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Sample records for military shooting range

  1. Distribution of lead in biotic and abiotic media associated with a military shooting range

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, D.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Pintenich, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted at a military shooting range to characterize the distribution and potential toxicity of lead from shot deposited at the site over many years. Site biota (vegetation and small mammals), soils, surface water, and groundwater were collected and analyzed for total lead concentrations. Acute terrestrial and acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were performed on site soils and water samples, respectively. Results of the investigation indicated that surface water was not impacted by lead. Lead was detected in groundwater in concentrations up to 159 {micro}g/L, and was shown to cause chronic toxicity effects in test organisms. Site soils had lead concentrations up to 31,000 mg/kg, and lead was found above background in the deepest soil samples collected (12 to 24 inches). Toxicity was noted in the majority of soil samples analyzed. Lead was also detected in site vegetation (foliar portions) at levels above background, and in small mammals, but at fairly low concentrations (up to 4 mg/kg). As a relative indicator of the degree of transfer of lead between the site media evaluated, a series of concentration ratios were calculated. As a result, the ranking of the transfer of lead between site media appeared to be (in descending order): (1) surficial soil to roots; (2) surficial soil to subsurface soil; (3) vegetation (foliar) to mammals; (4) roots to vegetation (foliar); (5) surficial soil to vegetation (foliar); (6) surficial soil to mammals; and (7) subsurface soil to groundwater.

  2. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: an integrated mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-03-30

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ≈ 1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)(2)] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb(2)O(SO(4))]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  3. Effects of soil dilution and amendments (mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar) on Pb availability and phytotoxicity in military shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Soo Lee, Sang; Yang, Jae E; Ro, Hee-Myong; Han Lee, Young; Sik Ok, Yong

    2012-05-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccessibility determine the level of metal toxicity in the soils. Inorganic soil amendments may decrease metal bioavailability and enhance soil quality. This study used mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar to reduce lead (Pb) toxicity in the highly contaminated military shooting range soil in Korea. Water-soluble and 1-M ammonium nitrate extractions, and a modified physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were performed to determine Pb bioavailability and bioaccessibility in the soil, respectively. Active C in the soil was also measured to evaluate the effects of the amendments on biological soil quality. The Pb contaminated soil was diluted in serial with uncontaminated soil for the bioassays. Seed germination and root elongation tests using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed increases in germination percentage and root length in soil treated with the amendments. Biochar was most effective and increased seed germination by 360% and root length by 189% compared to the unamended soil. Up to 20% soil dilution resulted in more than 50% seed germination. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of Pb in the soils were decreased by 92.5% and 48.5% with mussel shell, by 84.8% and 34.5% with cow bone, and by 75.8% and 12.5% with biochar, respectively, compared to the unamended soil. We found that the Pb availability in the military shooting range soil can be reduced effectively by the tested amendments or soil dilution alternately, thereby decreasing the risk of ecotoxicity. Furthermore, the increasing active C from the amendments revitalized the soil contaminated with Pb.

  4. Effects of soil dilution and amendments (mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar) on Pb availability and phytotoxicity in military shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Soo Lee, Sang; Yang, Jae E; Ro, Hee-Myong; Han Lee, Young; Sik Ok, Yong

    2012-05-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccessibility determine the level of metal toxicity in the soils. Inorganic soil amendments may decrease metal bioavailability and enhance soil quality. This study used mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar to reduce lead (Pb) toxicity in the highly contaminated military shooting range soil in Korea. Water-soluble and 1-M ammonium nitrate extractions, and a modified physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were performed to determine Pb bioavailability and bioaccessibility in the soil, respectively. Active C in the soil was also measured to evaluate the effects of the amendments on biological soil quality. The Pb contaminated soil was diluted in serial with uncontaminated soil for the bioassays. Seed germination and root elongation tests using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed increases in germination percentage and root length in soil treated with the amendments. Biochar was most effective and increased seed germination by 360% and root length by 189% compared to the unamended soil. Up to 20% soil dilution resulted in more than 50% seed germination. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of Pb in the soils were decreased by 92.5% and 48.5% with mussel shell, by 84.8% and 34.5% with cow bone, and by 75.8% and 12.5% with biochar, respectively, compared to the unamended soil. We found that the Pb availability in the military shooting range soil can be reduced effectively by the tested amendments or soil dilution alternately, thereby decreasing the risk of ecotoxicity. Furthermore, the increasing active C from the amendments revitalized the soil contaminated with Pb. PMID:22266035

