetry interpreted herein was processed from data collected by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration vessels during hydrographic surveys H11361 and H11252. These surveys mapped roughly 156 km² of sea floor in the vicinity of Six Mile Reef, an area of eastern Long Island Sound where the sea floor is characterized by fields of large sand waves and an east-west decreasing gradient of bottom tidal-current speeds (fig. 1). Interpretations of the bathymetry are supplemented by concurrently collected seismic reflection data, as well as archived historic seismic profiles, sediment samples and bottom photography collected as part of a long-standing geologic mapping partnership between the State of Connecticut and the U.S. Geological Survey (fig. 2). The purpose of this digital report is 1) to provide the acoustic data layers produced during the above mentioned surveys, 2) to use them to describe the sea-floor character and bedform morphologies near Six Mile Reef, and 3) to relate these descriptions to ongoing processes and sedimentary environments.

  20. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  1. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  2. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  3. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

  4. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    SciTech Connect

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  5. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L O; Parkinson, D K

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms. PMID:3605430

  6. Bureaucracy in crisis: Three Mile Island, the shuttle Challenger, and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Casamayou, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    This book is a study in organizational theory about how technological bureaucracies perceive, communicate about, and respond to potential risks to public safety, using Three mile island and the Challenger accident as examples.

  7. Understanding Victims of Technological Disaster: Beliefs and Worries of Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Rooney, James

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine how prevalent were concerns about restarting Three Mile Island nuclear reactor Unit I among people within a five-mile radius of the plant four years after the accident involving reactor Unit II. Also explored were concerns related to expectations about the restart of Unit I, perception of…

  8. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  9. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident. PMID:8491625

  10. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  11. Three Mile Island and residential property values: empirical analysis and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.

    1981-08-01

    A statistical study of the effects of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident on residential property values uses a hedonic price model of sale prices on homes in two communities located within four miles of the plant. The results indicate no absolute decline in prices or any indication that the appreciation rate for housing sales was slowed. Extension of the analysis to include all multi-listing sales within five miles of the plant shows no statistically significant difference with the control area. 21 references, 5 tables. (DCK)

  12. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  13. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  14. Three Mile Island technical information and examination program instrumentation and electrical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Meininger, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the investigations on instrumentation and electrical systems that were subjected to a loss-of-coolant accident environment during and following the accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979. The report is a summary of information previously published in GEND-INF reports, plus current knowledge of the investigators.

  15. Emotional, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Andrew; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the psychophysiological impact of Three Mile Island on nearby residents (N=38) compared to people living near an undamaged nuclear plant (N=32), a coal-fired plant (N=24) and a control group. Results indicated that residents of the TMI area exhibited more symptoms of stress a year after the accident. (WAS)

  16. Blueprint for Breakdown: Three Mile Island and the Media before the Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses media coverage of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant before and during the disaster. Concludes that there was a communication breakdown prior to the accident. Outlines the causes and offers suggestions for avoiding similar breakdowns in the future. (JMF)

  17. A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

    A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

  18. Crisis contained, The Department of Energy at Three Mile Island: a history

    SciTech Connect

    Cantelon, P L; Williams, R C

    1980-12-01

    An account is given of the response of US DOE to the Three Mile Island-2 accident on March 28, 1979. The accident is treated as though it was a military battle. A synoptic chronologgy of the accident events and of DOE and other responses is included. (DLC)

  19. Radiation hazards in children - lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2 years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100 mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification.

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  1. Risk cognition and the public: The case of Three Mile Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Susan L.

    1984-01-01

    Residents of within 50 miles of the nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI), Pennsylvania, were surveyed in 1979, 1980, and 1982 to assess their general attitudes toward nuclear power, to assess their individual coping responses to the March 1979 accident, and to monitor changes in attitudes over the three-year period. Most respondents feel that future accidents like TMI will occur once or twice more in their lifetimes, that operating nuclear power stations should have improved safeguards and should continue operating, and that major institutions—government and utility companies—are experiencing a continued erosion of public trust.

  2. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  3. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G M

    1984-01-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/h to 20 mR/h. This report discusses the cause of ailure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  4. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.M.

    1983-12-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/hr to 20 mR/hr. This report discusses the cause of failure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  5. Mediating influences of social support on stress at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Fleming, R; Baum, A; Gisriel, M M; Gatchel, R J

    1982-09-01

    Symptom reporting, task performance, and urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in a group of people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and in control populations. More than a year after the accident, living near the damaged reactor was associated with elevations in all indices of stress compared with control levels. Social support mediated these stress indices such that higher levels were associated with fewer psychological and behavioral symptoms of stress. Biochemical measures showed a different pattern of results. PMID:7153502

  6. Reactor engineering support of operations at Three Mile Island nuclear station

    SciTech Connect

    Tropasso, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to detail the activities in which plant nuclear engineering personnel provide direct support to plant operations. The specific activities include steady-state, transient, and shutdown/refueling operation support as well as special project involvement. The paper is intended to describe the experiences at Three Mile Island (TMI) in which significant benefit to the success of the activity is achieved through the support of the nuclear engineers.

  7. Longitudinal study of appraisal at Three Mile Island: implications for life event research.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K; Goldsteen, K S

    1989-01-01

    This study tests a path model which indicates the occurrence of appraisal following the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). The model posits a causal relationship between trust in TMI-related authorities, perceived danger, perceived harm to health, and psychological distress. The implications of the findings for life event research are discussed in terms of the etiological significance of meaning, event consequences, and control. PMID:2705011

  8. Summary Report of Commercial reactor Criticality Data for Three Mile Island Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Larry B. Wimmer

    2001-08-29

    The objective of the ''Summary Report of Commercial Reactor Criticality Data for Three Mile Island Unit I'' is to present the CRC data for the TMI-1 reactor. Results from the CRC evaluations will support the development and validation of the neutronics models used for criticality analyses involving commercial spent nuclear fuel. These models and their validation are discussed in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000).

  9. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  10. Radiation hazards in children - lessons from Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster. Firstly, this review focuses on what happened after the accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in 1979 and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, in terms of the effects of these incidents on health. The most critical issue when considering the effects of radiation on the health of children was the increase of thyroid cancer, as clearly demonstrated among people who were children or adolescence at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, in the early days after a nuclear accident, the primary concern should be efforts to prevent the exposure of children to radioactive iodine through inhalation and ingestion, because radioactive iodine preferentially accumulates in the thyroid. In the longer term, another concern is exposure to radionuclides with long half-lives, including cesium137 and cesium134, with physical half-lives of 30 and 2 years, respectively. Secondly, fetal radiation risks and radiobiological studies on low-level radiation are briefly reviewed, with reference to the effects upon the developing brain. A fetal dose of 100 mSv may increase the risk of an effect on brain development, especially neuronal migration, based upon the results of experiments with rodents. Finally, this review proposes that research on the health effects of low level radiation should be prioritized so that accurate information on the effects of radiation can be disseminated and prevent the prevalence of unnecessary fear lacking scientific justification. PMID:23063247

  11. Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M C; Wallenstein, S; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the light of a possible link between stress and cancer promotion or progression, and of previously reported distress in residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, we attempted to evaluate the impact of the March 1979 accident on community cancer rates. METHODS: Proximity of residence to the plant, which related to distress in previous studies, was taken as a possible indicator of accident stress; the postaccident pattern in cancer rates was examined in 69 "study tracts" within a 10-mile radius of TMI, in relation to residential proximity. RESULTS: A modest association was found between postaccident cancer rates and proximity (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.6). After adjusting for a gradient in cancer risk prior to the accident, the odds ratio contrasting those closest to the plant with those living farther out was 1.2 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.4). A postaccident increase in cancer rates near the Three Mile Island plant was notable in 1982, persisted for another year, and then declined. Radiation emissions, as modeled mathematically, did not account for the observed increase. CONCLUSION: Interpretation in terms of accident stress is limited by the lack of an individual measure of stress and by uncertainty about whether stress has a biological effect on cancer in humans. An alternative mechanism for the cancer increase near the plant is through changes in care-seeking and diagnostic practice arising from postaccident concern. PMID:2029040

  12. Human responses to the threat of or exposure to ionizing radiation at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, and Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collins, Daniel L

    2002-02-01

    The psychological stressors and their aftereffects associated with the Three Mile Island accident, the Goiania, Brazil, cesium-137 accident, and the Abadia, Brazil, storage location are summarized and compared. Cross-cultural comparisons of human responses to ionizing radiation are rare. A multidisciplinary methodological approach to examining the psychological responses to ionizing radiation is even more rare. The psychological, behavioral, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular results are summarized for Three Mile Island, Goiania, and Abadia. PMID:11873499

  13. Longitudinal analysis of categorical epidemiological data: a study of Three Mile Island.

    PubMed Central

    Fienberg, S E; Bromet, E J; Follmann, D; Lambert, D; May, S M

    1985-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 led to an unprecedented set of events with potentially life threatening implications. This paper focusses on the analysis of a longitudinal study of the psychological well-being of the mothers of young children living within 10 miles of the plant. The initial analyses of the data utilize loglinear/logit model techniques from the contingency table literature, and involve the fitting of a sequence of logit models. The inadequancies of these analyses are noted, and a new class of mixture models for logistic response structures is introduced to overcome the noted shortcomings. The paper includes a brief outline of the methodology relevant for the fitting of these models using the method of maximum likelihood, and then the model is applied to the TMI data. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the substantive implications of the mixture model analysis. PMID:4076089

  14. Longitudinal analysis of categorical epidemiological data: a study of Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Fienberg, S E; Bromet, E J; Follmann, D; Lambert, D; May, S M

    1985-11-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 led to an unprecedented set of events with potentially life threatening implications. This paper focusses on the analysis of a longitudinal study of the psychological well-being of the mothers of young children living within 10 miles of the plant. The initial analyses of the data utilize loglinear/logit model techniques from the contingency table literature, and involve the fitting of a sequence of logit models. The inadequancies of these analyses are noted, and a new class of mixture models for logistic response structures is introduced to overcome the noted shortcomings. The paper includes a brief outline of the methodology relevant for the fitting of these models using the method of maximum likelihood, and then the model is applied to the TMI data. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the substantive implications of the mixture model analysis. PMID:4076089

  15. Research and development activities on Three Mile Island Unit Two. Annual report for 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The year 1985 was significant in the cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). Major milestones in the project included lifting the plenum assembly from the reactor vessel and the start of operations to remove the damaged fuel from the reactor. This report summarizes these milestones and other TMI-2 related cleanup, research, and development activities. Other major topics include the following: waste immobilization and management; fuel shipping cask delivery and testing; sample acquisition and evaluation; and decontamination and dose reduction. 26 figs.

  16. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities.

  17. Quick look report, Entry 3: Three Mile Island Unit 2, October 16, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during the third entry at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on October 16, 1980, additional beta, gamma, and neutron surveys were performed to supplement data obtained on previous entries. In addition, several maintenance tasks were completed including testing the operation of both equipment hatch doors, replacing a loose parts monitor system pre-amplifier, and removing a source range monitor. The five-man entry team accomplished these tasks in about 1-1/2 hours.

  18. Mortality among the residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1979-1992.

    PubMed

    Talbott, E O; Youk, A O; McHugh, K P; Shire, J D; Zhang, A; Murphy, B P; Engberg, R A

    2000-06-01

    The largest U.S. population exposed to low-level radioactivity released by an accident at a nuclear power plant is composed of residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) Plant on 28 March 1979. This paper (a collaboration of The University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania Department of Health) reports on the mortality experience of the 32,135 members in this cohort for 1979-1992. We analyzed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using a local comparison population and performed relative risk regression modeling to assess overall mortality and specific cancer risks by confounding factors and radiation-related exposure variables. Total mortality was significantly elevated for both men and women (SMRs = 109 and 118, respectively). All heart disease accounted for 43.3% of total deaths and demonstrated elevated SMRs for heart disease of 113 and 130 for men and women, respectively; however, when controlling for confounders and natural background radiation, these elevations in heart disease were no longer evident. Overall cancer mortality was similar in this cohort as compared to the local population (male SMR = 100; female SMR = 101). In the relative risk modeling, there was a significant effect for all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in males in relation to natural background exposure (p = 0.04). However, no trend was noted. We found a significant linear trend for female breast cancer risk in relation to increasing levels of TMI-related likely [gamma]-exposure (p = 0.02). Although such a relationship has been noted in other investigations, emissions from the TMI incident were significantly lower than in other documented studies. Therefore, it is unlikely that this observed increase is related to radiation exposure on the day of the accident. The mortality surveillance of this cohort does not provide consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the TMI accident has a significant impact on the mortality experience of this cohort to date. However, continued

  19. Lessons Learned from Three Mile Island Packaging, Transportation and Disposition that Apply to Fukushima Daiichi Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze; Dr. Koji Shirai

    2012-07-01

    Following the massive earthquake and resulting tsunami damage in March of 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, interest was amplified for what was done for recovery at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) in the United States following its meltdown in 1979. Many parallels could be drawn between to two accidents. This paper presents the results of research done into the TMI-2 recovery effort and its applicability to the Fukushima Daiichi cleanup. This research focused on three topics: packaging, transportation, and disposition. This research work was performed as a collaboration between Japan’s Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Hundreds of TMI-2 related documents were searched and pertinent information was gleaned from these documents. Other important information was also obtained by interviewing employees who were involved first hand in various aspects of the TMI-2 cleanup effort. This paper is organized into three main sections: (1) Transport from Three Mile Island to Central Facilities Area at INL, (2) Transport from INL Central Receiving Facility to INL Test Area North (TAN) and wet storage at TAN, and (3) Transport from TAN to INL Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and Dry Storage at INTEC. Within each of these sections, lessons learned from performing recovery activities are presented and their applicability to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant cleanup are outlined.

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  1. Analysis of Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor cooling system transients. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, J.O.; Postma, A.K.

    1983-08-01

    The reactimeter data recorded on 3/28/79 at Three Mile Island (TMI-2) indicates a number of abrupt transients starting at 13:52. These transients appeared to be the results of very rapid energy releases in the reactor cooling system. A study was initiated by the US Department of Energy to determine the causes and consequences of these transients. The study shows that the transients were not caused by energy releases in the reactor cooling system. They were probably caused by malfunctions in the reactimeter power supply or by reactimeter ground loop faults. Information obtained and observations derived from the study of real energy release transients which occurred during the first day of the TMI-2 loss of coolant accident are presented.

  2. Investigation of hydrogen-burn damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Eidem, G.R.

    1982-06-01

    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 Loss-of-Coolant Accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2, a hydrogen deflagration of undetermined extent occurred inside the reactor building. Examinations of photographic evidence, available from the first fifteen entries into the reactor building, yielded preliminary data on the possible extent and range of hydrogen burn damage. These data, although sparse, contributed to development of a possible damage path and to an estimate of the extent of damage to susceptible reactor building items. Further information gathered from analysis of additional photographs and samples can provide the means for estimating hydrogen source and production rate data crucial to developing a complete understanding of the TMI-2 hydrogen deflagration. 34 figures.

  3. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.

  4. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents. PMID:2087105

  5. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident. PMID:10268833

  6. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident. PMID:15657112

  7. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Bromet, E; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health. PMID:7092506

  8. CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF THREE MILE ISLAND-2 CORE AND DEBRIS HANDLING AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, William Jonathan; Braase, Lori Ann

    2015-09-01

    Fuel recovery from severe accidents requires careful planning and execution. The Idaho National Laboratory played a key role in the Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel and core recovery. This involved technology development to locate and handle the damaged fuel; characterization of fuel and debris; analysis of fuel interaction with structural components and materials; development of fuel drying technology for long-term storage. However, one of the critical activities from the TMI project was the extensive effort document all the activities and archive the reports and photos. A historical review of the TMI project at the INL leads to the identification of current applications and considerations for facility designs, fuel handling, robotic applications, material characterization, etc.

  9. Commercial disposal of High Integrity Containers (HICs) containing EPICOR-II prefilters from Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Jr, J W; Lynch, R J; Tyacke, M J

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and commercially disposing of 45 High Integrity Containers (HICs), each containing an EPICOR-II prefilter. Also described are the improvements that were applied in the disposition of the 45 commercial EPICOR-II prefilters at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), versus those used for the demonstration unit. The significance of this effort was that the commercial disposal campaign involved the first-of-a-kind production use of a reinforced concrete HIC at the US Ecology, Inc. facility in the State of Washington. This allowed for safe disposal of high-specific-activity ion exchange material in EPICOR-II prefilters generated during the cleanup of the Unit-2 Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. 26 figs.

  10. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Summary report: Three Mile Island Unit 2 polar crane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes information concerning restoration of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 Polar Crane to a fully operational condition following the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which could be utilized in planning for recovery activities should a similar accident occur in a nuclear generating plant. The information is presented in both computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. This report contains only the manpower requirements and radiation exposures actually incurred during recovery operations within the reactor containment and does not include support activities or costs.

  11. Radioactive plume from the Three Mile Island accident: xenon-133 in air at a distance of 375 kilometers.

    PubMed

    Wahlen, M; Kunz, C O; Matuszek, J M; Mahoney, W E; Thompson, R C

    1980-02-01

    The transit of an air mass containing radioactive gas released from the Three Mile Island reactor was recorded in Albany, New York, by measuring xenon-133. These measurements provide an evaluation of Three Mile Island effluents to distances greater than 100 kilometers. Two independent techniques identified xenon-133 in ambient air at concentrations as high as 3900 picocuries per cubic meter. The local gamma-ray whole-body dose from the passing radioactivity amounted to 0.004 millirem, or 0.004 percent of the annual dose from natural sources. PMID:7352276

  12. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  13. 33 CFR 334.78 - Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I.; restricted area...

  14. 33 CFR 334.78 - Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I.; restricted area...

  15. 33 CFR 334.78 - Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, approximately 4.0 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, R. I.; restricted area...

  16. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2. Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Masnik, M.T.; Snyder, B.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report updates a plan that defines NRC's role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role. These responsibilities include reviewing and approving General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation (the licensee) proposals for cleanup actions, overseeing the licensee's implementation of approved activities, coordinating wih other federal and state governmental agencies on their activities in the cleanup, and informing local officials and the public about the status of the cleanup. Since the initial issuance of this NRC Plan in July 1980, this office has issued the Final NRC Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) related to the entire TMI-2 cleanup and a draft Supplement to the PEIS related to occupational radiation exposure. Additionally, a number of developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision provides a discussion of these developments, specifically in the areas of the functinal role of the NRC in cleanup operations, the cleanup schedule, and the current status of the cleanup. The plan also discusses NRC's perceived role in future cleanup activities.

  17. Historical summary of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris transportation campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.; Quinn, G.J.

