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Sample records for military culture state

  1. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study. PMID:26830884

  2. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  3. Cultural self-awareness as a crucial component of military cross-cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Pappamihiel, Constantine J; Pappamihiel, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    The military forces in the United States represent a unique culture that includes many subcultures within their own military society. Acculturation into the military often deemphasizes the influence of personal narrative and thereby establishes the primacy of military culture over personal cultural influences. The authors make the argument that military personnel need to further develop an understanding and appreciation of personal cultural narrative as well as organizational culture. The increased integration of military personnel with interagency partners, along with cooperative efforts between relief organizations, and nongovernmental organizations in politically/economically unstable areas around the globe serves to make cross-cultural interaction unavoidable in the future. Military medical personnel are especially likely to interact with others who have culturally different values. These interactions can occur between organizations as easily as they can during patient care. They must be able to step outside of their military culture and develop cross-cultural competence that is grounded in cultural self-awareness. Without an appropriate level of cultural self-awareness, military and medical personnel run the risk of being unable to communicate across dissimilar cultures or worse, alienating key stakeholders in collaborative operations between military services, coalition partners, and nonmilitary organizations. It is the authors? contention that unless military personnel, especially those in the medical arena, are able to appropriately self-assess situations that are impacted by culture, both their own and the other personnel involved, the resulting cultural dissonance is more likely to derail any significant positive effect of such collaborations.

  4. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M; Morgart, Ruth E

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  5. Cultural heritage training in the US military.

    PubMed

    Svec, Leedjia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a vital component of many missions in today's military. Cultural competence enables one to further a mission, save resources, and save lives. Conversely, a lack of cultural competence may bring about challenges to mission completion, requirement for more resources, waste of resources, and destruction of lives. Cultural competence involves many components. One particular component is cultural heritage awareness and protection of cultural property. This study sought to assess current understanding of cultural property protection and determine the effectiveness of a training aimed at increasing cultural property protection awareness, knowledge, and comfort within the military setting. It was hypothesized that participants would vary in their level of awareness, knowledge, and comfort of cultural property protection, and that all would show a significant improvement in knowledge scores post training. Factors such as deployment experience were examined for potential correlation with measures such as awareness. A 14 question pre-read survey was developed to assess participants' demographics, awareness, knowledge, and comfort with cultural property protection. Awareness included value, laws, and procedures while knowledge examined "know how" such as how to bed down in a protected structure or communicate information about the structure. Comfort assessed one's comfort with engaging in the knowledge based tasks. A 24 question post read survey was administered to assess awareness, knowledge, and comfort, and to solicit additional feedback on the manual itself. The survey utilized a 1-5 rating scale with 1 representing no awareness, knowledge, or comfort and 5 representing absolute awareness, knowledge, and comfort with different aspects of cultural property protection. Cultural property protection value was highest pre and post training while knowledge regarding recovery of property was rated lowest pre and post training. Results are encouraging for

  6. Cultural heritage training in the US military.

    PubMed

    Svec, Leedjia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a vital component of many missions in today's military. Cultural competence enables one to further a mission, save resources, and save lives. Conversely, a lack of cultural competence may bring about challenges to mission completion, requirement for more resources, waste of resources, and destruction of lives. Cultural competence involves many components. One particular component is cultural heritage awareness and protection of cultural property. This study sought to assess current understanding of cultural property protection and determine the effectiveness of a training aimed at increasing cultural property protection awareness, knowledge, and comfort within the military setting. It was hypothesized that participants would vary in their level of awareness, knowledge, and comfort of cultural property protection, and that all would show a significant improvement in knowledge scores post training. Factors such as deployment experience were examined for potential correlation with measures such as awareness. A 14 question pre-read survey was developed to assess participants' demographics, awareness, knowledge, and comfort with cultural property protection. Awareness included value, laws, and procedures while knowledge examined "know how" such as how to bed down in a protected structure or communicate information about the structure. Comfort assessed one's comfort with engaging in the knowledge based tasks. A 24 question post read survey was administered to assess awareness, knowledge, and comfort, and to solicit additional feedback on the manual itself. The survey utilized a 1-5 rating scale with 1 representing no awareness, knowledge, or comfort and 5 representing absolute awareness, knowledge, and comfort with different aspects of cultural property protection. Cultural property protection value was highest pre and post training while knowledge regarding recovery of property was rated lowest pre and post training. Results are encouraging for

  7. Understanding Military Culture: A Guide for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors must be knowledgeable about military culture in order to help military students and their families in a culturally competent manner. This article explores the nature of this unique culture, which is often unfamiliar to educators, including its language, hierarchy, sense of rules and regulations, self-expectations and…

  8. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  9. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  10. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  11. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  12. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  13. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  14. United States military posture for FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this statement on the military posture of the United States is to supplement testimony by the Chairman and other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at congressional hearings in support of the FY 1989 Defense Budget. Chapter I is an overview that describes the main challenges to US national security, outlines objectives and elements of US military strategy, and highlights continuing efforts to field the best possible armed forces for the protection of US national interests. Chapter II compares US defense requirements and resource commitment with those of the Soviet Union. Chapter III provides an overview of the global military environment by comparing US and allied forces with Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces. Chapter IV assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces to meet the Soviet nuclear threat. Chapter V assesses the current and projected capability of the US Armed Forces, in concert with friends and allies, to meet the Soviet conventional military threat. This chapter deals primarily with joint perspectives that have increased the capabilities and efficiency of our forces. Chapter VI addresses other topics of interest. Unless otherwise noted, data shown in this report have used operational as opposed to treaty inventories for strategic weapon systems, a fiscal year cutoff date of 30 September 1987, and mobilized forces. Additionally, data have been developed based on a global as opposed to regional war scenario.

  15. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. PMID:26524277

  16. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  17. Disposition of insanity acquittees in the United States Military.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1990-01-01

    Recent amendments to the United States Code of Military Justice have essentially adopted the federal mental nonresponsibility rule or insanity defense. The prior standard, as outlined in the American Law Institute's Model Penal Code, has been abandoned. Notably absent is a system to address the disposition of the military insanity acquittee. This raises concerns regarding recidivism and the military's role in mitigating potential dangerousness. Relevant civilian and military law is reviewed, two cases described, and possible remedies proposed.

  18. Job Satisfaction and the Perceived Organizational Culture of U.S. Military and Military Affiliated Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffenauer, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, level of job satisfaction, and current/preferred organizational culture in a sample of 139 off-campus military degree program participants. Responses were received from undergraduate students in the fields of engineering, applied sciences and arts, and education. "The Job…

  19. [Investigations on cordycepin production by solid culture of Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui-Ping; Ye, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hua-Ying; Li, Xue-Gang; Zhong, Yun-Jun

    2008-10-01

    An efficient method to produce cordycepin by solid culture using Cordyceps militaris was investigated in this study. Firstly, the changes of cordycepin during various growing periods of solid culture using 5 strains of C. militaris were detected, the best strain and optimal growing period for cordycepin production were determined. Then, by experiments of quadratic rotation-orthogonal combination design and orthogonal design, the medium composition and growth conditions for high yield of cordycepin were optimized. With the optimized method to produce cordycepin, the content of cordycepin in the medium was increased to 0.60%, which was nearly 2 times higher than the highest yield reported. PMID:19165995

  20. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    PubMed

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  1. Integrating Military and Veteran Culture in Social Work Education: Implications for Curriculum Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Julie; Weiss, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual question of how to best integrate military culture and issues into social work education. Military service members, veterans, and their families are returning to civilian communities with the ending of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and seeking community-based providers for health and mental health…

  2. 76 FR 5143 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the... States Military Academy Board of Visitors. This is the 2011 Organizational Meeting of the USMA Board of... States Military Academy Board of Visitors. 2. Date: Wednesday, February 16, 2011. ] 3. Time: 12...

  3. The culture of war: a study of women military nurses in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Scannell-Desch, E

    2000-04-01

    Many books and studies have described the male Vietnam War culture, whereas similar literature about women is almost nonexistent. This study describes the culture of war nursing as experienced by 24 U.S. women military nurses. Data were generated using a core question and in-depth interviews. Phenomenology served as the research method, incorporating data analysis procedures of Colaizzi and Lincoln and Guba. Nine theme categories were identified to describe the culture of war nursing. Core values of the military culture were threaded throughout descriptions, and activities to make their environment more homelike embodied the positive values of their culture.

  4. Recent research on permethrin-treated United States military uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    History is replete with examples of arthropod-borne illnesses affecting the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our U.S. military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. A part of the system to protect military personnel consists of wearing permeth...

  5. 77 FR 14006 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the... advisory committee meeting will take place: 1. Name of Committee: United States Military Academy Board of... attend the meeting will need to show photo identification in order to gain access to the meeting...

  6. [Influence of work factors on health state in personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects].

    PubMed

    Poluboiarinov, V N; Iusov, I G; Ivanchenko, A V; Turlakov, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    Complex of occupational studies and medical, statistical research helped to reveal climate, geographic and other factors influencing health state of personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects. Considering peculiarities of occupational activities in various specialists, the authors specified measures to improve medical service for nuclear technical military officers directly working with nuclear ammunition. Practical application of the measures helped to gain 1.5-1.7 times improvement in morbidity parameters among nuclear technical military officers. PMID:25069272

  7. Cross-cultural communication capabilities of U.S. military trainers: host nation perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Alameri, Ali; Jawad, Shakir; Alani, Yasir; Zuerlein, Scott; Nakano, Gregg; Anderson, Warner; Beadling, Charles

    2013-06-01

    A survey was conducted to assess trainee perception of the cross-cultural communication competency of U.S. military trainers and their satisfaction with the training they received. Findings from the survey show that U.S. military trainers rely significantly on local interpreters. This indicates variability in the ability of the trainers to communicate effectively with host nation partners, the variability being dependent on the capabilities of the individual interpreter. The findings illustrate the importance of providing military health personnel with training on how to work effectively with interpreters. The use of supplementary resources such as electronic translation devises when the interpreter is not capable of conveying health-related training information with the desired level of accuracy is recommended. Expanding the availability of general cultural training, which provides baseline information on local values, traditions, and customs in addition to health-specific cultural orientation, is also recommended to help military health trainers customize their training content and methods to fit the local environment.

  8. Effects of selenium and light wavelengths on liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link.

    PubMed

    Dong, J Z; Liu, M R; Lei, C; Zheng, X J; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium and light wavelengths on the growth of liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris and the main active components' accumulation, culture conditions as selenium selenite concentrations and light of different wavelengths were studied. The results are: adenosine accumulation proved to be significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.9403) and cordycepin contents were determined to be not significantly selenium dependent (R(2) = 0.3845) but significantly enhanced by selenium except for 20 ppm; there were significant differences in cordycepin contents, adenosine contents, and mycelium growth caused by light wavelengths: cordycepin, blue light > pink light > daylight, darkness, red light; adenosine, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight, blue light; and mycelium growth, red light > pink light, darkness, daylight > blue light. In conclusion, light wavelength had a significant influence on production of mycelia, adenosine, and cordycepin, so lightening wavelength should be changed according to target products in the liquid culture of C. militaris. PMID:22434354

  9. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise. PMID:26863737

  10. Compliance with Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis Recommendations for Wounded United States Military Personnel Admitted to a Military Treatment Facility

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Elizabeth A.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Tribble, David R.; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Warkentien, Tyler E.; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed. PMID:24732457

  11. Compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis recommendations for wounded United States military personnel admitted to a military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Rini, Elizabeth A; Weintrob, Amy C; Tribble, David R; Lloyd, Bradley A; Warkentien, Tyler E; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K

    2014-06-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009-August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed.

  12. Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987

    PubMed Central

    Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love

  13. Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.

    PubMed

    Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love

  14. Reflections on the United States military 1941-1987.

    PubMed

    Mandels, Mary; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol). This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis.Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did. In particular was her love

  15. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model.

  16. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model. PMID:16295164

  17. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  18. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval forces of the United States” and the term “Armed Forces of the United States” each includes all...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval forces of the United States” and the term “Armed Forces of the United States” each includes all...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval forces of the United States” and the term “Armed Forces of the United States” each includes all...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval forces of the United States” and the term “Armed Forces of the United States” each includes all...

  2. 26 CFR 301.7701-8 - Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of... § 301.7701-8 Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States. The term “military or naval forces of the United States” and the term “Armed Forces of the United States” each includes all...

  3. Success of High Tibial Osteotomy in the United States Military

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Brian R.; Hoffmann, Jeffrey D.; Laughlin, Matthew D.; Burks, Robert; Pallis, Mark P.; Tokish, John M.; Belmont, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Historically, high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been performed to treat isolated medial gonarthrosis with varus deformity. Purpose: To evaluate the occupational outcomes of HTO in a high-demand military cohort. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective analysis of active duty service members undergoing HTO for coronal plane malalignment and/or intra-articular pathology was performed using the Military Health System between 2003 and 2011. Demographic parameters and surgical variables, including rates of perioperative complications, secondary surgery, activity limitations, and medical discharge, were extracted from electronic medical records. For the current study, cumulative failure was defined as conversion to knee arthroplasty or postoperative medical discharge for persistent knee dysfunction. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify statistical associations with cumulative failure after HTO. Results: A total of 181 service members (202 HTOs) were identified at an average follow-up of 47.5 months (range, 24-96 months). Mean age was 35.7 years (range, 19-55 years), and the majority were men (93%) and of enlisted rank (78%). All index procedures utilized a valgus-producing, opening wedge technique. Concomitant or staged procedures were performed in 87 patients (48%), including 40 ligamentous, 48 meniscal, and 48 chondral procedures. Complications occurred in 19.3% of knees (n = 39), with unplanned reoperation in 26 knees (12.8%). Fifty-three patients (40.7%) had minor activity limitations during military duty postoperatively. Eleven knees (5.4%) underwent conversion to total knee arthroplasty. The cumulative failure rate was 28.2% (n = 51) at 2- to 8-year follow-up. Patient age younger than 30 years at the time of surgery was associated with an independently higher risk of failure, whereas sex, concomitant/staged procedures, and perioperative complications were not significantly associated with

  4. State of innovation in suicide intervention research with military populations.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Simons, Kelsey

    2015-06-01

    A systematic search was performed to identify active, externally funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that target suicidal ideation or behavior as a primary or secondary outcome among U.S. military service members, guard-reservists, and veterans. Twenty-three studies were identified, most funded by the U.S. Department of Defense or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Several innovations were identified based on departures from or modernizations of usual practices and included the targeting of suicide deaths or attempts as primary outcome, delivery of interventions through technology and/or outside clinical settings, and examinations of rarely studied treatments.

  5. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods.

  6. 75 FR 60159 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... police personnel who have been credibly alleged to have violated internationally recognized human...

  7. Virtual reality as a tool for cross-cultural communication: an example from military team training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes-Martin, Stephen; Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.

    1992-06-01

    A major problem with communication across cultures, whether professional or national, is that simple language translation if often insufficient to communicate the concepts. This is especially true when the communicators come from highly specialized fields of knowledge or from national cultures with long histories of divergence. This problem becomes critical when the goal of the communication is national negotiation dealing with such high risk items as arms negotiation or trade wars. Virtual Reality technology has considerable potential for facilitating communication across cultures, by immersing the communicators within multiple visual representations of the concepts, and providing control over those representations. Military distributed team training provides a model for virtual reality suitable for cross cultural communication such as negotiation. In both team training and negotiation, the participants must cooperate, agree on a set of goals, and achieve mastery over the concepts being negotiated. Team training technologies suitable for supporting cross cultural negotiation exist (branch wargaming, computer image generation and visualization, distributed simulation), and have developed along different lines than traditional virtual reality technology. Team training de-emphasizes the realism of physiological interfaces between the human and the virtual reality, and emphasizes the interaction of humans with each other and with intelligent simulated agents within the virtual reality. This approach to virtual reality is suggested as being more fruitful for future work.

  8. 75 FR 7571 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Committee: United States Military Academy Board of Visitors. 2. Date: Tuesday, March 9, 2010. 3. Time: 12:30...-3.165, and the availability of space, this meeting is open to the public. Seating is on a first-come... next meeting in order to provide time for member consideration. By rule, no member of the...

  9. 78 FR 32241 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Committee: United States Military Academy Board of Visitors. 2. Date: Wednesday, June 19, 2013. 3. Time: 2 p... CFR 102-3.140 through 102-3.165 and the availability of space, this meeting is open to the public... than five working days prior to the next meeting in order to provide time for member consideration....

  10. 78 FR 60266 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Michael McClendon, a former tactical non- commissioned officer in the US Corps of Cadets; the...

  11. 78 FR 13030 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Designated Federal Officer or Point of Contact: Ms. Deadra Ghostlaw, (845) 938-4200,...

  12. 76 FR 60816 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Ms. Joy A. Pasquazi, (845) 938-5078, Joy.Pasquazi@us.army.mil . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  13. All Male State-Funded Military Academies: Anachronism or Necessary Anomaly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Scollay, Susan J.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth District, although stopping short of ordering the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) to admit women, ordered VMI to implement a program which comports with the requirements of equal protection. Offers an analysis of the Fourth Circuit's ruling, a discussion of important educational questions, and a…

  14. 75 FR 3901 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... leadership will provide the Board updates on the following: Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM... Army, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... advisory committee meeting will take place: 1. Name of Committee: United States Military Academy Board...

  15. 75 FR 65460 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; United States Military Academy Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Academy Board of Visitors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the United States Military Academy Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the ``Board''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim...

  16. 75 FR 34989 - Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ..., Preparatory School Program, Cadet Quality of Life, Honor Code System and Resources. 7. Public's Accessibility... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA) AGENCY: Agency: Department...

  17. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This...

  18. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This...

  19. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This...

  20. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This...

  1. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section implements Section 1211 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (Pub. L. 109-163). See... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section...

  2. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being.

  3. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  4. Assessing Climate Change Impacts for Military Installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C.

    2013-05-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are experiencing some of the most adverse impacts of climate change with increased heat waves, droughts, and extreme weather. These events will likely exacerbate socioeconomic and political instabilities in regions where the United States has vital strategic interests and ongoing military operations. The Southwest U.S. is strategically important in that it houses some of the most spatially expansive and important military installations in the country. The majority of severe weather events in the Southwest occur in association with the North American monsoon system (NAMS), and current observational record has shown a 'wet gets wetter and dry gets drier' global monsoon precipitation trend. We seek to evaluate the warm season extreme weather projection in the Southwest U.S., and how the extremes can affect Department of Defense (DoD) military facilities in that region. A baseline methodology is being developed to select extreme warm season weather events based on historical sounding data and moisture surge observations from Gulf of California. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)-type high resolution simulations will be performed for the extreme events identified from Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model simulations initiated from IPCC GCM and NCAR Reanalysis data in both climate control and climate change periods. The magnitude in extreme event changes will be analyzed, and the synoptic forcing patterns of the future severe thunderstorms will provide a guide line to assess if the military installations in the Southwest will become more or less susceptible to severe weather in the future.

  5. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. PMID:26188453

  6. The intersection of a military culture and indigenous peoples in conservation issues

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Military operations impose various positive and negative consequences on the environment. Three case studies are presented illuminating how local indigenous peoples as stakeholders may be vulnerable to being disenfranchised from important discussions concerning military activities. The study of ecological issues associated with sustaining a military footprint may be particularly useful for informing the global debate that pits strict conservation against human well-being. PMID:24567778

  7. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  8. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed. PMID:18793493

  9. [Pre-hospital care for wounded in military conflicts: state and prospects].

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, I M; Reva, V A

    2015-10-01

    Pre-hospital care is one of the most important links in a chain of the military medical tenet. A survival of the most of severe casualties at the scene depends on a good quality and well-timed first aid and paramedic care. Based on the current state of medical equipment and training of the soldiers of the Russian and foreign armies, we summarized the data about the main medical products designed for pre-hospital care, briefly analyzed and compared their effectiveness to the foreign analogues. It is currently obvious, that fundamental changes in First aid kit modification and Medical Bags are warranted according to the reality and soldier's demands in combat operations. Proposals for modernization of military medical equipment were put forward. PMID:26827503

  10. 14 CFR Sfar No. 100 - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian...-2—Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in... served in a U.S. military or civilian capacity outside the United States in support of the U.S....

  11. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect. PMID:27130684

  12. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect.