  5. Phytoremediation and microbial community structure of soil from a metal-contaminated military shooting range: comparisons of field and pot experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Baek, Kyunghwa; Lee, Insook

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal uptake ability of two plant species, barnyard grass and Indian mallow, and the effects of associated micro-communities on the rhizosphere of these plants were investigated in metal-contaminated sites. In addition, the effectiveness of phytoremediation using these plants was compared under field and pot conditions. To accomplish this analysis, phytoremediation of general military shooting range soil was conducted for 8 weeks under the two conditions. The results showed that metal uptake by plants and reductions in soil metal concentration were lower in the field than in pots. However, soil dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversity increased in response to phytoremediation in the field. Specifically, the soil dehydrogenase activities of barnyard grass in field soils were 3-fold higher than those of potted soils. Moreover, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that groups formed according to plant species. Finally, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index and Simpson dominance index were higher in the rhizosphere of barnyard grass than in the rhizosphere of Indian mallow under field conditions. These results indicate that it is difficult to apply the results obtained from pot experiments to field conditions. These findings can be used to inform future studies conducted to determine if field sites are suitable for phytoremediation based on the results of pot studies. PMID:20390882

  6. Phytoremediation and microbial community structure of soil from a metal-contaminated military shooting range: comparisons of field and pot experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Baek, Kyunghwa; Lee, Insook

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal uptake ability of two plant species, barnyard grass and Indian mallow, and the effects of associated micro-communities on the rhizosphere of these plants were investigated in metal-contaminated sites. In addition, the effectiveness of phytoremediation using these plants was compared under field and pot conditions. To accomplish this analysis, phytoremediation of general military shooting range soil was conducted for 8 weeks under the two conditions. The results showed that metal uptake by plants and reductions in soil metal concentration were lower in the field than in pots. However, soil dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversity increased in response to phytoremediation in the field. Specifically, the soil dehydrogenase activities of barnyard grass in field soils were 3-fold higher than those of potted soils. Moreover, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that groups formed according to plant species. Finally, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index and Simpson dominance index were higher in the rhizosphere of barnyard grass than in the rhizosphere of Indian mallow under field conditions. These results indicate that it is difficult to apply the results obtained from pot experiments to field conditions. These findings can be used to inform future studies conducted to determine if field sites are suitable for phytoremediation based on the results of pot studies.

  7. A global range military transport: The ostrich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, John; Booker, Cecilia; Hoffman, Eric; Kramar, James; Manahan, Orlando; Serranzana, Ray; Taylor, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is an increasing need for a global range transport capable of carrying large numbers of troops and equipment to potential trouble spots throughout the world. The Ostrich is a solution to this problem. The Ostrich is capable of carrying 800,000 pounds 6,500 n.m. and returning with 15 percent payload, without refueling. With a technology availability date in 2010 and an initial operating capability of 2015, the aircraft incorporates many advanced technologies including laminar flow control, composite primary structures, and a unique multibody design. By utilizing current technology, such as using McDonnell Douglas C-17 fuselage for the outer fuselages on the Ostrich, the cost for the aircraft was reduced. The cost of the Ostrich per aircraft is $1.2 billion with a direct operating cost of $56,000 per flight hour. The Ostrich will provide a valuable service as a logistical transport capable of rapidly projecting a significant military force or humanitarian aid anywhere in the world.