    1993-03-01

    Transport of the damaged core materials from the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for examination and storage presented many technical and institutional challenges, including assessing the ability to transport the damaged core; removing and packaging core debris in ways suitable for transport; developing a transport package that could both meet Federal regulations and interface with the facilities at TMI-2 and the INEL; and developing a transport plan, support logistics, and public communications channels suited to the task. This report is a historical summary of how the US Department of Energy addressed those challenges and transported, received, and stored the TMI-2 core debris at the INEL. Subjects discussed include preparations for transport, loading at TMI-2, institutional issues, transport operations, receipt and storage at the INEL, governmental inquiries/investigations, and lessons learned. Because of public attention focused on the TMI-2 Core Debris Transport Program, the exchange of information between the program and public was extensive. This exchange is a focus for parts of this report to explain why various operations were conducted as they were and why certain technical approaches were employed. And, because of that exchange, the program may have contributed to a better public understanding of such actions and may contribute to planning and execution of similar future actions.

  18. Characterization of solids in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling water

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. O.

    1987-12-01

    Because of the impact of poor water clarity on defueling operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station, a study was undertaken to characterize suspended particulates in the reactor defueling water. The examination included cascade filtration through Nuclepore filters of progressively smaller pore sizes, using three water samples obtained at different times and after varying degrees of clarification. The solids collected on the filters were examined with a scanning electron microscope and analyzed with energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. A wide variety of solids was observed, and 26 elements were detected. These included all the materials expected from the reactor system (uranium, zirconium, silver, cadmium, indium, iron, chromium, and nickel), chemicals and zeolites used to decontaminate the water (aluminum, silicon, sodium), common impurities (potassium, chlorine, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, and others), as well as some unexpected metals (molybdenum, manganese, bromine, and lead). There was also evidence for the presence of organic material. A diverse assortment of particles with widely varying surface properties was found to be present.

  19. Lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, D.; Bolton, P.; Durbin, N.; Harty, R.

    1994-08-01

    In response to public concern about the cleanup of the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2) facility after an accident on March 28, 1979 involving a loss of reactor coolant and subsequent damage to the reactor fuel, twelve citizens were asked to serve on an independent Advisory Panel to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the decontamination and cleanup of the facility. The panel met 78 times over a period of thirteen years, holding public meetings in the vicinity of TMI-2 and meeting regularly with NRC Commissioners in Washington, DC. This report describes the results of a project designed to identify and describe the lessons learned from the Advisory Panel and place those lessons in the context of what we generally know about citizen advisory groups. A summary of the empirical literature on citizen advisory panels is followed by a brief history of the TMI-2 Advisory Panel. The body of the report contains the analysis of the lessons learned, preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of the Panel, and implications for the NRC in the use of advisory panels. Data for the report include meeting transcripts and interviews with past and present Panel participants.

  20. Heatup of the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) lower head during core relocation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.K.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W. )

    1989-11-01

    According to current perceptions of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, corium largely relocated into the reactor vessel lower head at {approximately}224 min into the accident. Defueling examinations have revealed that the corium relocated from the molten core region to the lower head predominantly by way of drainage through the core former region (CFR) located between the vertical baffle plates immediately surrounding the fuel assemblies and the core barrel. An analysis has been carried out to assess the heatup of the reactor vessel lower head during the core relocation event, particularly the potential for a melting attack on the lower head wall and the in-core instrument nozzle penetration weldments. The analysis employed the THIRMAL computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to predict the breakup and quenching or corium jets under film boiling conditions as well as the size distributions and quenching of the resultant molten droplets. The transient heatup and ablation of the vessel wall and penetration weldments due to impinging corium jets was calculated using the MISTI computer code.

  1. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  2. Human factors in surgery: from Three Mile Island to the operating room.

    PubMed

    D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Luca; Volpe, Andrea; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, PierFrancesco

    2009-01-01

    Human factors is a definition that includes the science of understanding the properties of human capability, the application of this understanding to the design and development of systems and services, the art of ensuring their successful applications to a program. The field of human factors traces its origins to the Second World War, but Three Mile Island has been the best example of how groups of people react and make decisions under stress: this nuclear accident was exacerbated by wrong decisions made because the operators were overwhelmed with irrelevant, misleading or incorrect information. Errors and their nature are the same in all human activities. The predisposition for error is so intrinsic to human nature that scientifically it is best considered as inherently biologic. The causes of error in medical care may not be easily generalized. Surgery differs in important ways: most errors occur in the operating room and are technical in nature. Commonly, surgical error has been thought of as the consequence of lack of skill or ability, and is the result of thoughtless actions. Moreover the 'operating theatre' has a unique set of team dynamics: professionals from multiple disciplines are required to work in a closely coordinated fashion. This complex environment provides multiple opportunities for unclear communication, clashing motivations, errors arising not from technical incompetence but from poor interpersonal skills. Surgeons have to work closely with human factors specialists in future studies. By improving processes already in place in many operating rooms, safety will be enhanced and quality increased. PMID:19829020

  3. Potassium iodide as a thyroid blocker--Three Mile Island to today.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J A

    1989-05-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear emergency in the U.S. in March 1979 marked the first occasion when use of potassium iodide (KI) was considered for thyroid blocking of the population in the vicinity of a potentially serious release of fission products from a nuclear power reactor. In face of a demand that could not be satisfied by commercial supplies of low-dose KI drug products from the U.S. pharmaceutical industry, the Food and Drug Administration directed the manufacture and stockpiling of sufficient quantities of saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) to provide protection for one million people in the event of a large-scale release of radioiodines. Although the drug was not used, the experience of producing, stockpiling, and making ready for use a large quantity of the drug resulted in significant public policy, regulatory, and logistical issues. A number of these issues have been resolved through scientific debate and consensus, development of official guidance regarding the proper role of KI in nuclear emergencies, and the approval of New Drug Applications for KI products specifically intended for thyroid blocking in nuclear emergencies. Other issues regarding broad-scale implementation of the guidelines remain today. This paper traces the history of the development and implementation of the use of KI from pre-TMI to the present. PMID:2471366

  4. Characterization of an aerosol sample from the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island reactor.

    PubMed

    Kanapilly, G M; Stanley, J A; Newton, G J; Wong, B A; DeNee, P B

    1983-11-01

    Analyses for radioisotopic composition and dissolution characteristics were performed on an aerosol filter sample collected for a week by an air sampler located in the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor. The major radioisotopes found on the filter were 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs. Greater than 90% of both 89-90Sr and 134-137Cs dissolved within 48 hr in an in vitro test system. Scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of respirable size particles as well as larger particles ranging up to 10 micron in diameter. The major matrix components were Fe, Ca, S, Mg, Al and Si. Although the radionuclides were present in a heterogeneous matrix, they were in a soluble form. This information enables a better evaluation of bioassay data and predictions of dose distribution resulting from an inhalation exposure to this aerosol. Further, the combination of techniques used in this study may be applicable to the characterization of other aerosols of unknown composition. PMID:6643066

  5. Characterization of an aerosol sample from the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island reactor.

    PubMed

    Kanapilly, G M; Stanley, J A; Newton, G J; Wong, B A; DeNee, P B

    1983-11-01

    Analyses for radioisotopic composition and dissolution characteristics were performed on an aerosol filter sample collected for a week by an air sampler located in the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor. The major radioisotopes found on the filter were 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs. Greater than 90% of both 89-90Sr and 134-137Cs dissolved within 48 hr in an in vitro test system. Scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of respirable size particles as well as larger particles ranging up to 10 micron in diameter. The major matrix components were Fe, Ca, S, Mg, Al and Si. Although the radionuclides were present in a heterogeneous matrix, they were in a soluble form. This information enables a better evaluation of bioassay data and predictions of dose distribution resulting from an inhalation exposure to this aerosol. Further, the combination of techniques used in this study may be applicable to the characterization of other aerosols of unknown composition.

  6. Heat stress control in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) defueling and decontamination activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, J.S.; Parfitt, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the initial stages of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling and decontamination activities for the reactor building, it was realized that the high levels of loose radioactive contamination would require the use of extensive protective clothing by entry personnel. While there was no doubt that layered protective clothing protects workers from becoming contaminated, it was recognized that these same layers of clothing would impose a very significant heat stress burden. To prevent the potentially serious consequences of a severe reaction to heat stress by workers in the hostile environment of the TMI-2 reactor building and yet maintain the reasonable work productivity necessary to perform the recovery adequately, an effective program of controlling worker exposure to heat stress had to be developed. Body-cooling devices produce a flow of cool air, which is introduced close to the skin to remove body heat through convection and increased sweat evaporation. The cooling effect produced by the Vortex tube successfully protected the workers from heat stress, however, there were several logistical and operational problems that hindered extensive use of these devices. The last type of cooling garment examined was the frozen water garment (FWG) developed by Elizier Kamon at the Pennsylvania State University as part of an Electric Power Research Institute research grant. Personal protection, i.e., body cooling, engineering controls, and administrative controls, have been implemented successfully.

  7. An upgraded personnel dosimetry system for TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Harworth J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, it was identified that due to the unusual radiological conditions created, an improved thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) system was needed to support the cleanup and recovery. The deficiencies of the existing system were identified as an unsuitable dosimeter design and limited system automation available to support the /approx/6000 dosimeters being processed monthly for record dose. As a result, a Panasonic-based TLD personnel dosimetry system was developed and installed by GPU Nuclear at the TMI facility. The components of this dosimetry system include a dosimeter design and associated interpretation algorithm, an extensive quality assurance program, and a computer-based dosimeter processing system. This dosimeter/algorithm design provides for the use of a changing beta correction factor (BCF), which is derived from beta spectral data collected by the dosimeter. The system computer-based processing equipment is driven using software developed to be user friendly, totally menu driven, and geared toward the implementation of an extensive quality assurance program for a production dosimetry system. In total, this software consists of over 95 programs that specifically support written dosimetry procedures.

  8. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  9. Peer review of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Vessel Investigation Project metallurgical examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohl, R.W.; Gaydos, R.G.; Vander Voort, G.F.; Diercks, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    Fifteen samples recovered from the lower head of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel were subjected to detailed metallurgical examinations by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with supporting work carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several of the European participants. These examinations determined that a portion of the lower head, a so-called elliptical ``hot spot`` measuring {approx}0.8 {times} 1 m, reached temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C during the accident and cooled from these temperatures at {approx}10--100{degrees}C/min. The remainder of the lower head was found to have remained below the ferrite-toaustenite transformation temperature of 727{degrees}C during the accident. Because of the significance of these results and their importance to the overall analysis of the TMI accident, a panel of three outside peer reviewers, Dr. Robert W. Bohl, Mr. Richard G. Gaydos, and Mr. George F. Vander Voort, was formed to conduct an independent review of the metallurgical analyses. After a thorough review of the previous analyses and examination of photo-micrographs and actual lower head specimens, the panel determined that the conclusions resulting from the INEL study were fundamentally correct. In particular, the panel reaffirmed that four lower head samples attained temperatures as high as 1100{degrees}C, and perhaps as high as 1150--1200{degrees}C in one case, during the accident. They concluded that these samples subsequently cooled at a rate of {approx}50--125{degrees}C/min in the temperature range of 600--400{degrees}C, in good agreement with the original analysis. The reviewers also agreed that the remainder of the lower head samples had not exceeded the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature during the accident and suggested several refinements and alternative procedures that could have been employed in the original analysis.

  10. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  11. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island - Unit 2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory G. Hall

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2002 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  12. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    G. G. Hall

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 1999 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  13. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  14. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2002-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2001 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  15. Are We Forgetting the Lessons From the Accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2, March 1979: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, Bob; Johnson, David H.

    2002-07-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 in March 1979 resulted in major changes to the way emergency procedures were written and operators were trained at nuclear commercial electric generating units. These changes had a major impact on the public health risk of nuclear electric generating units. The record over the last 20 years has been excellent. For approximately 2000 reactor years of operation since 1979, there have been no accidents equivalent to TMI Unit 2 in the USA. Other factors have had an influence on this excellent record but it is clear that more efficient emergency procedures and better operator training had a significant impact on the excellent record achieved over the last 20 plus years. Abnormal events still occur at the nuclear commercial electric generating units in the USA and these events have the potential for causing damage to the reactor core. In some cases, the emergency procedures used in abnormal events and the training received by the operators of the nuclear units have not been based on the lessons learned from the accident at Three Mile Island. The following paper describes one such case. It is clear to the authors of this paper that further changes should be made to make sure that the lessons learned from the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 in 1979 are implemented and not forgotten. (authors)

  16. Utilization of the atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC) services during and after the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Greenly, G.D.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-07-01

    At 0820 PST on 28 March 1979, the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center advised the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) that the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had experienced an accident some four hours earlier, resulting in the atmospheric release of xenon-133 and krypton-88. This report describes ARAC's response to the Three Mile Island accident, including the role ARAC played throughout the 20 days that real-time assessments were made available to the Department of Energy on-scene commander. It also describes the follow-up population-dose calculations performed for the President's Commission on Three Mile Island. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a questionnaire addressing the usefulness of ARAC products during the accident was sent to ARAC-product users. A summary of the findings from this questionnaire, along with recommendations for improving ARAC service, is also presented. The accident at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, is discussed in the context of a well-planned emergency response by local and Federal officials.

  17. Sputtering at grazing ion incidence: Influence of adatom islands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosandi, Yudi; Redinger, Alex; Michely, Thomas; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2010-09-15

    When energetic ions impinge at grazing incidence onto an atomically flat terrace, they will not sputter. However, when adatom islands (containing N atoms) are deposited on the surface, they induce sputtering. We investigate this effect for the specific case of 83 deg. -incident 5 keV Ar ions on a Pt (111) surface by means of molecular-dynamics simulation and experiment. We find that - for constant coverage {Theta} - the sputter yield has a maximum at island sizes of N congruent with 10-20. A detailed picture explaining the decline of the sputter yield toward larger and smaller island sizes is worked out. Our simulation results are compared with dedicated sputtering experiments, in which a coverage of {Theta}=0.09 of Pt adatoms are deposited onto the Pt (111) surface and form islands with a broad distribution around a most probable size of N congruent with 20.

  18. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants. PMID:20129905

  19. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants.

  20. Development of a high integrity container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island unit II

    SciTech Connect

    Holzworth, R.E.; Chapman, R.L.; Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    The EPICOR II ion exchange system used to decontaminate approximately 1900 m/sup 3/ of contaminated water in the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building (AFHB) generated 50 highly loaded and 22 lesser loaded organic resin liners. The 22 lesser loaded resins were shipped to a commercial disposal site, but the highly loaded liners have been stored on the island since their generation. One highly loaded liner, or prefilter, was shipped to Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) in May, 1981 as part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Three Mile Island Information and Examination Program. The prefilter is being characterized to determine the behavior of the waste form with respect to time and the internal environment and to provide an information base for use in management and regulatory decisions relative to the storage, processing, and disposal of these wastes. Due to the unique characteristics of these wastes, the US DOE is sponsoring programs, such as the BCL Sorbent Experiments Program, to evaluate their characteristics and to provide a High Integrity Container (HIC) Development Program which would improve waste suitability for disposal at a land burial facility. This paper addresses regulatory considerations, establishment of design criteria, proposed design concepts, system demonstration, and status of the HIC Development Program for storage, transportation, and disposal of high specific activity, low level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II as typified by EPICOR II ion exchange media and liners.

  1. Review of Destructive Assay Methods for Nuclear Materials Characterization from the Three Mile Island (TMI) Fuel Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Carla J. Miller

    2013-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the literature review that was performed and based on previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory studying the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear reactor accident, specifically the melted fuel debris. The purpose of the literature review was to document prior published work that supports the feasibility of the analytical techniques that were developed to provide quantitative results of the make-up of the fuel and reactor component debris located inside and outside the containment. The quantitative analysis provides a technique to perform nuclear fuel accountancy measurements

  2. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported. PMID:7068394

  3. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Mandler, J.W.; Duce, S.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1981-05-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized.

  4. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D. H.; Haffner, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  5. Transporting TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions.

  6. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    PubMed

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  7. Analysis and testing of the HP-R-214 dome monitor cable from Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.H.; Dandini, V.J.

    1986-03-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, two sections of a cable connected to the HP-R-214 dome monitor were removed for testing. One section had been directly exposed to the accident environment: the other had been installed in conduit. In addition, an unused section of cable, which was from the same reel as the dome monitor cable, was available as a control sample. These three sections were subjected to material tests, including density profiling, tensile-strength and elongation tests, and chemical analyses, to assess the effect of the accident on the cable and to identify whether any differences existed between the in-conduit and out-of-conduit sections.

  8. Predictors of temporal patterns of psychiatric distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J

    1993-04-01

    The present study examines psychiatric symptom levels during a 10-year period in a community sample of mothers of young children. All were identified in the early aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and followed through the accident's 1989 anniversary. Cluster analysis was used to identify long-term distress profiles during the study period; women's temporal profiles were found to be either (a) stable and at low, clinically nonsignificant levels of distress across all measurement points or (b) at consistently elevated, clinically significant levels that varied with the timing of postaccident events such as the restart of the undamaged reactor and the 10th anniversary. Subsequent multivariate analyses indicated that preaccident characteristics, as well as parameters reflecting respondents' initial involvement with, and reactions to the accident, were important for distinguishing between women within the two temporal profile groups. Implications of the results for both policy formulation and continued research on significant environmental stressors is discussed. PMID:8511662

  9. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 reactor cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J. H.; Ruddy, F. H.; Preston, C. C.; McElroy, W. N.

    1985-04-01

    Solid state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry was conducted in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that there are at least 2 tonnes of fuels, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity.

  10. Potential Role of Land Use and Land Cover Information in Powerplant Siting: Example of Three Mile Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Selecting a site for a nuclear powerplant can be helped by digitizing land use and land cover data, population data, and other pertinent data sets, and then placing them in a geographic information system. Such a system begins with a set of standardized maps for location reference and then provides for retrieval and analysis of spatial data keyed to the maps. This makes possible thematic mapping by computer, or interactive visual display for decisionmaking. It also permits correlating land use area measurements with census and other data (such as fallout dosages), and the updating of all data sets. The system is thus a tool for dealing with resource management problems and for analyzing the interaction between people and their environment. An explanation of a computer-plotted map of land use and cover for Three Mile Island and vicinity is given.

  11. Three Mile Island Unit-2 core status summary: a basis for tool development for reactor disassembly and defueling

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979 caused extensive damage to the core. A variety of analyses were performed using three general approaches to determine the extent of core damage. First, thermal-hydraulic events were reconstructed using available data, thermal-hydraulic principles, and computer analyses. Second, determinations of the hydrogen generated yielded estimates of the amount of zircaloy oxidized and embrittled. Third, the type and quantity of fission products released during the accident were used to estimate the location of core damage and the fuel temperatures which were achieved. Uncertainties exist in each type of determination due to the equivocal nature of the data. This paper reviews and summarizes the core damage assessments which have been made, identifies the minimum and maximum bounds of damage, and establishes a reference description for the current status of the core.