  13. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive United States Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Jeff S; Clark, Leslie L; Garges, Eric C; Otto, Jean Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Minimal data exist that describe the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive populations across the pre- and post-diagnosis periods for HIV. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the epidemiology of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus in an HIV-positive population. Methods. All 1,961 HIV seropositive United States active duty military personnel from 2000-2010 were identified. STI diagnoses relative to HIV diagnosis from 1995, which was the earliest electronic medical record available, to 2010 were examined. Results. The incidence diagnosis rates of STI generally increased during the period leading up to eventual HIV diagnosis. The rates of STI during the post-HIV diagnosis period fluctuated, but remained elevated compared to pre-HIV diagnosis period. Approximately 45%-69% with an STI in the HIV seropositive military population were diagnosed with their first STI greater than one year after their HIV diagnosis. Of those who were diagnosed with an STI in the post-HIV diagnosis period, 70.6% had one STI diagnosis, 23.5% had two STI diagnoses, and 5.8% had three or more STI diagnoses. Conclusions. Despite aggressive counseling, high-risk sexual behavior continues to occur in the HIV-positive military population.

  14. Catalog of the Orientalia Collection of the U.S. Military Academy Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pingkun; Kao, Angela H.H.

    This bibliography of the holdings of the United States Military Academy Library's Orientalia Collection as of January 1977 lists books and periodicals written mostly in Chinese, with a few words in Japanese and English. The major subjects include general and military history, history of military art and science, biography, culture, geography,…

  15. Revolving Doors: The Impact of Multiple School Transitions on Military Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, S. Beth; Keim, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    There are 1.2 million school-age children with military parents in the United States, and approximately 90% attend public schools. On average, military children move three times more often than their civilian peers. Tensions at home, enrollment issues, adapting to new schools, and a lack of familiarity with military culture by public school…

  16. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  17. State Policymakers: Supporting Military Families with Children. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melissa; Lettieri, Chelsea

    2008-01-01

    Managing work and family responsibilities is particularly difficult for military families with children. While military life has always been demanding, in recent years an increasing number of military personnel in both the Active Duty Force and Selected Reserves have had to confront the additional demands of parenthood. Providing resources to…

  18. 32 CFR 884.6 - Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. 884.6 Section 884.6 National Defense... personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. (a) When Federal authorities request...

  19. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Distress Among Adults With Military Service History: Results From 5 US States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Adam J.; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress in a probability-based sample of adults. Methods. We gathered 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 5 states that asked about past-year suicidal ideation. Military service was defined as current or former active-duty service or National Guard or Reserves service. We stratified analyses into 18 to 39 years, 40 to 64 years, and 65 years and older age groups and used multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic confounders, to discern the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. Results. Among the 26 736 respondents, 13.1% indicated military service history. After adjusting for several confounders, we found military history status among those aged 40 to 64 years was associated with both past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. We found no significant associations among the younger or older age groups. Conclusions. Differences in suicidal ideation between military and nonmilitary individuals may occur in midlife. Future research should examine the possibility of cohort effects, service era effects, or both. PMID:25100426

  20. Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengyao; Yan, Hui; Ma, Xiaoning; Jia, Junqiang; Zhang, Guozheng; Guo, Xijie; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2012-05-01

    Two acidic polysaccharide fractions, CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris grown on solid rice medium and silkworm pupa, respectively, by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation and fractionation using ion-exchange column (DEAE-cellulose-52) and gel-filtration column (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Their structural characterizations were performed by gas chromatography and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Some differences existed between their structures, which indicated that culture media could influence the structure of polysaccharides of C. militaris. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were evaluated by various methods in vitro. They had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating capacity, but moderate reducing power. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were slightly higher than those of CM-jd-CPS2. These two acidic fractions were evaluated for proliferation of mouse splenocyte activity in vitro. They both possessed does-dependent mitogenic effects on mouse splenocytes, and could synergistically promote murine T- and B-lymphocytes induced by Con A and LPS. CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 exhibited stronger stimulatory activities upon immunomodulation than CM-jd-CPS2. These results are beneficial for the interpretation of the connection between polysaccharide structures and their biological activities. PMID:22806024

  1. Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengyao; Yan, Hui; Ma, Xiaoning; Jia, Junqiang; Zhang, Guozheng; Guo, Xijie; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2012-05-01

    Two acidic polysaccharide fractions, CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris grown on solid rice medium and silkworm pupa, respectively, by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation and fractionation using ion-exchange column (DEAE-cellulose-52) and gel-filtration column (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Their structural characterizations were performed by gas chromatography and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Some differences existed between their structures, which indicated that culture media could influence the structure of polysaccharides of C. militaris. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were evaluated by various methods in vitro. They had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating capacity, but moderate reducing power. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were slightly higher than those of CM-jd-CPS2. These two acidic fractions were evaluated for proliferation of mouse splenocyte activity in vitro. They both possessed does-dependent mitogenic effects on mouse splenocytes, and could synergistically promote murine T- and B-lymphocytes induced by Con A and LPS. CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 exhibited stronger stimulatory activities upon immunomodulation than CM-jd-CPS2. These results are beneficial for the interpretation of the connection between polysaccharide structures and their biological activities.

  2. Production of cordycepin by a repeated batch culture of a Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by proton beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mina; Das, Shonkor Kumar; Fujihara, Shinya; Hatashita, Masanori; Sakurai, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is one of the most versatile metabolites of Cordyceps militaris due to its broad spectrum of biological activity. In our previous study, the C. militaris mutant G81-3, which produces higher levels of cordycepin, was obtained by high-energy proton beam irradiation. In this study, the effects of adenosine on cordycepin production in a surface liquid culture of the mutant and the wild type strains were investigated. For the mutant strain, the optimum dose of adenosine yielded a 30% increase in cordycepin production; the maximum levels of production with adenosine and without adenosine were 8.6g/l and 6.7 g/l, respectively. In contrast, the increase due to adenosine supplementation for the wild type strain was only 15% (3.1g/l with adenosine and 2.7 g/l without adenosine). Furthermore, a repeated batch culture, an efficient production method, was carried out to eliminate the relatively long lag phase of the mutant culture. Over four cycles, both the mutant and the wild type strain maintained a production level of more than 85% of that of the initial cycle. As a result, the disadvantage of the mutant was successfully overcome, resulting in a productivity (0.48 g/(ld)) higher than that of the batch culture (0.29 g/(ld)). The productivity for cordycepin obtained in this study is the highest reported value to date, and this method could be applied to large-scale production of cordycepin at industrial levels. PMID:20863756

  3. 32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to solicit on a military installation, the commander must receive a letter of application, signed by the company's president or vice... imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 1001). The letter of application will— (a) Report the States in which the company...

  4. 32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to solicit on a military installation, the commander must receive a letter of application, signed by the company's president or vice... imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 1001). The letter of application will— (a) Report the States in which the company...

  5. 32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to solicit on a military installation, the commander must receive a letter of application, signed by the company's president or vice... imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 1001). The letter of application will— (a) Report the States in which the company...

  6. 32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to solicit on a military installation, the commander must receive a letter of application, signed by the company's president or vice... imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 1001). The letter of application will— (a) Report the States in which the company...

  7. 32 CFR 552.69 - Application by companies to solicit on military installations in the United States, its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... territories, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Before a company may be accredited to solicit on a military installation, the commander must receive a letter of application, signed by the company's president or vice... imprisonment (18 U.S.C. 1001). The letter of application will— (a) Report the States in which the company...

  8. Religious Education Reform under the US Military Occupation: The Interpretation of State Shinto in Japan and Nazism in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the treatment of religion in Japanese education in the post-World War Two period. During the Allied Military Occupation, Japan adopted the principle of the separation of state and religion as a means to democratize the totalitarian, ethno-nationalistic education system of pre-1945. The case of Germany is also dealt with here…

  9. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  10. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  11. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  12. 31 CFR 576.207 - Exemption for property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.207 Section 576.207... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibitions in § 576.201(a)(1) and (a)(2) shall not apply to property...

  13. Teaching in a Culturally Diverse Nation State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterly, Jean L.

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes California as a culturally diverse, rapidly growing state. Identifies key issues for the development of teaching in such an environment. Argues that California education will need: enthusiastic teachers; minority teachers, corporate support developed through school-business partnerships, greater professional recognition, lower…

  14. Development of New Repellents and Improved Permethrin-Treated Uniforms for the United States Military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    History contains numerous examples of the impact of arthropod-borne illnesses on the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our US military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. Two components of the Department of Defense system for personal protect...

  15. Measuring Sense of Community in the Military: Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of the Brief Sense of Community Scale and Its Underlying Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wombacher, Jorg; Tagg, Stephen K.; Burgi, Thomas; MacBryde, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a German Sense of Community (SOC) Scale for use in military settings. The scale is based on the translation and field-testing of an existing U.S.-based measure of neighborhood SOC (Peterson, Speer, & McMillan, 2008). The methodological intricacies underlying cross-cultural scale development are highlighted, as…

  16. Emergence of solid state helmet-mounted displays in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    2002-08-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) are used to provide pilots with out-the-window capabilities for engaging tactical threats. The first modern system to be employed was the Apache Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS). Using an optical tracker and multiple sensors, the pilot is able to navigate and engage the enemy with his weapons systems cued by the HMD in day and night conditions. Over the next several years HMDs were tested on tactical jet aircraft. The tactical fighter environment - high G maneuvering and the possibility of ejection - created several problems regarding integration and head-borne weight. However, these problems were soon solved by American, British, Israeli, and Russian companies and are employed or in the process of employment aboard the respective countries' tactical aircraft. It is noteworthy that the current configuration employs both the Heads-Up Display (HUD) as well as the HMD. The new Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), however, will become the first tactical jet to employ only a HMD. HMDs have increasingly become part of the avionics and weapons systems of new aircraft and helicopter platforms. Their use however, is migrating to other military applications. They are currently under evaluation on Combat Vehicle platforms for driving tasks to target acquisition and designation tasks under near-all weather, 24-hour conditions. Their use also has penetrated the individual application such as providing data and situational awareness to the individual soldier; the U.S. Army's Land Warrior Program is an example of this technology being applied. Current HMD systems are CRT-based and have many short-comings, including weight, reliability. The emergence of new microelectronics and solid state image sources - Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) - however, has expanded the application of vision devices across all facets of military applications. Some of the greatest contributions are derived from the following Enabling Technologies, and it is upon those

  17. Optimization of large-scale culture conditions for the production of cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by liquid static culture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  18. Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose L; Sanchez, Joyce L; Cooper, Michael J; Hiser, Michelle J; Mancuso, James D

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that poses a threat to force health protection to the U.S. military. The rate of TB disease in the military is low; however, there are unique challenges for its control in this setting. As a low-risk population, TB testing in the U.S. military can be scaled back from the universal testing approach used previously. Reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) present at accession into service is the most important factor leading to TB disease; therefore, its diagnosis and treatment among recruits should be given a high priority. Deployment and overseas military service is an uncommon but important source of TB infection, and rigorous surveillance should be ensured. Case management of TB disease and LTBI can be improved by the use of cohort reviews at the service and installation levels and case finding and delays in the diagnosis of TB disease can be improved by education of providers, as well as increased use of molecular diagnostic tests. Program outcomes can be improved by making LTBI treatment compulsory, offering shorter treatment regimens, and increasing accountability through oversight and evaluation. The diagnosis of LTBI can be improved by implementing targeted testing in all settings and reducing confirmatory interferon-gamma release assay testing. PMID:25735017

  19. Nurturing a positive research culture: the Academic Department of Military Nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Di

    2015-12-01

    The structure and quality of nurse education in the UK has been scrutinised for many decades, culminating in a significant shift from ward-based learning at certificate level to that at diploma or degree level being delivered in higher education institutions. This professionalisation of nursing in the last decade of the 20th century was influenced by major changes in Department of Health policy, which demanded that a sound evidence base must be applied to nursing practice thereby replicating the model of evidence-based medicine. The requirement for care delivery to be evidence based is built on the premise that a continual research programme to investigate, disseminate and implement findings will enhance decision making in the clinical environment, thereby improving standards of care and patient outcomes. However, for this to be achieved there is an organisational responsibility to drive a positive research culture in order to effectively generate new knowledge and expertise. This paper explores the nursing research culture in the NHS and the strategies employed by the Defence Medical Services for supporting its nurses to generate the high-quality evidence that informs best practice. PMID:26400975

  20. Nurturing a positive research culture: the Academic Department of Military Nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Di

    2015-12-01

    The structure and quality of nurse education in the UK has been scrutinised for many decades, culminating in a significant shift from ward-based learning at certificate level to that at diploma or degree level being delivered in higher education institutions. This professionalisation of nursing in the last decade of the 20th century was influenced by major changes in Department of Health policy, which demanded that a sound evidence base must be applied to nursing practice thereby replicating the model of evidence-based medicine. The requirement for care delivery to be evidence based is built on the premise that a continual research programme to investigate, disseminate and implement findings will enhance decision making in the clinical environment, thereby improving standards of care and patient outcomes. However, for this to be achieved there is an organisational responsibility to drive a positive research culture in order to effectively generate new knowledge and expertise. This paper explores the nursing research culture in the NHS and the strategies employed by the Defence Medical Services for supporting its nurses to generate the high-quality evidence that informs best practice.

  1. A New Generation of Women? How Female ROTC Cadets Negotiate the Tension between Masculine Military Culture and Traditional Femininity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of women in the U.S. military is generally understood as radically transforming traditional gender relations. Drawing from 38 interviews with women and men in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, I ask: how do women negotiate gender identities within the "masculine" military institution, and what types of transformations in their…

  2. Walking a Gender Tightrope: A Qualitative Study of Female Student Veterans' Experiences within Military and Campus Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Susan V.; Seher, Christin L.; DiRamio, David; Jarvis, Kathryn; Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of the experiences of female student veterans in the military and in college. Twelve women were interviewed from two public research universities. Findings revealed individuals "betwixt and between" the complex intersection of identities: in the military, grappling with a sense of…

  3. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States.

  4. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States. PMID:26414053

  5. Building communities of care for military children and families.

    PubMed

    Kudler, Harold; Porter, Rebecca I

    2013-01-01

    Military children don't exist in a vacuum; rather, they are embedded in and deeply influenced by their families, neighborhoods, schools, the military itself, and many other interacting systems. To minimize the risks that military children face and maximize their resilience, write Harold Kudler and Colonel Rebecca Porter, we must go beyond clinical models that focus on military children as individuals and develop a public health approach that harnesses the strengths of the communities that surround them. In short, we must build communities of care. One obstacle to building communities of care is that at many times and in many places, military children and their families are essentially invisible. Most schools, for example, do not routinely assess the military status of new students' parents. Thus Kudler and Porter's strongest recommendation is that public and private institutions of all sorts--from schools to clinics to religious institutions to law enforcement--should determine which children and families they serve are connected to the military as a first step toward meeting military children's unique needs. Next, they say, we need policies that help teachers, doctors, pastors, and others who work with children learn more about military culture and the hardships, such as a parent's deployment, that military children often face. Kudler and Porter review a broad spectrum of programs that may help build communities of care, developed by the military, by nonprofits, and by academia. Many of these appear promising, but the authors emphasize that almost none are backed by strong scientific evidence of their effectiveness. They also describe new initiatives at the state and federal levels that aim to break down barriers among agencies and promote collaboration in the service of military children and families.

  6. Building communities of care for military children and families.

    PubMed

    Kudler, Harold; Porter, Rebecca I

    2013-01-01

    Military children don't exist in a vacuum; rather, they are embedded in and deeply influenced by their families, neighborhoods, schools, the military itself, and many other interacting systems. To minimize the risks that military children face and maximize their resilience, write Harold Kudler and Colonel Rebecca Porter, we must go beyond clinical models that focus on military children as individuals and develop a public health approach that harnesses the strengths of the communities that surround them. In short, we must build communities of care. One obstacle to building communities of care is that at many times and in many places, military children and their families are essentially invisible. Most schools, for example, do not routinely assess the military status of new students' parents. Thus Kudler and Porter's strongest recommendation is that public and private institutions of all sorts--from schools to clinics to religious institutions to law enforcement--should determine which children and families they serve are connected to the military as a first step toward meeting military children's unique needs. Next, they say, we need policies that help teachers, doctors, pastors, and others who work with children learn more about military culture and the hardships, such as a parent's deployment, that military children often face. Kudler and Porter review a broad spectrum of programs that may help build communities of care, developed by the military, by nonprofits, and by academia. Many of these appear promising, but the authors emphasize that almost none are backed by strong scientific evidence of their effectiveness. They also describe new initiatives at the state and federal levels that aim to break down barriers among agencies and promote collaboration in the service of military children and families. PMID:25518697

  7. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, July 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-20

    On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic analysis implicated "perlo" (a chicken, sausage, and rice dish) and bacterial intoxication as the outbreak mechanism. This enabled public health personnel to 1) recommend no further consumption of perlo and 2) reassure appropriate authorities that no additional ill persons likely would be seeking care and advise that nothing more than supportive care of ill persons likely would be required. After interviewing party attendees, investigators found nine additional persons who met their case definition. Subsequent CDC laboratory analysis of a sample of perlo detected staphylococcal enterotoxin A, supporting the epidemiologic findings. Improper food handling and preparation measures were identified and addressed by the appropriate authorities, who provided additional detailed education on food preparation safety for the persons who prepared the meal.

  8. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning from a military unit lunch party - United States, July 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-20

    On July 30, 2012, the emergency department at a military hospital was visited by 13 persons seeking care for gastrointestinal illness with onset 2-3 hours after a work lunch party. The hospital responded by opening up temporary evaluation and treatment capacity in primary-care clinics and a progressive-care unit and by diverting one patient to a local civilian hospital. An immediate outbreak investigation was conducted by local military public health personnel with assistance from CDC. Initial epidemiologic analysis implicated "perlo" (a chicken, sausage, and rice dish) and bacterial intoxication as the outbreak mechanism. This enabled public health personnel to 1) recommend no further consumption of perlo and 2) reassure appropriate authorities that no additional ill persons likely would be seeking care and advise that nothing more than supportive care of ill persons likely would be required. After interviewing party attendees, investigators found nine additional persons who met their case definition. Subsequent CDC laboratory analysis of a sample of perlo detected staphylococcal enterotoxin A, supporting the epidemiologic findings. Improper food handling and preparation measures were identified and addressed by the appropriate authorities, who provided additional detailed education on food preparation safety for the persons who prepared the meal. PMID:24352066

  9. United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

    2013-08-01

    To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression.

  10. Cultural Continuity and Change in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Marion J.; Barnes, Buckley R.

    Culture is the main subject of this student material for a quarter or one-semester course on a comparative study of Mexico and the United States. The ongoing processes of continuity and change in culture and their relationship are emphasized. The first chapter is devoted to the concept of culture, the total way of life of a people from language…

  11. Music in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

  12. A Framework for Developing Management Goals for Species at Risk and Application to Military Installations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Jager, Yetta; Dale, Virginia H; Westervelt, James D.

    2009-01-01

    A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The management areas in the example application are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.

  13. Framework for Developing Management goals for Species at Risk and Application to Military Installations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Dale, Virginia H; Westervelt, James D.

    2009-01-01

    A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The management areas in many of the examples are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Individual Differences on Cognitive Performance for the Development of Military Socio-Cultural Performance Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Katherine G.

    2012-01-01

    Technological devices are ubiquitous in nearly every facet of society. There are substantial investments made in organizations on a daily basis to improve information technology. From a military perspective, the ultimate goal of these highly sophisticated devices is to assist soldiers in achieving mission success across dynamic and often chaotic…

  15. Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

    2014-06-24

    Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ≥ 8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ≥ 8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ≥ 8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14 μg/mL at baseline, 1.07 μg/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66 μg/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels

  16. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM. PMID:23903983

  17. A Retrospective Review of Factors Associated with Vasovasostomies in United States Military Members

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, J.; Avalos, E.; Santomauro, M.; Walters, R.; Marguet, C.; L'Esperance, J.; Drain, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men seeking a vasectomy should receive counseling prior to the procedure that includes discussion of later seeking a reversal. We sought to determine demographic factors that may predispose patients to possibly later seek a vasectomy reversal. Methods All U.S. Military electronic health records were searched between 2000 and 2009 for either a vasectomy or vasovasostomy procedure code. Aggregate demographic information was collected and statistical analysis performed. Result A total of 82,945 patients had a vasectomy of which 4,485 had a vasovasostomy resulting in a vasovasostomy-to-vasectomy rate of 5.04%. The average age at vasovasostomy was 34.9±5.0, with an average interval of 4.1±2.2 years. Men undergoing a vasectomy at a younger age were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Various religions did have statistically significant differences. Within ethnic groups, only Native Americans [OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.198-1.614)] and Asians [OR=0.501 (95% CI 0.364-0.690)] had statistically significant differences when compared to Caucasians. Men with more children at the time of vasectomy were more likely to have a vasovasostomy. Conclusion Younger men, Native Americans, and men with more children at vasectomy were more likely to undergo a vasovasostomy. The reason for these differences is unknown, but this information may assist during pre-vasectomy counseling. PMID:24917734

  18. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  19. Consequences of Making Weight: A Review of Eating Disorder Symptoms and Diagnoses in the United States Military

    PubMed Central

    Bodell, Lindsay; Forney, Katherine Jean; Keel, Pamela; Gutierrez, Peter; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses associated with health problems. Such problems may compromise military performance, highlighting the need to establish the level of eating pathology that exists in military samples. This article qualitatively reviews prevalence estimates of eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses in military samples, providing nonmilitary estimates for context. Findings suggest that eating disorder symptoms are prevalent in cadets and active duty service members, especially when using self-report measures. The increased salience of weight in the military and increased exposure to trauma may influence risk for eating disorders. Alternatively, individuals at risk for eating disorders may self-select into the military. Overall, this review suggests that eating disorder symptoms are common in military samples and that further research is warranted. PMID:25642105

  20. Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janet L. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Forging Partnerships into the Twenty-First Century" (Brown); "Uncle Sam Wants You to Go to School!" (Perez); "Maintaining Educational Access" (Kelly); "College on Military Bases" (Anderson); "Air Force Members Set High Goals for Continuing Education" (Hoban); "Post-Secondary Education for Military Students through Contracting" (Erdman);…

  1. Bibliography of Women: A Survey of Women Past and Present as Reflected by the Holdings of the United States Military Academy Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Martha M., Comp.