  8. Episodic discharge of lead, copper and antimony from a Norwegian small arm shooting range.

    PubMed

    Strømseng, Arnljot Einride; Ljønes, Marita; Bakka, Loella; Mariussen, Espen

    2009-06-01

    Small arm shooting ranges are major deposits of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), antimony (Sb), and zinc (Zn) from use of ammunition. Metals and metalloids from the ammunition residues may leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. Discharge of elements is dependent on several factors such as soil properties, hydrological conditions, precipitation and time. In order to identify strategies to limit spread of ammunition residues from shooting ranges it is of importance to gain knowledge of the mobility of the elements from the spent bullets. Here we have monitored the levels of Pb, Cu and Sb in a small drainage stream from a Norwegian military small arm shooting range in 2001 and 2006. The first campaign in 2001 was initiated ahead of the snow-melting period in the spring and continued two months in order to quantify discharge and discharge patterns of the selected elements in the drainage stream. Two shorter campaigns were performed in autumn 2001 during an excavation, and in summer 2006. Mean levels of Pb, Cu and Sb in the stream during the first monitoring period in 2001 were 14 microg/l, 39 microg/l and 9 microg/l respectively. High flow, following precipitation, led to an approximately fourfold increase in the concentration of Pb and threefold increase in the level of Cu and Sb compared to low discharge concentrations. An estimation of discharge of the metals showed that the snow melting period and precipitation events constituted to a large proportion of the total release. A sudden increase in the levels can induce more stress and reduce survival of exposed aquatic animals due to the short time available for adaptation.

  9. Episodic discharge of lead, copper and antimony from a Norwegian small arm shooting range.

    PubMed

    Strømseng, Arnljot Einride; Ljønes, Marita; Bakka, Loella; Mariussen, Espen

    2009-06-01

    Small arm shooting ranges are major deposits of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), antimony (Sb), and zinc (Zn) from use of ammunition. Metals and metalloids from the ammunition residues may leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. Discharge of elements is dependent on several factors such as soil properties, hydrological conditions, precipitation and time. In order to identify strategies to limit spread of ammunition residues from shooting ranges it is of importance to gain knowledge of the mobility of the elements from the spent bullets. Here we have monitored the levels of Pb, Cu and Sb in a small drainage stream from a Norwegian military small arm shooting range in 2001 and 2006. The first campaign in 2001 was initiated ahead of the snow-melting period in the spring and continued two months in order to quantify discharge and discharge patterns of the selected elements in the drainage stream. Two shorter campaigns were performed in autumn 2001 during an excavation, and in summer 2006. Mean levels of Pb, Cu and Sb in the stream during the first monitoring period in 2001 were 14 microg/l, 39 microg/l and 9 microg/l respectively. High flow, following precipitation, led to an approximately fourfold increase in the concentration of Pb and threefold increase in the level of Cu and Sb compared to low discharge concentrations. An estimation of discharge of the metals showed that the snow melting period and precipitation events constituted to a large proportion of the total release. A sudden increase in the levels can induce more stress and reduce survival of exposed aquatic animals due to the short time available for adaptation. PMID:19513458

  10. Ex-situ field application of electrokinetics for remediation of shooting-range soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Soon-Oh; Lee, Jong-Un; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic process for remediation of a shooting-range site was evaluated in this study. By field operation for 100 days, the newly designed electrokinetic system was evaluated for process stability, performance, and efficiency. The field site of this study was an abandoned military shooting range located in the Civilian Control Line of South Korea. The target area, only, was heavily contaminated by Pb and Cu to a depth of 0.5 m. After dry-sieving of the field soil to separate particulate Pb, two cells in a hexagonal (two-dimensional) arrangement, including ten anodes outside the cell and two cathodes in the middle, were prepared. The pH of each electrolyte was adjusted by use of concentrated HNO(3), resulting in acid-enhanced electrokinetics. The monitoring results indicated that overall removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu) was achieved, and that both heavy metals were removed from outside the cell. The average final efficiency of removal of Pb and Cu was 39.5 ± 35 and 63.8 ± 12%, respectively. Although the feasibility of this system was confirmed, for commercialization of the process confirmed drawbacks must be improved by further study.