  12. Disposal demonstration of a high integrity container (HIC) containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Tyacke, M.J.; Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    A high integrity container (HIC) was developed, tested, and certified for use in disposing of unusual low-level radioactive waste from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The work was coordinated by EG and G Idaho, Inc. and funded by the US Department of Energy. A disposal demonstration using an HIC containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from TMI-2 was completed at the commercial disposal facility in the State of Washington. A Certification of Compliance was issued by the Department of Social and Health Services of the State of Washington to use the HIC in disposing of up to 50 EPICOR-II prefilters. That Certification of Compliance was issued after rigorous review of the HIC design and test program by the State and by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and disposing of the demonstration HIC and briefly describes the design, testing, and approval effort leading up to the demonstration.

  13. Quaternary geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Six Mile Reef, eastern Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Moser, M.S.; Forfinski, N.A.; Stewart, H.F.; Doran, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Six Mile Reef, a sandy, 22-m-high shoal trending east-west and located about 7.8 km off the Connecticut coast, has a core of postglacial marine deltaic deposits mantled by tidally reworked modern sediments. Sedimentary environments off the eastern end of the shoal are characterized by processes associated with long-term erosion or nondeposition, a mobile-sediment-limited seafloor armored by gravelly sand, and scattered elongate fields of barchanoid sand waves. The barchanoid waves reach amplitudes of 20 m, are concave westward, and occur in individual and coalesced forms that become progressively more complex westward. The seafloor on and adjacent to the shoal is characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport and covered primarily with asymmetrical transverse sand waves. The transverse waves exceed 8 m in amplitude, have slip faces predominantly oriented to the west and southwest, and have straight, slightly sinuous, and curved crests. Megaripples, which mimic the asymmetry of the sand waves, are commonly present on stoss slopes and in troughs; current ripples are ubiquitous. The amplitude and abundance of large bedforms decrease markedly westward of Six Mile Reef. The seabed there is covered with small, degraded ripples, reflecting lower-energy environments and processes associated with sorting and reworking of seafloor sediments. Megaripples and current ripples on the sand waves suggest that transport is active and that the bedforms are propagating under the present hydraulic regime. Net bedload sediment transport is primarily to the west, as evidenced by textural trends of surficial sediments, orientation of the barchanoid waves, and asymmetry of the transverse waves and of the scour marks around bedrock outcrops, boulders, and shipwrecks. One exception occurs at the western tip of the shoal, where sand-wave morphology indicates long-term eastward transport, suggesting that countercurrents in this area shape the shoal and are important to

  14. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  15. Using Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island Accident as a Case Study to Analyze Newspaper Coverage: A Diary of Events and Suggestions for Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susskind, Jacob L.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for studying the coverage of the same current news story in several newspapers are outlined. Secondary school students critically examine news reporting, detect false or propagandistic reports, and learn to weigh and judge evidence. An example using the Three Mile Island nuclear accident is provided. (KC)

  16. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    PubMed

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world. PMID:20232245

  17. Percolation Cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Lower Head by Way of Thermal Cracking and Gap Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-15

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall. The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem for the top crust is solved in slab geometry based on the two-phase Darcy equations together with quasi-steady mass and energy conservation equations. The resulting water penetration depth is in good agreement with the depth of the so-called loose debris bed. The lower-head and bottom-crust problem is treated analogously by a two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The notion of a gap is maintained as a useful concept in the flow analysis. Simulations show that a central hot spot with a peak wall temperature of 1075 to 1100 deg. C can be obtained, but the quenching rates are not satisfactory. It is concluded that a three-dimensional model with an additional mechanism to explain the sudden water ingress to the hot spot center would be more appropriate.

  18. An analysis of the hydrogen bubble concerns in the three-mile island unit-2 reactor vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Schmidt, K. H.; Honekamp, J. R.

    On 30 March 1979, two days after the accident at the Three-Mile Island Reactor near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, press reports appeared about a non-condensable bubble in the reactor vessel. This bubble was said to consist mainly of hydrogen, and to grow rapidly, possibly due to the development of oxygen. Danger of explosion was reported to be imminent. We analyzed all possible sources of non-condensable gases, including radiolysis, and determined that a continuing growth of the bubble during several days after the accident was not possible. Our main conclusions were the following: (1) Most of the initial hydrogen in the bubble was produced by the reaction of the Zircalloy cladding with the super-heated water. (2) During the first 16 hr after shutdown, when boiling of the primary coolant water took place, in the worst case stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen and oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis, leading to a maximum amount of oxygen in the bubble, of 0.7% of the hydrogen, which is well below the explosion limit. (3) After this 16 hr period, when boiling had totally ceased, no further oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis of the primary cooling water. On the contrary, oxygen was recombined with hydrogen due to radiolysis at such a rate that the oxygen in the water was completely removed in less than five minutes. The subsequent rate of removal of oxygen from the bubble by dissolution and radiolysis depended essentially on the rate of dissolution.

  19. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island: response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    Decision-making by decision-makers during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island all had to do in some way, and impacted on the public health and safety, the health and safety of the workers, and emergency preparedness and health care. This paper reviews the activities of only one federal agency during the accident, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), and its effectiveness in its role as the leading institution responsible for protecting the public health during the first accident in a nuclear power plant designed for the commerical generation of electricity in the United States. My comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment.

  20. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 reactor cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Preston, C.C.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-04-01

    Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry has been conducted in the Three-Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence of a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that there are at least 2 tonnes of fuel, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity.

  1. Development of a dose algorithm for the modified panasonic UD-802 personal dosimeter used at three mile island

    SciTech Connect

    Miklos, J. A.; Plato, P.

    1988-01-01

    During the fall of 1981, the personnel dosimetry group at GPU Nuclear Corporation at Three Mile Island (TMI) requested assistance from The University of Michigan (UM) in developing a dose algorithm for use at TMI-2. The dose algorithm had to satisfy the specific needs of TMI-2, particularly the need to distinguish beta-particle emitters of different energies, as well as having the capability of satisfying the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N13.11-1983 standard. A standard Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter was modified by having the plastic filter over element 2 removed. The dosimeter and hanger consists of the elements with a 14 mg/cm/sup 2/ density thickness and the filtrations shown. The hanger on this dosimeter had a double open window to facilitate monitoring for low-energy beta particles. The dose algorithm was written to satisfy the requirements of the ANSI N13.11-1983 standard, to include /sup 204/Tl with mixtures of /sup 204/Tl with /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y and /sup 137/Cs, and to include 81- and 200-keV average energy X-ray spectra. Stress tests were conducted to observe the algorithm performance to low doses, temperature, humidity, and the residual response following high-dose irradiations. The ability of the algorithm to determine dose from the beta particles of /sup 147/Pm was also investigated.

  2. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Services. Notification of a new system of records: Three Mile Island mental health survey, respondent records.

    PubMed

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act, the Public Health Service (PHS) is publishing notice of a proposal to establish a new system of records entitled "Three Mile Island Mental Health Survey, Respondent Records, HHS/ADAMHA/NIMH." The Disaster Assistance and Emergency Mental Health Section, Division of Special Mental Health Programs, National Institute of Mental Health, is responsible for the system. The purpose of the system is to enable the Government to arrange followup study to the currently-funded research project entitled "The Mental Health of Residents Near the Three Mile Island Reactor: A Comparative Study of Selected Groups." PHS invites interested persons to submit comments on the proposed routine uses on or before November 3, 1980. PMID:10248823

  3. Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sang Lung, Chan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

  4. Long-term follow-up of the residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1979-1998.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Youk, Ada O; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen P; Zborowski, Jeanne V

    2003-03-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident (1979) prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Health to initiate a cohort mortality study in the TMI accident area. This study is significant because of the long follow-up (1979-1998), large cohort size (32,135), and evidence from earlier reports indicating increased cancer risks. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to assess the mortality experience of the cohort compared with a local population. Relative risk (RR) regression modeling was performed to assess cause-specific mortality associated with radiation-related exposure variables after adjustment for individual smoking and lifestyle factors. Overall cancer mortality in this cohort was similar to the local population [SMRs = 103.7 (male); 99.8 (female)]. RR modeling showed neither maximum gamma nor likely gamma exposure was a significant predictor of all malignant neoplasms; bronchus, trachea, and lung; or heart disease mortality after adjusting for known confounders. The RR estimates for maximum gamma exposure (less than or equal to 8, 8-19, 20-34, greater than or equal to 35 mrem) in relation to all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (LHT) are significantly elevated (RRs = 1.00, 1.16, 2.54, 2.45, respectively) for males and are suggestive of a potential dose-response relationship, although the test for trend was not significant. An upward trend of RRs and SMRs for levels of maximum gamma exposure in relation to breast cancer in females (RRs = 1.00, 1.08, 1.13, 1.31; SMRs = 104.2, 113.2, 117.9) was also noted. Although the surveillance within the TMI cohort provides no consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the nuclear accident has had a significant impact on the overall mortality experience of these residents, several elevations persist, and certain potential dose-response relationships cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:12611664

  5. Revisiting Insights from Three Mile Island Unit 2 Postaccident Examinations and Evaluations in View of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Joy; Farmer, Mitchell; Corradini, Michael; Ott, Larry; Gauntt, Randall; Powers, Dana

    2012-11-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, led industry and regulators to enhance strategies to protect against severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants. Investigations in the years after the accident concluded that at least 45% of the core had melted and that nearly 19 tonnes of the core material had relocated to the lower head. Postaccident examinations indicate that about half of that material formed a solid layer near the lower head and above it was a layer of fragmented rubble. As discussed in this paper, numerous insights related to pressurized water reactor accident progression were gained from postaccident evaluations of debris, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) specimens, and nozzles taken from the RPV. In addition, information gleaned from TMI-2 specimen evaluations and available data from plant instrumentation were used to improve severe accident simulation models that form the technical basis for reactor safety evaluations. Finally, the TMI-2 accident led the nuclear community to dedicate considerable effort toward understanding severe accident phenomenology as well as the potential for containment failure. Because available data suggest that significant amounts of fuel heated to temperatures near melting, the events at Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 offer an unexpected opportunity to gain similar understanding about boiling water reactor accident progression. To increase the international benefit from such an endeavor, we recommend that an international effort be initiated to (a) prioritize data needs; (b) identify techniques, samples, and sample evaluations needed to address each information need; and (c) help finance acquisition of the required data and conduct of the analyses.

  6. The Nuclear Accident at Three Mile Island a Practical Lesson in the Fundamental Importance of Effective Communications

    SciTech Connect

    DeVine Jr, J.C.

    2008-07-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident in March 1979 had a profound effect on the course of commercial nuclear generation in the United States and around the world. And while the central elements of the accident were matters of nuclear engineering, design and operations, its consequences were compounded, and in some respects superseded, by extraordinarily ineffective communications by all parties at all levels. Communications failures during the accident and its aftermath caused misunderstanding, distrust, and incorrect emergency response - and seeded or reinforced public opposition to nuclear power that persists to this day. There are communications lessons from TMI that have not yet been fully learned, and some that once were learned but are now gradually being forgotten. The more glaring TMI communications problems were in the arena of external interactions and communications among the plant owner, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the media, and the public. Confusing, fragmented, and contradictory public statements early in the accident, regardless of cause, undermined all possibility for reasonable discourse thereafter. And because the TMI accident was playing out on a world stage, the breakdown in public trust had long term and widespread implications. At the plant site, both TMI-2 cleanup and restart of the undamaged TMI-1 unit met with years of public and political criticism, and attendant regulatory pressure. Across the nation, public trust in nuclear power and those who operate it plummeted, unquestionably contributing to the 25+ year hiatus in new plant orders. There were other, less visible but equally important, consequences of ineffective communications at TMI. The unplanned 'precautionary' evacuation urged by the governor two days after the accident - a life changing, traumatic event for thousands of residents - was prompted primarily by misunderstandings and miscommunications regarding the condition of the plant. And today, nearly 30

  7. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 4-Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using relevant and well-documented critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors. The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SCALE-4 SAS2H analytical sequence. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code family was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all calculations. This volume of the report documents a reactor critical calculation for GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) during hot, zero-power startup testing for the beginning of cycle 5. This unit and cycle were selected because of their relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) cycle 5 startup occurred after an especially long downtime of 6.6 years; and (2) the core consisted primarily (75%) of burned fuel, with

  8. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; Taunton and Ten Mile River basins and coastal river basins of Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Keezer, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The study area includes streams draining the Taunton River (562 square miles), the Tenmile River (53.1 square miles), and the minor streams flowing into Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound in southern Massachusetts, and adjacent areas of Rhode Island. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24 ,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were re-computed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics, at 10 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 44 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for selected gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and managing of water-resources related activities, and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  9. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county`s repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The long-term impact of a man-made disaster: An examination of a small town in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K

    1982-03-01

    This paper explores the long-term effects of a nuclear accident on residents' perceptions of their physical and mental health, their trust of public officials, and their attitudes toward the future risks of nuclear power generation In their community. We find that in the period after the accident at Three Mile Island that there are constant or Increasing levels of distress reported by community residents. We conclude that the effects of a technological disaster may often be more enduring than those natural disaster and that greater research efforts should be made to Investigate the long-term consequences of man-made catastrophies of all types. PMID:20958512

  11. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  12. Miles' Smile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giusto, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Describes a high school English teacher's impromptu relationship with a troubled special-education student. Miles's satiric essay about a teacher literally blowing up in class helped revitalize the English teacher's efforts to improve his own students' writing skills. (MLH)

  13. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.; Scotti, K. S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  14. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation

    DOE PAGES

    Gauld, Ian C.; Giaquinto, J. M.; Delashmitt, J. S.; Hu, Jianwei; Ilas, Germina; Haverlock, T. J.; Romano, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Destructive radiochemical assay measurements of spent nuclear fuel rod segments from an assembly irradiated in the Three Mile Island unit 1 (TMI-1) pressurized water reactor have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Assay data are reported for five samples from two fuel rods of the same assembly. The TMI-1 assembly was a 15 X 15 design with an initial enrichment of 4.013 wt% 235U, and the measured samples achieved burnups between 45.5 and 54.5 gigawatt days per metric ton of initial uranium (GWd/t). Measurements were performed mainly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after elemental separation via highmore » performance liquid chromatography. High precision measurements were achieved using isotope dilution techniques for many of the lanthanides, uranium, and plutonium isotopes. Measurements are reported for more than 50 different isotopes and 16 elements. One of the two TMI-1 fuel rods measured in this work had been measured previously by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and these data have been widely used to support code and nuclear data validation. Recently, ORNL provided an important opportunity to independently cross check results against previous measurements performed at ANL. The measured nuclide concentrations are used to validate burnup calculations using the SCALE nuclear systems modeling and simulation code suite. These results show that the new measurements provide reliable benchmark data for computer code validation.« less

  15. Re-evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Data for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 Reactor and Application to Code Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C.; Giaquinto, J. M.; Delashmitt, J. S.; Hu, Jianwei; Ilas, Germina; Haverlock, T. J.; Romano, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Destructive radiochemical assay measurements of spent nuclear fuel rod segments from an assembly irradiated in the Three Mile Island unit 1 (TMI-1) pressurized water reactor have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Assay data are reported for five samples from two fuel rods of the same assembly. The TMI-1 assembly was a 15 X 15 design with an initial enrichment of 4.013 wt% 235U, and the measured samples achieved burnups between 45.5 and 54.5 gigawatt days per metric ton of initial uranium (GWd/t). Measurements were performed mainly using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after elemental separation via high performance liquid chromatography. High precision measurements were achieved using isotope dilution techniques for many of the lanthanides, uranium, and plutonium isotopes. Measurements are reported for more than 50 different isotopes and 16 elements. One of the two TMI-1 fuel rods measured in this work had been measured previously by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and these data have been widely used to support code and nuclear data validation. Recently, ORNL provided an important opportunity to independently cross check results against previous measurements performed at ANL. The measured nuclide concentrations are used to validate burnup calculations using the SCALE nuclear systems modeling and simulation code suite. These results show that the new measurements provide reliable benchmark data for computer code validation.

  16. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  17. Age-Related Incidence of Cervical Spondylosis in Residents of Jeju Island

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Geun; Park, Bong-Keun; Park, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cervical spine radiograms of 460 Jeju islanders. Purpose To investigate the age-matched incidences and severity of the cervical disc degeneration and associated pathologic findings. Overview of Literature Several related studies on the incidences of disc and Luschka's and facet joint degeneration have provided some basic data for clinicians. Methods Cervical radiographs of 460 (220 males and 240 females) patients in their fourth to ninth decade were analyzed. Ninety patients in their third decade were excluded because of absence of spondylotic findings. Results Overall incidence of cervical spondylosis was 47.8% (220 of 460 patients). The percentile incidences of spondylosis in the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth decade was 13.2% (10 of 76 patients), 34.6% (37 of 107 patients), 58.9% (66 of 112 patients), 58.8% (50 of 85 patients), 70.3% (45 of 64 patients) and 75.0% (12 of 16 patients), respectively. The percentile incidences of one, two, three, four and five level spondylosis among 220 spondylosis patients was 45.5% (n=100), 34.1% (n=75), 15.0% (n=33), 4.5% (n=10), and 0.9% (n=2). Severity of disc degeneration ranged from ± to ++++, and was ± in 6.0% (24 segments), + in 49.6% (198 segments), ++ in 35.3% (141 segments), +++ in 9.0% (36 segments) and ++++ in 0.25% (one segment). Spurs and anterior ligament ossicle formed at the spondylotic segments, mostly at C4~6. The rate of posterior corporal spurs formation was very low. Olisthesis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament were rarely combined with spondylosis. Cervical lordotic curve decreased gradually according to the progress of severity of spondylosis. Conclusions The incidence of cervical spondylosis and number of spondylotic segments increase, and degeneration gradually becomes more severe with age. PMID:27790313

  18. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  19. Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress

    SciTech Connect

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-05-01

    Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables.