    The publication of this bibliography on "Women" is an appropriate event in that it closely follows the passage of the law which for the first time permits women to enter the United States Military Academy in its 173 year history. Over 500 titles are presently extant in the USMA Library collection on the subject of women, representing woman's role…

  2. Use of the MBTI as a Predictor of Successful Academic and Military Performance at the United States Coast Guard Academy. Report 10-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John C., III

    This study provides an analysis of a random sample of 100 cadets from the United States Coast Guard Academy class of 1993. Emphasis is placed on the cadets' academic achievements, their military performance, and their resignation status to determine whether the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) preferences can be used to predict success in these…

  3. Cultural Mechanisms in Neighborhood Effects Research in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.; Hepburn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current state of the U.S. literature on cultural mechanisms in neighborhood effects research. We first define what we mean by neighborhood effects and by cultural mechanisms. We then review and critique two theoretical perspectives on the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods that are explicitly integrated into recent neighborhood effects literature in the U.S.: “deviant subculture” and “cultural heterogeneity.” We then draw on other related U.S. literatures from urban studies, cultural sociology, and culture and inequality to suggest some other conceptualizations that may be useful in advancing our understanding of the role of culture in neighborhood effects. We discuss the conceptual and methodological issues that will have to be grappled with in order to move this literature forward and conclude by offering concrete suggestions, both short-term and long-term, for a research agenda. PMID:26504263

  4. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  5. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    PubMed Central

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R.; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is “to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind.” Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  6. Language and Culture Acquisition among Iranians in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between language use and second culture acquisition is examined in this study of first generation Iranian immigrants and exiles in the United States. The use of both Farsi and English is found to be instrumental in the process by which American culture is incorporated within the Iranian worldview. (AF)

  7. Understanding Ego States: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hoon

    This paper argues that cross-cultural training aimed at improving cultural sensitivity and awareness is a must for students and management trainees pursuing careers with international businesses and for U.S. companies actively seeking strategic alliances with foreign partners. It further argues that understanding the ego states of the parties…

  8. Military Child Advocacy Programs--Victims of Neglect. Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The report discusses the efforts of the U.S. military services to deal with child abuse and neglect in military families. Child advocacy programs were visited and evaluated along criteria in five areas: prevention and identification, intake and assessment, treatment, followup, and reporting. Fundamental differences in the services' child advocacy…

  9. Adaptation to Stress: An Investigation into the Lives of United States Military Families with a Child Who Is Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; Russo, Theresa J.

    2003-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 military families with children who have disabilities to determine if they experienced difficulties in adapting to military life. Responses indicated that 25 percent of children with disabilities were 3 years or younger and 75 percent were age 4 through 6 years. Twenty-one families reported not having adjusted to military…

  10. Assisting Children and Families with Military-Related Disruptions: The United States Marine Corps School Liaison Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Pasch, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Military families face a number of unique challenges, including frequent relocations and school transitions, as well as extended separations from loved ones. The military, schools, and communities have been working together to build the capacity of children, youth, and families to successfully cope with the stressors they encounter. Most branches…

  11. The Barracks Subculture of Military School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakov, R. Iu.

    2011-01-01

    The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  12. Military Tobacco Policies: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Haddock, C. Keith; Long, Mark A. D.; Williams, CAPT Larry N.; Lando, Harry A.; Carlos Poston, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    The United States military has the legacy of a pro-tobacco culture and still has prevalence rates of tobacco use that are higher than their civilian counterparts. One tactic for decreasing use and the subsequent health problems is through effective tobacco control policies. We collected available tobacco control policies from all four branches of the military and, through qualitative analysis, identified policies that were unique either as providing more or less detail and restriction than peer group policies. Best and worst practice policies in the areas of enforcement, smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, framing tobacco as non-normative, designated tobacco use areas, and monitoring of tobacco use are presented. Because policy making can be an effective tool for improving the health of military members, understanding what policy components are comparatively positive or negative is an important tool for health advocates both in the military and civilian settings. PMID:22338352

  13. 76 FR 63188 - Hawaii State Plan; Change in Level of Federal Enforcement: Military Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 Hawaii State Plan; Change in Level of Federal... amends its regulations to reflect this change in the level of federal enforcement. DATES: Effective Date... on December 28, 1973 (39 FR 1010). The Hawaii program is administered by the Hawaii...

  14. Military Music in the United States: A Historical Examination of Performance and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2014, the U.S. Department of Defense is the largest employer of musicians in the United States, with more than 6,000 musicians serving in active-duty, reserve, and National Guard bands. From its dual origins with drums and fifes in infantry units (foot soldiers) and trumpets in the cavalry (horse-mounted troops), music has served crucial…

  15. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.2 Establishment of Military Commissions. In accordance with the President's Military...

  16. [Cell engineering in nephrology: The current state and prospectives from the point of view of military medicine].

    PubMed

    Bel'skih, A N; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Nagibovich, O A

    2015-09-01

    This article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of cell engineering in nephrology from the point of view of military medicine. The review is based on publications from January 1, 2014, to June 1, 2015, and consists of two parts. In the first part the main directions of the cell engineering development are mentioned. The only two clinical trials existed in the field are discussed in more detail. The second part deals with prospectives of cell engineering in nephrology. It is shown that currently this field is in the stage of preclinical experimentation. Of the two known clinical trials the first has failed to demonstrate any effectiveness of cell engineering, the second--will be completed only at the end of 2016. Also, the review notes an extraordinary cost of cell engineering experiments in nephrology. The analysis of publications allows to come to a conclusion that the future progress in prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury could go not in the direction of cell engineering but rather non-cell technologies. One of. the practical consequence of such a conclusion is a necessity to continue the improvement of already existing methods of machine renal replacement therapy.

  17. Examining the relationship between coping strategies and suicidal desire in a sample of United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Khazem, Lauren R; Law, Keyne C; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal desire in the military has been previously examined through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). However, no research has examined the impact of specific coping strategies on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in a large population of individuals serving in the US military. Furthermore, the factor structure of previously utilized coping clusters did not apply to our sample of military personnel. Therefore, we found a three-factor solution to be tested in this sample. We hypothesized that specific types of coping behavior clusters (Adaptive and Maladaptive) would predict both IPTS constructs and suicidal ideation. Results indicated that Adaptive and Maladaptive coping clusters predicted the IPTS constructs in the hypothesized directions. However, only the Maladaptive cluster predicted suicidal ideation. These findings implicate the need for further research and suicide prevention efforts focusing on coping strategies, specifically those that are maladaptive in nature, in relation to suicidal ideation in military members. PMID:25480664

  18. Simulation of advective flow under steady-state and transient recharge conditions, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed several ground-water models in support of an investigation of ground-water contamination being conducted by the Army National Guard Bureau at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Regional and subregional steady-state models and regional transient models were used to (1) improve understanding of the hydrologic system, (2) simulate advective transport of contaminants, (3) delineate recharge areas to municipal wells, and (4) evaluate how model discretization and time-varying recharge affect simulation results. A water-table mound dominates ground-water-flow patterns. Near the top of the mound, which is within Camp Edwards, hydraulic gradients are nearly vertically downward and horizontal gradients are small. In downgradient areas that are further from the top of the water-table mound, the ratio of horizontal to vertical gradients is larger and horizontal flow predominates. The steady-state regional model adequately simulates advective transport in some areas of the aquifer; however, simulation of ground-water flow in areas with local hydrologic boundaries, such as ponds, requires more finely discretized subregional models. Subregional models also are needed to delineate recharge areas to municipal wells that are inadequately represented in the regional model or are near other pumped wells. Long-term changes in recharge rates affect hydraulic heads in the aquifer and shift the position of the top of the water-table mound. Hydraulic-gradient directions do not change over time in downgradient areas, whereas they do change substantially with temporal changes in recharge near the top of the water-table mound. The assumption of steady-state hydraulic conditions is valid in downgradient area, where advective transport paths change little over time. In areas closer to the top of the water-table mound, advective transport paths change as a function of time, transient and steady-state paths

  19. Military R&D Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Ulrich

    1983-01-01

    Military research and development (R&D) in Western countries and the USSR are analyzed in terms of growth; self-perception of R&D personnel; relationships with industry and the state bureaucracy; reproduction schemes which result in war-oriented work; and worker training. Prospects are slim for the conversion of military production to civilian…

  20. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    PubMed

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.

  1. 32 CFR 728.43 - Members of other foreign military services and their dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States. Military personnel of foreign nations not covered in § 728.42 and their dependents... State. (2) Military personnel assigned or attached to United States military units for duty; military... departments; and military personnel on duty in the United States at the invitation of the Secretary of...

  2. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  3. Multi-Body-Site Microbiome and Culture Profiling of Military Trainees Suffering from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections at Fort Benning, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder; Johnson, Ryan C.; Schlett, Carey D.; Elassal, Emad M.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Mor, Deepika; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Law, Natasha N.; Walters, William A.; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Bennett, Jason W.; Hall, Eric R.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group). We also collected abscess cavity samples to assess the microbial composition of these infections. Samples were analyzed by culture, and the microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing. We found that the nasal, inguinal, and perianal regions were similar in microbial composition and significantly differed from the oropharynx. We also observed differences in Anaerococcus and Streptococcus abundance between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and oropharyngeal regions, respectively. Furthermore, we detected community membership differences between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and inguinal sites. Compared to that of the other regions, the microbial compositions of the nares of S. aureus carriers and noncarriers were dramatically different; we noted an inverse correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium and the presence of Staphylococcus in the nares. This correlation was also observed for the inguinal region. Culture analysis revealed elevated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization levels for the SSTI group in the nasal and inguinal body sites. Together, these data suggest significant microbial variability in patients with SSTI as well as between S. aureus carriers and noncarriers. IMPORTANCE While it is evident that nasal colonization with S. aureus increases the likelihood of SSTI, there is a significant lack of

  4. The cigarette manufacturers' efforts to promote tobacco to the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anne M; Muggli, Monique; Pearson, Kathryn C; Lando, Harry

    2005-10-01

    This article describes findings from review of tobacco industry documents regarding promotion of tobacco to the military, and efforts to influence Department of Defense policies regarding the use and sale of tobacco products. The documents reveal that the industry has targeted the military for decades for reasons including: (1) the volume of worldwide military personnel; (2) the opportunity to attract young men who fit a specific socioeconomic and cultural profile; (3) potential carryover of profits to civilian markets; and (4) the unusual price structure of commissaries and exchanges. The industry used distinctive promotion methods such as in-store merchandising, sponsorships, and even brand development to target the military, both in the United States and abroad during times of conflict. Legislative activity to protect tobacco promotion to this vulnerable population was carried out in response to smoking policy changes proposed by the Department of Defense. The tobacco industry has contributed to the high prevalence of smoking in the military and among veterans.

  5. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  6. Child Care: How Do Military and Civilian Center Costs Compare? United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) child development program has been identified as a model for the rest of the nation. To provide a benchmark cost estimate for Congress as it addresses child care issues, this report identifies the objectives of the military child development program, describes its operation, determines the full costs of DOD…

  7. 75 FR 19877 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... effective date for the direct final rule that published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2010 (75 FR 9763... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 61, 63, and 65 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0923; Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100- 2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who...

  8. The Whole Family Serves: Supporting Sexual Minority Youth in Military Families.

    PubMed

    Gyura, Ashley N; McCauley, Sabrina Opiola

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth in military families have a unique set of stressors that affect their mental, emotional, and physical health. There is a pronounced gap in data addressing the specific stressors of this population and how they interact to impact the health of the adolescent. The culture of the United States military has historically been heterosexist and homophobic, propelled primarily by policies that restricted the recruitment and service of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals, leading to a continued secrecy around sexual orientation that may affect how sexual minority youth within the community view themselves. Homophobia, social stigma, and victimization lead to significant health disparities among sexual minority youth, and youth connected to the military have additional stressors as a result of frequent moves, parental deployment, and general military culture. Primary care providers must be aware of these stressors to provide a safe environment, thorough screening, and competent care for these adolescents.

  9. The Whole Family Serves: Supporting Sexual Minority Youth in Military Families.

    PubMed

    Gyura, Ashley N; McCauley, Sabrina Opiola

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth in military families have a unique set of stressors that affect their mental, emotional, and physical health. There is a pronounced gap in data addressing the specific stressors of this population and how they interact to impact the health of the adolescent. The culture of the United States military has historically been heterosexist and homophobic, propelled primarily by policies that restricted the recruitment and service of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals, leading to a continued secrecy around sexual orientation that may affect how sexual minority youth within the community view themselves. Homophobia, social stigma, and victimization lead to significant health disparities among sexual minority youth, and youth connected to the military have additional stressors as a result of frequent moves, parental deployment, and general military culture. Primary care providers must be aware of these stressors to provide a safe environment, thorough screening, and competent care for these adolescents. PMID:26597449

  10. Translating sexual assault prevention from a college campus to a United States military installation: piloting the know-your-power bystander social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2012-05-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander.

  11. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646) encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  12. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  13. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  14. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  15. 78 FR 3325 - Appointing Authority for Military Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 18 Appointing Authority for Military Commissions AGENCY: Department of... Authority for Military Commissions. This rule pertains to a military function of the United States and is.... As a result of the enactment of Military Commissions Act of 2009, the Deputy Secretary's issuance...

  16. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  17. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  18. Rules of Engagement: Considering Good Policy and Practice with Online Military Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr-Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    In online distance learning environments military learners may not stand out or be particularly distinctive from their non-military peers. However, military learners do possess a degree of difference that needs to be recognized. The military can be considered to possess a Janusian culture--two distinctive cultural patterns that emerge in different…

  19. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  20. Childhood Ideology in the United States: A Comparative Cultural View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2003-03-01

    Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.

  1. Cognitive Apprenticeship in Military Teacher Induction: Facilitating the Transition from War Fighter to Educator at the United States Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Thomas T.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined teacher induction in the military undergraduate education context. The U.S. Air Force Academy relies on approximately 520 military and civilian instructors to educate nearly 4000 future military officers each year. It is imperative to our nation's security that these educators be highly skilled and…

  2. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships. PMID:15449854

  3. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  4. Characteristics of the Social Status of Students at Military Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlova, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the motivations of Russian college students in military training centers and military departments, and cadets enrolled in military service academies shows that the first two occupy a marginal position. This is reflected in the ambiguity of their status and the fact that they are at the interface between two cultures, manifested in…

  5. Functional status after blast-plus-impact complex concussive traumatic brain injury in evacuated United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F; Brody, David L

    2014-05-15

    Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such "blast-plus" concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6-12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6-12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive ("mild") patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown.

  6. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Werner, Nicole J.; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such “blast-plus” concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6–12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6–12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive (“mild”) patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  7. Functional status after blast-plus-impact complex concussive traumatic brain injury in evacuated United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F; Brody, David L

    2014-05-15

    Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such "blast-plus" concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6-12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6-12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive ("mild") patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  8. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  9. Baseline verbal fluency performance as predictor of state anxiety during a live hand-grenade throwing exercise – A prospective study of Swedish military conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Magnus R; Michel, Per-Olof; Bäckström, Martin; Johanson, Aki

    2007-01-01

    Background We investigated whether individual differences in baseline executive control capacity could predict state anxiety during a potentially life-threatening situation. Methods 19 Swedish military conscripts were assessed during two measurement occasions. During a baseline measurement, data regarding performance on a letter fluency task and state anxiety were assessed. During a second measurement, performed immediately prior to participation in a live hand-grenade throwing exercise, data regarding state anxiety was assessed. All participants were male, right-handed and had fulfilled 12 years of education. Results The level of state anxiety was significantly increased between the two measurement occasions (p < .01). Both the number of words produced (β = -.37; p < .05) and the number of perseveration made (β = .43; p < .05) on the verbal fluency task predicted, while controlling for state anxiety at baseline, the level of experienced state anxiety during the threatening situation. Conclusion Although more research is needed the present finding suggests that individual differences in executive control capacity might be related to emotion regulation ability during acute stressor exposure. PMID:17697315

  10. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Cooper, Michael J.; Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Riley, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000 to 400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. Methods We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, comorbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60 and 30 days). Results The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28–40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among comorbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt

  11. An Aspect on the School Culture in Turkey and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Semiha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding on school culture in the United States and Turkey. In this quantitative investigation, data were collected using the "School Culture Inventory" from 157 teachers in Izmir, Turkey and 161 teachers in the United States. The findings show that both countries have a positive culture. A…

  12. From the battlefields to the states: the road to recovery. The role of Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in US military casualty care.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Joachim J

    2006-01-01

    The transformation of the modern battlefield with respect to weaponry, modes of transportation, enemy capabilities and location, as well as technological advances, has greatly altered the tactical approach to the mission. Combat casualty care must continually evolve in response to the differences in types of injury, the number and triage of casualties, timing of treatment, and location of care. These battlefield changes have been demonstrated on a large scale in the global war on terrorism, which includes the military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The medical response has kept pace with this 21st-century conflict. Even in the new environment of armed conflict and with the advent of new technologies, the principles of managing orthopaedic combat casualties remain clear: preservation of life and limb, skeletal stabilization, and aggressive wound débridement. For United States service members wounded in the current conflicts, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center is a crucial stop along the road to recovery. PMID:17003206

  13. Counseling and Connecting with the Military Undergraduate: The Intersection of Military Service and University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Ted C.; Domenici, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on "wounded…

  14. Supporting Student Veterans: Utilizing Game-Based Role-Plays with Virtual Humans to Build Military Cultural Competency and Helping Behaviors in Faculty and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Chris A.; Albright, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Veterans and military service members enter the classroom with valuable life and leadership experience; however, transitioning to student life represents unique challenges. Like the larger veteran population, student veterans may bring to campus the negative aftereffects of their combat experiences in the form of post-traumatic stress, substance…

  15. Infectious Mononucleosis at the United States Military Academy. A Prospective Study of a Single Class Over Four Years 1

    PubMed Central

    Hallee, T. James; Evans, Alfred S.; Niederman, James C.; Brooks, Charles M.; Voegtly, John H.

    1974-01-01

    A prospective study of EB virus infections was initiated in July, 1969 in the entering class of 1401 cadets, at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. and continued over 4 yr. On entry 63.5% possessed EBV antibody and 36.5 lacked EBV antibody. The rate of antibody prevalence varied with the geographic area from which the cadet originated. Except in two cadets already ill on first bleeding no evidence of clinical infectious mononucleosis (I.M.) occurred over the 4 yr period in the 890 cadets entering the Academy with EBV antibody. Among 437 cadets without antibody on entry, 54 or 12.4% were infected (seroconverted) in the freshman year; 15 of these had clinical I.M., 12 had suggestive I.M., and 39 had no known mono-like illness. The annual infection rates in susceptible cadets in the second, third, and fourth years were 24.4, 15.1, and 30.8 per 100, respectively. Of 201 cadets infected with EBV over 4 yr only 26.4% were manifested by heterophile positive clinical infectious mononucleosis. Overall, 46% of the 437 cadets entering without EBV antibody became infected over 40 mo of serologic observation; definite clinical infectious mononucleosis developed in 53 cadets, a clinical attack rate of 12.1 per 100 for 4 yr. The EBV infection rate among exposed and susceptible roommates of known cases was no higher than in roommates not so exposed. Elevations of EBV-specific and total IgM occurred during acute illness and disappeared in late convalescence. Total IgG and IgA levels were less commonly elevated. EBV-specific-IgM antibody was demonstrable during the acute illness but was absent 12 mo later. Analysis of EBV infection rates revealed no difference among persons of different ABO blood groups. PMID:4374836

  16. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... China. United States Munitions List means the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of the commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... China. United States Munitions List means the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of the commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... China. United States Munitions List means the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of the commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... China. United States Munitions List means the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of the commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... China. United States Munitions List means the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulation in 22 CFR Part 121. (b) Any supplies or services covered by the United States Munitions List that... of the commercial or defense industrial base of the People's Republic of China; or (2) Owned...