  11. Ex-situ field application of electrokinetics for remediation of shooting-range soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Soon-Oh; Lee, Jong-Un; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic process for remediation of a shooting-range site was evaluated in this study. By field operation for 100 days, the newly designed electrokinetic system was evaluated for process stability, performance, and efficiency. The field site of this study was an abandoned military shooting range located in the Civilian Control Line of South Korea. The target area, only, was heavily contaminated by Pb and Cu to a depth of 0.5 m. After dry-sieving of the field soil to separate particulate Pb, two cells in a hexagonal (two-dimensional) arrangement, including ten anodes outside the cell and two cathodes in the middle, were prepared. The pH of each electrolyte was adjusted by use of concentrated HNO(3), resulting in acid-enhanced electrokinetics. The monitoring results indicated that overall removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu) was achieved, and that both heavy metals were removed from outside the cell. The average final efficiency of removal of Pb and Cu was 39.5 ± 35 and 63.8 ± 12%, respectively. Although the feasibility of this system was confirmed, for commercialization of the process confirmed drawbacks must be improved by further study. PMID:21858453

  12. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers.

  13. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  14. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (<1%). Despite being an immobile element in the soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. PMID:27254770

  15. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (<1%). Despite being an immobile element in the soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state.

  16. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way.

  17. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Siebielec, Grzegorz; Chaney, Rufus L

    2012-10-15

    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on the effectiveness of remediation of these soils is scarce. We tested the effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation and revegetation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to zinc (Zn) phytotoxicity while lead (Pb) posed a substantial risk to soil biota, wildlife and humans through various pathways. Seven treatments were tested: untreated control, agricultural NPK fertilization, high phosphate fertilization plus agricultural rates of NK, CaCO(3), "Orgro" biosolid compost, "Orgro" + CaCO(3), "Orgro" + CaCO(3) + Mn sulfate. All compost treatments alleviated Zn phytotoxicity to tall fescue; however compost combined with liming reduced plant Zn content up to 158-162 mg kg(-1). Compost added with lime reduced Pb in-vitro bioaccessibility from 32.5 to 20.4% of total Pb and was the most effective among the tested treatments. The study revealed the effectiveness of biosolids compost and lime mixture in the rapid stabilization of metals and revegetation of military range contaminated soils. The persistence of the remediation needs to be, however, confirmed in the long-term field study.

  18. Lead contamination in shooting range soils from abrasion of lead bullets and subsequent weathering.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Donald W; Ma, Lena Q; Luongo, Thomas; Harris, Willie G

    2004-07-26

    Contamination of shooting range soils from the use of Pb bullets is under increasing scrutiny. Past research on Pb contamination of shooting ranges has focused on weathering reactions of Pb bullets in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of abrasion of Pb bullets in contributing to soil Pb contamination. This was accomplished by firing a known mass of bullets into sand and analyzing for total Pb after removing bullets, through field sampling of a newly opened shooting range, and a laboratory weathering study. Forty-one mg of Pb were abraded per bullet as it passed through the sand, which accounted for 1.5% of the bullet mass being physically removed. At a shooting range that had been open for 3 months, the highest Pb concentration from the pistol range berm soil was 193 mg/kg at 0.5 m height, and from the rifle range berm soil was 1142 mg/kg at 1.0 m height. Most soils from the field abrasion experiment as well as soil collected from the rifle range had SPLP-Pb >15 microg/l (Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure). Typically, Pb concentration in the rifle range was greater than that of the pistol range. Based on a laboratory weathering study, virtually all metallic Pb was converted to hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), as well as to a lesser extent cerussite (PbCO3) and massicot (PbO) within one week. Our study demonstrated that abrasion of lead bullets and their subsequent weathering can be a significant source of lead contamination in soils of a newly opened shooting range.