  20. Incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island: a population-based descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bryanton, Janet; Boswall, Diane; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Fraser, Bonnie; Walsh, Donna; Freeman, Bridget; Koren, Gideon; Bigsby, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disability in North America. The stigma associated with alcohol use and abuse during pregnancy makes it difficult to obtain information on prenatal alcohol use through self-reporting. We assessed the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island to facilitate future public health initiatives addressing FASD. Methods Prenatal alcohol exposure was examined via population-based collection of meconium and analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Fatty acid ethyl esters are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol that are produced in the fetus. Meconium FAEE concentrations of 2.0 nmol/g or greater are indicative of frequent prenatal alcohol exposure during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy. Samples were collected from 1307 neonates between Nov. 8, 2010, and Nov. 8, 2011, in hospitals in PEI, or from those born to mothers who resided in PEI but gave birth in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Samples were frozen and shipped for analysis. Fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by means of deuterated internal standards. Results Of the 1307 samples collected, 1271 samples were successfully analyzed. Positive results for FAEEs were obtained in 3.1% (n = 39) of samples collected within the first 24 hours after birth. Interpretation Not all neonates exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol in utero will exhibit FASD; based on current estimates of predictive value for disease by exposure, our findings suggest that 1.3% of neonates born in PEI during this 1-year period will have FASD. In its application to an entire provincial birth cohort, this study successfully implemented a public health–centred approach for evaluating population-based risk of FASD, with implications for practice across Canada. PMID:25077128

  1. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers; Part I: perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings.

    PubMed

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed the following: Part I: TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered. TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident. Coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent. Leaving the area was more common; however, over 40 per cent of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations. TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about their job future. PMID:7212135

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Water-discharge determinations for the tidal reach of the Willamette River from Ross Island Bridge to Mile 10.3, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dempster, G.R.; Lutz, Gale A.

    1968-01-01

    Water-discharge, velocity, and slope variations for a 3.7-mile-Iong tidal reach of the Willamette River at Portland, Oreg., were defined from discharge measurements and river stage data collected between July 1962 and January 1965. Observed water discharge during tide-affected flows, during floods, and during backwater from the Columbia River and recorded stages at each end of the river reach were used to determine water discharge from two mathematical models. These models use a finite-difference method to solve the equations of moderately unsteady open-channel streamflow, and discharges are computed by an electronic digital computer. Discharges computed by using the mathematical models compare satisfactorily with observed discharges, except during the period of backwater from the annual flood of the Columbia River. The flow resistance coefficients used in the models vary with discharge; for one model, the coefficients for discharges above 30,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) are 12 and 24 percent less than the coefficient used for discharges below 30,000 cfs. Daily mean discharges were determined by use of one mathematical model for approximately two-thirds of the water year, October 1963 through September 1964. Agreement of computed with routed daily mean discharges is fair; above 30,000 cfs, average differences between the two discharges are about 10 percent, and below 30,000 cfs, computed daily discharges are consistently greater (by as much as 25 percent) than routed discharges. The other model was used to compute discharges for the unusually high flood flows of December 1964.

  4. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

  5. Miles for Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessing, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Considers how to transfer a community fund-raising motivational tool to the classroom. Describes the Hoppin' Frog Contest, a project in which students work to earn "miles" instead of working for grades. (SG)

  6. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  7. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. PMID:23899612

  8. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

  10. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789

  11. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  12. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  13. Miles Hand Grenade

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Buttz, James H.; Maish, Alex B.; Page, Ray R.; Metcalf, Herbert E.

    2005-11-15

    A simulated grenade for MILES-type simulations generates a unique RF signal and a unique audio signal. A detector utilizes the time between receipt of the RF signal and the slower-traveling audio signal to determine the distance between the detector and the simulated grenade.

  14. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  15. High incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in native people of Sarawak, Borneo Island.

    PubMed

    Devi, Beena C R; Pisani, Paola; Tang, Tieng Swee; Parkin, D Maxwell

    2004-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is generally a rare malignancy with a few well-known exceptions, notably South-East China. In this article, we describe evidence of a high risk of NPC in the population of Sarawak State, Malaysia, and particularly in one native ethnic group. Sarawak State is one of the two provinces of Malaysia located on the island of Borneo. The native population (71.6%) includes the Iban, Malay, Bidayuh, Melanau, and diverse smaller ethnic groups. The Chinese are the largest nonindigenous group (27.5%). We identified 392 newly diagnosed cases (292 males and 100 females) of NPC in 1996-1998 in Malaysian citizens, permanent residents of Sarawak. Age-standardized rates by sex and ethnic group were compared with the highest rates in the world. The age-adjusted rate (ASR) in Sarawak residents was 13.5/100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.2-15.0] and 6.2/100,000 (95% CI 5.7-6.7) in males and females, respectively. The risk in the Bidayuh people was 2.3-fold (M) and 1.9-fold (F) higher than the Sarawak average, and about 50% higher than that in Hong Kong-the highest recorded by any population-based registry for the same period. Local dietary habits, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility deserve investigation in this population. PMID:15006927

  16. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  17. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    , we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic-related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise. Citation Mordukhovich I, Beyea J, Herring AH, Hatch M, Stellman SD, Teitelbaum SL, Richardson DB, Millikan RC, Engel LS, Shantakumar S, Steck SE, Neugut AI, Rossner P Jr., Santella RM, Gammon MD. 2016. Vehicular traffic–related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP). Environ Health Perspect 124:30–38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307736 PMID:26008800

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns among specific Asian and Pacific Islander populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Hankey, Benjamin F.; Ries, Lynn A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We report cancer incidence, mortality, and stage distributions among Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) residing in the U.S. and note health disparities, using the cancer experience of the non-Hispanic white population as the referent group. New databases added to publicly available SEER*Stat software will enable public health researchers to further investigate cancer patterns among API groups. Methods Cancer diagnoses among API groups occurring from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2002 were included from 14 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state and regional population-based cancer registries covering 54% of the U.S. API population. Cancer deaths were included from the seven states that report death information for detailed API groups and which cover over 68% of the total U.S. API population. Using detailed racial/ethnic population data from the 2000 decennial census, we produced incidence rates centered on the census year for Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Guamanians, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, Samoans, Tongans, and Vietnamese. State vital records offices do not report API deaths separately for Kampucheans, Laotians, Pakistanis, and Tongans, so mortality rates were analyzed only for the remaining API groups. Results Overall cancer incidence rates for the API groups tended be lower than overall rates for non-Hispanic whites, with the exception of Native Hawaiian women (All cancers rate = 488.5 per 100,000 vs. 448.5 for non-Hispanic white women). Among the API groups, overall cancer incidence and death rates were highest for Native Hawaiian and Samoan men and women due to high rates for cancers of the prostate, lung, and colorectum among Native Hawaiian men; cancers of the prostate, lung, liver, and stomach among Samoan men; and cancers of the breast and lung among Native Hawaiian and Samoan women. Incidence and death rates for cancers of the liver, stomach, and nasopharynx were

  19. Using Web Crawler Technology for Text Analysis of Geo-Events: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Ge, Y. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the social networking and network socialisation have brought more text information and social relationships into our daily lives, the question of whether big data can be fully used to study the phenomenon and discipline of natural sciences has prompted many specialists and scholars to innovate their research. Though politics were integrally involved in the hyperlinked word issues since 1990s, automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have explored and built recently, the information collection and data visualisation of geo-events have always faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident is studied here by combining web crawler technology and the text analysis method. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios and dissemination flow graph based on the data collection and processing not only highlight the subject and theme vocabularies of related topics but also certain issues and problems behind it. Being able to express the time-space relationship of text information and to disseminate the information regarding geo-events, the text analysis of network information based on focused web crawler technology can be a tool for understanding the formation and diffusion of web-based public opinions in political events.

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines--A Community-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Hisato; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Tohma, Kentaro; Alday, Portia Parian; Tan, Alvin Gue; Inobaya, Marianette Tawat; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Lupisan, Soccoro; Tallo, Veronica; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83-7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES) (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20), and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.61) were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54-10.77) and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.45) were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.54) when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship between asthma

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines--A Community-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Hisato; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Tohma, Kentaro; Alday, Portia Parian; Tan, Alvin Gue; Inobaya, Marianette Tawat; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Lupisan, Soccoro; Tallo, Veronica; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83-7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES) (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20), and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.61) were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54-10.77) and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.45) were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.54) when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship between asthma

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines—A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosai, Hisato; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Tohma, Kentaro; Alday, Portia Parian; Tan, Alvin Gue; Inobaya, Marianette Tawat; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Lupisan, Soccoro; Tallo, Veronica; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83–7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES) (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.20), and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09–1.61) were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54–10.77) and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17–1.45) were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19–0.54) when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship

  3. A marked decline in the incidence of malaria in a remote region of Malaita, Solomon Islands, 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oloifana-Polosovai, Hellen; Gwala, John; Harrington, Humpress; Massey, Peter D; Ribeyro, Elmer; Flores, Angelica; Speare, Christopher; McBride, Edwin; MacLaren, David

    2014-01-01

    Setting Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH), Solomon Islands, the only hospital in the East Kwaio region. Objective To use routine surveillance data to assess the trends in malaria from 2008 to 2013. Design Descriptive study of records from (1) AAH laboratory malaria records; (2) admissions to AAH for malaria; and (3) malaria treatments from outpatient records. Results AAH examined 35 608 blood films and diagnosed malaria in 4443 samples comprised of 2667 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and 1776 Plasmodium vivax (Pv). Between 2008 and 2013 the total number of malaria cases detected annually decreased by 86.5%, Pf by 96.7% and Pv by 65.3%. The ratio of Pf to Pv reversed in 2010 from 2.06 in 2008 to 0.19 in 2013. For 2013, Pf showed a seasonal pattern with no cases diagnosed in four months. From 2008 to 2013 admissions in AAH for malaria declined by 90.8%, and malaria mortality fell from 54 per 100 000 to zero. The annual parasite index (API) for 2008 and 2013 was 195 and 24, respectively. Village API has identified a group of villages with higher malaria incidence rates. Conclusion The decline in malaria cases in the AAH catchment area has been spectacular, particularly for Pf. This was supported by three sources of hospital surveillance data (laboratory, admissions and treatment records). The decline was associated with the use of artemisinin-based combined therapy and improved vertical social capital between the AAH and the local communities. Calculating village-specific API has highlighted which villages need to be targeted by the AAH malaria control team. PMID:25320674

  4. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26936122

  7. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  8. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  9. The Great Unescape: Three Mile Island, Fukushima, and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    During the Second World War, the Luftwaffe ran a maximum security prisoner of war (POW) camp called "Stalag Luft III," which imprisoned captured Allied air force servicemen. The story of the 1944 escape from Stalag Luft III is one of the most famous stories of the Second World War as described in the firsthand written account and…

  10. Education's "Three Mile Island": PL 94-142.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay

    1981-01-01

    PL 94-142 is viewed as educationally and psychologically destructive to disabled students. It is also described as financially devastating to local school districts since it mandates that: (1) Cost cannot be considered a factor in developing educational programs for handicapped children; and (2) The most money be spent on children least likely to…

  11. Technology transfer at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) formulated a program at TMI-2 in concert with the Coordination Agreement. The DOE TME-2 Information and Examination Program (TI and EP) aims to fulfill three general objectives. First, the TI and EP aims to obtain information from the TMI-2 accidient for resolving specific safety and licensing concerns; modifying applicable standards, specifications, and regulations; and defining changes in design, maintenance, operation, and personnel training. Second, the TI and EP uses TMI-2 information to advance technology in decontamination work; radioactive waste immobilization and disposal; system requalification; damaged fuel handling; and plant, reactor, and safety engineering. Finally, the TI and EP distributes the information gained from the Program to others that are engaged in research and development, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation of nuclear power plants.

  12. Performance differences between sexes in 50-mile to 3,100-mile ultramarathons.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have assumed that women would be able to outrun men in long-distance running. The aim of this study was to test this assumption by investigating the changes in performance difference between sexes in the best ultramarathoners in 50-mile, 100-mile, 200-mile, 1,000-mile, and 3,100-mile events held worldwide between 1971 and 2012. The sex differences in running speed for the fastest runners ever were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey-Kramer posthoc analysis. Changes in sex difference in running speed of the annual fastest were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression analyses, correlation analyses, and mixed-effects regression analyses. The fastest men ever were faster than the fastest women ever in 50-mile (17.5%), 100-mile (17.4%), 200-mile (9.7%), 1,000-mile (20.2%), and 3,100-mile (18.6%) events. For the ten fastest finishers ever, men were faster than women in 50-mile (17.1%±1.9%), 100-mile (19.2%±1.5%), and 1,000-mile (16.7%±1.6%) events. No correlation existed between sex difference and running speed for the fastest ever (r (2)=0.0039, P=0.91) and the ten fastest ever (r (2)=0.15, P=0.74) for all distances. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in running speed decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 14.6% to 8.9%, remained unchanged in 100-mile (18.0%±8.4%) and 1,000-mile (13.7%±9.1%) events, and increased in 3,100-mile events from 12.5% to 16.9%. For the annual ten fastest runners, the performance difference between sexes decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 31.6%±3.6% to 8.9%±1.8% and in 100-mile events from 26.0%±4.4% to 24.7%±0.9%. To summarize, the fastest men were ~17%-20% faster than the fastest women for all distances from 50 miles to 3,100 miles. The linear decrease in sex difference for 50-mile and 100-mile events may suggest that women are reducing the sex gap for these distances.

  13. Performance differences between sexes in 50-mile to 3,100-mile ultramarathons

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have assumed that women would be able to outrun men in long-distance running. The aim of this study was to test this assumption by investigating the changes in performance difference between sexes in the best ultramarathoners in 50-mile, 100-mile, 200-mile, 1,000-mile, and 3,100-mile events held worldwide between 1971 and 2012. The sex differences in running speed for the fastest runners ever were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey–Kramer posthoc analysis. Changes in sex difference in running speed of the annual fastest were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression analyses, correlation analyses, and mixed-effects regression analyses. The fastest men ever were faster than the fastest women ever in 50-mile (17.5%), 100-mile (17.4%), 200-mile (9.7%), 1,000-mile (20.2%), and 3,100-mile (18.6%) events. For the ten fastest finishers ever, men were faster than women in 50-mile (17.1%±1.9%), 100-mile (19.2%±1.5%), and 1,000-mile (16.7%±1.6%) events. No correlation existed between sex difference and running speed for the fastest ever (r2=0.0039, P=0.91) and the ten fastest ever (r2=0.15, P=0.74) for all distances. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in running speed decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 14.6% to 8.9%, remained unchanged in 100-mile (18.0%±8.4%) and 1,000-mile (13.7%±9.1%) events, and increased in 3,100-mile events from 12.5% to 16.9%. For the annual ten fastest runners, the performance difference between sexes decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 31.6%±3.6% to 8.9%±1.8% and in 100-mile events from 26.0%±4.4% to 24.7%±0.9%. To summarize, the fastest men were ~17%–20% faster than the fastest women for all distances from 50 miles to 3,100 miles. The linear decrease in sex difference for 50-mile and 100-mile events may suggest that women are reducing the sex gap for these distances. PMID:25653567

  14. 75 FR 59620 - Natchez Fireworks Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 365.5 to Mile Marker 363...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ..., Mile Marker 365.5 to Mile Marker 363, Natchez, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 365.5 to Mile Marker 363, Natchez, MS (a) Location. The...

  15. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route...

  16. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route...

  17. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route...

  18. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route...

  19. 33 CFR 117.565 - Miles River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miles River. 117.565 Section 117.565 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.565 Miles River. The draw of the Route...

  20. The association of graduated driver licensing with miles driven and fatal crash rates per miles driven among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Cummings, Peter; Zhao, Songzhu; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Smith, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws are associated with reduced crash rates per person-year among adolescents. It is unknown whether adolescents crash less per miles driven or drive less under GDL policies. Methods We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1995–1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009. We compared adolescents subject to GDL laws with those not, by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios for being a driver in a crash with a death per person-year (aIRRpy) and per miles driven (aIRRm), and adjusted miles driven ratios (aMR) controlling for changes in rates over time. Results Comparing persons subject to GDL policies with those not, 16-year-olds had fewer fatal crashes per person-year (aIRRpy 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.91), drove fewer miles (aMR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 0.98), and had lower crash rates per miles driven (aIRRm 0.83, 95% CI 0.65, 1.06). For age 17, the aIRRpy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.60, 1.17), the aMR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63, 1.03), and the aIRRm 1.03 (95% CI 0.80, 1.35). For age 18, the aIRRpy was 0.93 (95% CI 0.72, 1.19), the aMR 0.92 (95% CI 0.77, 1.09), and the aIRRm 1.01 (95% CI 0.84, 1.23). Conclusions If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced crashes per person-year by about one-third among 16-year-olds; half the reduction was due to fewer crashes per miles driven and half to less driving. For ages 17 and 18, there was no evidence of reduced crash rates per miles driven. PMID:24525908

  1. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  2. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  3. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  4. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  5. 33 CFR 117.615 - Plum Island River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plum Island River. 117.615... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.615 Plum Island River. The draw of the Plum Island Turnpike Bridge, mile 3.3 between Newburyport and Plum Island, shall operate...

  6. 33 CFR 117.615 - Plum Island River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plum Island River. 117.615... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.615 Plum Island River. The draw of the Plum Island Turnpike Bridge, mile 3.3 between Newburyport and Plum Island, shall operate...

  7. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  8. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  9. 33 CFR 117.615 - Plum Island River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plum Island River. 117.615... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.615 Plum Island River. The draw of the Plum Island Turnpike Bridge, mile 3.3 between Newburyport and Plum Island, shall operate...

  10. 33 CFR 117.615 - Plum Island River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plum Island River. 117.615... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.615 Plum Island River. The draw of the Plum Island Turnpike Bridge, mile 3.3 between Newburyport and Plum Island, shall operate...

  11. 33 CFR 117.615 - Plum Island River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plum Island River. 117.615... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.615 Plum Island River. The draw of the Plum Island Turnpike Bridge, mile 3.3 between Newburyport and Plum Island, shall operate...

  12. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100....100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight..., “Passenger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island).”...

  13. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  14. 75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Crescent Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island... Railroad Drawbridge, across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island, Illinois to open...

  15. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  16. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  17. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  18. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking northeast at the modified "X" bracing and concrete hangers. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  19. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete arched balustrade at southeast corner of bridge, view looking east. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  20. Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, decorative cantilevered balustrade, and floor beams. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  1. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  2. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  3. One Half Million Mile Solar Filament

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captures a very long, whip-like solar filament extending over half a million miles in a long arc above the sun’s surface. Filaments are cooler clouds of ...

  4. Miles Discusses Skylab Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with engineers and scientists during a design review of the experiment equipment. At left is Ron Pavlue of Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), holding a box is Keith Demorest of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Right of Miles is Dr. Raymond Gause, also of MSFC, who is Miles' scientific advisor. In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', spiders were released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  5. Optical networks, last mile access and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, E.; Gebhart, M.; Birnbacher, U.