  2. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  3. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  4. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  5. 31 CFR 576.511 - Property controlled by the military forces of the United States and their coalition partners in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forces of the United States and their coalition partners in Iraq. 576.511 Section 576.511 Money and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations... States and their coalition partners in Iraq. The prohibition in § 576.201(a)(3) that deals with...

  6. Some Major Contributions of the Military to the Field of Adult and Continuing Education in the United States (A Work in Progress).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clinton L.; Kime, Steve F.

    The U.S. military has made numerous important contributions to the development of adult and continuing education. As in civilian adult education, military innovations in education have consistently used workplace learning. The educational benefits produced by the GI Bill democratized education by exploding the myth that "common" people did not…

  7. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  8. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  9. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... EFMP + Special Needs Health Care Leaving the Military Marriage + Divorce Survivors Wounded + Caregivers Spouses + Scholarships NMFA Scholarships ... EFMP + Special Needs Health Care Leaving the Military Marriage + Divorce Survivors Wounded + Caregivers Spouses + Scholarships NMFA Scholarships ...

  10. A direct protein kinase B-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of cordycepin from artificially cultured fruit body of Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Park, Hyun Bong; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Kang Ro; Cho, Jae Youl; Noh, Hyung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps militaris is one of well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. Objective: The objective of the following study is to isolate chemical components from the ethanol extract (Cm-EE) from Cordyceps militaris and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and Methods: Column chromatographic separation was performed and anti-inflammatory roles of these compounds were also examined by using NO production and protein kinase B (AKT) activity assays. Results: From Cm-EE, 13 constituents, including trehalose (1), cordycepin (2), 6-hydroxyethyladenosine (3), nicotinic amide (4), butyric acid (5), β-dimorphecolic acid (6), α-dimorphecolic acid (7), palmitic acid (8), linoleic acid (9), cordycepeptide A (10), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-((9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (11), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-(palmitoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (12), and linoleic acid methyl ester (13) were isolated. Of these components, compound 2 displayed a significant inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, this compound strongly and directly suppressed the kinase activity of AKT, an essential signalling enzyme in LPS-induced NO production, by interacting with its ATP binding site. Conclusion: C. militaris could have anti-inflammatory activity mediated by cordycepin-induced suppression of AKT. PMID:26246722

  11. An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrio, Angel A.

    2003-01-01

    Current and preferred culture of Ohio State University Extension was assessed by 297 extension staff categorized by gender, location, program area, title, age, and years employed. Most categories selected a Clan culture type as dominant in both the current and preferred situations. The Clan culture portrays an organization that concentrates on…

  12. Disrupted modular organization of resting-state cortical functional connectivity in U.S. military personnel following concussive 'mild' blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E; Brody, David L

    2014-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the "signature injuries" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive 'mild' blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20min of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30days post-injury. 75% of the scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in the participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in the participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p<0.0001) had 3 or more brain regions with abnormally low between-module connectivity relative to the controls on the initial scans. On the follow-up scans, more subjects than expected by chance (5

  13. Disrupted modular organization of resting-state cortical functional connectivity in U.S. military personnel following concussive 'mild' blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E; Brody, David L

    2014-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the "signature injuries" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive 'mild' blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20min of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30days post-injury. 75% of the scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in the participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in the participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p<0.0001) had 3 or more brain regions with abnormally low between-module connectivity relative to the controls on the initial scans. On the follow-up scans, more subjects than expected by chance (5

  14. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of Military Commissions. 9.2 Section 9.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR...

  15. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment of Military Commissions. 9.2 Section 9.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR...

  16. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment of Military Commissions. 9.2 Section 9.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR...

  17. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of Military Commissions. 9.2 Section 9.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR...

  18. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: The State of the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marlene G.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three broad categories of research on cultural diversity in the workplace: general overviews, theoretical perspectives, and empirical research studies. Offers an explanation for the paucity of research on the topic, and suggests topics and methods for future research. (SR)

  19. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind. PMID:27481299

  20. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.

  1. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  2. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26559699

  3. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells.

  4. 76 FR 21787 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the Congress... Trade Controls, Bureau of Political- Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 663-2861. SUPPLEMENTARY... account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More...

  5. Induction of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in Salmonella cultured in M9 minimal medium containing high glucose.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Yuta; Tanda, Masaaki; Fujimori, Ko; Mino, Yoshiki; Amano, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    An environmental isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) clone, SE Cl#15-1, loses its culturability during 72-h culture in M9 minimal medium containing 0.8% glucose, a concentration twice higher than that in normal M9 medium, whereas the bacterium retains its culturability in normal M9 medium. Live/dead analysis using the 5-cyano-2,3-di(p-tolyl) tetrazolium chloride (CTC)-reduction assay revealed that SE cells cultured in M9 medium containing 0.8% glucose died with time when in the "viable but non-culturable" (VBNC) state. Assay of the culturability of SE cells in the used supernatant (0.4 spent M9 or 0.8 spent M9) also indicated that 0.8 spent M9 soon showed a lethal effect on intact SE cells. These results suggest that large amounts of glucose metabolites might have been responsible for the toxicity. Analysis of the 0.8 spent M9 revealed that formate rapidly accumulated in the medium. The pH of the medium rapidly dropped to 4.7, leading to conversion of formate to formic acid, which might have damaged the bacterial cell membrane. These results suggest that the excessive amount of glucose in the M9 medium might have injured SE cells in the VBNC state by being metabolized to formic acid and other acidic compounds. PMID:25109306

  6. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  7. Cellulase production by a solid state culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Hosobuchi, M.; Kishimoto, M.; Seki, T.; Yoshida, T.; Taguchi, H.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1985-10-01

    Production of cellulase using solid culture systems of Trichoderma reesei QM9414 and Sporotrichum cellulophilum on wheat bran was studied. By using moisture-controlled solid culture equipment, the effect of water content of wheat bran on cell growth and cellulase production was investigated. Cellular biomass grown on solid substrate was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption rate and glucosamine content the cells. These parameters were shown to have a good linear correlation with the specific growth rate. This reliable method of estimating the cell growth rate enabled us to simulate the enzyme production in a solid culture system by means of multiple linear regression analysis which takes into account of the water content, cell mass, and the oxygen consumption rate as variables. The cell growth and cellulase production were maximized at different water content of the medium. A high water content, 57% for T. reesei and 70% for S. cellulophilum, favored mycelial growth, while the maximum cellulase activity was obtained at a lower water content such as 50% for both fungi. It was observed that cellulase production by T. reesei depended on the culture conditions that support the optimal growth rate for the maximum enzyme production. 14 references.

  8. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation... State Parks and Recreation Commission, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native... request to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. If no additional claimants come...

  9. Introduction to military medicine: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the current organization and structure of the United States military medical forces. The five levels of care are presented. The "glue" that binds the five levels of care together -- medical evacuation -- is briefly discussed. The logistics system/structure that sustains military medical systems in remote locations is summarized. Finally, the overall command and control of in-theater combat medical assets, the initiative to establish a Joint Military Trauma Record system, and the ongoing efforts to collect real-time casualty data with the goal of enhancing combat care through improved training and early equipment fielding are described. PMID:16781276

  10. Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Reznikova, Tatiana V.; Phillips, Marjorie A.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2005-08-22

    Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of {beta}1-integrin and {beta}-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available {beta}-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon.

  11. Culture and Education Policy in the American States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    A research project that developed methods for describing, organizing, analyzing, and predicting state education policy activity had as its major focus the way that values affect that policy. Data were drawn from six states: Wisconsin, Illinois, California, Arizona, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. They were chosen to represent ranges of political…

  12. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs.

  13. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  14. Multivitamin and Protein Supplement Use Is Associated With Positive Mood States and Health Behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Krista G.; McGraw, Susan M.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated–clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  15. Cultural Capital and Transnational Parenting: The Case of Ghanaian Migrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Cati; Shani, Serah

    2015-01-01

    What does cultural capital mean in a transnational context? In this article, Cati Coe and Serah Shani illustrate through the case of Ghanaian immigrants to the United States that the concept of cultural capital offers many insights into immigrants' parenting strategies, but that it also needs to be refined in several ways to account for the…

  16. 76 FR 58032 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The State Historical Society... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural item may contact the State Historical...

  17. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  18. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  19. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  20. Advising Transfer Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

  1. Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.

  2. Tuberculosis and the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality among the global civilian population. Historically, TB has also been responsible for a considerable burden of disease among military populations during periods of both peace and conflict. TB will continue to be of importance to the military for several reasons. Military units live and work in confined environments, personnel may deploy to areas highly endemic for TB where there is the potential to be exposed to infected local communities, and they undertake physiologically stressful activities during training and operations. These are just a few of the factors that may increase the risk of acquiring, developing and transmitting TB among military personnel. This review examines the military relevance of TB in the modern era within the context of epidemiological, pathological and clinical considerations of this ancient disease.

  3. Paradigm Change in Military Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Herbert H.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    All branches of the U.S. military are moving toward education and training that is tailored to meet individuals' needs wherever they are and whenever they are ready to learn. The result will be a culture of continuous, personalized learning with learner progress that is based on proficiency and a greater emphasis on technology-enabled immersive…

  4. Translating Sexual Assault Prevention from a College Campus to a United States Military Installation: Piloting the Know-Your-Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…

  5. 20 Years Later: Professional Military Education. Testimony before the Sub-Committee on Oversight and Investigations, Armed Services Committee, United States House of Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carafano, James

    2009-01-01

    "The Pentagon is currently undertaking a congressionally mandated Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) of strategy, force structure, missions, and resources. One issue that should be on the table is defining professional military education requirements. The current system is inadequate. The Department of Defense (DOD) should restructure it to…

  6. Academic and Military Programs of the Five Service Academies. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Elmer B.

    The academic and military programs of the five service academies are reviewed and found generally to produce qualified officers, but several aspects of their program could be improved. It is noted that only the Naval and Merchant Marine Academies require a comprehensive examination to evaluate students' professional competence before graduation…

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR No. 100-2 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and... September 11, 2001, to termination of SFAR 100-2. 4. Expiration date. This Special Federal...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR No. 100-2 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and... September 11, 2001, to termination of SFAR 100-2. 4. Expiration date. This Special Federal...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR 100-1 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-1—Relief for U.S. Military and.... Expiration date. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation No.100-1 expires June 20, 2010, unless...

  10. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions.

  11. Military Social Work: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Nikki R.

    2015-01-01

    Military social work is a specialized field of practice spanning the micro-macro continuum and requiring advanced social work knowledge and skills. The complex behavioral health problems and service needs of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans highlight the need for highly trained social work professionals who can provide militarily-relevant and culturally-responsive evidence-informed services. Responding to the military behavioral health workforce and service needs of recently returned veterans presents both opportunities and challenges for military social work education. This article discusses the rationale for a military social work specialization, the need for military social work education, and opportunities and challenges for social work education. An integrated model of intellectual capital is proposed to guide strategic planning for future military social work education. PMID:26089628

  12. Rhetoric and the Death of a Top Gun: Technology, Gender, and the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Tori

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the author's ongoing research analyzing several sites of discourse related to a military training accident that resulted in the death of the first female military pilot assigned to a combat position. Contributes to scholarship discussing interactions of technology, gender, and military culture. Explores how language influences…

  13. A GIS-Based Cultural Heritage Study Framework on Continuous Scales: A Case Study on 19th Century Military Industrial Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, S.; Wu, C.; Zhang, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a framework of introducing GIS technology to record and analyse cultural heritages in continuous spatial scales. The research team is developing a systematic approach to support heritage conservation research and practice on historical buildings, courtyards, historical towns, and archaeological sites ad landscapes. These studies are conducted not only from the property or site scales, but also investigated from their contexts in setting as well as regional scales. From these continues scales, authenticity and integrity of a heritage can be interpreted from a broader spatial and temporal context, in which GIS would contribute through database, spatial analysis, and visualization. The case study is the construction of a information indexing framework of Dagu Dock industrial heritage to integrate physical buildings, courtyards, natural settings as well as their intangible characteristics which are affiliated to the physical heritage properties and presented through historical, social and culture semantics. The paper illustrates methodology and content of recording physical and social/cultural semantics of culture heritages on different scales as well as connection between different levels of database.

  14. State Political Culture, Higher Education Spending Indicators, and Undergraduate Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.; Lam, Wendy S.; Thomas, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Issues concerning higher education today (e.g., rising costs, declining public trust, changing state economics) have created new demands for postsecondary institutions to demonstrate their productivity. We examine whether differences in states' political cultures (i.e., underlying traditions, values, and public policy choices) are reflected…

  15. Impact of Military Deployment on the Development and Behavior of Children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Weston, Christina G

    2016-10-01

    Many US military families have faced separations of at least 1 family member for extended periods of time. This article shows how changes in military culture have increased the repercussions for military families, and especially for military-connected children. This article provides an introduction to aspects of military culture that are most applicable to children, an overview of important aspects of childhood development, a discussion of the impact of deployment on the emotional development and behavior of children left at home and their caregivers, and a review of some interventions and resources available to help these families navigate these challenges. PMID:27565359

  16. 76 FR 49525 - Delegation by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Delegation by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs of Certain Functions to the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs By virtue of the authority vested in me as the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs,...

  17. America's Cultural Experiment in China, 1942-1949. Cultural Relations Programs of the U.S. Department of State: Historical Studies, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbank, Wilma

    The monograph, presenting a history of cultural exchanges between the United States and China from 1942-49, focuses upon the effect of Department of State cultural programs on international cooperation and understanding. Based upon primary source material in the form of reports and daily correspondence between Washington and the American Embassy…

  18. Secondary and tertiary transfer of vaccinia virus among U.S. military personnel--United States and worldwide, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-02-13

    In December 2002, the Department of Defense (DoD) began vaccinating military personnel as part of the pre-event vaccination program. Because vaccinia virus is present on the skin at the site of vaccination, it can spread to other parts of the body (i.e., autoinoculation) or to contacts of vaccinees (i.e., contact transfer). To prevent autoinoculation and contact transfer, DoD gave vaccinees printed information that focused on hand washing, covering the vaccination site, and limiting contact with infants (1,2). This report describes cases of contact transfer of vaccinia virus among vaccinated military personnel since December 2002; findings indicate that contact transfer of vaccinia virus is rare. Continued efforts are needed to educate vaccinees about the importance of proper vaccination-site care in preventing contact transmission, especially in household settings.

  19. 75 FR 67897 - Military Family Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation We owe each day of security... unending support. During Military Family Month, we celebrate the exceptional contributions of our...

  20. [Experience with video-computer method of assessing the mental state with the help of "Vidicor" in a psychological survey of entrants in Suvorov Military School].

    PubMed

    Tsymbal, A N; Platonova, I A; Tsymbal, A A

    2011-08-01

    The authors analyzed the use of two different survey methods (PPO and "Vidicor") of entrants of the St. Petersburg Suvorov Military School. It is shown that the methods of the final results do not contradict each other. The discrepancy between the results is 4,4%, but the method of "Vidicor" has several advantages: lower labor costs and psycho trauma of surveyed, most dynamic and effective, the possibility of creating an electronic database. This allows us to recommend it for use. PMID:22164987

  1. Diplostomiasis in cultured and wild tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guerrero State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; García-Varela, Martín; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a comparative study of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneo) from two fish farms and two nearby coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico. The higher infections levels in cultured tilapia than wild tilapia is attributed to higher fish densities in the culture systems and higher abundance of the snail Biomphalaria cf. havanensis (Pteiffer), first intermediate host of this parasite in freshwater and brackish water systems. PMID:19452167

  2. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  3. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... have led to deployment of large numbers of military personnel (active duty, Reserves, National Guard). As a result ... worries and plans for the future. Let your child know that the family member is making a ...

  4. Vaccines for military use.

    PubMed

    Artenstein, Andrew W

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have long been used by military forces in order to prevent communicable diseases and thereby preserve the fighting force. A tradition that began with the mass vaccination of the Continental Army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution in the late 18th century continues today with routine and deployment-based vaccination of military forces against potential pathogens of nature and biological weapon threats. As their role has expanded in recent years to include humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, the military's use of vaccines against infectious diseases has concomitantly broadened to include civilian populations worldwide. The emergence of new threats and the recognition of additional global challenges will continue to compel the development and promotion of vaccines to combat infectious diseases of military significance. PMID:19837279

  5. OLED study for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  6. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

    2009-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control.

  7. Patient safety culture in two Finnish state-run forensic psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, Anssi; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Eronen, Markku; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture refers to the way patient safety is regarded and implemented within an organization and the structures and procedures in place to support this. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient safety culture, identify areas for improvement, and establish a baseline for improving state hospitals in Finland. Cross-sectional design data were collected from two state-run forensic hospitals in Finland using an anonymous, Web-based survey targeted to hospital staff based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The response rate was 43% (n = 283). The overall patient safety level was rated as excellent or very good by 58% of respondents. The highest positive grade was for "teamwork within units" (72%). The lowest rating was for "nonpunitive response to errors" (26% positive). Good opportunities for supplementary education had a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on 9 of 12 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture dimensions. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in patient safety culture were also found in the staff's educational background, manager status, and between the two hospitals. These findings suggest there are a number of patient safety problems related to cultural dimensions. Supplementary education was shown to be a highly significant factor in transforming patient safety culture and should therefore be taken into account alongside sufficient resources. PMID:24256983

  8. Radiometry in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  9. Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

  10. Nanosilver induces a non-culturable but metabolically active state in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Königs, Alexa M.; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have raised expectations for the protection of medical devices and consumer products against biofilms. The effect of silver on bacteria is commonly determined by culture-dependent methods. It is as yet unknown if silver-exposed bacteria can enter a metabolically active but non-culturable state. In this study, the efficacy of chemically synthesized AgNPs and silver as silver nitrate (AgNO3) against planktonic cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AdS was investigated in microtiter plate assays, using cultural as well as culture-independent methods. In liquid medium, AgNPs and AgNO3 inhibited both planktonic growth and biofilm formation. The efficacy of AgNPs and AgNO3 against established, 24 h-old biofilms and planktonic stationary-phase cells was compared by exposure to silver in deionized water. Loss of culturability of planktonic cells was always higher than that of the attached biofilms. However, resuspended biofilm cells became more susceptible to AgNPs and AgNO3 than attached biofilms. Thus, the physical state of bacteria within biofilms rendered them more tolerant to silver compared with the planktonic state. Silver-exposed cells that had become unculturable still displayed signs of viability: they contained rRNA, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, as an indicator for potential protein synthesis, maintained their membrane integrity as monitored by differential live/dead staining, and displayed significant levels of adenosine triphosphate. It was concluded that AgNPs and AgNO3 in concentrations at which culturability was inhibited, both planktonic and biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa were still intact and metabolically active, reminiscent of the viable but non-culturable state known to be induced in pathogenic bacteria in response to stress conditions. This observation is important for a realistic assessment of the antimicrobial properties of AgNPs. PMID:25999929

  11. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San Francisco State... affiliated with the cultural item may contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program....

  12. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media. PMID:25411911

  13. [State-of-the-art and prospects of high-tech medical aid to patients with cardiac arrhythmia based at military medical facilities].

    PubMed

    Steklov, V I

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of provision of high-tech medical aid to patients with cardiac arrhythmia based at military medical facilities showed that the available means and workforce are sufficient for the purpose. In order to facilitate access to high-tech medical aid it is necessary to equip arrhythmologic departments with up-to-date-instruments and set up cabinets of electrocardiostimulation in regional (naval) hospitals for implantation of temporary and permanent pacemakers. A program is pending for education (primary specialization) and advanced training of specialists in clinical cardiac electrophysiology, interventional and surgical arrhythmology.

  14. Benchmarking Teacher Education: What Can We Learn from the Military?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Elaine L.

    This paper examines how the United States Military Academy at West Point produces consistently high standards of quality, discussing what teacher education can learn from the military. West Point's mission is to educate and train the Corps of Cadets so that each graduate shall have the attributes essential to professional growth throughout a…

  15. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil... organized effort to coordinate military and civil traffic safety activities throughout a State or...

  16. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil... organized effort to coordinate military and civil traffic safety activities throughout a State or...