  19. Weathering of lead bullets and their environmental effects at outdoor shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q; Chen, Ming; Hardison, Donald W; Harris, Willie G

    2003-01-01

    Lead contamination at shooting range soils is of great environmental concern. This study focused on weathering of lead bullets and its effect on the environment at five outdoor shooting ranges in Florida, USA. Soil, plant, and water samples were collected from the ranges and analyzed for total Pb and/or toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Pb. Selected bullet and berm soil samples were mineralogically analyzed with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2] was found in both the weathered crusts and berm soils in the shooting ranges with alkaline soil pH. For those shooting ranges with acidic soil pH, hydrocerussite, cerussite (PbCO3), and small amount of massicot (PbO) were predominantly present in the weathered crusts, but no lead carbonate mineral was found in the soils. However, hydroxypyromorphite [(Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] was formed in a P-rich acidic soil, indicating that hydroxypyromorphite can be a stable mineral in P-rich shooting range soil. Total Pb and TCLP Pb in the soils from all five shooting ranges were significantly elevated with the highest total Pb concentration of 1.27 to 4.84% (w/w) in berm soils. Lead concentrations in most sampled soils exceeded the USEPA's critical level of 400 mg Pb kg(-1) soil. Lead was not detected in subsurface soils in most ranges except for one, where elevated Pb up to 522 mg kg(-1) was observed in the subsurface, possibly due to enhanced solubilization of organic Pb complexes at alkaline soil pH. Elevated total Pb concentrations in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] (up to 806 mg kg(-1) in the aboveground parts) and in surface water (up to 289 microg L(-1)) were observed in some ranges. Ranges with high P content or high cation exchange capacity showed lower Pb mobility. Our research clearly demonstrates the importance of properly managing shooting ranges to minimize adverse effects of Pb on the environment.

  20. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet

    2005-06-16

    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr, or U

  1. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices.

  2. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices. PMID:26283517

  3. Shooting distance determination by m-XRF--examples on spectra interpretation and range estimation.

    PubMed

    Latzel, Silke; Neimke, Dieter; Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin; Niewöhner, Ludwig

    2012-11-30

    The XRF's multiple element detection capability is especially useful for the detection of gunshot residue (GSR) of modern lead-free ammunition. An elemental mapping from milli-X-ray fluorescence analysis (m-XRF) can be used in an analogous way to the chemographic imprint to determine the shooting distance. As it is possible to take the mappings of all relevant elements into account, the shooting range estimation becomes more reliable. A numerical tool is presented to display the data and to help differentiate between shooting distances. From the nature of the samples, i.e. a small amount of GSR deposited on a highly scattering background some problems arise. Examples of some major problems in spectra interpretation are stated and examples are presented. Spectra interpretation cannot be fully automated and some points need to be verified by an experienced user.

  4. Lead exposure from indoor firing ranges among students on shooting teams--Alaska, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2005-06-17

    CDC recognizes blood lead levels (BLLs) of >/=25 microg/dL in adults and >/=10 microg/dL in children aged shooting teams in the state, after a BLL of 44 microg/dL was reported in a man aged 62 years who coached a high school shooting team in central Alaska. This report summarizes the results of the EPHP investigation of potential lead exposure in 66 members of shooting teams, aged 7-19 years, who used five indoor firing ranges. The findings suggest that improper design, operation, and maintenance of ranges were the likely cause of elevated BLLs among team members at four of the five firing ranges. Public health officials should identify indoor firing ranges that have not implemented lead-safety measures and offer consultation to reduce the risk for lead exposure among shooters, coaches, and employees.

  5. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil. PMID:27391048

  6. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil.