    Free Space Optical (FSO) links can be used to setup FSO communication networks or to supplement radio and optical fiber networks. Hence, it is the broadband wireless solution for closing the "last mile" connectivity gap throughout metropolitan networks. Optical wireless fits well into dense urban areas and is ideally suited for urban applications. This paper gives an overview of free-space laser communications. Different network architectures will be described and investigated regarding reliability. The usage of "Optical Repeaters", Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint solutions will be explained for setting up different network architectures. After having explained the different networking topologies and technologies, FSO applications will be discussed in section 2, including terrestrial applications for short and long ranges, and space applications. Terrestrial applications for short ranges cover the links between buildings on campus or different buildings of a company, which can be established with low-cost technology. For using FSO for long-range applications, more sophisticated systems have to be used. Hence, different techniques regarding emitted optical power, beam divergence, number of beams and tracking will be examined. Space applications have to be divided into FSO links through the troposphere, for example up- and downlinks between the Earth and satellites, and FSO links above the troposphere (e.g., optical inter-satellite links). The difference is that links through the troposphere are mainly influenced by weather conditions similar but not equal to terrestrial FSO links. Satellite orbits are above the atmosphere and therefore, optical inter-satellite links are not influenced by weather conditions. In section 3 the use of optical wireless for the last mile will be investigated and described in more detail. Therefore important design criteria for connecting the user to the "backbone" by FSO techniques will be covered, e.g., line of sight, network

  6. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  7. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  8. 33 CFR 117.T966 - Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pelican Island Causeway... Island Causeway, Galveston Channel. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 32866, June 9, 2014. The draw of the Pelican Island Causeway bridge across Galveston Channel, mile 4.5 of the Galveston...

  9. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  10. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  11. 33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kent Island Narrows. 117.561... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island Narrows, operates as follows: (a) From November...

  12. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  13. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  14. Getting miles away from Terman: Did the CRPS fund Catharine Cox Miles's unsilenced psychology of sex?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Psychologist Catharine Cox Miles (1890-1984) is often remembered as the junior author, with Lewis Terman, of Sex and Personality. Written with support from the Committee for Research on the Problems of Sex (CRPS), Sex and Personality introduced the "masculinity-femininity" personality measure to psychology in 1936. Miles has been overlooked by some historians and constructed as a silent, indirect feminist by others. Private letters show that Terman and Miles had different assumptions about the need for library research work to precede the empirical work for Sex and Personality. Miles's 1935 chapter on the "Social Psychology of Sex" shows that her theoretical formulation of sex differed from Terman's in its emphasis on female embodiment, respect for the emerging tradition of the sex survey, and its opinions about the determinants of marital happiness, and the variability of intelligence. Ironically, CRPS monies wired to Terman may have funded Miles to develop this early formulation of the psychology of sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Getting miles away from Terman: Did the CRPS fund Catharine Cox Miles's unsilenced psychology of sex?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Psychologist Catharine Cox Miles (1890-1984) is often remembered as the junior author, with Lewis Terman, of Sex and Personality. Written with support from the Committee for Research on the Problems of Sex (CRPS), Sex and Personality introduced the "masculinity-femininity" personality measure to psychology in 1936. Miles has been overlooked by some historians and constructed as a silent, indirect feminist by others. Private letters show that Terman and Miles had different assumptions about the need for library research work to precede the empirical work for Sex and Personality. Miles's 1935 chapter on the "Social Psychology of Sex" shows that her theoretical formulation of sex differed from Terman's in its emphasis on female embodiment, respect for the emerging tradition of the sex survey, and its opinions about the determinants of marital happiness, and the variability of intelligence. Ironically, CRPS monies wired to Terman may have funded Miles to develop this early formulation of the psychology of sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397910

  16. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 87. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, MERRITT PARKWAY, LOOKING EAST FROM ONE MILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, MERRITT PARKWAY, LOOKING EAST FROM ONE MILE EAST OF NEW YORK STATE LINE, GREENWICH, CA. 1940. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 85. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, MERRITT PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST FROM ONE MILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, MERRITT PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST FROM ONE MILE EAST OF NEW YORK STATE LINE IN GREENWICH, CA. 1940. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile River Playground comfort station, looking northwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  20. 78 FR 42011 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; The Straights, Harkers Island, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; The Straights, Harkers Island, NC... 70/Harkers Island Bridge, across The Straights, mile 0.6, Harkers Island, NC. This deviation is necessary to facilitate coupling repair on the Route 70/ Harkers Island Bridge. This temporary...

  1. 75 FR 22872 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... of Rhode Island, dated 03/29/2010 is hereby amended to establish the incident period for...

  2. Astronomy for Mile-Hi Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.

  3. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between the tied arch span and the approach span, view looking east at southwest corner of bridge. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  4. Miles Discusses Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with Keith Demorest (right) and Henry Floyd, both of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', called for spiders to be released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab Mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  5. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of the earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles.

  6. Variability in the Incidence of miRNAs and Genes in Fragile Sites and the Role of Repeats and CpG Islands in the Distribution of Genetic Material

    PubMed Central

    Sismeiro, Catarina; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Ferro, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Background Chromosomal fragile sites are heritable specific loci especially prone to breakage. Some of them are associated with human genetic disorders and several studies have demonstrated their importance in genome instability in cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs responsible of post-transcriptional gene regulation and their involvement in several diseases such as cancer has been widely demonstrated. The altered expression of miRNAs is sometimes due to chromosomal rearrangements and epigenetic events, thus it is essential to study miRNAs in the context of their genomic locations, in order to find significant correlations between their aberrant expression and the phenotype. Principal Findings Here we use statistical models to study the incidence of human miRNA genes on fragile sites and their association with cancer-specific translocation breakpoints, repetitive elements, and CpG islands. Our results show that, on average, fragile sites are denser in miRNAs and also in protein coding genes. However, the distribution of miRNAs and protein coding genes in fragile versus non-fragile sites depends on chromosome. We find also a positive correlation between fragility and repeats, and between miRNAs and CpG islands. Conclusion Our results show that the relationship between site fragility and miRNA density is far more complex than previously thought. For example, we find that protein coding genes seem to be following similar patterns as miRNAs, if considered their overall distribution. However, once we allow for differences at the chromosome level in our statistical analysis, we find that distribution of miRNA and protein coding genes in fragile sites is very different from that of miRNA. This is a novel result that we believe may help discover new potential correlations between the localization of miRNAs and their crucial role in biological processes and in the development of diseases. PMID:20567512

  7. Predicting One Mile and Two Mile Run Performance from Physiological Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucec, A. A.

    Twenty-three male distance runners between the ages of 16 and 23 who had achieved a ten-minute or better two-mile performance were tested to determine physical and physiological characteristics to be used in predictive research regarding running performance. Relative body fat ratio, metabolic data, and oxygen intake capability were among the…

  8. Entiat 4Mile WELLs Completion Report, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowksi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Entiat 4-mile Wells (Entiat 4-mile) project is located in the Entiat subbasin and will benefit Upper Columbia steelhead, spring Chinook and bull trout. The goal of this project is to prevent juvenile fish from being diverted into an out-of-stream irrigation system and to eliminate impacts due to the annual maintenance of an instream pushup dam. The objectives include eliminating a surface irrigation diversion and replacing it with two wells, which will provide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) with a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) BiOp metric credit of one. Wells were chosen over a new fish screen based on biological benefits and costs. Long-term biological benefits are provided by completely eliminating the surface diversion and the potential for fish entrainment in a fish screen. Construction costs for a new fish screen were estimated at $150,000, which does not include other costs associated with implementing and maintaining a fish screening project. Construction costs for a well were estimated at $20,000 each. The diversion consisted of a pushup dam that diverted water into an off-channel pond. Water was then pumped into a pressurized system for irrigation. There are 3 different irrigators who used water from this surface diversion, and each has multiple water right claims totaling approximately 5 cfs. Current use was estimated at 300 gallons per minute (approximately 0.641 cfs). Some irrigated acreage was taken out of orchard production less than 5 years ago. Therefore, approximately 6.8 acre-feet will be put into the State of Washington Trust Water Right program. No water will be set aside for conservation savings. The construction of the two irrigation wells for three landowners was completed in September 2006. The Lower Well (Tippen/Wick) will produce up to 175 gpm while the Upper Well (Griffith) will produce up to 275 gpm during the irrigation season. The eight inch diameter wells were

  9. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-08-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk mitigation, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can suffer also from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We present also the results of an experiment conducted in Fogo island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the setup of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  10. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk management, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can also suffer from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of the FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the set-up of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  11. 78 FR 36660 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River Mile 95.5-Mile 96.5; New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Lower Mississippi River from mile 95.5 to mile 96.5. This safety zone is necessary to protect persons and vessels from potential safety hazards associated with a fireworks display in the Lower Mississippi River at mile 96. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port......

  12. 78 FR 4967 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/ 14/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 11/14/2012 is...

  13. 75 FR 18554 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated...

  14. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  15. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  16. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  17. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  18. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  19. 33 CFR 117.115 - Three Mile Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Three Mile Creek. 117.115 Section 117.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.115 Three Mile Creek. (a) The draw...

  20. 10. VIEW OF PIPING. THE BUILDING HAD OVER 700 MILES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF PIPING. THE BUILDING HAD OVER 700 MILES OF PIPING, OF WHICH 70 MILES WERE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING LINES. THESE PROCESS LINES RAN THROUGH WALLS AND TRAVERSED SEVERAL FLOORS. (6/29/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  2. 75 FR 22228 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad Cities Marathon to cross the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  4. 78 FR 69995 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  6. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY,'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 31454). We received no... Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard amends the..., mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York. The owner of the bridge, New York State...

  7. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  8. 75 FR 17561 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operations of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad Cities Heart Walkers to cross...

  9. 78 FR 79312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island,...

  10. 77 FR 20330 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area; Rhode Island Sound off Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Disestablishment of Restricted Area; Rhode Island... located in the waters of Rhode Island Sound, 4 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, Rhode Island. The restricted area was established on August 31, 1987. The purpose of the restricted area was...

  11. 78 FR 18933 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  13. 77 FR 3607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad Cities Heart Walk to cross...

  14. 76 FR 9224 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad Cities Heart Walk to cross...

  15. 77 FR 20716 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad Cities Live Uncommon Walk...

  16. 78 FR 16411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island,...

  17. 75 FR 68974 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island... operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time to...

  18. 78 FR 77592 - Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River Mile 94.1-Mile 95.1; New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River Mile 94.1-Mile 95.1; New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Information The Coast Guard is issuing this final rule without prior notice and opportunity to...

  19. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  1. Water resources of the Palau Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Palau Islands are a group of 350 islands, ranging in size from a few hundred square feet to the 153-square-mile island of Babelthuap. Babelthuap is the second largest island in the Western Pacific and comprises more than 80 percent of the total land area of the Palau Islands. Most of the islands are uninhabited limestone ridges covered with dense vegetation. These islands have no freshwater resources and are not included in this report. The island of Koror with an area of 3.6 square miles is the administrative, commercial, and population center of Palau and has an annual average rainfall of 148 inches. Short-term rainfall records at other locations in the islands indicate little variation in annual rainfall throughout the Palau Islands. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for streams on Babelthuap show that about 70 percent of the rain falling on the island runs off to the ocean. The uniformity of rainfall and basin characteristics is shown by the excellent correlation between mean annual rainfall on Koror and streamflow on Babelthuap and by the close correlations between discharge at gaging stations and partial-record sites. Surface water quality is generally very good as shown by 55 chemical analyses of water from 18 sources. The dissolved solids concentration of water samples did not exceed 66 milligrams per liter. This report summarizes in one volume hydrologic data collection in a 14-year period of study and provides interpretations of the data than can be used by planners and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of the islands ' water resources.

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is ... women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  3. Water resources of Kosrae, Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    Kosrae is a high volcanic island about 42 square miles in area and the easternmost of the Caroline Islands. Mount Finkol (Mt. Crozer), at 2,065 feet, is the highest point on the island. Mountainous ridges descend sharply to narrow coastal strips which support a population of 5,500 people. Many streams, some quite large relative to the size of the island, drain radially from the interior. The average annual discharge of surface water amounts to almost 7 million gallons per square mile per day. Annual rainfall for coastal areas on Kosrae averages about 200 inches, and is similar to the rainfall for coastal areas on the island of Ponape, about 340 statute miles to the northwest. Rainfall in the interior was estimated at 225 inches per year of which about two thirds runs off as streamflow. Surface-water quality is very good as shown by 42 chemical analyses of water from 12 streams. This report summarizes in one volume the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by planning and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of their water resources. (USGS)

  4. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  5. 4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST OF PHOENIX. NOTE MEN DRILLING AND EXCAVATING IN OPERATION; CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE DISTANCE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 86. SITE INSTRUMENTATION: VIEW OF COMMUNICATIONS WIRING APPROXIMATELY THREE MILES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. SITE INSTRUMENTATION: VIEW OF COMMUNICATIONS WIRING APPROXIMATELY THREE MILES NORTH OF GROUND ZERO, LOOKING NORTH - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  8. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ACROSS HIGHWAY 189 ABOUT ONE MILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ACROSS HIGHWAY 189 ABOUT ONE MILE NORTHEAST OF BRIDAL VEIL FALLS, SHOWING GENERAL TERRAIN THROUGH WHICH THE RAILROAD PASSES - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Following course of Provo River, between Provo & Heber City, Provo, Utah County, UT

  9. 88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. (Credit CBF) Twelve Mile Bayou Pumping Station and force main for pumping water over levee and into the canal (Blind Bayou), March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  11. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  12. Reaching REMOTE Learners: Successes and Challenges for Students in an Online Graduate Degree Program in the Pacific Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Kavita; Giuli, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Access to higher education in the U.S-affiliated Pacific Islands is limited. The island nations and territories in this Pacific region are geographically dispersed and separated by thousands of miles of ocean. Although local and regional colleges offer undergraduate degrees (associate's and bachelor's levels), islanders who seek graduate-level…

  13. Water resources of the Truk Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1983-01-01

    The Truk Islands, part of the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific, consist of 19 volcanic islands and about 65 coral islets. The volcanic islands and some of the coral islets are scattered in an 820-square-mile lagoon enclosed by a 125-mile long barrier reef. Moen, although not the largest, is by far the most developed island and is the adminstrative, commercial, educational, and transporation center of the islands. Monthly rainfall records for most years are available since 1903. Rainfall-runoff comparisons show that about half the annual rainfall runs off as surface water into Truk Lagoon. Flow characteristics of the major streams, based on more than 11 years of record, are provided and the application of data for possible use in the design of reservoirs and rain catchments is included. Historical and present development of all water sources is given. The chemical analyses of surface and ground water on Moen, with the exception of water from well 9, show the good quality of the water sources. This report summarizes all hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used for development and management of the water resources. (USGS)

  14. Trainer engineering report for MILES, volume 1, revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    This document provides a detailed analysis of the MILES systems (Volume I) and a final hardware design disclosure (Volume II) of the 11 systems that comprise the current Engineering Development (ED) phase of MILES. The problem was to design and build a tactical training system for the U.S. Army that simulates the weapons, weapon characteristics, and weapon effects of a family of weapon systems including infantry, armor, and aircraft. The design of the initial 11 systems allows for expansion, flexibility, and compatibility with the total 1980 MILES family of weapons. The key elements of the systems are the low power pulsed laser transmitters used to simulate the weapons and the inexpensive silicon photodiode (solar cell) detectors used to receive the laser transmission. Audio and visual indicators display the effects of weapon fire with kill, hit, and near miss indications. The weapons of the infantry man or target vehicle are deactivated by the receipt of a kill signal.

  15. A PILOT PLAN FOR EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN RHODE ISLAND, THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION IN A REGION OF RHODE ISLAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSTRANDER, RAYMOND H.; AND OTHERS

    A MODEL FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION IN RHODE ISLAND IS PROPOSED AS A PILOT PLAN FOR EDUCATION LEADERSHIP. SEVEN SCHOOL COMMITTEES AND FIVE SUPERINTENDENTS ARE ADMINISTERING THE SEVEN RHODE ISLAND DISTRICTS WHICH COVER AN AREA OF 22 SQUARE MILES. THIS DIFFUSION OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WITHIN THE SMALL AREA AFFECTS THE EXTENT TO WHICH…

  16. View of atmospheric wave patterns by effect of island on wind currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit illustrating an atmospheric wave pattern (54.4S, 3.4E) by the effect of a small mountainous island on wind currents. Various patterns can be seen downwind of small islands. This photograph illustrates a 'bow wave' pattern which extends for hundreds of miles downwind from the island. The island itself is often clear when a wave pattern is formed downstream. This particular pattern is very symetrical. The island in the photo is in the south Atlantic, either Diego de Alvare or Gough Island.

  17. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  18. Incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    Healthcare delivery is a risky business. People view the NHS in the same light as other commercial businesses such as the hotel, retail and airline industries. The White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) places statutory responsibilities on managers and clinicians to provide a quality service and to have accountability for clinical governance and performance management. Quality and risk are two sides of the same coin, i.e. if you have good quality you have low risk, and this firmly supports the clinical effectiveness agenda. Healthcare organizations in all sectors of care delivery need to demonstrate their high levels of achievement and commitment to continuous quality improvements. Risk management is a process for identifying, assessing and evaluating risks which have adverse effects on the quality, safety and effectiveness of service delivery, and taking positive action to eliminate or reduce them. Having an open, honest and blame-free organization which is open to improving processes and systems of care is a big step towards having staff who are committed to quality and getting things right. Near-miss, incident and indicator recording and reporting are cornerstones of any quality and risk management system.

  19. Detail Hframe structure about five and onefourth miles southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail H-frame structure about five and one-fourth miles southwest of Morony Dam and Powerhouse showing one modern non-ceramic insulator and two historic porcelain suspension insulators - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. The MILE Guide: Milestones for Improving Learning & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every district will benefit from understanding where it sits on the continuum of 21st century skills integration. The Milestones for Improving Learning & Education (MILE) Guide Self-Assessment tool helps districts accomplish this essential first step, covering the primary responsibilities and activities within a district. Subjects covered include:…

  1. 3. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W of Ms. 25 on dirt road 2.5 mi. N of Bull Mtn. Cr. View from S side of E approach. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. September 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  2. 10. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., AMORY Onehalf mile S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., AMORY One-half mile S of MS. 6, 1.5. mi. NW of Amory. Aerial view from SE, of St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad bridge. David Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  3. 4. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W of Ms. 25 on dirt road 2.5 mi. N of Bull Mtn. Cr. View from N, wide angle. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. September 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  4. 5. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W of Ms. 25 on dirt road 2.5 mi. N of Bull Mtn. Cr. View of underside from NE shore, showing lower panel point, lateral bracing. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. September 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  5. 2. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. IRONWOOD BLUFFS BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, ITAWAMBA CO. One mile W of Ms. 25 on dirt road 2.5 mi. N of Bull Mtn. Cr. Oblique view of N truss from E end. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. September 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  6. Margaret Miles: The Educational Journey of a Comprehensive School Campaigner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, Lottie

    2012-01-01

    As a former comprehensive school pupil herself, the author wanted to know more about the women who had pioneered comprehensive schools in England. Therefore, she chose the headmistress and comprehensive school campaigner Dame Margaret Miles (1911-1994) as the subject of a dissertation for her History of Education MA at the Institute of Education,…

  7. Biology and Biological Control of Mile-a-Minute Weed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed (MAM), Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Fig. 1), is a member of the family Polygonaceae. It is an annual vine that can grow up to 6 meters long over the course of a season. It is widely distributed throughout east Asia, including Japan, China, Korea, India, Indonesia, Banglade...