  17. A Plan to Implement a Pre-Military Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Gail, Ed.; Mannino, Lewie, Ed.

    This manual provides technical and practical assistance to teams of professionals who are interested in replicating a premilitary program. The stated purpose for the program is to help prepare young men and women to become qualified for military recruitment so they might reap the benefits provided by the military as well as civilian opportunities.…

  18. [Military occupational work capacity as a criterion of health].

    PubMed

    Shostak, V I; Ian'shin, L A

    1992-11-01

    The indices of physical, sensor and task performance were used to characterize and estimate the functional state of military specialists and their functional reserves. Application of these criteria gives the possibility for physician-prophylaxist to obtain a truly information about the health status in the military unit making a selective control in it.

  19. Guide to Military-Loan Film (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Over 1,400 16 millimeter films are listed which are available from United States military organizations. They are free of charge for public, non-profit exhibition and cover a widely diverse range of subjects including vocational education, military history, industrial safety, transportation, and public works. The guide lists these films in…

  20. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil... organized effort to coordinate military and civil traffic safety activities throughout a State or...

  1. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil... organized effort to coordinate military and civil traffic safety activities throughout a State or...

  2. 32 CFR 634.42 - Civil-military cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Civil-military cooperative programs. 634.42... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.42 Civil... organized effort to coordinate military and civil traffic safety activities throughout a State or...

  3. Distance Higher Education Experiences of Arab Gulf Students in the United States: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological research study that was undertaken to provide cultural understanding about the nature of distance education experiences of Arab graduate students pursuing degree programs in the United States. As a theoretical framework, Hofstede's international difference dimensions and Hall's concept of low and high…

  4. Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited: China, Japan, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph; Hsueh, Yeh; Karasawa, Mayumi

    2009-01-01

    Published twenty years ago, the original "Preschool in Three Cultures" was a landmark in the study of education: a profoundly enlightening exploration of the different ways preschoolers are taught in China, Japan, and the United States. Here, lead author Joseph Tobin--along with new collaborators Yeh Hsueh and Mayumi Karasawa--revisits his…

  5. Culturally Conscious Curriculum: The Fight Between State and Federal Policies in Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Ann E.; Locke, Leslie Ann

    2015-01-01

    This case study outlines the struggle for desegregation and the adoption of culturally responsive curricula in the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) as it attempted to balance state politics and federal court oversight. The case offers a detailed illustration of the political and legal events that led up to the adoption, elimination, and…

  6. The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D.; Faucher, Sebastien P.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

  7. Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Dennis G.; Hunt, Gilbert H.; Zhukov, Vassiliy I.; Mardahaev, Lev V.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in what constitutes effective teaching in Pre-K-12 and higher education is nearly universal. This important text explores this interest at the college and university level from a unique, international perspective. "Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia" brings to one publication…

  8. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  9. Japanese Culture in the United States of America; An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, John W., Comp.

    This bibliography describes and briefly reviews, from an anthropological perspective, books and articles on the Japanese in the United States. Works cited include: (1) bibliographies; (2) general studies on Japanese Americans; (3) works dealing with the cultural heritage of the Japanese immigrant generation; (4) literature on the Japanese…

  10. National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

  11. Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense

    1983-01-01

    Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

  12. The Science-Humanities Program (NEXA) at San Francisco State University: The "Two Cultures" Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    The origin of the Science-Humanities Program (NEXA) at San Francisco State University, California, is described. The overall goal of NEXA was to provide a model for reconciliation between the two cultures, science and humanities (philosophy, literature, history, and the arts). The first objective was to establish a sense of collegiality and common…

  13. What Is Tracking? Cultural Expectations in the United States, Germany, and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald K.; Hofer, Barbara K.; Shimizu, Hidetada

    2003-01-01

    Used data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) to study tracking as curricular differentiation and student placement in elementary and secondary school in the United States, Germany, and Japan. Findings show clear national differences and conflicts based on dominant cultural beliefs. (SLD)

  14. Blood culture contamination in Tanzania, Malawi, and the United States: a microbiological tale of three cities.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lennox K; Pallangyo, Kisali; Kazembe, Peter; Reller, L Barth

    2006-12-01

    We conducted retrospective, comparative analyses of contamination rates for cultures of blood obtained in the emergency rooms of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in central Malawi; and the Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) in the United States. None of the emergency room patients had indwelling intravascular devices at the time that the blood samples for cultures were obtained. In addition, we reviewed the contamination rates for a cohort of patients already hospitalized in the DUMC inpatient medical service, most of whom had indwelling intravascular devices. The bloodstream infection rates among the patients at MNH (n=513) and LCH (n=486) were similar (approximately 28%); the contamination rates at the two hospitals were 1.3% (7/513) and 0.8% (4/486), respectively. Of 54 microorganisms isolated from cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room, 26 (48%) were identified as skin contaminants. Cultures of blood collected in the DUMC emergency room were significantly more likely to yield growth of contaminants than the cultures of blood collected in the emergency rooms at MNH and LCH combined (26/332 versus 11/1,003; P<0.0001) or collected in the DUMC inpatient medical service (26/332 versus 7/283; P<0.01). For the MNH and LCH blood cultures, lower contamination rates were observed when skin was disinfected with isopropyl alcohol plus tincture of iodine rather than isopropyl alcohol plus povidone-iodine. In conclusion, blood culture contamination was minimized in sub-Saharan African hospitals with substantially limited resources through scrupulous attention to aseptic skin cleansing and improved venipuncture techniques. Application of these principles when blood samples for culture are obtained in U.S. hospital emergency rooms should help mitigate blood culture contamination rates and the unnecessary microbiology workup of skin contaminants.

  15. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  16. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    SciTech Connect

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-03-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references.

  17. Inter-American Beginnings of U.S. Cultural Diplomacy, 1936-1948. Cultural Relations Programs of the U.S. Department of State: Historical Studies, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, J. Manuel

    Focusing upon the role of the United States government in furthering educational and cultural relations with other nations, the book presents a history of cooperative exchange between the United States and Latin America from 1936-48. The report, based upon primary source material in the form of communications between the Department of State and…

  18. [The military pharmocopoeias in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Kruse, P R

    2000-09-01

    In 1812, the Danish king decided to reform the medicine supply to the military on the initiative of the pharmacist Jens Peter Groth (1785-1832), the tenant of the Royal Orphanage Pharmacy in Copenhagen. Up till then, the military physicians themselves for fixed medicine money had supplied the army and the navy with the necessary medicine, but now it was decided that Groth should establish a military pharmacy to manage the future medicine supply to the army and the navy in Copenhagen and also that the medicial members of the General Direction of the Military Medical Service should compile a military pharmacopoeia for both of the fighting services. The Royal Orphanage Pharmacy was named the Royal Military & Orphanage Pharmacy and the ordered military pharmacopoeia was issued in 1813. Compared with the national pharmacopoeia, the military pharmacopoeia was characterized by a limitation of the number of medicaments and by a simplification of the compositions. These facts were caused by the economic considerations and the duty of the military physicians themselves to prepare the simple medicaments. The subsequent editions of the military pharmacopoeia were published in 1840, 1857 og 1869, but in 1874, the military pharmacopoeia was cancelled, because the medicaments in the military pharmacopoeia were less effectual and less palatable than the medicaments in the national pharmacopoeia, and because the use of the military pharmacopoeia did not result in economic savings. PMID:11640530

  19. Face and Facework in Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Ting-Toomey, Stella; Masumoto, Tomoko; Yokochi, Yumiko; Pan, Xiaohui; Takai, Jiro; Wilcox, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Investigates face and facework during conflicts among undergraduate students across four national cultures: China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Presents major findings concerning self-construals; power distance; individualistic, small-power distance cultures; large-power distance cultures; and relational closeness and status. Discusses…

  20. The Type of Culture at a High Performance Schools and Low Performance School in the State of Kedah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daud, Yaakob; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; O. F., Mohd Sofian; Hussin, Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to identify the type of culture at a High Performance School (HPS) and Low Performance School (LPS) in the state of Kedah. The research instrument used to measure the type of organizational culture was adapted from Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (Cameron & Quinn, 2006) based on Competing Values Framework Quinn…

  1. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact" culture of Bali. The…

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency.

    PubMed

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A; Bonderup, Kasper; Abelchian, Sahar; Brakebusch, Cord; Brickman, Joshua M

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i) or with knockout serum replacement (KOSR), but not serum, can generate high-level chimeras regardless of how these cells were derived. ESCs cultured in these conditions showed a transcriptional correlation with early pre-implantation embryos (E1.5-E3.5) and contributed to development from the 2-cell stage. Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells derived in one condition can be reprogrammed to another developmental state merely by adaptation to another culture condition. PMID:27509134

  3. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions. PMID:27516421

  4. Cultural Beliefs Underlying Medication Adherence in People of Chinese Descent in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lan; Acharya, Lalatendu

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the meanings, practices, and cultural beliefs underlying medication adherence in people of Chinese descent living in the United States. The narratives were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology, resulting in the following themes that influenced the communication and behaviors around medication adherence of the participants: (a) cultural concepts of yin yang balance and "qi," (b) understandings of Western and Chinese medicine's efficacy profiles, (c) importance of family and social support, and (d) level of acculturation. This article discusses the influence of these themes on medication adherence and proposes that health communication campaigns, interventions, and doctor-patient communication about increasing medication adherence with people of Chinese descent should engage these understandings.

  5. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  6. Gifted Military Dependents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Bess M.; Walters, Debbie

    1985-01-01

    Two articles address problems and issues in serving gifted military dependents. The first offers suggestions for parents, including handcarrying records, involving themselves in schools, and maintaining a positive attitude toward service life. The second article describes TAG (talented and gifted) programs at the Department of Defense Dependents…

  7. HIV ban in military.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Defense Department has written into its budget a proposal to discharge all HIV-positive members of the armed services. The House Committee on National Security has approved the fiscal 1996 defense budget with the ban included. Rep. Robert K. Dornan, R- Calif., contends that having HIV-positive service members in the military compromises the nation's readiness because, under Defense Department policy, they cannot be stationed abroad. However, only one-fifth of all service members on limited assignment have HIV, the others have diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This shows the military's readiness to discriminate against HIV-positive individuals, according to William J. Freeman of the National Association of People with AIDS. Currently all recruits are tested for HIV; if they test positive, they are denied entry to the armed services. All service members are tested annually for HIV antibodies. In anticipation of cutbacks in military-related AIDS research due to the Republican control of Congress, the military has begun to eliminate most of the AIDS research it conducts. PMID:11362530

  8. HIV ban in military.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Defense Department has written into its budget a proposal to discharge all HIV-positive members of the armed services. The House Committee on National Security has approved the fiscal 1996 defense budget with the ban included. Rep. Robert K. Dornan, R- Calif., contends that having HIV-positive service members in the military compromises the nation's readiness because, under Defense Department policy, they cannot be stationed abroad. However, only one-fifth of all service members on limited assignment have HIV, the others have diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This shows the military's readiness to discriminate against HIV-positive individuals, according to William J. Freeman of the National Association of People with AIDS. Currently all recruits are tested for HIV; if they test positive, they are denied entry to the armed services. All service members are tested annually for HIV antibodies. In anticipation of cutbacks in military-related AIDS research due to the Republican control of Congress, the military has begun to eliminate most of the AIDS research it conducts.

  9. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  10. Resilience among Military Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  11. Nutrition research in the military.

    PubMed

    Hill, Neil E; Fallowfield, J L; Delves, S K; Wilson, D R

    2014-06-01

    Military research performed in an operational environment involves mission-specific considerations. The Institute of Naval Medicine was tasked in 2008 by the Surgeon General to investigate the nutritional status of deployed British military personnel, and how this might affect body composition, physical fitness and operational capability. This paper briefly describes the logistic and technical issues specific to military research that were encountered by the study team, how these issues were overcome and how this research has influenced military practice.

  12. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  13. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.13 Military and merchant... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  14. 32 CFR 536.73 - Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.73 Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act. The statutory authority for this subpart is contained...

  15. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Military and merchant... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  16. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  18. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 19.210 Military and merchant... whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or...

  19. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  20. 32 CFR 536.73 - Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.73 Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act. The statutory authority for this subpart is contained...

  1. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  2. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  3. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  4. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  5. 31 CFR 28.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  6. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  8. 32 CFR 536.73 - Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.73 Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act. The statutory authority for this subpart is contained...

  9. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  10. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Military and merchant... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  12. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  13. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  14. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military and merchant... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  15. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Military and merchant... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do... military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  16. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Military and merchant... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  18. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Military and merchant... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  19. 13 CFR 113.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military and merchant marine... Financial Assistance Coverage § 113.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  20. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  1. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  2. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Military and merchant marine... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 19.210 Military and merchant... whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or...

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Military and merchant... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do... military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  4. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military and merchant... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  5. 31 CFR 28.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  6. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.13 Military and merchant... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  7. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  8. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  9. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  10. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.11 Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not...

  11. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  12. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  13. 32 CFR 536.73 - Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.73 Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act. The statutory authority for this subpart is contained...

  14. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 19.210 Military and merchant... whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or...

  15. 13 CFR 113.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military and merchant marine... Financial Assistance Coverage § 113.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  16. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.11 Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not...

  17. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  18. 40 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  19. 34 CFR 106.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.13 Military and merchant marine educational... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. (Authority: Secs. 901,...

  20. 45 CFR 2555.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 2555.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  1. 13 CFR 113.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine... Financial Assistance Coverage § 113.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title... individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  2. 41 CFR 101-4.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage § 101-4.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do... military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military and...

  3. 31 CFR 28.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 28.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX... for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  4. 36 CFR 1211.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1211.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  5. 32 CFR 196.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 196.210 Military and merchant marine... purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and...

  7. 38 CFR 23.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 23.210 Military and merchant marine educational... the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine. ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and...

  8. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society.

  9. Approaches to death and dying: a cultural comparison of Turkey and the United States.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Darla D

    2015-01-01

    Three principles that guide the bioethics movement in the United States and other Western societies apply to the approaches of death and dying in both the United States and Turkey. These three principles, Autonomy, Beneficence, and justice, are reflected in the practices of people in both countries. The issue of autonomy is of greater concern to those in the United States, while decisions are made entirely with family and physician involvement in Turkey. Beneficence and Justice can be identified as ethical issues in both countries. Similarities with end-of-life experiences are linked by faith-based beliefs of Islam and Christianity. Differences in sociocultural influences, such as policies about advance directives in the United States, account for differences in end-of-life decision making. This article examines the spiritual, cultural, legal, and political factors that inform the experience of people in Turkey and in the United States when death is at hand.

  10. Approaches to death and dying: a cultural comparison of Turkey and the United States.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Darla D

    2015-01-01

    Three principles that guide the bioethics movement in the United States and other Western societies apply to the approaches of death and dying in both the United States and Turkey. These three principles, Autonomy, Beneficence, and justice, are reflected in the practices of people in both countries. The issue of autonomy is of greater concern to those in the United States, while decisions are made entirely with family and physician involvement in Turkey. Beneficence and Justice can be identified as ethical issues in both countries. Similarities with end-of-life experiences are linked by faith-based beliefs of Islam and Christianity. Differences in sociocultural influences, such as policies about advance directives in the United States, account for differences in end-of-life decision making. This article examines the spiritual, cultural, legal, and political factors that inform the experience of people in Turkey and in the United States when death is at hand. PMID:26036057

  11. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  12. Academic and Military Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.

    This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and…

  13. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos. PMID:23322379

  14. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  15. Cultural competence in the assessment of poor Mexican families in the rural southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Tina U

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of poor Mexican immigrant families are settling in the rural southeastern United States. Most of these families are from isolated agrarian communities in Mexico and are headed by unskilled laborers or displaced farm workers with little education. Child welfare workers and other service providers in rural communities may be poorly prepared to address the needs of this population. This article provides an overview of the cultural, social, and family dynamics of first generation, working class Mexicans to promote cultural competency among helping professionals. An ecological perspective is used to examine the strengths that poor Mexicans bring from their culture of origin, stresses of the migratory experience and ongoing adaptation, shifts that may occur in family structure and functioning, disruptions in the family life cycle, the role of social supports in family adaptation, and effect of institutional discrimination on family well-being. Suggestions also are made for essential components of adequate in-service education. PMID:16435657

  16. Narcissism and United States' culture: The view from home and around the world.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Maples, Jessica L; Buffardi, Laura; Cai, Huajian; Gentile, Brittany; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Kwan, Virginia S Y; LoPilato, Alex; Pendry, Louise F; Sedikides, Constantine; Siedor, Lane; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-12-01

    The issue of Americans' levels of narcissism is subject to lively debate. The focus of the present research is on the perception of national character (PNC) of Americans as a group. In Study 1, American adults (N = 100) rated Americans as significantly more narcissistic than they perceived themselves and acquaintances. In Study 2, this finding was replicated with American college students (N = 322). PNC ratings of personality traits and externalizing behaviors revealed that Americans were perceived as disagreeable and antisocial as well. In Study 3, we examined the broader characteristics associated with PNC ratings (N = 183). Americans rated the typical American as average on a variety of characteristics (e.g., wealth, education, health, likability) and PNC ratings of narcissism were largely unrelated to these ratings. In Study 4 (N = 1,202) Americans rated PNCs for different prespecified groups of Americans; as expected, PNC ratings of narcissism differed by gender, age, and occupational status such that American males, younger Americans, and Americans working in high-visibility and status occupations were seen as more narcissistic. In Study 5 (N = 733), citizens of 4 other world regions (Basque Country, China, England, Turkey) rated members of their own region as more narcissistic than they perceived themselves, but the effect sizes were smaller than those found in the case of Americans' perceptions of Americans. Additionally, members of these other regions rated Americans as more narcissistic than members of their own region. Finally, in Study 6, participants from around the world (N = 377) rated Americans as more narcissistic, extraverted, and antagonistic than members of their own countries. We discuss the role that America's position as a global economic and military power, paired with a culture that creates and reifies celebrity figures, may play in leading to perceptions of Americans as considerably narcissistic.

  17. Wilderness preservation: a cross-cultural comparison of Canada and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dubasak, M.

    1987-01-01

    Conservation is an evolving, trans-national concept that incorporates a philosophy of resource use. Its expression takes different forms and reflects its host culture. This dissertation uses Canada and the United States to study the variations of conservation that exist in two national settings. It makes three main points: (1) cumulative effects of environmental neglect, a reassessment of values, and issues specific to each country were responsible for heightened interest in conservation during the 1960's; (2) characteristics of conservation and the means by which its goals were pursued were specific to national culture; in both countries, demands for citizen participation grew along with interest in conservation, but important differences in political culture mandated differences in strategy and tactics; and (3) Canadian conservationists looked to the United States for ideas and strategies, but they were not always appropriate to Canadian circumstances. Without a national preservation tradition, Canadian conservationist use of American examples was not always relevant to attempts to develop a Canadian constituency for preservations. This study focuses on wilderness preservation because it was the dominant component of conservation in the United States in the 1960s and experienced its first surge of interest in Canada at the same time.

  18. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

  19. The Clinton military budget

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. )

    1993-05-01

    In February, the Clinton administration presented the overall contours, if not the details, of its military budget plans for the next five years. $263.5 billion was requested in new budget authority for fiscal 1994. By fiscal 1995, according to the administration blueprint, the budget would be reduced to about $250 billion annually. The three points that stand out, apart from the modest nature of the reductions from the previous administration's five-year Pentagon plan, are discussed in this article. First, the Clinton team downplayed the magnitude of the cutbacks. Second, the Clinton reductions generated great confusion, as an extraordinary range of numbers was banded about. Third, the pro-military members of Congress were remarkably quiet about the Clinton defense plan. Explanations and implications of these points are explained.

  20. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work. PMID:21212203

  1. A prospective study of acute diarrhea in a cohort of United States military personnel on deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Rockabrand, David M; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R; Frenck, Robert W; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F; Sanders, John W

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2-30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work.

  2. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  3. Dilemmas in military medical ethics since 9/11.

    PubMed

    Howe, Edmund G

    2003-06-01

    The attack on the United States by terrorists on 9/11 and the war with Iraq have raised new ethical questions for the military and for military physicians (Herman 2002; Elshtain 2003). How and when attacks may occur now is less predictable. Planes have been hijacked, and persons dressed as civilians may carry bombs to blow themselves and others up. These dangers pose an increased threat, and, thus, there is a need for new defensive measures. How far these measures should go is, however, greatly open to debate. One of the most difficult ethical question raised for the military and military doctors by these developments is what interrogation methods are permissable when questioning captured terrorists. The licitness of different interrogation practices is, however, only one of the ethical problems potentially encountered by military physicians now having to treat terrorists and POWs. The following discussion presents the major concerns regarding this and other issues. PMID:14570019

  4. Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J C

    2012-12-01

    The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity.