  8. 86. (Credit CBF) Canal between Twelve Mile Bayou and Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. (Credit CBF) Canal between Twelve Mile Bayou and Cross Bayou in the bed of Blind Bayou (constructed 1901-1903). Photo taken in November of 1911. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  9. Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile from visitor’s center, south bank of the south fork of Quantico Creek, about 75 yards upstream from its confluence with Quantico Creek, Near Birch Bluff Trail, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  10. Examination of H8 and B8 leadscrews from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; Akers, D.W.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1985-09-01

    Visual examinations, preliminary temperature estimates, and chemical and radiological analyses were conducted on samples removed from the control rod drive leadscrews. Hardness measurements and microstructure analysis suggest that significant temperature differences existed between the portions of the leadscrews closest to the bottom and top of the plenum assembly. Preliminary analysis indicates that the temperatures ranged from 666 to 1255/sup 0/K (740 to 1800/sup 0/F) for H8 and 723 to 1033/sup 0/K (842 to 1400/sup 0/F) for B8. The uncertainty in the temperature estimates is about +-28 to 56/sup 0/K (+-50 to 100/sup 0/F). Chemical analyses indicate that UO/sub 2/ and zirconium were deposited to a greater extent on surfaces closer to the core. Radiological analyses suggest that a number of the H8 radionuclides are insoluble in strong acid solutions. In contrast, more of the B8 radionuclides are soluble in strong acidic solutions. Also, an axial gradient in surface radionuclide concentrations was observed, with the highest concentration near the top of the plenum assembly. The data indicate changes in chemical composition and gradients in the surface radionuclide concentrations in the plenum assembly. As extrapolated from leadscrew data, the fractions of total core inventory of radionuclides retained on the plenum assembly surfaces are small (<2%).

  11. 75 FR 36700 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...-V-20 closed, ensuring that valve MU-V-36 is open provides a minimum recirculation flow path for the... supply breaker for the motor control center which powers valve MU-V-36, and then locally ensure that MU-V... because recent plant testing has shown that the backup air supply to seal injection valve MU-V-20...

  12. TMI-2 (Three-Mile Island-Unit 2) rail cask and railcar maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.J.; Ayers, A.L., Jr.; Ball, L.J.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes the NuPac 125-B cask system (i.e., cask and railcar), and the maintenance and inspection requirements for that system. The paper discusses the operations being done to satisfy those requirements and how, in some cases, it has been efficient for the operations to be more rigorous than the requirements. Finally, this paper discusses the experiences gained from those operations and how specific hardware and procedural enhancements have resulted in a reliable and continuous shipping campaign. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. 78 FR 77726 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... ) and drop weight-based methodology and allow the use of an alternate methodology to incorporate the use... weight tests (NB-2331(a)(1)) and C v test data (NB-2331(a)(2)). In addition, 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix G... have been determined using C v and drop weight tests described above. Therefore, an exemption...

  14. Investigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the fuel pool at Three Mile Island Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    An intergranular stress corrosion cracking failure of 304 stainless steel pipe in 2000 ppM B as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/O at 100/sup 0/C has been investigated. Constant extension rate testing has produced an intergranular type failure in material in air. Chemical analysis was performed on both the base metal and weld material, in addition to fractography, EPR testing and optical microscopy in discerning the mode of failure. Various effects of Cl/sup -/, O/sub 2/, and MnS are discussed. The results have indicated that the cause of failure was the severe sensitization coupled with probable contamination by S and possibly by Cl ions.

  15. 75 FR 38845 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... part 50 when: (1) The exemptions are authorized by law, will not present an undue risk to public health... is provided with a ceiling-mounted photoelectric smoke detection system, which is connected to the... of reinforced concrete walls, floors and ceilings. The south boundary and portion of the ceiling...

  16. Performance testing of the environmental TLD system for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station.

    PubMed

    Toke, L F; Carson, B H; Baker, G G; McBride, M H; Plato, P A; Miklos, J A

    1984-05-01

    Panasonic UD-801 thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLDs ) containing two calcium sulfate phosphors were tested under Performance Specification 3.1 established by the American National Standard Institute ( ANSI75 ) and in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 4.13 ( NRC77 ). The specific qualifying tests included TLD uniformity, reproducibility, energy dependence and directional dependence. The overall measurement uncertainties and associated confidence levels are within the prescribed guidelines defined in the qualifying requirements for environmental TLDs . PMID:6724910

  17. Drying tests conducted on Three Mile Island fuel canisters containing simulated debris

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Drying tests were conducted on TMI-2 fuel canisters filled with simulated core debris. During these tests, canisters were dried by heating externally by a heating blanket while simultaneously purging the canisters` interior with hot, dry nitrogen. Canister drying was found to be dominated by moisture retention properties of a concrete filler material (LICON) used for geometry control. This material extends the drying process 10 days or more beyond what would be required were it not there. The LICON resides in a nonpurgeable chamber separate from the core debris, and because of this configuration, dew point measurements on the exhaust stream do not provide a good indication of the dew point in the canisters. If the canisters are not dried, but rather just dewatered, 140-240 lb of water (not including the LICON water of hydration) will remain in each canister, approximately 50-110 lb of which is pore water in the LICON and the remainder unbound water.

  18. How the News Media Reported on Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates and compares events following two nuclear accidents in the United States and the Soviet Union. Considers that the accompanying flow of information shows that the optimistic bulletins of official sources provided too few facts and weakened credibility with both journalists and the public. (NKA)

  19. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed.

  20. 77 FR 38482 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Three Mile Slough, Rio Vista, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Three Mile Slough, Rio Vista, CA... across Three Mile Slough, mile 0.1, at Rio Vista, CA. The deviation is necessary to allow California... Slough, mile 0.1, at Rio Vista, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of...

  1. 77 FR 67857 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period:...

  2. 75 FR 22873 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe storms and... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Rhode Island, dated 04/08/2010, is hereby amended...

  3. 77 FR 69915 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of RHODE ISLAND, dated 11/03/2012, is hereby amended...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T08-0434 - Safety Zone; Mile Marker 98.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Mile Marker 108.5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Mile Marker 98.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Mile Marker 108.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf... § 165.T08-0434 Safety Zone; Mile Marker 98.5 West of Harvey Lock Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to...

  5. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  6. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  7. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, E.; Olsen, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  8. Platform-well tieback procedures at island esther

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.M. )

    1990-03-01

    On March 2, 1983, Island Esther, a man-made producing island located 1 1/2 miles (2.4 km) offshore southern California, was destroyed by a severe winter storm. The 90 completed wells survived the storm, but some were badly damaged. In 1985, a platform was erected over these wells, and work to repair the wells began. This paper discusses the methods and equipment used for that operation.

  9. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  11. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  12. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  13. 77 FR 22217 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oregon Slough, Hayden Island, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oregon Slough, Hayden Island, OR... Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Bridge across Oregon Slough, mile 3.2, at Hayden Island, OR. This deviation...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... may require that visitors maintain greater distances from wildlife. See, 36 CFR 2.2 (Wildlife..., operating a vessel, or otherwise approaching within 1/4 nautical mile of, Spider Island or any of the four small islets lying immediately west of Spider Island. (d) May 1 through August 31, operating a...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may require that visitors maintain greater distances from wildlife. See, 36 CFR 2.2 (Wildlife..., operating a vessel, or otherwise approaching within 1/4 nautical mile of, Spider Island or any of the four small islets lying immediately west of Spider Island. (d) May 1 through August 31, operating a...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... may require that visitors maintain greater distances from wildlife. See, 36 CFR 2.2 (Wildlife..., operating a vessel, or otherwise approaching within 1/4 nautical mile of, Spider Island or any of the four small islets lying immediately west of Spider Island. (d) May 1 through August 31, operating a...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... may require that visitors maintain greater distances from wildlife. See, 36 CFR 2.2 (Wildlife..., operating a vessel, or otherwise approaching within 1/4 nautical mile of, Spider Island or any of the four small islets lying immediately west of Spider Island. (d) May 1 through August 31, operating a...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... may require that visitors maintain greater distances from wildlife. See, 36 CFR 2.2 (Wildlife..., operating a vessel, or otherwise approaching within 1/4 nautical mile of, Spider Island or any of the four small islets lying immediately west of Spider Island. (d) May 1 through August 31, operating a...

  19. Public Education of the Prairie Island Sioux: An Interim Report. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Arthur M.; And Others

    As a part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this study was conducted at the Prairie Island Indian Reservation located in southeastern Minnesota. The document presents a historical background of the small peninsula (approximately 10 miles long and 2 miles wide) and its inhabitants, the Sioux Indians, which…

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  1. By Their Very Presence: Rethinking Research and Partnering for Change with Educators and Artists from Long Island's Shinnecock Nation Cultural Center and Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracciolo, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper recounts the non-Native author's journey toward understanding and enacting Indigenous research paradigms in her home region of Long Island, New York. Unknown to most Long Islanders, their region, which extends over 100 miles eastward from Manhattan, contains two state recognized Native reserves--Shinnecock and Poospatuck. Long Island is…

  2. 3000 Mile Laser Altimeter Profile Across Northern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topographic profile across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The profile was obtained during the Mars Global Surveyor Capture Orbit Calibration Pass on September 15, 1997 and represents 20 minutes of data collection. The profile has a length of approximately 3000 miles (5000 kilometers). The large bulge is the western part of the Elysium rise, the second largest volcanic province on Mars, and shows over 3 miles (5 kilometers) of vertical relief. This area contains deep chasms that reflect tectonic, volcanic and erosional processes. In contrast is the almost 1featureless1 northern plains region of Mars, which shows only hundreds of meters of relief at scales the size of the United States. Plotted for comparison is the elevation of the Viking Lander 2 site, which is located 275 miles (445 kilometers) west of the profile. At the southernmost extent of the trace is the transition from the northern plains to the ancient southern highlands. Characterizing the fine-scale nature of topography in this chaotic region is crucial to testing theories for how the dichotomy between the geologically distinctive northern lowlands and southern uplands formed and subsequently evolved. The spatial resolution of the profile is approximately 1000 feet (330 meters) and the vertical resolution is approximately 3 feet (1 meter). When the Mars Global Surveyor mapping mission commences in March, 1998, the MOLA instrument will collect 72 times as much data every day for a period of two years.

  3. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  4. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  5. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation. PMID:16844655

  6. Media exposure in children one hundred miles from a terrorist bombing.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Seale, Thomas W; Brandt, Edward N; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Doughty, Debby E; Rainwater, Scott M

    2003-03-01

    This study assessed indirect interpersonal exposure to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, broadcast and print media exposure in the aftermath of the explosion, emotional reactions to media coverage, and posttraumatic stress reactions in children distant from the explosion. A survey was administered to 88 sixth-grade students in the public middle school in a community 100 miles from Oklahoma City 2 years after the bombing. Many children reported indirect interpersonal exposure and most reported bomb-related media exposure. Print media exposure was more strongly associated with enduring posttraumatic stress than broadcast exposure. Indirect interpersonal exposure and the interaction of media exposure with emotional reaction to media coverage in the aftermath of the explosion each predicted ongoing posttraumatic stress. The results suggest that children may have lingering reactions to highly publicized terrorist incidents. Concern about the influence of television viewing has long been proclaimed. This study implicates print media exposure as well. Media exposure to terrorist incidents, therefore, should be monitored and those working with children should assess exposure and stress even in children not directly impacted.

  7. Surveying the earth from 20,000 miles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, A.P.

    1970-01-01

    Current space programs aimed at monitoring the earth's resources concentrate on the lower orbital altitudes of 100 to 500 nautical miles. An earth synchronous (geo-stationary) orbit is 19,400 n. mi. above the earth. A powerful telephoto camera at such a location can monitor and record many time-variant phenomena far more effectively than instruments at lower altitudes. The geo-stationary systems characteristics and problem areas related to optics and telemetry are outlined and detailed, and on-going programs are discussed as they relate to the geo-stationary system.

  8. 75 FR 41764 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8... temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8, extending the... hazards to the navigation of vessels between Mile 840.0 and Mile 839.8, extending the entire width of...

  9. The effect of islands on low frequency equatorial motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Du Penhoat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A complete analytic solution is presented for the influence of equatorial islands on steady low-frequency waves. If the island is small (the meridional extent is much less than the equatorial radius of deformation, R), the waves pass it almost undisturbed, with the mass flux incident on the upstream side flowing around it nearly equally to the north and to the south and continuing on downstream in the lee of the island. For large islands (comparable in extent with R or larger), the principal response is organized as it would be if the island barrier were meridionally infinite. An incident Kelvin wave is largely reflected as long Rossby waves; symmetric long Rossby waves are reflected as equatorial Kelvin waves, while antisymmetric ones stop at the island barrier. In all cases, a boundary current composed of short Rossby waves forms at the eastern side of the island and accomplishes the required meridional redistribution of the zonal mass flux.

  10. 76 FR 70348 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Doullut Canal, Mile 0.2, Plaquemines Parish, Empire, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Doullut Canal, Mile 0.2, Plaquemines... governing the operation of the SR 11 Bridge over Doullut Canal, mile 0.2, Plaquemines Parish, Empire, LA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject bridge is the SR 11 Swing Bridge across Doullut Canal at mile 0.2,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles...

  12. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles...

  13. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles...

  14. 77 FR 19937 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 21.6, Illinois Waterway, Hardin, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 21.6, Illinois Waterway, Hardin... Drawbridge across the Illinois Waterway, mile 21.6, at Hardin, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, across the Illinois Waterway, mile 21.6, at Hardin, Illinois to remain in the...

  15. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  16. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  17. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km (434 miles) east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise. This is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with more than 100 eruptions in the last 300 years. The most recent activity occurred in the vicinity of Dolomieu Crater, shown in the lower center of the image within a horseshoe-shaped collapse zone. Recent lava flows appear in shades of red, purple and orange. Light green areas are heavily vegetated forest, while much of the purple area near the coast is farmland. The radar illumination is from the left side of the image and dramatically emphasizes the precipitous cliffs at the edges of the central canyons of the island. These canyons are remnants from the collapse of formerly active parts of the volcanoes that built the island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The image is centered at 21.2 degrees south latitude, 55.6 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 80 km (31 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  20. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  1. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  2. Transformer failure and common-mode loss of instrument power at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 on August 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    On August 13, 1991, at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant, located near Scriba, New York, on Lake Ontario, the main transformer experienced an internal failure that resulted in degraded voltage which caused the simultaneous loss of five uninterruptible power supplies, which in turn caused the loss of several nonsafety systems, including reactor control rod position indication, some reactor power and water indication, control room annunciators, the plant communications system, the plant process computer, and lighting at some locations. The reactor was subsequently brought to a safe shutdown. Following this event, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to the site to determine what happened, to identify the probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents and the team's findings and conclusions. 59 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  4. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  5. 33 CFR 207.249 - Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) One red light to indicate that the lock is not open to approaching navigation. Vessels shall stand... continuous flashing red light, visible upstream and downstream, will be displayed to indicate that traffic.... and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red River,...

  6. 33 CFR 207.249 - Ouachita and Black Rivers, Ark. and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) One red light to indicate that the lock is not open to approaching navigation. Vessels shall stand... continuous flashing red light, visible upstream and downstream, will be displayed to indicate that traffic.... and La., Mile 0.0 to Mile 338.0 (Camden, Ark.) above the mouth of the Black River; the Red River,...

  7. Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events. PMID:24626948

  8. Scheduling logic for Miles-In-Trail traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnestvedt, Robert G.; Swenson, Harry; Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which can be used for scheduling arrival air traffic in an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC or Center) entering a Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Facility . The algorithm aids a Traffic Management Coordinator (TMC) in deciding how to restrict traffic while the traffic expected to arrive in the TRACON exceeds the TRACON capacity. The restrictions employed fall under the category of Miles-in-Trail, one of two principal traffic separation techniques used in scheduling arrival traffic . The algorithm calculates aircraft separations for each stream of aircraft destined to the TRACON. The calculations depend upon TRACON characteristics, TMC preferences, and other parameters adapted to the specific needs of scheduling traffic in a Center. Some preliminary results of traffic simulations scheduled by this algorithm are presented, and conclusions are drawn as to the effectiveness of using this algorithm in different traffic scenarios.

  9. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 1, General geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E.; Schmidt, Robert George; Burke, Harold W.

    1956-01-01

    Saipan, situated about 15° N. and 146° E., is one of the larger and more southerly of the Mariana Islands. The 15 small islands of this chain are strung along an eastwardly convex ridge for more than 400 miles north to south, midway between Honshu and New Guinea and about 1,200 miles east of the Philippines. Paralleling this ridge 60 to 100 miles further east is a deep submarine trench, beyond which lies the Pacific Basin proper. To the west is the Philippine Sea, generally deeper than 2,000 fathoms. The trench coincides with a zone of negative gravity anomalies, earthquake foci occur at increasing depths westward from it, and silica- and alumina-rich volcanic rocks characterize the emergent island chain itself. The contrast between these features and those of the Pacific Basin proper to the east is held to favor the conclusion that the Mariana island arc and trench define the structural and petrographic front of Asia

  10. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  11. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  12. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  13. 75 FR 19666 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00007 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  14. 78 FR 21492 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated 03/22/2013. Incident: Severe winter storm and...

  15. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  16. The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore from Cat Island, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2014-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected over 487 line kilometers (> 300 miles) of high-resolution geophysical data around Cat Island, Mississippi, to improve understanding of the island's geologic evolution and identify potential sand resources for coastal restoration. In addition, 40 vibracores were collected on and around the island, generating more than 350 samples for grain-size analysis. The results indicate that the geologic evolution of Cat Island has been influenced by deltaic, lagoonal/estuarine, tidal, and oceanographic processes, resulting in a stratigraphic record that is quite complex. The region north of the island is dominated by lagoonal/estuarine deposition, whereas the region south of the island is dominated by deltaic and tidal deposition. In general, the veneer of modern sediment surrounding the island is composed of newly deposited sediment and highly reworked relict sediments. The region east of the island shows the interplay of antecedent barrier-island change with delta development despite a significant ravinement of sediments. The data show from little to no modern sediment east of the island, exposing relict sediments at the seafloor. Finally, the data reveal four subaqueous sand units around the island. Two of the units are northwest of the modern island and one is southwest. Given the dominant, westward, longshore transport along the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, the geographic location of these three units suggests that they do not contribute to the modern sediment budget of Cat Island. The last unit is directly east of the island and represents the antecedent island platform that has supplied sand over geologic time for creation of the spits that form the eastern shoreline. Because of its location east of the island, the antecedent island unit may still supply sediment to the island today.

  17. 75 FR 55272 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5... temporary safety zone for waters of the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5, extending West of... conducting a high speed boat race and land based fireworks display between mile 212.0 to 214.5 on the...

  18. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. The 'last mile' of data handling: Fermilab's IFDH tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Adam L.; Mengel, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    IFDH (Intensity Frontier Data Handling), is a suite of tools for data movement tasks for Fermilab experiments and is an important part of the FIFE[2] (Fabric for Intensity Frontier [1] Experiments) initiative described at this conference. IFDH encompasses moving input data from caches or storage elements to compute nodes (the 'last mile' of data movement) and moving output data potentially to those caches as part of the journey back to the user. IFDH also involves throttling and locking to ensure that large numbers of jobs do not cause data movement bottlenecks. IFDH is realized as an easy to use layer that users call in their job scripts (e.g. 'ifdh cp'), hiding the low level data movement tools. One advantage of this layer is that the underlying low level tools can be selected or changed without the need for the user to alter their scripts. Logging and performance monitoring can also be added easily. This system will be presented in detail as well as its impact on the ease of data handling at Fermilab experiments.

  20. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  1. The HDF Product Designer - Interoperability in the First Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Jelenak, A.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data have been a long-time goal in many scientific communities. The recent growth in analysis, visualization and mash-up applications that expect data stored in a standardized manner has brought the interoperability issue to the fore. On the other hand, producing interoperable data is often regarded as a sideline task in a typical research team for which resources are not readily available. The HDF Group is developing a software tool aimed at lessening the burden of creating data in standards-compliant, interoperable HDF5 files. The tool, named HDF Product Designer, lowers the threshold needed to design such files by providing a user interface that combines the rich HDF5 feature set with applicable metadata conventions. Users can quickly devise new HDF5 files while at the same time seamlessly incorporating the latest best practices and conventions from their community. That is what the term interoperability in the first mile means: enabling generation of interoperable data in HDF5 files from the onset of their production. The tool also incorporates collaborative features, allowing team approach in the file design, as well as easy transfer of best practices as they are being developed. The current state of the tool and the plans for future development will be presented. Constructive input from interested parties is always welcome.

  2. Deep space communication - A one billion mile noisy channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Deep space exploration is concerned with the study of natural phenomena in the solar system with the aid of measurements made at spacecraft on deep space missions. Deep space communication refers to communication between earth and spacecraft in deep space. The Deep Space Network is an earth-based facility employed for deep space communication. It includes a network of large tracking antennas located at various positions around the earth. The goals and achievements of deep space exploration over the past 20 years are discussed along with the broad functional requirements of deep space missions. Attention is given to the differences in space loss between communication satellites and deep space vehicles, effects of the long round-trip light time on spacecraft autonomy, requirements for the use of massive nuclear power plants on spacecraft at large distances from the sun, and the kinds of scientific return provided by a deep space mission. Problems concerning a deep space link of one billion miles are also explored.

  3. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  4. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  5. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  6. 75 FR 75719 - U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster # VI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster VI-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for ] the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1949-DR), dated 11/24/ 2010. Incident: Severe...: The Island of Saint Croix. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  7. 75 FR 69732 - U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster #VI-00005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster VI-00005 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1948-DR), dated 11/05/2010. Incident: Severe Storms... areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Islands: Saint Croix;...

  8. 75 FR 62438 - U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster #VI-00003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster VI-00003 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for the State of U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1939-DR), dated 09/28/2010. Incident: Hurricane Earl... disaster: Primary Counties: Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas, including Water Island. The...

  9. Small islands awash in a sea of troubles.

    PubMed

    Acharya, A

    1995-01-01

    The Caribbean islands contain an enormous ecological variety, and with the influx of people, they are left with denuded forests and disappearance of animals and people. Despite their limited size, these islands could sustain development with their own water, vegetation, soil, air, and wildlife resources. The Exclusive Economic Zones, approved by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, extends the coastline up to 200 miles, thus providing an increased amount of resource area. However, these natural resources are abused in various ways. Some of the white sand beaches are disappearing due to growing tourism. Furthermore, these islands are vulnerable to hazardous wastes and nuclear tests and other destructive natural forces that produce a dramatic change in the climate. To counteract this environmental degradation, the government implemented environmental initiatives that protect these natural resources with the aid of international agencies and organizations. These islands, though seen as a small capsule, represent the problems of the world magnified many times.

  10. Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

    1980-01-01

    Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included.

  11. Satellite Observations of New Volcanic Island in Tonga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Abrams, Michael J.; Hook, Simon J.; Pieri, David C.

    2007-01-01

    A rising volcanic plume from an unknown source was observed on 9-11 August 2006 in the Vava'u Island group in the northernmost islands of Tonga [Matangi News Online, 2006]. On 12 August, the crew on board the yacht Maiken, sailing west from Vava'u to Fiji, encountered 'a vast, many miles wide, belt of densely packed pumice' floating on the water (F. Fransson personal communication, 2006). Later, the crew sailed south and discovered that the source of the pumice was a newly erupting submarine volcano near Home Reef (18.991 deg S, 174.767 deg W).

  12. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  13. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  14. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  15. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings,...

  16. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings,...

  17. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings,...

  18. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings,...

  19. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings,...

  20. 77 FR 47525 - Safety Zone, Mississippi River, Mile Marker 291 to 295

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Security FR Federal Register MM Mile Marker NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and... from Mile Marker (MM) 291.0 to MM 295.0. This safety zone is needed to protect vessel traffic from the... occurring on July 5, 2012, and July 9, 2012, at MM 293.3 LMR. Due to the low water and the width...

  1. 76 FR 36316 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 180.0 to 179.0

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 180.0 to 179.0 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, from Mile 180.0 to 179.0, extending...

  2. Modeling and Evaluation of Miles-in-Trail Restrictions in the National Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions impact flights in the national air space on a daily basis and these restrictions routinely propagate between adjacent Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Since overly restrictive or ineffective miles-in-trail restrictions can reduce the overall efficiency of the national air space, decision support capabilities that model miles-in-trail restrictions should prove to be very beneficial. This paper presents both an analytical formulation and a linear programming approach for modeling the effects of miles-in-trail restrictions. A methodology for monitoring the conformance of an existing miles-in-trail restriction is also presented. These capabilities have been implemented in the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool for testing purposes. To allow alternative restrictions to be evaluated in post-operations, a new mode of operation, which is referred to as the hybrid-playback mode, has been implemented in the simulation environment. To demonstrate the capabilities of these new algorithms, the miles-in-trail restrictions, which were in effect on June 27, 2002 in the New York Terminal Radar Approach Control, are examined. Results from the miles-in-trail conformance monitoring functionality are presented for the ELIOT, PARKE and WHITE departure fixes. In addition, the miles-in-trail algorithms are used to assess the impact of alternative restrictions at the PARKE departure fix.

  3. Cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports using OPTIM and TRAGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports are computed using OPTIM and TRAGEN. The savings in fuel and direct operating costs per nautical mile for each of the different types of optimal trajectories over a standard profile are shown.

  4. 76 FR 35104 - Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Atchafalaya River From Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) to Mile Marker 0 (Simmesport, LA) AGENCY: Coast Guard... closing the Atchafalaya River to all commercial traffic from MM 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) to MM 0... associated with rising flood water in the Atchafalaya River. Basis and Purpose Captain of the Port...

  5. 78 FR 46258 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663.9

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663... temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, from mile 662.8 to 663.9, extending the... the Upper Mississippi River. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless specifically authorized by...

  6. Variable Seed Viability of Mile-a-Minute Weed (Devil's Tearthumb, Persicaria perfoliata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed or devil's tearthumb is an invasive annual vine in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. It reproduces solely through seeds, and therefore a key aspect of mile-a-minute weed biology and control concerns the production of viable seed. Our study aimed to identify how seed...

  7. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.170 Section 81.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles...

  8. C&O Canal Fifteen Mile Creek Culvert in foreground, south portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    C&O Canal Fifteen Mile Creek Culvert in foreground, south portal of Western Maryland's Fifteen Mile Creek Culvert in rear, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  9. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Heron Bay, Little Dauphin Island, Fort Morgan, and Fort Morgan NW quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohman, Larry R.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the southeastern tip of Mobile County, including Dauphin Island, Alabama. Nearly all the mainland area shown on the map was inundated by the tidal surge. The Dauphin Island Parkway Bridge (Alabama State Highway 163) was almost totally demolished. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  10. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  11. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  12. Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 51st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 122 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 81 hours. Diamond Head and Pearl Harbor are clearly visible.

  13. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur...

  14. 76 FR 45690 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... tributaries, in the Federal Register (76 FR 16715). We received one comment in response to the proposed rule... Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island, NY and Elizabeth, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final... operation of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge at mile 11.6, across Arthur Kill between Staten...

  15. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... miles (nmi); the Volcanic Unit encompasses each designated volcanic feature and the surrounding... Volcanic Unit includes approximately 55,912 acres of submerged lands, and the Islands Unit encompasses... management with respect to fishery-related activities regulated pursuant to the Magnuson-Stevens...

  16. Souther portion of Island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    City of Kagoshima and Kagoshima Bay area of the southern portion of the island of Kyushu, Japan, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 9th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours and 10 minutes.

  17. Incident analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.; Buerer, A.; Leeds, S.

    1996-02-20

    This document presents information about a fire that occurred in January 1996 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of 100% fuming nitric acid. Topics discussed include: Summary of the incident; technical background; procedural background; supervision; previous incidents with 100% fuming nitric acid; and judgment of potential hazards.

  18. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  19. The effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage drinking strategy on 10-mile running performance.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis; Croft, Louise; Williams, Clyde

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) beverage ad libitum or as a prescribed volume on 10-mile run performance and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Nine male recreational runners completed the 10-mile run under the following 3 conditions: no drinking (ND; 0 ml, 0 g CHO), ad libitum drinking (AD; 315 ± 123 ml, 19 ± 7 g CHO), and prescribed drinking (PD; 1,055 ± 90 ml, 64 ± 5 g CHO). During the AD and PD trials, drinks were provided on completion of Miles 2, 4, 6, and 8. Running performance, speed (km/hr), and 10-mile run time were assessed using a global positioning satellite system. The runners' ratings of perceived exertion and GI comfort were recorded on completion of each lap of the 10-mile run. There was a significant difference (p < .10) in performance times for the 10-mile race for the ND, AD, and PD trials, which were 72:05 ± 3:36, 71:14 ± 3:35, and 72:12 ± 3.53 min:s, respectively (p = .094). Ratings of GI comfort were reduced during the PD trial in comparison with both AD and ND trials. In conclusion, runners unaccustomed to habitually drinking CHO-E beverages during training improved their 10-mile race performance with AD drinking a CHO-E beverage, in comparison with drinking a prescribed volume of the same beverage or no drinking.

  20. Oral cancer incidence disparity among ethnic groups on Guam.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L

    2005-03-01

    Although the prevalence of betel nut use among Chamorro residents of Guam is higher than that of other Micronesians residing on the island, the "other Micronesian" ethnic groups have a mouth cancer incidence rate more than double that of Chamorros. The reason for this apparent disparity in rates of mouth cancer incidence may be clarified by future studies focused on the frequency and method of betel nut use among these populations. Another possible explanation for this apparent disparity in cancer incidence rates could be that of migration to Guam for medical treatment.

  1. Walter Miles, Pop Warner, B. C. Graves, and the psychology of football.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Frank G; Benjamin, Ludy T

    2006-01-01

    In 1926-1927, a graduate student, B. C. Graves, working with Stanford University psychologist Walter Miles and legendary football coach Pop Warner, conducted an investigation of variations in signal calling as they affected the charging times of football players. The study was one of two that involved Miles and the ingenious multiple chronograph that he had invented to time the reactions of seven players simultaneously. These studies represented a brief digression in the career of Miles, who certainly was no sport psychologist. They tell of an interesting collaboration between scientist and coaches that produced one of the richest studies in sport psychology in the first half of the twentieth century.

  2. World's mountains over 5 miles above sea level as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The world's dozen peaks which reach a height of greater than five miles above sea level are seen in this photograph from the Apollo 7 spacecraft at an altitude of 130 nautical miles. The 29,028 ft. high Mount Everest is at lower center. On the central horizon can be seen the 28,250 ft. high Mount Godwin-Austen (K-2) some 800 miles northwest of Mount Everest. In the lower right, Mount Kanchenjunga rises 28,208 ft. to separate Nepal from Sikkim. The snow line on the peaks was at 17,500 ft. In the upper right the lake-studded highlands of Tibet are visible.

  3. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  4. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  5. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  6. Six electric autos top the 100-mile range in EAA Rally

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The fact that electric autos have driven over 100 miles without a battery recharge over an urban stop and go course at city driving speeds demonstrates that practical electric cars for city use can be built today.

  7. Preliminary report: examination of H8 and B8 leadscrews from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; Akers, D.W.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1985-04-01

    One of the TMI-2 core examination tasks is the analysis of the control rod drive leadscrews, which were removed from the reactor head as part of the July 1982 closed-circuit television inspection of the damaged core. One leadscrew was removed from each of three different core positions: H8, from the center of the core; E9, from approximately midradius; and B8, from near the outer edge. This report presents and discusses the following: leadscrew acquisition, sample types, and analytical techniques used to analyze the various types of samples; results from the visual examination; preliminary leadscrew surface temperature estimates; chemical and radiological analyses; comparisons of temperature estimates and the chemical and radiological behavior in the plenum assembly region; and the principal observations and recommendations made on the basis of this study.

  8. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... licensees, was revised on March 27, 2009, with compliance required by March 31, 2010 (74 FR 13926). The NRC... structures. Most of this radioactivity was removed as part of the waste processing activities during the...

  9. Applicability of health physics lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident to the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-02-01

    The TMI-2 and Fukushima Daiichi accidents appear to be dissimilar because they involve different reactor types. However, the health physics related lessons learned from TMI-2 are applicable, and can enhance the Fukushima Daiichi recovery effort. PMID:22230016

  10. Prevalence of behavior problems in three-year-old children living near Three Mile Island: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornely, P; Bromet, E

    1986-07-01

    The Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to determine whether 2 1/2-3 1/2 yr old children living near the TMI nuclear reactor were more disturbed than children living near another nuclear plant or near a fossil-fuel facility in Pennsylvania when assessed 2 1/2 yr later. The prevalence of behavior problems was 11%. Differences among the sites in overall rates and individual symptoms were small. Perceptions of environmental stress among the TMI sample of mothers were unrelated to BSQ scores, whereas in the comparison sites, where unemployment was rising, economic concerns were meaningfully related to the BSQ. PMID:3745348

  11. Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations duplicate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building. These data support estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen concentration predictions based on various hydrogen production mechanisms.

  12. 77 FR 46287 - Safety Zone; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mile Marker 35.2 to Mile Marker 35.5, West of Harvey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed...-1128 (77 FR 3609) to be enforced through June 30, 2012. The floodwall repair and construction project....2 to Mile Marker 35.5, West of Harvey Locks, Bank to Bank, Lafourche Parish, Larose, LA...

  13. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Selkirk Island, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    How did these Karman vortices develop? On that day, the wind was carrying northward a layer of stratocumulus clouds (flat-bottomed puffballs). The mile-high island caused this cloud layer to slow about the island, while remaining fast farther out on either side. So on each “wing,” left and right, the air started rotating toward the inside—clockwise on the left, counter-clockwise on the right. The rotational momentum made each side swirl in on itself. The whorl-cores were clear because the swirling pulled dry, clear air (from above or below) into the wet layer, a bit like the funnel formed when you stir up a pitcher of orange juice. These clear, spinning pockets trailed off down the “street” from the island like soap bubbles from a toy wand—drifting downwind, weakening, filling with clouds, and breaking up.

  14. 76 FR 32994 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... License Application for Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Nine Mile Point 3... 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant (NMP3NPP), and located adjacent to the current Nine...

  15. 33 CFR 165.T08-0433 - Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Atchafalaya River from Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Atchafalaya River from Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) to Mile Marker 0 (Simmesport, LA). 165... Safety Zone; Waterway Closure, Atchafalaya River from Mile Marker 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) to... waters of the Atchafalaya River between MM 117 (Morgan City Railroad Bridge) and MM 0 (Simmesport,...

  16. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  17. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  18. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  19. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  20. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  1. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  2. 25 CFR 39.710 - How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school calculate annual bus transportation... Miles § 39.710 How does a school calculate annual bus transportation miles for day students? To calculate the total annual bus transportation miles for day students, a school must use the...

  3. Evaluation of Algorithms for a Miles-in-Trail Decision Support Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Hattaway, David; Bambos, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Four machine learning algorithms were prototyped and evaluated for use in a proposed decision support tool that would assist air traffic managers as they set Miles-in-Trail restrictions. The tool would display probabilities that each possible Miles-in-Trail value should be used in a given situation. The algorithms were evaluated with an expected Miles-in-Trail cost that assumes traffic managers set restrictions based on the tool-suggested probabilities. Basic Support Vector Machine, random forest, and decision tree algorithms were evaluated, as was a softmax regression algorithm that was modified to explicitly reduce the expected Miles-in-Trail cost. The algorithms were evaluated with data from the summer of 2011 for air traffic flows bound to the Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) over the ARD, PENNS, and SHAFF fixes. The algorithms were provided with 18 input features that describe the weather at EWR, the runway configuration at EWR, the scheduled traffic demand at EWR and the fixes, and other traffic management initiatives in place at EWR. Features describing other traffic management initiatives at EWR and the weather at EWR achieved relatively high information gain scores, indicating that they are the most useful for estimating Miles-in-Trail. In spite of a high variance or over-fitting problem, the decision tree algorithm achieved the lowest expected Miles-in-Trail costs when the algorithms were evaluated using 10-fold cross validation with the summer 2011 data for these air traffic flows.