  5. Tobacco Promotion to Military Personnel: “The Plums Are Here to Be Plucked”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary. PMID:19743733

  6. Biodegradation of palm kernel cake by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures through solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC.

  7. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC. PMID:25019097

  8. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  9. Providing care to military personnel and their families: how we can all contribute.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Todd D; Hemmer, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Providing medical care to members of the military and their families remains a societal duty carried out not only by military physicians but also, and in large part, by civilian providers. As many military families are geographically dispersed, it is probable that all physicians at some point in their training or careers will care for this unique patient population. Understanding the military culture can help physicians provide the best care possible to our military families, and inclusion of military cultural competency curricula in all medical schools is a first step in advancing this understanding. The authors review the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all health professionals should acquire to be able to care for those who serve and offer recommendations for developing these among all students and trainees.

  10. Competence, risk, and resilience in military families: conceptual commentary.

    PubMed

    Masten, Ann S

    2013-09-01

    This commentary highlights conceptual themes in the opening section of this special issue on military families in relation to a new synthesis of developmental systems theory that emerged from developmental, ecological, and family systems theory, as well as developmental psychopathology and risk/resilience frameworks. Articles in this special issue draw on these concepts to characterize and guide the burgeoning research on military families. This perspective emphasizes that multiple dynamic systems interact across levels to shape individual development, as well as the function of families and military units. Developmental timing is important for understanding how challenges of military life may impact individuals and families. Cascade effects are noted, where stress experienced by one family or service member can influence the function of other individuals or larger systems. Capacity for resilience is distributed across systems, including families and cultures, as well as resources or supports provided by military organizations to foster adaptive responses or recovery. These systems include schools and educational programs that play key roles in fostering and supporting resilience for children. Overall, developmental system concepts have considerable utility for guiding research with military families, particularly in regard to promoting resilience. Moreover, lessons learned from military families and programs may have much broader implications for many other nonmilitary children, families, and organizations that share similar goals and challenges.

  11. [The Military Medical Academy's website].

    PubMed

    Kuvakin, V I; Vasil'ev, G G

    2013-12-01

    The article deals with the organization of work, evaluation and optimization of the official web site of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. The website of the Kirov Academy is presented as a multifunctional IT tool for support of its activity. Tasks and functions of the Kirov Academy web site, as well as technological features of its work are listed. Some of its quantitative characteristics as a user tool for the access to information resources of the Kirov Academy are given. The description of the site structure and its pages are presented. The requirements for information materials submitted for posting on the site are set out. The data of webometric ranking of Russian institutions of higher education and research institutes are analyzed, the location of the Academy web site in this rating is shown. The areas for further improvement of the Academy web site, its structure and services are stated. PMID:24738276

  12. Infective endocarditis in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Gough, Andrew; Clay, K; Williams, A; Jackson, S; Prendergast, B

    2015-09-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a potentially fatal cardiac infection associated with an inhospital mortality rate of up to 22%. Fifty per cent of IE cases develop in patients with no known history of valve disease. It is therefore important to remain vigilant to the possibility of the diagnosis in patients with a febrile illness and unknown source. From a military perspective, our patients are unique due to the breadth of pathogens they are exposed to, and blood-culture-negative IE is a risk. In particular, there should be awareness of Coxiella burnetii as a possible causative pathogen. In this review we incorporate the latest consensus from systematic reviews and publications identified by a literature search through Medline. We describe the diagnosis and management of IE with particular reference to the military population.

  13. Distribution and in vitro Fruiting of Cordyceps militaris in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Won-Ho; Choi, Seong-Keun; Lee, Je-O; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris specimens were continuously collected by Entomopathogenic Fungal Culture Collection (EFCC), Kangwon National University from different mountains, national parks and recreation parks of Korea from 1986 to 2002, mainly from late May to October of each year. Dry specimens of C. militaris along with their isolates have been preserved in EFCC. Fruiting of C. militaris was induced from single ascospore isolates as well as their combinations in brown rice medium. Fruiting experiments showed that combinations of single ascospore isolates produced fertile fruiting bodies, but single isolates could not produce any fruiting bodies. It was shown that two isolates of the opposite mating types were required to produce fertile stromata. However, combinations of the same mating type isolates produced no fruiting body, showing that C. militaris is a bipolar, heterothallic fungus.

  14. Cultural scripts for a good death in Japan and the United States: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Long, Susan Orpett

    2004-03-01

    Japan and the United States are both post-industrial societies, characterised by distinct trajectories of dying. Both contain multiple "cultural scripts" of the good death. Seale (Constructing Death: the Sociology of Dying and Bereavement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) has identified at least four "cultural scripts", or ways to die well, that are found in contemporary anglophone countries: modern medicine, revivalism, an anti-revivalist script and a religious script. Although these scripts can also be found in Japan, different historical experiences and religious traditions provide a context in which their content and interpretation sometimes differ from those of the anglophone countries. To understand ordinary people's ideas about dying well and dying poorly, we must recognise not only that post-industrial society offers multiple scripts and varying interpretive frameworks, but also that people actively select from among them in making decisions and explaining their views. Moreover, ideas and metaphors may be based on multiple scripts simultaneously or may offer different interpretations for different social contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries, this paper explores the metaphors that ordinary patients and caregivers draw upon as they use, modify, combine or ignore these cultural scripts of dying. Ideas about choice, time, place and personhood, elements of a good death that were derived inductively from interviews, are described. These Japanese and American data suggest somewhat different concerns and assumptions about human life and the relation of the person to the wider social world, but indicate similar concerns about the process of medicalised dying and the creation of meaning for those involved. While cultural differences do exist, they cannot be explained by reference to 'an American' and 'a Japanese' way to die. Rather, the process of creating and maintaining cultural scripts requires the active participation of

  15. Military and Veteran Student Perceptions of Military Friendliness on the College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulchinos, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Over two million military personnel will leave the service over the next decade (Cook & Kim; 2009). The majority of these veterans will receive the most generous GI Bill since its inception (United States Department of Veterans Affairs [VA], 2011). Institutions will covet these students to offset discounting (Barr & McClellan, 2011; Basch,…

  16. Stem cell applications in military medicine.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J

    2011-10-19

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

  17. Stem cell applications in military medicine.

    PubMed

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J

    2011-01-01

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

  18. Stem cell applications in military medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers - and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research. PMID:22011454

  19. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  20. "Attraction, Attention, and Desire": Consumer Culture as Pedagogical Paradigm in Museums in the United States, 1900-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Urged on by a young generation of reform-minded professionals, museums in the United States adopted the premises and practices of consumer culture in the early twentieth century. This article argues that this turn towards consumer culture resulted from a new institutional commitment to public education and a radical re-conception of visual…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Career Maturity of Korean and United States High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki-Hak

    2001-01-01

    High school students in Korea (n=331) and the United States (n=266) completed the Career Attitude Maturity Inventory in Korean or English versions. Constructs of career maturity were similar across both cultures. Level of maturity was culture related: U.S. students had greater confidence; Koreans were more prepared. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  2. Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

  3. "CultureGrams[TM]" and "StateGrams[TM]": Making Places and People Relevant to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2002-01-01

    Describes "CultureGrams" and "StateGrams", sources that provide practical cultural information including attitudes, appearances, greetings, gestures, dating, family life, transportation, health, and education. Focuses on the edition suitable for elementary school students, explaining specific features and suggesting assignments and class…

  4. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  5. How Much Culture Is Enough? Inuit Teachers' Perceptions on the State of Inuit Culture in Nunavik Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Blair

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights findings of a survey conducted with the Kativik School Board, Canada, to gain insight into the perceptions of Inuit teachers concerning how Inuit culture is taught in the classroom. While findings indicate that teachers are integrating Inuit culture to varying degrees, roughly half of respondents suggest that not enough Inuit…

  6. Social and Cultural Influences on Tobacco-Related Health Disparities among South Asians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Morgan, Patricia A.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Ling, Pamela M.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore and understand key cultural contexts of tobacco use among South Asian communities in the United States. DESIGN Focus groups, with homogenous compositions of gender, generational status, and length of time in the United States, were conducted in two distinct South Asian ethnic enclaves. Focus group findings were triangulated with observational data regarding availability of culturally-specific tobacco from commercial ethnic outlets and cultural events. SUBJECTS Respondents included 88 men and women of South Asian descent, aged 18 to 65 years, immigrant and native born, representing diversity of religion, socioeconomic status, and region of origin, with use of at least one culturally-specific tobacco product in previous 24 months. RESULTS A large number of culturally-specific products are commonly used by community members. Knowledge of product-specific health risks was lacking or inaccurate. Many culturally-specific tobacco products were considered to have beneficial properties. South Asian tobacco items were used to preserve cultural traditions and express ethnic identity in a new dominant culture. The social and cultural value ascribed to use helped distinguish community members from mainstream society and from other minority populations. CONCLUSIONS Many cultural factors govern tobacco use among diverse global populations. Especially for migrants with a common regional origin, the role of ethnic identity may strongly influence culturally-specific tobacco patterns. Qualitative inquiry helps elucidate such culturally-framed behaviors in culturally-diverse populations. These cultural contexts should be integrated into research and practice. Understanding multidimensional factors influencing non-traditional tobacco use is key to ensuring that comprehensive tobacco control strategies address tobacco-related disparities. PMID:21708814

  7. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  8. Respiratory infections in the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Military training facilities and operational theatres, and the stressful activities undertaken in such settings, are unique. Military personnel living and working in these environments are at considerable risk of the acquisition and onward transmission of a variety of respiratory infections. While these generally cause mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant associated morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Epidemic outbreaks among military personnel may have a significant detrimental impact on training schedules and operational effectiveness. The recognition of the burden of such illness among British military personnel, and the development of strategies required to prevent or limit negative impacts, can only be achieved through the use of comprehensive laboratory-based surveillance programmes.

  9. Military applications of hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briottet, X.; Boucher, Y.; Dimmeler, A.; Malaplate, A.; Cini, A.; Diani, M.; Bekman, H.; Schwering, P.; Skauli, T.; Kasen, I.; Renhorn, I.; Klasén, L.; Gilmore, M.; Oxford, D.

    2006-05-01

    Optical imaging, including infrared imaging, generally has many important applications, both civilian and military. In recent years, technological advances have made multi- and hyperspectral imaging a viable technology in many demanding military application areas. The aim of the CEPA JP 8.10 program has been to evaluate the potential benefit of spectral imaging techniques in tactical military applications. This unclassified executive summary describes the activities in the program and outlines some of the results. More specific results are given in classified reports and presentations. The JP 8.10 program started in March 2002 and ended in February 2005. The participating nations were France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United-Kingdom, each with a contribution of 2 man-years per year. Essential objectives of the program were to: 1) analyze the available spectral information in the optronic landscape from visible to infrared; 2) analyze the operational utility of multi- and hyperspectral imaging for detection, recognition and identification of targets, including low-signature targets; 3) identify applications where spectral imaging can provide a strong gain in performance; 4) propose technical recommendations of future spectral imaging systems and critical components. Finally, a stated objective of the JP 8.10 program is to "ensure the proper link with the image processing community". The presentation is organized as follows. In a first step, the two trials (Pirrene and Kvarn) are presented including a summary of the acquired optical properties of the different landscape materials and of the spectral images. Then, a phenomenology study is conducted analyzing the spectral behavior of the optical properties, understanding the signal at the sensor and, by processing spectroradiometric measurements evaluating the potential to discriminate spectral signatures. Cameo-Sim simulation software is presented including first validation results and the

  10. Role of nuclear reactors in future military satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Future military capabilities will be profoundly influenced by emerging Shuttle Era space technology. Regardless of the specific direction or content of tomorrow's military space program, it is clear that advanced space transportation systems, orbital support facilities, and large-capacity power subsystems will be needed to create the generally larger, more sophisticated military space systems of the future. This paper explores the critical role that space nuclear reactors should play in America's future space program and reviews the current state of nuclear reactor power plant technology. Space nuclear reactor technologies have the potential of satisfying power requirements ranging from 10 kW/sub (e)/ to 100 MW/sub (e)/.

  11. Expression of apolipoprotein E by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by growth state

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in culture synthesize and secrete a approximately 38,000-Mr protein doublet or triplet that, as previously described (Majack and Bornstein. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 99:1688- 1695), rapidly and reversibly accumulates in the SMC culture medium upon addition of heparin. In the present study, we show that this approximately 38,000-Mr heparin-regulated protein is electrophoretically and immunologically identical to apolipoprotein E (apo-E), a major plasma apolipoprotein involved in cholesterol transport. In addition, we show that expression of apo-E by cultured SMC varies according to growth state: while proliferating SMC produced little apo-E and expressed low levels of apo-E mRNA, quiescent SMC produced significantly more apo-E (relative to other proteins) and expressed markedly increased levels of apo-E mRNA. Northern analysis of RNA extracted from aortic tissue revealed that fully differentiated, quiescent SMC contain significant quantities of apo-E mRNA. These data establish aortic SMC as a vascular source for apo-E and suggest new functional roles for this apolipoprotein, possibly unrelated to traditional concepts of lipid metabolism. PMID:2458361

  12. Conversion of yellow wine lees into high-protein yeast culture by solid-state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Pan, Lina; Dun, Yaohao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-01-01

    This study is focussed on the possibility of producing a yeast culture with yellow wine lees as a substrate by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results showed that a yeast count of 1.58 × 109 CFU/g was achieved by signal factor and orthogonal experiments. After fermentation, the starch content in the yeast culture reduced from 32.2% ± 0.5% to 7.5% ± 0.2%, and the contents of crude protein and peptide increased from 36.1% ± 0.8% to 48.0% ± 1.0% and 3.9% ± 0.2% to 7.2% ± 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, large amounts of short peptides and free amino acids were detected by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). These results suggest that yellow wine lees are a suitable substrate for the production of yeast cultures. It can serve as a growth-promoting factor and help reduce the shortage of protein feed in the animal industry. This research provides a potential way for the utilization of agro-industrial residues. PMID:26019568

  13. Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    RAYBOURN,ELAINE M.; FORSYTHE,JAMES C.

    2001-08-01

    This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability of an individual in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that would greatly impact subsequent events. The present project was framed around a sensor-shooter scenario as a soldier interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls). A software model of the ''Sensor Shooter'' scenario from Desert Storm was developed in which the framework consisted of a computational instantiation of Recognition Primed Decision Making in the context of a Naturalistic Decision Making model [1]. Recognition Primed Decision Making was augmented with an underlying foundation based on our current understanding of human neurophysiology and its relationship to human cognitive processes. While the Gulf War scenario that constitutes the framework for the Sensor Shooter prototype is highly specific, the human decision architecture and the subsequent simulation are applicable to other problems similar in concept, intensity, and degree of uncertainty. The goal was to provide initial steps toward a computational representation of human variability in cultural, cognitive, and physiological state in order to attain a better understanding of the full depth of human decision-making processes in the context of ambiguity, novelty, and heightened arousal.

  14. Peak Politics: Resource Scarcity and Libertarian Political Culture in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew

    My dissertation uses the "peak oil" movement as a lens to analyze the convergence of apocalyptic environmental thinking and libertarian political culture in the recent United States. The "peak oil" movement was a twenty-first century American social movement of Americans who came to believe that oil depletion and other environmental problems would lead to the imminent collapse of global industrial society. Dedicated adherents developed a rich subculture, primarily online, and prepared themselves for the "post-carbon" future by conserving energy, changing occupations, and even purchasing land. Drawing on surveys of over 1,500 participants, ethnographic research, discourse analysis of peak oil websites and literary analysis of subcultural fiction, my research reveals a group of mostly white, male, liberal Americans struggling with the perceived threat of economic, environmental and geopolitical decline while the country undergoes a broad shift in political culture: the continued rise of libertarian ideals, accelerated by the influence of Internet technology. I view this apocalyptic subculture in the context of petroleum dependence, eco-apocalyptic discourses, the environmental discourse of "limits to growth," white masculinity, climate change, and the influence of conservative individualism on American political culture.

  15. Recruits' Military Preferences and Their Accommodation by the Military Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

    The research report provides information on recruits' military occupational preferences, match of military assignments to recruits' preferences, and changes that occur in these preferences between service entry and completion of basic training. Questionnaires were administered to recruits from four services just before classification interviewing…

  16. Bankrupting america: President Carter's military budget.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tax burden that will be imposed on U.S. taxpayers over the next five years as a result of President Carter's proposed $1 trillion 16.4 billion military budget. Data are provided for states and selected metropolitan areas. The destructive impact of this enormous expenditure--including further inflation, soaring interest rates, and continued impoverishment of the civilian economy and American society as a whole--is stressed. PMID:7429691

  17. Bankrupting america: President Carter's military budget.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tax burden that will be imposed on U.S. taxpayers over the next five years as a result of President Carter's proposed $1 trillion 16.4 billion military budget. Data are provided for states and selected metropolitan areas. The destructive impact of this enormous expenditure--including further inflation, soaring interest rates, and continued impoverishment of the civilian economy and American society as a whole--is stressed.

  18. Approaches to Teaching about Korea in a World Cultures Social Studies Curriculum. A guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Linda; Linton, Stephen

    Korea, a country of major significance within the East Asian culture sphere, is also a country of historical and contemporary importance to the United States. Divided in 1945 into two zones, the North and the South, the communist northern sector became a formidable economic and military power, while the phenomenal growth of the southern sector's…

  19. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  20. The Cellular State Determines the Effect of Melatonin on the Survival of Mixed Cerebellar Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Daiane Gil; Markus, Regina P.

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a key transcription factor involved in neuroinflammation, is essential for the survival of neurons in situ and of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Melatonin is known to inhibit the activation of NF-κB and has a cytoprotective function. In this study, we evaluated whether the cytoprotective effect of melatonin depends on the state of activation of a mixed cerebellar culture that is composed predominantly of granule cells; we tested the effect of melatonin on cultured rat cerebellar cells stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The addition of melatonin (0.1 nM–1 µM) reduced the survival of naïve cells while inhibiting LPS-induced cell death. Melatonin (100 nM) transiently (15 min) inhibited the nuclear translocation of both NF-κB dimers (p50/p50, p50/RelA) and, after 60 min, increased the activation of p50/RelA. Melatonin-induced p50/RelA activity in naïve cells resulted in the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the production of NO. Otherwise, in cultures treated with LPS, melatonin blocked the LPS-induced activation of p50/RelA and the reduction in p50/p50 levels and inhibited iNOS expression and NO synthesis. Therefore, melatonin in vehicle-treated cells induces cell death, while it protects against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, we confirmed that melatonin is a neuroprotective drug when cerebellar cells are challenged; however, melatonin can also lead to cell death when the normal balance of the NF-κB pathway is disturbed. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the influence of cell context on the final output response of melatonin. PMID:25184316

  1. Single-Cell-State Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Increases Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nii, Takenobu; Kohara, Hiroshi; Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efficient gene transfer into human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) holds great promise for regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods were developed for gene transfer into hPSCs; however, hPSCs form tightly packed colonies, making gene transfer difficult. In this study, we established a stable culture method of hPSCs at a single-cell state to reduce cell density and investigated gene transfection efficiency followed by gene editing efficiency. hPSCs cultured in a single-cell state were transfected using nonliposomal transfection reagents with plasmid DNA or mRNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that most cells (DNA > 90%; mRNA > 99%) were transfected without the loss of undifferentiated PSC marker expression or pluripotency. Moreover, we demonstrated an efficient gene editing method using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) targeting the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our new method may improve hPSC gene transfer techniques, thus facilitating their use for human regenerative medicine. PMID:27257519

  2. Military applications of automatic speech recognition and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beek, Bruno; Cupples, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    An updated summary of the state-of-the-art of automatic speech recognition and its relevance to military applications is provided. A number of potential systems for military applications are under development. These include: (1) digital narrowband communication systems; (2) automatic speech verification; (3) on-line cartographic processing unit; (4) word recognition for militarized tactical data system; and (5) voice recognition and synthesis for aircraft cockpit.

  3. Are cultures becoming individualistic? A cross-temporal comparison of individualism-collectivism in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Individualism-collectivism is one of the best researched dimensions of culture in psychology. One frequently asked but underexamined question regards its cross-temporal changes: Are cultures becoming individualistic? One influential theory of cultural change, modernization theory, predicts the rise of individualism as a consequence of economic growth. Findings from past research are generally consistent with this theory, but there is also a body of evidence suggesting its limitations. To examine these issues, cross-temporal analyses of individualism-collectivism in the United States and Japan were conducted. Diverging patterns of cultural changes were found across indices: In both countries, some of the obtained indices showed rising individualism over the past several decades, supporting the modernization theory. However, other indices showed patterns that are best understood within the frameworks of a shifting focus of social relationships and a persisting cultural heritage. A comprehensive theory of cultural change requires considerations of these factors in addition to the modernization effect.

  4. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  5. Group Treatment for Wife-Battering Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Michael

    Isolation from extended family, frequent geographic relocation, living in foreign countries, prolonged separation of spouses, occupational stress, prevalent cross-cultural marriages, financial problems and dependence of the civilian spouse on the military member have been cited as pressures which could contribute to wife-battering by military…

  6. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  7. The Place of the Humanities at a Military Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammang, Lucretia A.

    2007-01-01

    The author, a captain in the U.S. Coast Guard and professor of English at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut, argues in this article that, contrary to images perpetuated in popular culture, military officers do not eschew the arts as exemplified in such films as "Platoon" and "Full Metal Jacket" where the audience is expected to…

  8. Reasoning About Cultural and Genetic Transmission: Developmental and Cross-Cultural Evidence From Peru, Fiji, and the United States on How People Make Inferences About Trait Transmission.

    PubMed

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert; Henrich, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Using samples from three diverse populations, we test evolutionary hypotheses regarding how people reason about the inheritance of various traits. First, we provide a framework for differentiat-ing the outputs of mechanisms that evolved for reasoning about variation within and between (a) biological taxa and (b) culturally evolved ethnic categories from (c) a broader set of beliefs and categories that are the outputs of structured learning mechanisms. Second, we describe the results of a modified "switched-at-birth" vignette study that we administered among children and adults in Puno (Peru), Yasawa (Fiji), and adults in the United States. This protocol permits us to study perceptions of prenatal and social transmission pathways for various traits and to differentiate the latter into vertical (i.e., parental) versus horizontal (i.e., peer) cultural influence. These lines of evidence suggest that people use all three mechanisms to reason about the distribution of traits in the population. Participants at all three sites develop expectations that morphological traits are under prenatal influence, and that belief traits are more culturally influenced. On the other hand, each population holds culturally specific beliefs about the degree of social influence on non-morphological traits and about the degree of vertical transmission-with only participants in the United States expecting parents to have much social influence over their children. We reinterpret people's differentiation of trait transmission pathways in light of humans' evolutionary history as a cultural species.

  9. Canadian military space activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Geoffrey W.

    This paper outlines the Department of National Defence (DND) of Canada policy on the military use of space and discusses DND space systems. The NAVSTAR global positioning system will be the standard for future navigation systems. Canada is one of four founding nations of the international COSPAS/SARSAT satellite assisted search and rescue system. Three new earth stations will provide complete coverage of Canadian synthetic aperture radar (SAR) territory. In addition, funds have been committed for research and development of space based surveillance radar technology. The Canadian Forces Weather Service will receive digitalized satellite imagery and weather charts as part of the planned Meteorological Satellite Information System (METSIS). METSIS will provide weather information through Anik D satellite broadcast. A three phased approach is planned to satisfy satellite communications requirements. Leased point to point communications have been established for some locations. Mobile terminals are being developed and are being used to test technologies and operating techniques. Phase two will be the acquisition of a mix of fixed and mobile terminals to use existing commercial and military space bands. Encryption capabilities and antijamming technologies are being developed. Phase three calls for launching of several nongeostationary satellites to provide continuous coverage to the areas in the high Arctic which are below the horizon for geostationary satellites. DND policy can be summarized as follows: (1) the DND will enhance defence commitments by using space technology where appropriate and cost effective; (2) it will enhance the peaceful use of space; and (3) DND will use space programs to contribute to the Canadian economic and defence production base.

  10. 78 FR 13890 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The San... contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe...

  11. Increasing military social work knowledge: an evaluation of learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Young, Sharon L

    2014-02-01

    Service members and veterans face a myriad of health, mental health, and social challenges stemming from the combat and operational stressors experienced during deployment and the challenges ofreintegration to civilian life. To intervene effectively with this population, social workers must be knowledgeable about these issues and the cultural context within which they occur. Although schools of social work across the country are developing course work in military social work, little is known about the learning outcomes of these courses. This article describes a military social work course that was developed to increase student preparedness to work with a military or veteran population and the learning outcomes achieved. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, this study compared the learning outcomes of students enrolled in the course with a group of students who had not taken the course. To measure this knowledge, the authors developed a 50-item Military Social Work Knowledge Scale for the study. Significant differences between pre- and posttest scores were found for the social work students enrolled in the course. Specific areas of knowledge that increased for the class participants included knowledge about cultural sensitivity to military populations and knowledge about service and advocacy frameworks.

  12. Psychiatric considerations in military aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Marsh, R W

    2001-02-01

    Military aerospace medicine requires a psychiatric selection and certification process that determines not only the absence of significant mental disorders, but also the presence of positive qualities in the realms of motivation, ability and stability: not all normal people are fit to fly. Other issues of aerospace psychiatry involve maintenance of mental resilience and hardiness during a flying career, aeromedical decisions about when to remove from flight duties and when to return, criteria for waivers for psychiatric conditions, use of medications for treatment of psychiatric symptoms, questions of substance abuse, and research in such areas as genetics. This report reviews the basis for military aerospace psychiatry, primarily as practiced in the United States Air Force (USAF), and presents some of its underlying principles as they apply to clinical situations.

  13. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  14. [Military medical service and international humanitarian law (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F; Mehed', V P; Badiuk, M I; Mel'nyk, O M; Andriienko, O Ia

    2004-12-01

    Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management. PMID:15771081

  15. [Military medical service and international humanitarian law (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F; Mehed', V P; Badiuk, M I; Mel'nyk, O M; Andriienko, O Ia

    2004-12-01

    Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management.

  16. Sleep and Academic Performance in U.S. Military Training and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Dyche, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep-wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy's…

  17. The importance of militaries from developing countries in global infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; Blazes, David L; Coldren, Rodney L; Lewis, Michael D; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Kana, Khunakorn; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Vallejos, Victor; Mundaca, Carmen C; Montano, Silvia; Martin, Gregory J; Gaydos, Joel C

    2007-01-01

    Military forces from developing countries have become increasingly important as facilitators of their government's foreign policy, taking part in peacekeeping operations, military exercises and humanitarian relief missions. Deployment of these forces presents both challenges and opportunities for infectious disease surveillance and control. Troop movements may cause or extend epidemics by introducing novel agents to susceptible populations. Conversely, military units with disease surveillance and response capabilities can extend those capabilities to civilian populations not served by civilian public health programmes, such as those in remote or post-disaster settings. In Peru and Thailand, military health organizations in partnership with the military of the United States use their laboratory, epidemiological, communications and logistical resources to support civilian ministry of health efforts. As their role in international affairs expands, surveillance capabilities of militaries from developing countries should be enhanced, perhaps through partnerships with militaries from high-income countries. Military-to-military and military-to-civilian partnerships, with the support of national and international civilian health organizations, could also greatly strengthen global infectious disease surveillance, particularly in remote and post-disaster areas where military forces are present. PMID:18405198

  18. The importance of militaries from developing countries in global infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; Blazes, David L; Coldren, Rodney L; Lewis, Michael D; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Kana, Khunakorn; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Vallejos, Victor; Mundaca, Carmen C; Montano, Silvia; Martin, Gregory J; Gaydos, Joel C

    2007-03-01

    Military forces from developing countries have become increasingly important as facilitators of their government's foreign policy, taking part in peacekeeping operations, military exercises and humanitarian relief missions. Deployment of these forces presents both challenges and opportunities for infectious disease surveillance and control. Troop movements may cause or extend epidemics by introducing novel agents to susceptible populations. Conversely, military units with disease surveillance and response capabilities can extend those capabilities to civilian populations not served by civilian public health programmes, such as those in remote or post-disaster settings. In Peru and Thailand, military health organizations in partnership with the military of the United States use their laboratory, epidemiological, communications and logistical resources to support civilian ministry of health efforts. As their role in international affairs expands, surveillance capabilities of militaries from developing countries should be enhanced, perhaps through partnerships with militaries from high-income countries. Military-to-military and military-to-civilian partnerships, with the support of national and international civilian health organizations, could also greatly strengthen global infectious disease surveillance, particularly in remote and post-disaster areas where military forces are present. PMID:17486207

  19. Toward a culture-by-context perspective on negotiation: negotiating teams in the United States and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Brett, Jeanne; Gunia, Brian C; Imai, Lynn; Huang, Tsai-Jung; Hsu, Bi-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Within the United States, teams outperform solos in negotiation (Thompson, Peterson, & Brodt, 1996). The current research examined whether this team advantage generalizes to negotiators from a collectivist culture (Taiwan). Because different cultures have different social norms, and because the team context may amplify the norms that are salient in a particular culture (Gelfand & Realo, 1999), we predicted that the effect of teams on negotiation would differ across cultures. Specifically, we predicted that since harmony norms predominate in collectivist cultures like Taiwan, the team context would amplify a concern with harmony, leading Taiwanese teams to negotiate especially suboptimal outcomes. In support, 2 studies showed that Taiwanese teams negotiated less-optimal outcomes than Taiwanese solos. We also used a moderated-mediation analysis to investigate the mechanism (Hayes, 2012), documenting that the interactive effect of culture and context on outcomes was mediated by harmony norms. By showing that the same situational conditions (team negotiations) can have divergent effects on negotiation outcomes across cultures, our results point toward a nuanced, sociocontextual view that moves beyond the culture-as-main-effect approach to studying culture and negotiations.

  20. Continued growth for military PAs.

    PubMed

    Salyer, Steven W

    2002-10-01

    The US military physician assistant (PA) originated from the corpsmen and medics of the army, navy, air force, and Coast Guard. PAs have been present in every military campaign since 1980 and serve in a wide variety of medical roles. Their combat role has expanded so that in many instances the PA has replaced the physician as the front-line care provider. All have moved from warrant officer into the commissioned officer ranks, a change that has enabled them to rise into command and administrative positions. Narrowing of the pay differential between military and civilian PAs has contributed to their retention.

  1. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  2. Culturally contingent situated cognition: influencing other people fosters analytic perception in the United States but not in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Wilken, Brooke

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal influence and interpersonal adjustment play crucial roles in structuring social interactions. However, not much is known about whether their consequences are culturally contingent. We hypothesized that in order to effectively influence others, people need to employ a perceptual style that serves their cultural imperative. Specifically, we predicted that in the United States, interpersonal influence fosters an analytic, context-independent perceptual style that helps people focus on their goal; however, in Japan, where the cultural imperative is to attend to other people and fit into social contexts, this pattern may be absent or reversed. In two studies, we tested this hypothesis by measuring interpersonal interactions (Study 1) and then by manipulating interpersonal interactions (Study 2). Overall, the findings support a culturally contingent situated-cognition approach, which highlights not only interpersonal underpinnings of perceptual styles but also the role that culture plays in ascribing meaning to interpersonal interactions.

  3. Influence of the carbon and nitrogen sources on keratinase production by Myrothecium verrucaria in submerged and solid state cultures.

    PubMed

    da Gioppo, Nereida Mello Rosa; Moreira-Gasparin, Fabiana G; Costa, Andréa M; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

    2009-05-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria is a nondermatophytic filamentous fungus able to grow and to produce keratinase in submerged (93.0 +/- 19 U/ml) and solid state (98.8 +/- 7.9 U/ml) cultures in which poultry feather powder (PFP) is the only substrate. The purpose of the present work was to verify how different carbon and nitrogen sources can influence the production of keratinase by this fungus. Addition of carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose, caused only slight improvements in keratinase production, but the addition of starch caused a significant improvement (135.0 +/- 25 U/ml). The highest levels of keratinase activity, however, were obtained by supplementing the PFP cultures with cassava bagasse, 168.0 +/- 28 U/ml and 189.0 +/- 26 U/ml in submerged and solid state cultures, respectively. Contrarily, the supplementation of PFP medium with organic or inorganic nitrogen sources, such as casein, soy bean protein, gelatin, ammonium nitrate and alanine, decreased the production of keratinase in both types of cultures (around 20 U/ml), showing that the production of keratinase by M. verrucaria is repressed by nitrogen sources. The results obtained in this work suggest that the association of the two residues PFP plus cassava bagasse could be an excellent option as a cheap culture medium for the production of keratinase in submerged and solid state cultures.

  4. Determining the Oxidation States of Manganese in NT2 Cells and Cultured Astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter,K.; Aschner, M.; Miller, L.; Eliseev, R.; Salter, J.; Andersen, K.; Gunter, T.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive brain manganese (Mn) can produce a syndrome called 'manganism', which correlates with loss of striatal dopamine and cell death in the striatum and globus pallidus. The prevalent hypothesis for the cause of this syndrome has been oxidation of cell components by the strong oxidizing agent, Mn{sup 3+}, either formed by oxidation of intracellular Mn{sup 2+} or transported into the cell as Mn{sup 3+}. We have recently used X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the oxidation states of manganese complexes in brain and liver mitochondria and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced and non-induced PC12 cells. No evidence was found for stabilization or accumulation of Mn{sup 3+} complexes because of oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} by reactive oxygen species in these tissues. Here we extend these studies of manganese oxidation state to cells of brain origin, human neuroteratocarcinoma (NT2) cells and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Again we find no evidence for stabilization or accumulation of any Mn{sup 3+} complex derived from oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} under a range of conditions.

  5. Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kilikian, B.V.; Afonso, L.C.; Souza, T.F.C.; Ferreira, R.G.; Pinheiro, I.R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellulase production was evaluated in two reference strains (T. reesei Rut-C30 and T. reesei QM9414), two strains isolated from a sugarcane cultivation area (Trichoderma sp. IPT778 and T. harzianum rifai IPT821) and one strain isolated in a program for biodiversity preservation in São Paulo state (Myceliophthora thermophila M77). Solid state cultures were performed using sugarcane bagasse (C), wheat bran (W) and/or soybean bran (S). The highest FPA was 10.6 U/gdm for M77 in SC (10:90) at 80% moisture, which was 4.4 times higher than production in pure W. C was a strong inducer of cellulase production, given that the production level of 6.1 U/gdm in WC (40:60) was 2.5 times higher than in pure W for strain M77; T. reesei Rut-C30 did not respond as strongly with about 1.6-fold surplus production. S advantageously replaced W, as the surplus production on SC (20:80) was 2.3 times relative to WC (20:80) for M77. PMID:24948946

  6. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.

    PubMed

    Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

    2014-10-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  7. Effect of phorbol esters on contractile state and calcium flux in cultured chick heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.F.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.

    1987-07-01

    Phorbol esters are potent tumor promoters that have been widely used in studies of transmembrane signaling because of their ability to activate protein kinase C. To study the effect of phorbol esters (and indirectly, the role of protein kinase C) on the cardiac muscle contractility, the authors examined the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on contractile state, transmembrane /sup 45/Ca fluxes, and cytosolic free Ca concentration ((Ca)/sub i/) using spontaneously contracting cultured chick ventricular cells. PMA produced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of cell motion (half maximum inhibitory concentration) with maximal effect observed at 1 ..mu..M. PMA (1 ..mu..M) reduced /sup 45/Ca uptake rate by 16 /plus minus/ 4% and the size of the rapidly exchangeable Ca pool by 11 /plus minus/ 2%, but did not alter the /sup 45/Ca efflux rate. In fura-2-loaded cells. PMA produced a decrease in (Ca)/sub i/ from 96 /plus minus/ 7 to 72 /plus minus/ 5 nM with a time course similar to that of alteration in contractile amplitude. These results indicate that PMA influences transsarcolemmal Ca uptake, and thus the excitation-contraction process, and suggest that protein kinase C may modulate myocardial Ca homeostassis and contractile state.

  8. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... police are in the national security interest of the United States. This Determination shall...

  9. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  10. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  11. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  12. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  13. Changing Families in a Changing Military System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

    Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

  14. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  15. Drug Abuse in the Military. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Reviewing the Problem of Drug Abuse in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains transcripts of testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the effects of illicit drug use and alcoholism on military personnel. Following statements by Senators Hawkins, Grassley, and Kerry, testimonies from representatives of the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard are…

  16. The rise of Chinese military medicine: opportunity for mercy ship, not gunboat, diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James A

    2011-09-01

    Recent exchanges between the United States and China at the presidential and cabinet level have emphasized the need for an enhanced military-to-military relationship to further mutual understanding and promote cooperation. This article explores the historic context of military medical relations between the two nations as well as the rationale and opportunities for increased interaction through medical diplomacy. Specific areas for potential collaboration are discussed with recommendations for future action. PMID:21987964

  17. The rise of Chinese military medicine: opportunity for mercy ship, not gunboat, diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James A

    2011-09-01

    Recent exchanges between the United States and China at the presidential and cabinet level have emphasized the need for an enhanced military-to-military relationship to further mutual understanding and promote cooperation. This article explores the historic context of military medical relations between the two nations as well as the rationale and opportunities for increased interaction through medical diplomacy. Specific areas for potential collaboration are discussed with recommendations for future action.

  18. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature, and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-culturable State of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in order to survive in unfavorable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW). Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 10(6)-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22 or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 10(8) to 10(6)-10(5) CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB), but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different roles during the progress of VBNC

  19. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature, and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-culturable State of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in order to survive in unfavorable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW). Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 10(6)-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22 or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 10(8) to 10(6)-10(5) CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB), but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different roles during the progress of VBNC

  20. Cultural variation in antismoking video ads between the United States, Taiwan, and China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tzu-Jung; King, Jessica L; Pomeranz, Jamie L

    2016-10-01

    Antitobacco advertisement components, including types of messages and advertising appeals, have not been evaluated among multinational groups. This study identified and compared the content of antismoking video ads across three countries. We reviewed 86 antismoking video advertisements for the following information: severity of the consequences of smoking, types of risks, appeals to audiences' self-efficacy, benefits of not smoking, targeted social-ecological level and types of message appeal used. Two researchers independently coded each advertisement with an average inter-coder reliability of 0.79.Analyses showed a variety of focuses: smoking-related health risks (86%), severe consequences of smoking (54.7%), self-efficacy beliefs (40.7%) and benefits of not smoking (84.9%). Compared to the United States and Taiwanese ads, Chinese ads were more likely to target at the community level (10% versus 23.3% versus 47.2%). Additionally, 55% of the United States ads used the fear approach, whereas 61.1% of Chinese ads used the social approach. Taiwanese ads were evenly distributed among both approaches. In conclusion, the countries used different targeting strategies and approaches during message delivery. Although China's neighboring country, Taiwan, has many similar cultural aspects, including the same language, they are greatly influenced by US antitobacco campaigns. As a result, Taiwan's tobacco campaigns appear to have similar components to both China and the United States. Further research is warranted to understand the reasons for each method and to examine the effectiveness of the ads in reducing smoking rates. PMID:27484065

  1. The Role of State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems in Promoting Cultural Competence and Effective Cross-Cultural Communication. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sareen, Harvinder; Visencio, Diane; Russ, Shirley; Halfon, Neal

    2005-01-01

    If early childhood systems are to be effective at the population level then they must be able to provide family-centered care to all the racial, ethnic and cultural groups that they serve. Despite major policy driven and technological advances in healthcare, health disparities across different races and ethnicities persist. For example, the infant…

  2. Cultural lag: A new challenge for mastitis control on dairy farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Martinez, R O; Contreras, G A

    2015-11-01

    Recent changes in the US dairy industry include increases in herd size and the proportion of milk that is produced by large herds. These changes have been accompanied by an increased reliance on hired employees and an increasing role of immigrant labor to perform critical tasks such as milking cows. Thus, there is a growing need for training and education programs for dairy employees because many employees lack previous dairy experience and employee turnover rates are problematic on many farms. Although extension programs have played an important role in the education and support of dairy producers and allied professionals in attaining improved milk quality, dairy employees have limited access to educational programs. Additionally, metrics to assess employee learning are not validated and the ability to sustain work-related behavioral change has not been well described. In this article, we propose a model that may further our understanding of communication and cultural barriers between dairy managers and employees, based on a demonstration project in 12 Michigan dairy herds. As part of this demonstration, a pilot survey was tested to assess the management culture on dairy farms. Results from this survey found that only 23% of employees across all herds were able to meet with farm management on a regular basis, 36% of employees did not know somatic cell count goals for the farm for which they worked, and 71% of employees stated they primarily received training on milking protocols by other employees or that they learned on their own. Latino employees were more likely to not know farm goals or receive primary training on milking protocols from other employees or on their own compared with their English-speaking counterparts. The survey information, along with input from focus group discussions with participating dairy producers, veterinarians, and employees, suggests that extension needs to build capacity for on-farm training and education for employees to support

  3. Cultural lag: A new challenge for mastitis control on dairy farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Martinez, R O; Contreras, G A