  4. Hydrogeology of Southern Cumberland Island, Georgia. Kings Bay Environmental Monitoring Program Cumberland Island national seashore, 1990. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous geochemistry of three aquifers at a 9-square mile study site on the southern end of Cumberland Island, Georgia was investigated at 10 wells on the southern end of the island. The geochemistry of the surficial aquifer varied spatially across the island. The ground water types in the surficial aquifer ranged from sodium-chloride to calcium-bicarbonate, depending on the location. A zone of dispersion associated with the freshwater-saltwater interface was encountered in the Pliocene-Miocene age aquifer and the Miocena-age sand aquifer, but was not encountered in the surficial aquifer. The zone of dispersion resulted from mixing of fresh carbonate ground water seawater. The freshwater region of the zone of dispersion (3%-5% seawater) was characterized by a calcium-chloride water type which likely resulted from freshwater-seawater mixing, calcium carbonate dissolution, and reverse ion exchange.

  5. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  6. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  7. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  8. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  9. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  10. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  12. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  13. Magnitude 8.1 Earthquake off the Solomon Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake rattled the Solomon Islands, 2,145 kilometers (1,330 miles) northeast of Brisbane, Australia. Centered less than ten kilometers beneath the Earth's surface, the earthquake displaced enough water in the ocean above to trigger a small tsunami. Though officials were still assessing damage to remote island communities on April 3, Reuters reported that the earthquake and the tsunami killed an estimated 22 people and left as many as 5,409 homeless. The most serious damage occurred on the island of Gizo, northwest of the earthquake epicenter, where the tsunami damaged the hospital, schools, and hundreds of houses, said Reuters. This image, captured by the Landsat-7 satellite, shows the location of the earthquake epicenter in relation to the nearest islands in the Solomon Island group. Gizo is beyond the left edge of the image, but its triangular fringing coral reefs are shown in the upper left corner. Though dense rain forest hides volcanic features from view, the very shape of the islands testifies to the geologic activity of the region. The circular Kolombangara Island is the tip of a dormant volcano, and other circular volcanic peaks are visible in the image. The image also shows that the Solomon Islands run on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the edge of the Pacific plate, the section of the Earth's crust that carries the Pacific Ocean and its islands. The earthquake occurred along the plate boundary, where the Australia/Woodlark/Solomon Sea plates slide beneath the denser Pacific plate. Friction between the sinking (subducting) plates and the overriding Pacific plate led to the large earthquake on April 1, said the United States Geological Survey (USGS) summary of the earthquake. Large earthquakes are common in the region, though the section of the plate that produced the April 1 earthquake had not caused any quakes of magnitude 7 or larger since the early 20th century, said the USGS.

  14. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Water resources of Ponape, Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    Ponape is the third largest island in the western Pacific, with a land area of 129 square miles. The island is volcanic, nearly circular in shape, and covered with lush tropical vegetation. The mountainous interior has the highest peaks in the western Pacific. Annual rainfall at Kolonia and other coastal areas is 191 inches. Inland at higher elevations, the rainfall is considerably higher. The upper Nanpil River basin averages about 340 inches annually. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for Ponapean streams show that about two thirds of the rain falling on the island runs off. Flow-duration curves show the similarity of the geology, vegetation, and rainfall of the drainage basins and indicate little ground-water contribution to surface runoff. Surface-water quality is excellent as shown by 53 chemical anlyses of water from 19 streams. Water of the Nanpil River, the source of water for the central water system, is especially low in dissolved elements and solids. This report summarizes in one volume all the hydrologic data collected and provides analyses that may be used by planning and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of their water resources. (USGS)

  17. [Incidence of inguinal hernias].

    PubMed

    Michalský, R

    2001-04-01

    Groin hernia operation is the third most frequent operation in the Czech republic. Early recurrence of the hernia after prime operation is a medical failure. The recurrences can arise after all types of operation. Incidence of recurrences, time factors of its genesis and treatment are discussed there.

  18. Critical Incidents in Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This report presents imaginary dialogues between a management team and an employee team and critiques the dialogues to emphasize the significance of situations and episodes that can hasten or hamper a settlement at the negotiation table. Three critical incidents are studied within each developmental phase of the negotiation process: (1) procedural…

  19. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  20. Incident meteoroid flux density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badadjanov, P. B.; Bibarsov, R. SH.; Getman, V. S.; Kolmakov, V. M.

    1987-01-01

    Complex photographic and radar meteor observations were carried out. Using the available observational data, the density of incident flux of meteoroids was estimated over a wide mass range of 0.001 to 100 g. To avoid the influence of apparatus selectivity a special technique was applied. The main characteristics of this technique are given and discussed.

  1. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  2. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  6. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  7. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  8. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  9. Econometric model of gasoline consumption, vehicle miles traveled, and new car purchases

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, R.K.; Resek, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Continuing concern over fuel shortages and emphasis on smaller, more-efficient automobiles have led to studies relating automobile usage to gasoline consumption. This paper provides meaningful aggregates for automobile characteristics and emphasizes five different classes of cars in the estimation, using a time series of cross-sectional data. The effects of changing patterns in automobile ownership on total vehicle miles traveled and on gasoline consumption are modeled explicitly. In estimating equations for new-car demand, not only economic variables such as income and automobile price are considered but also the effects of changing gasoline prices and vehicle miles traveled. This analysis also enables one to trace the behavior of consumers' preferences for changes in the size of new cars. An important link in the model relates the vehicle miles and gasoline-consumption variables, and specific interest is given to gasoline price elasticities. 15 references.

  10. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  12. Nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid gene phylogenies of Dinophysis miles (Dinophyceae): evidence of variable types of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2011-01-01

    The Dinophysis genus is an ecologically and evolutionarily important group of marine dinoflagellates, yet their molecular phylogenetic positions and ecological characteristics such as trophic modes remain poorly understood. Here, a population of Dinophysis miles var. indica was sampled from South China Sea in March 2010. Nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) SSU, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU, mitochondrial genes encoding cytochrome B (cob) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1), and plastid rDNA SSU were PCR amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses based on cob, cox1, and the nuclear rRNA regions showed that D. miles was closely related to D. tripos and D. caudata while distinct from D. acuminata. Along with morphology the LSU and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 molecular data confirmed that this population was D. miles var. indica. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment was the most effective region to distinguish D. miles from other Dinophysis species. Three distinct types of plastid rDNA sequences were detected, belonging to plastids of a cryptophyte, a haptophyte, and a cyanobacterium, respectively. This is the first documentation of three photosynthetic entities associated with a Dinophysis species. While the cyanobacterial sequence likely represented an ectosymbiont of the D. miles cells, the detection of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastid sequences indicates that the natural assemblage of D. miles likely retain more than one type of plastids from its prey algae for temporary use in photosynthesis. The result, together with recent findings of plastid types in other Dinophysis species, suggests that more systematic research is required to understand the complex nutritional physiology of this genus of dinoflagellates.

  13. Nuclear, Mitochondrial and Plastid Gene Phylogenies of Dinophysis miles (Dinophyceae): Evidence of Variable Types of Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2011-01-01

    The Dinophysis genus is an ecologically and evolutionarily important group of marine dinoflagellates, yet their molecular phylogenetic positions and ecological characteristics such as trophic modes remain poorly understood. Here, a population of Dinophysis miles var. indica was sampled from South China Sea in March 2010. Nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) SSU, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU, mitochondrial genes encoding cytochrome B (cob) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1), and plastid rDNA SSU were PCR amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses based on cob, cox1, and the nuclear rRNA regions showed that D. miles was closely related to D. tripos and D. caudata while distinct from D. acuminata. Along with morphology the LSU and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 molecular data confirmed that this population was D. miles var. indica. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment was the most effective region to distinguish D. miles from other Dinophysis species. Three distinct types of plastid rDNA sequences were detected, belonging to plastids of a cryptophyte, a haptophyte, and a cyanobacterium, respectively. This is the first documentation of three photosynthetic entities associated with a Dinophysis species. While the cyanobacterial sequence likely represented an ectosymbiont of the D. miles cells, the detection of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastid sequences indicates that the natural assemblage of D. miles likely retain more than one type of plastids from its prey algae for temporary use in photosynthesis. The result, together with recent findings of plastid types in other Dinophysis species, suggests that more systematic research is required to understand the complex nutritional physiology of this genus of dinoflagellates. PMID:22242118

  14. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of the circulatory system. Cardiomyopathy accounted for 1% of general cardiologists' and for 7% of academic cardiologists' patient encounters. In Scandinavia, population surveys suggested an annual incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy ranging from 0.73 to 7.5 cases per 100,000 population; for Tokyo this figure is 2.6. The prevalence of cardiomyopathy in underdeveloped and in tropical countries is considerably higher than in developed countries.

  15. Ice island detection and characterization with airborne synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O.; Sackinger, W.M. )

    1990-04-15

    A 1:300,000 scale airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of an area of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is examined to determine the number and characteristics of ice islands in the image and to assess the capability of airborne and satellite SAR to detect ice islands. Twelve ice islands have been identified, and their dimensions range from as large as 5.7 km by 8.7 km to as small as 0.15 km by 0.25 km. A significant SAR characteristic of the shelf ice portions of ice islands is a return with a ribbed texture of alternating lighter and darker grey tones resulting from the indulating shelf ice surfaces of the ice islands. The appearance of the ribbed texture varies according to the ice islands' orientation relative to the illumination direction and consequently the incidence angle. Some ice islands also include extensive areas of textureless dark tone attached to the shelf ice. The weak returns correspond to (1) multiyear landfast sea ice that was attached to the front of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf at the time of calving and which has remained attached since then and (2) multiyear pack ice that has become attached and consolidated since the calving, indicating that ice islands can increase their area and mass significantly as they drift. Ice islands are easily discernible in SAR images and for the future SAR represents a promising technique to obtain a census of ice islands in the Arctic Ocean. However, any SAR-based census probably will be conservative because ice islands smaller than 300-400 m across are likely to remain undetected, particularly in areas of heavy ice ridging which produces strong SAR clutter.

  16. Thyroid cancer incidence in relation to volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arnbjoernsson, E.A.; Arnbjoernsson, A.O.; Olafsson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Environmental or genetic factors are sought to explain the high incidence of thyroid cancer in Iceland. At present, it is impossible to cite any environmental factor, particularly one related to the volcanic activity in the country, which could explain the high incidence of thyroid cancer in Iceland. However, the thyroid gland in Icelanders is very small due to the high intake of iodine from seafood. It is, therefore, easier for physicians to find thyroid tumors. Furthermore, genetic factors are very likely to be of great importance in the small, isolated island of Iceland.

  17. Asian and Pacific Islander American Poverty: The Working Poor and the Jobless Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toji, Dean S.; Johnson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Assesses the incidence of Asian-American and Pacific Islander-American poverty, and offers a theoretical explanation for its existence. It is argued that poverty of Americans of Asian and Pacific Island descent is best understood in the context of the linkage of labor migration and U.S. labor market segmentation. (SLD)

  18. Continuous seismic-reflection survey of the Great Salt Lake, Utah- east of Antelope and Fremont Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, P.M.; West, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection survey of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, was conducted east of Fremont and Antelope Islands in 1984 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources and produced data along approximately 80 miles of seismic lines. The survey was conducted to determine depth to consolidated rock, and definition and continuity of overlying basin fill under the lake. Interpretation of the data indicates the presence of faulted rock dipping away from Fremont and Antelope Islands. A north-south-trending consolidated-rock ridge is identified 200 ft below lake bottom, 275 miles east of Fremont Island. Shallow rock is also inferred 380 ft below lake bottom, near Hooper Hot Springs, and 520 ft below lake bottom approximately 4 miles east of the south end of Antelope Island. Interpretation of reflections from overlying basin fill indicates fine-grained, thinly-bedded deposits that become coarser with depth. Strong reflectors in the basin fill can be correlated with water-bearing strata penetrated by wells near the north end of Antelope Island and along the east shore of the lake. Many continuous, high-amplitude reflections can be identified in data from basin fill and may represent sedimentary sections or aquifer boundaries but cannot be defined because of a lack of subsurface control in the area. (USGS)

  19. Hydrogeologic conditions in the town of Shelter Island, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soren, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Shelter Island, an area of about 11 square miles, in Suffolk County, N.Y., is situated between the north and south forks of eastern Long Island. The upper glacial aquifer is the sole source of freshwater supply for Shelter Island 's population, which currently ranges seasonally from 2,000 to 8,000. Fresh ground water seems to be limited to sand and gravel deposits in the aquifer, which is thin and can be readily infiltrated by surrounding saline ground water. The aquifer is underlain by confining clay formations that contain saline water, and the geologic formations below the clay probably contain saline water also. The fresh ground water is mostly soft and has low dissolved-solids concentrations; however, several wells near shorelines have yielded excessive amounts of chloride. Man-induced contamination of the aquifer is evident but not severe, as shown by somewhat elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and methylene blue active substances (MBAS). Increased pumping will cause deterioration of the fresh ground-water supply by inducing saline-water infiltration and by adding greater volumes of septic-tank and cesspool effluents to the aquifer. Test drilling could help in water-supply management by determining the extent of the aquifer and of fresh ground-water storage, and observation wells could provide early detection of saline-water infiltration. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Evaluation of Lower Umatilla River Channel Modifications Below Three Mile Dam, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Ward, David L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes results of the first year of a study initiated in September 1984 to evaluate the adequacy of channel modifications made in the lower Umatilla River to improve adult anadromous salmonid passage to Three Mile Dam (RKm 5.6), determine if fish passage or delay problems exist at Three Mile Dam and recommend site specific corrective measures if needed. Movements of steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were monitored using mark and recapture and radio telemetry techniques. Thirty-four steelhead were marked with T-anchor tags and released in the lower river. Fifteen of those marked were also fitted with radio transmitters. Three radiotagged steelhead migrated through channel modifications to Three Mile Dam. Two of these fish migrated to the dam in less than 26 hours, but held just below the dam for 7 and 10 days before entering the ladders. The third steelhead delayed for 30 days and entered the west ladder within 24 hours of arrival at the dam. Two other radiotagged steelhead moved upstream through some of the channel modifications but did not migrate to the dam. Only one of 19 marked steelhead not fitted with transmitters was recovered at Three Mile Dam. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. 1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  2. 5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., after bridge collapsed in 1973. Shows broken turn span and overturned center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  3. 6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 192. Shows center turn span and part of one fixed span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  4. 4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Western half of collapsed Alabama, Tenn. & Northern RR. Bridge Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer, 1973. Copy by Sarcone Photography, Columbs, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  5. 2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SE. David J. Kaminsky, Architecturl Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  6. 77 FR 24147 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 359.4, Missouri River, Kansas City, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Harry S... requested a temporary deviation for the Harry S. Truman Railroad Drawbridge, across the Missouri River, mile... wire rope lifting cables are installed. The Harry S. Truman Railroad Drawbridge currently operates...

  7. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.170 Section 81.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... County, Daniels County, Dawson County, Fallon County, Garfield County, McCone County, Phillips...

  8. Influence of Miles City Line 1 on the United States Hereford Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 (L1) Hereford cattle developed by the United States Department of Agriculture at its research facility in Miles City, Montana, on the United States Hereford population. The L1 Hereford population originated in 1934 and has been therea...

  9. Were Our Mathematics Textbooks a Mile Wide and an Inch Deep?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Wenyuan

    2010-01-01

    Three mathematics textbooks of different grade levels, compared with Chinese math textbooks of the same grades, were selected that were used in some of the middle schools in Clark County Schools District (CCSD). Systematical review of the three textbooks were made grade by grade in order to figure out "Are Our Math Textbooks a Mile Wide and an…

  10. Mary Miles Bibb: Education and Moral Improvement in the "Voice of the Fugitive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Bernell E.

    An ardent antislavery supporter and teacher, Mary Elizabeth Miles Bibb (c.1820-1877) knew the significance of an education and the purpose it would serve, in the classroom and in the newsroom, in establishing a better life for blacks prior to the Civil War. In 1847, her antislavery involvement allowed her to meet her future husband, Henry Bibb,…

  11. Extending Miles & Snow's strategy choice typology to the German hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Bernd; Hinz, Vera; Ingerfurth, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hospitals' strategy choices represent highly relevant factors that affect organizational performance and survival. This study assesses the differences among hospitals' strategic choices. This strategy definition and assessment reflects the typology proposed by Miles and Snow, who distinguish four strategy types: defender, analyzer, prospector, and reactor. Synthesis of empirical evidence from previous studies that have applied Miles and Snow's typology in the hospital sector using various methodological approaches and measures provides hints for industry-specific patterns and avenues for further research. Taking an extended view of strategic choice, the authors conduct an empirical survey of a sample of 178 German hospitals. The authors apply a multi-item measure of the Miles and Snow strategy types in the hospital sector and identify hybrid strategy types that deviate from the four strategy types defined by Miles and Snow. Overall, seven distinct strategy types emerge from this analysis. There exist three distinct hybrid types in particular. Strategy choice is systematically related to hospital size and teaching status but not to ownership and location. The significant variance in performance for the seven different strategy types justifies the distinction between them. The results support the idea of industry-specific strategy choices. Policy makers should analyze the structural context in which hospitals operate and intervene through political and regulatory means. PMID:25047455

  12. Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  13. Extending Miles & Snow's strategy choice typology to the German hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Bernd; Hinz, Vera; Ingerfurth, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hospitals' strategy choices represent highly relevant factors that affect organizational performance and survival. This study assesses the differences among hospitals' strategic choices. This strategy definition and assessment reflects the typology proposed by Miles and Snow, who distinguish four strategy types: defender, analyzer, prospector, and reactor. Synthesis of empirical evidence from previous studies that have applied Miles and Snow's typology in the hospital sector using various methodological approaches and measures provides hints for industry-specific patterns and avenues for further research. Taking an extended view of strategic choice, the authors conduct an empirical survey of a sample of 178 German hospitals. The authors apply a multi-item measure of the Miles and Snow strategy types in the hospital sector and identify hybrid strategy types that deviate from the four strategy types defined by Miles and Snow. Overall, seven distinct strategy types emerge from this analysis. There exist three distinct hybrid types in particular. Strategy choice is systematically related to hospital size and teaching status but not to ownership and location. The significant variance in performance for the seven different strategy types justifies the distinction between them. The results support the idea of industry-specific strategy choices. Policy makers should analyze the structural context in which hospitals operate and intervene through political and regulatory means.

  14. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.

  15. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  16. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles. (a) Generally, a worksite can refer to either a single location or a group of contiguous locations. Structures which......

  17. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles. (a) Generally, a worksite can refer to either a single location or a group of contiguous locations. Structures which......

  18. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles. (a) Generally, a worksite can refer to either a single location or a group of contiguous locations. Structures which......

  19. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles. (a) Generally, a worksite can refer to either a single location or a group of contiguous locations. Structures which......

  20. 29 CFR 825.111 - Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles. (a) Generally, a worksite can refer to either a single location or a group of contiguous locations. Structures which......