    2015-11-01

    Recent changes in the US dairy industry include increases in herd size and the proportion of milk that is produced by large herds. These changes have been accompanied by an increased reliance on hired employees and an increasing role of immigrant labor to perform critical tasks such as milking cows. Thus, there is a growing need for training and education programs for dairy employees because many employees lack previous dairy experience and employee turnover rates are problematic on many farms. Although extension programs have played an important role in the education and support of dairy producers and allied professionals in attaining improved milk quality, dairy employees have limited access to educational programs. Additionally, metrics to assess employee learning are not validated and the ability to sustain work-related behavioral change has not been well described. In this article, we propose a model that may further our understanding of communication and cultural barriers between dairy managers and employees, based on a demonstration project in 12 Michigan dairy herds. As part of this demonstration, a pilot survey was tested to assess the management culture on dairy farms. Results from this survey found that only 23% of employees across all herds were able to meet with farm management on a regular basis, 36% of employees did not know somatic cell count goals for the farm for which they worked, and 71% of employees stated they primarily received training on milking protocols by other employees or that they learned on their own. Latino employees were more likely to not know farm goals or receive primary training on milking protocols from other employees or on their own compared with their English-speaking counterparts. The survey information, along with input from focus group discussions with participating dairy producers, veterinarians, and employees, suggests that extension needs to build capacity for on-farm training and education for employees to support

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  5. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Non-invasive diagnostic tools able to provide information on the materials and preservation state of artworks are crucial to help conservators, archaeologists and anthropologists to plan and carry out their tasks properly. In this frame, technological solutions exploiting Terahertz (THz) radiation, i.e., working at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, are currently deserving huge attention as complementary techniques to classical analysis methodologies based on electromagnetic radiations from X-rays to mid infrared [1]. The main advantage offered by THz spectroscopy and imaging systems is referred to their capability of providing information useful to determine the construction modality, the history life and the conservation state of artworks as well as to identify previous restoration actions [1,2]. In particular, unlike mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides fingerprint absorption spectra depending on the intramolecular behavior, THz spectroscopy is related to the structure of the molecules of the investigated object. Hence, it can discriminate, for instance, the different materials mixed in a paint [1,2]. Moreover, THz radiation is able to penetrate several materials which are opaque to both visible and infrared materials, such as varnish, paint, plaster, paper, wood, plastic, and so on. Accordingly, it is useful to detect hidden objects and characterize the inner structure of the artwork under test even in the direction of the depth, while avoiding core drillings. In this frame, THz systems allow us to discriminate different layers of materials present in artworks like paints, to obtain images providing information on the construction technique as well as to discover risk factors affecting the preservation state, such as non-visible cracks, hidden molds and air gaps between the paint layer and underlying structure. Furthermore, adopting a no-ionizing radiation, THz systems offer the not trivial benefit of negligible long term risks to the

  6. The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Special Education Provision in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palawat, Manisara; May, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural background influences one's understanding of intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. More specifically, the cultural perspectives of parents and special education professionals may affect decision-making in providing appropriate services for children with disabilities. Therefore, cultural distinctions may present a unique…

  7. Funeral Processions, Street Urchins, Education, and Surveillance--The Relationship between Education, State Building, Vagrancy, and Cultural Change in Stockholm, Sweden in the Latter Half of the Seventeenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    A modernization of the educational system was an important priority for the government. Sweden emerged as a dominant military power during the 17th century. The new schools were then established in the midst of a social, political, and cultural transformation with fundamental effects on the school system. The new schools had difficulties freeing…

  8. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism.

  9. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment. PMID:25851483

  10. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment.

  11. Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, M J; Nishii, L H; Holcombe, K M; Dyer, N; Ohbuchi, K I; Fukuno, M

    2001-12-01

    This article integrates theory from the cognitive tradition in negotiation with theory on culture and examines cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict. The authors predicted that although there may be universal (etic) dimensions of conflict construals, there also may be culture-specific (emic) representations of conflict in the United States and Japan. Results of multidimensional scaling analyses of U.S. and Japanese conflict episodes supported this view. Japanese and Americans construed conflicts through a compromise versus win frame (R. L. Pinkley, 1990), providing evidence of a universal dimension of conflict construal. As the authors predicted, Japanese perceived conflicts to be more compromise-focused, as compared with Americans. There were also unique dimensions of construal among Americans and Japanese (infringements to self and giri violations, respectively), suggesting that identical conflict episodes are perceived differently across cultures.

  12. Reexamining personal, social, and cultural influences on compliance behavior in the United States, Poland, and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Hui, Natalie H H; Bond, Michael Harris; Sit, Alfred Y F; Wong, Sowan; Chow, Venus S Y; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Law, Rita W M

    2006-04-01

    Researchers have extended the literature on strategies of gaining compliance with a request to incorporate cultural variations into the analytic framework. In the present investigation, the authors sought to go beyond previous studies of the factors increasing compliance rates by reexamining how researchers conceptualize and measure personal, social, and cultural influences on compliance behavior in the United States, Poland, and Hong Kong. The authors found that different levels of compliance were affected by culture, principles of influence, and the individual's personal orientation of idiocentrism/allocentrism (I/A). In the present study, the authors extended previous cross-cultural work by decomposing the I/A into 2 separate individual difference variables: normative perceptions and evaluative perceptions. The interaction of person and situation on compliance showed the power of situational demands and the strength of different aspects of personal collectivism. Different patterns of compliance at the culture level revealed the importance of culture in shaping this behavioral tendency. Thus, the authors' integration of personal, social, and cultural influences provided an interactive model to help researchers explain compliance more comprehensively.

  13. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  14. Aspergillus oryzae S2 alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation: optimization of culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Kriaa, Mouna; Elgharbi, Fatma; Ayadi, Dorra-Zouari; Bejar, Samir; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus oryzae S2 was assayed for alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation (SSF). In addition to AmyA and AmyB already produced in monitored submerged culture, the strain was noted to produce new AmyB oligomeric forms, in particular a dominant tetrameric form named AmyC. The latter was purified to homogeneity through fractional acetone precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analyses revealed that, purified AmyC was an approximately 172 kDa tetramer of four 42 kDa subunits. AmyC was also noted to display the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence residues and approximately the same physico-chemical properties of AmyA and AmyB, to exhibit maximum activity at pH 5.6 and 60 °C, and to produce maltose and maltotriose as major starch hydrolysis end-products. Soyabean meal was the best substitute to yeast extract compared to fish powder waste and wheat gluten waste. AmyC production was optimized under SSF using statistical design methodology. Moisture content of 76.25%, C/N substrate ratio of 0.62, and inoculum size of 10(6.87) spores allowed maximum activity of 22118.34 U/g of dried substrate, which was 33 times higher than the one obtained before the application of the central composite design (CCD). PMID:25617840

  15. Living in the United States. A Brief Introduction to the Culture for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Anni; Clark, Raymond C.

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of the United States, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money and banks; food; restaurants; drinking and smoking laws; hotels; postal and telecommunications services;…

  16. Pedagogical Transformations of "Religion" into "Culture" in Danish State Mass Schooling from the 1900s to the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchardt, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Particularly after the Danish political system changed to parliamentarism in 1901, a growing interest in, and expanded meaning of, culture as a pedagogical category developed in relation to state schooling, on the road to a comprehensive school system for "the whole population". This article elaborates on the role played by theological scholars in…

  17. Is Longing Only for Germans? A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sehnsucht in Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Wiest, Maja; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    "Sehnsucht", the longing or yearning for ideal yet seemingly unreachable states of life, is a salient topic in German culture and has proven useful for understanding self-regulation across adulthood in a German sample (e.g., Scheibe, Freund, & Baltes, 2007). The current study tested whether findings for German samples could be generalized to the…

  18. Addressing the Effects of Culture on the Boundary-Keeping Practices of Psychiatry Residents Educated outside of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The author sought to develop a curriculum for international medical graduate (IMG) psychiatry residents that addresses their culture-based deviations from normative boundary-keeping practices common to U.S.-based psychotherapy practices. Methods: A group consisting of 12 IMG psychiatry residents and one United States graduate (USG)…

  19. Culturally Diverse and Underserved Populations of Gifted Students in the United States and in Taiwan: Equitable Access to Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the African American and Hispanic student populations in public schools. The students who are invited to gifted programs are overwhelmingly White. This is the situation in schools in the United States and also in Taiwan. Misunderstanding or unawareness of culture difference among educators might contribute to…

  20. A Window into Different Cultural Worlds: Young Children's Everyday Activities in the United States, Brazil, and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, Jonathan R. H.; Doucet, Fabienne; Odero, Dolphine; Sperb, Tania M.; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Lopes, Rita S.

    2006-01-01

    A powerful means to understand young children's normative development in context is to examine their everyday activities. The daily activities of 79 children (3 years old) were observed, for 20 hr each, in their usual settings. Children were selected from 4 cultural groups: European American and African American (Greensboro, United States), Luo…

  1. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  2. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factors Associated with School Bullying in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jeanne M.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Wakita, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Researchers in both Japan and in the United States have documented that bullying is a common and potentially damaging form of violence among children. The authors' review highlights distinct cross-cultural patterns of personal, family, peer, and school characteristics that predict gender differences in bullying and victimization. Cross-cultural…

  3. Culturally Afforded Tensions in the Second Life Metaverse: From Sustainability Initiatives in Europe to Sustainability Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the culturally contingent tensions afforded by the implementation of Second Life in transatlantic communications among 13 college-level students at a Southwestern academic institution in the United States and their instructor and an assistant professor and his graduate student at a Greek-speaking academic institution. The…

  4. Categories of Experience: A Paradigm for the Study of Contemporary World Cultures at Western State College of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Presents a framework used at Western State College to teach an interdisciplinary general education course. The framework helps students organize a large volume of material about Contemporary World Cultures according to a taxonomy of human experience, including artistic/literary expression; thought and belief; relationships/associations with…

  5. MilitaryKidsConnect: Web-based prevention services for military children.

    PubMed

    Blasko, Kelly A

    2015-08-01

    Military children often present with psychological health concerns related to their experience of deployments, reintegration, and frequent moves common in military life. MilitaryKidsConnect is a Department of Defense (DoD) Web site designed to enhance the coping of military children in the context of their military life experience. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of the Web site as a resource that provides psychoeducation, coping strategies, and peer support to military children. PMID:26213795

  6. Assessing public opinion toward the military. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    Opinions and attitudes of the US public toward its military have shifted over the years from strong admiration to fear and contempt. A number of historical and cultural events have helped shape public opinion. Although public opinion is not predicated solely on what happens in an historical and cultural sense, it should be analyzed and documented on the premise that public opinion affects national power, and those things which affect national power are within the realm of interest of the military and national government. A perhaps frightening aspect of the dynamics of shifting public opinion is the dynamics of shifting public opinion is the uncontrolled nature of the shifts and the resultant impact on national power. Also influencing public opinion are developments in weapons and military technology, the massive Soviet propaganda effort, and the mass communications media. This paper is written with the purpose of raising the level of awareness of military and national leaders to the threat to national power which, although lying subtly out of view because it does not pose and immediate threat to our security, nonetheless offers a formidable challenge now. A broad proposal would lay the foundation for proper research and development. (Author)

  7. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  8. Military vehicle trafficking impacts vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling off-road during training are of concern to the United States military. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess the traffi...

  9. The Proud Story of Military Child Care: An Exchange Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Barbara Thompson, the Director of the Office of Family Policy/Children and Youth in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In the interview, Thompson talks about trends in military child care in the United States. She shares when the military got into the business of providing child care. She also talks…

  10. 28 CFR 54.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 54.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  11. 22 CFR 146.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... § 146.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  12. 49 CFR 25.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 25.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  13. 22 CFR 229.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 229.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  14. 10 CFR 1042.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions....210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  15. 43 CFR 41.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 41.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  16. 15 CFR 8a.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine... Coverage § 8a.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  17. 6 CFR 17.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational... Coverage § 17.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not... service of the United States or for the merchant marine....

  18. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.75 Section 536.75 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  19. 32 CFR 536.73 - Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statutory authority for the Military Claims Act. 536.73 Section 536.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  20. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act. 536.74 Section 536.74 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  1. Tuition Rates Charged Foreign Governments for Military Training Should Be Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The United State provides military training on a grant or sales basis to foreign governments. Under the Foreign Assistance Act of l96l, as amended, the Congress makes grants available to foreign governments for training through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. The Arms Export Control Act, as amended, authorizes the…

  2. 77 FR 40140 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corporation Under the... Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State (202) 632-2798... applicable. The period for debarment will be determined by the Assistant Secretary for...

  3. Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

    This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

  4. Academic Quality Control: The Case of College Programs on Military Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The quality of college programs at 13 U.S. military bases and the activities of various agencies for maintaining quality control were evaluated. Based on site visits to military bases in the continental United States and Hawaii in 1978, some academic programs appeared to have few standards and practices that promote quality. It is claimed that…

  5. A Professional Development School in Action: Meeting the Needs of Military-Connected Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risberg, Sandy; Curtis, Laurie; Shivers, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, an undergraduate student who is also a military spouse and mother of school-aged children, shared with the College of Education (COE) at Kansas State University faculty her concerns about the necessity of intentional preparation of teachers and counselors regarding the unique needs of military-connected children. From that…

  6. The Success of a National Dialogue on Sustainable Military Range Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lenny

    2003-01-01

    Military munitions are the silent giant of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the United States. Toward the end of the first Clinton administration, the Navy and Air Force prevailed upon the Army--the armed service with the biggest ordnance problem--to consider co-sponsoring a formal dialogue on military munitions facilitated by the…

  7. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    PubMed

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  8. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    PubMed Central

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector) in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector) in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula (PI) activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain's ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural influence and

  9. Persistence and Potential Viable but Non-culturable State of Pathogenic Bacteria during Storage of Digestates from Agricultural Biogas Plants

    PubMed Central

    Maynaud, Geraldine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Cuny, Anais; Druilhe, Céline; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7–20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days). In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown. The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during the storage of

  10. Persistence and Potential Viable but Non-culturable State of Pathogenic Bacteria during Storage of Digestates from Agricultural Biogas Plants

    PubMed Central

    Maynaud, Geraldine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Cuny, Anais; Druilhe, Céline; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. Here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica Derby, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. Nine samples, including raw digestates, liquid fractions of digestate and composted digestates, were inoculated with each pathogen and maintained for 40 days at 24°C. Concentrations of pathogens were monitored using culture and qPCR methods. The persistence of L. monocytogenes, detected up to 20 days after inoculation, was higher than that of Salmonella Derby, detected for 7–20 days, and of C. coli (not detected after 7 days). In some digestates, the concentration of the pathogens by qPCR assay was several orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of culturable cells, suggesting a potential loss of culturability and induction of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state. The potential VBNC state which was generally not observed in the same digestate for the three pathogens, occurred more frequently for C. coli and L. monocytogenes than for Salmonella Derby. Composting a digestate reduced the persistence of seeded L. monocytogenes but promoted the maintenance of Salmonella Derby. The effect of NH4+/NH3 on the culturability of C. coli and Salmonella Derby was also shown. The loss of culturability may be the underlying mechanism for the regrowth of pathogens. We have also demonstrated the importance of using molecular tools to monitor pathogens in environmental samples since culture methods may underestimate cell concentration. Our results underline the importance of considering VBNC cells when evaluating the sanitary effect of an anaerobic digestion process and the persistence of pathogens during the storage of

  11. Comparing Higher Education Practices and Cultural Competences in Kenya and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musamali, Kennedy; Martin, Barbara N.

    2016-01-01

    Examined within this paper are effective leadership practices across two cultures. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between cultural competency and effective leadership practices in higher education institutions. A quantitative design was used to investigate and compare effective practices of educational leaders in two distinct…

  12. Teaching Cross-Cultural Aging: Using Literary Portrayals of Elders from Chile and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Literary texts are cultural artifacts revealing a society's values and attitudes; reading literature about elders and old age can change readers' ageist attitudes. Beginning with these assumptions, I discuss ways of teaching cross-cultural aging in undergraduate literature courses, using Chilean texts paired with American texts. Students learn how…

  13. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attitudes toward Alcohol among French and United States College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnulty, Richard D.; And Others

    Alcoholism is an almost universal problem which varies in nature and extent from culture to culture. To discriminate between French and American students on the basis of measured attitudes toward alcohol, American college students (N=291) and French college students (N=308) completed attitude measures for alcohol derived from a 14 scale semantic…

  14. A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MILITARY TRAINING RESEARCH--THE STATE OF TRAINING TECHNOLOGY AND STUDIES OF MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDES IN LEARNING (IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN NATIONAL DEFENSE TODAY, EDITED BY J.E. UHLANER, PAGES 48-94).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, MEREDITH P.; ECKSTRAND, GORDON

    PART OF A LARGER REVIEW OF RECENT PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH RELATING TO NATIONAL DEFENSE, THIS SECTION COVERS STUDIES ON TRAINING FOR LEADERSHIP, COMMAND, AND TEAM FUNCTIONS, AND ON THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON MILITARY PERFORMANCE. STUDIES IN THE FIRST CHAPTER OF THIS SECTION ARE DIVIDED BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL ASPECTS (LEADERSHIP)…

  15. A Comparison of Safety Culture Associated with Three Engineered Systems in Japan and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuhiro, Akira

    The internationally reported nuclear criticality accident at JCO in Tokaimura, Japan has further eroded public confidence in nuclear energy, its related facilities and the (Japanese) government’s ability to handle such a crisis. The JCO accident marked the sixth nuclear-related incident since 1995. The existing state of “safety culture” is being questioned and re-evaluated at a national level. In this work the safety culture associated with engineered systems (ES) such as the automobile, commercial airplane and nuclear power plants (NPP) are evaluated based on a scale-analysis (SA), via proposition of two fundamental parameters called eigenmetrics. The identified eigenmetrics are time- (τ) and number-scales (N) describing both ES and human factors, at the individual and/or societal levels. The SA approach is appropriate because human perception of risk (POR), perception of benefit (POB) and level of (technology) acceptance (LOA) are inherently subjective, therefore “fuzzy” and rarely quantifiable in exact magnitude. POR expressed in terms of the psychometric factors “dread risk” and “unknown risk”, contain both time- and number-scale elements. The JCO accident, as well as auto-fatalities, commercial airline accidents and hypothetical NPP accidents are characterized in terms of τ, N and two additional derived parameters of relevance, Nτ and N/τ. We contend that LOA infers a POB at least two orders of magnitude larger than POR. The “amplification” influence of mass-media is also deduced as being 100 to 1000 fold the actual number of fatalities/serious injuries in a nuclear-related accident.

  16. Military Career Guide: Employment and Training Opportunities in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Military Entrance Processing Command (DOD), North Chicago, IL.

    This copiously illustrated guide is a single reference source for the diverse employment and training opportunities in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It is divided into two major sections. The first section contains descriptions of 134 enlisted military occupations and provides information regarding the aptitudes needed…

  17. Military space station implications. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, G.D.; Skirvin, G.D.; Wilson, G.R.

    1987-03-23

    Justifying the relevancy of a Manned Military Space Station (MMSS) and subsequently proposing its deployment to capitalize upon the United States' national security interests is the essence and purpose of this group study project. The MMSS is intended to perform a two-fold purpose: (1) facilitate military peacetime operations while simultaneously supporting and promoting civilian space initiatives; and, (2) act as a force multiplier for space and terrestrial force operations in the event of conventional, theater nuclear, and/or strategic nuclear war. Data to support the future value of the MMSS was obtained from individual and group research using unclassified sources such as professional journals, books, US Air Force Staff College reference material, and information from the US Air Force space coordinating staff in Washington, DC. The importance of space to our future and especially of a MMSS by America's national leaders and its people has yet to be fully appreciated and/or realized. The significance of space and its nexus to the United States' national security has been growing dramatically in importance since the launching of the Sputnik in 1957 by Russian. Space, as the forth dimension, cannot and should not be understated in importance as it relates to commercialism, deterrence to war, and to the stability of world order.

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Light Frame Construction I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This training manual for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in light frame construction I is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the fifty-hour course is for students to develop the skills required in…

  19. Evaluating the Impacts of Technology Education on Military Maintenance Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy D.; Curtis, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) provides career and technical education (CTE) to a wide variety of specialty career fields. Training airmen to carry out the mission while honoring the USAF core values of integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do is the top priority of military leaders and trainers. Vehicle maintenance is…

  20. How Military Service Affects Student Veteran Success at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Patrick C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly more service members are separating from the military as the United States draws down the force and moves towards a post-war era. Tens of thousands of these veterans will leverage their GI Bill tuition and housing benefits in an attempt to access Southern California community colleges and bolster their transition into mainstream…