  7. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing lead leachability in contaminated shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is the current US-EPA standard protocol to evaluate metal leachability in wastes and contaminated soils. However, application of TCLP to assess lead (Pb) leachability from contaminated shooting range soils may be questionable. This study determined Pb leachability in the range soils using TCLP and another US-EPA regulatory leaching method, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Possible mechanisms that are responsible for Pb leaching in each leaching protocol were elucidated via X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were collected from the backstop berms at four shooting ranges, with Pb concentrations ranging from 5,000 to 60,600 mg kg(-1) soil. Lead concentrations in the TCLP leachates were from 3 to 350 mg l(-1), with all but one soil exceeding the USEPA non-hazardous waste disposal limit of 5 mg l(-1). However, continued dissolution of metallic Pb particles from spent Pb bullets and its re-precipitation as cerussite (PbCO(3)) prevented the TCLP extraction from reaching equilibrium at the end of the standard leaching period (18 h). Thus, the standard one-point TCLP test would either over- or under-estimate Pb leachability in shooting range soils. Lead concentration in the SPLP leachates ranged from 0.021 to 2.6 mg l(-1), with all soils above the USEPA regulatory limit of 0.015 mg l(-1). In contrast to TCLP, SPLP leaching had reached equilibrium, with regard to both pH and Pb concentrations, within the standard 18 h leaching period, and the analytical SPLP results were in good agreement with those derived from modeling. Thus, we concluded that SPLP is a more appropriate alternative than TCLP for assessing lead leachability in range soils.

  8. Characteristics of backspatter on the firearm and shooting hand--an experimental analysis of close-range gunshots.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Brandtner, Herwig; Meyer, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    Contact and close-range gunshot injuries can produce bloodstains on the shooting hand and weapon. In this study, backspatter was analyzed in experimental horizontal pistol shots into blood-filled sponges. The shooting distances were set between 0 and 45 cm. With increasing shooting distance, there was a significant decrease in the degree of backspatter. Microspatter could be detected on the weapon and shooting hand up to a shooting distance of 40 cm. They were predominantly located on thumb and index finger as well as the radial dorsal aspects of the hand. Fine spray of microspatter combined with elongated droplets in the shape of exclamation marks was found at contact and 2-cm distance shots. An angular calculation based on the shape of the bloodstains was possible up to a shooting distance of 2 cm. No bloodstains were detected beyond 45 cm.

  9. Evaluation of exposure to airborne heavy metals at gun shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Lach, Karel; Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Mička, Vladimír; Muir, Robert B

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols formed during shooting events were studied with various techniques including the wide range size resolving sampling system Nano-ID(®) Select, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and fast mobility particle sizing. The total lead mass aerosol concentration ranged from 2.2 to 72 µg m(-3). It was shown that the mass concentration of the most toxic compound lead is much lower than the total mass concentration. The deposition fraction in various compartments of the respiratory system was calculated using the ICRP lung deposition model. It was found that the deposition fraction in the alveolar range varies by a factor >3 for the various aerosols collected, depending on the aerosol size distribution and total aerosol concentration, demonstrating the importance of size resolved sampling in health risk evaluation. The proportion of the total mass of airborne particles deposited in the respiratory tract varies from 34 to 70%, with a median of 55.9%, suggesting the health risk based upon total mass significantly overestimates the accumulated dose and therefore the health risk. A comparison between conventional and so called 'green' ammunition confirmed significant lowering of concentrations of lead and other toxic metals like antimony in the atmosphere of indoor shooting ranges using 'green' ammunition, although higher concentrations of manganese and boron were measured. These metals are likely to be the constituents of new types of primers. They occur predominantly in the size fraction <250 nm of aerosols.

  10. Colloid-facilitated Pb transport in two shooting-range soils in Florida.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianqiang; Gao, Bin; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam Kumar; Sun, Huimin; Wang, Guodong

    2010-05-15

    Shooting range soils with elevated Pb contents are of environmental concern due to their adverse impacts on human and animals. In Florida, the problem merits special attention because of Florida's sandy soil, high rainfall, and shallow groundwater level, which tend to favor Pb migration. This study used large intact soil column to examine colloid-facilitated Pb transport in two Florida shooting-range soils with different physicochemical properties (e.g., organic carbon content, pH, and clay content). Simulated rainwater (SRW) was pumped through the intact soil columns under different ionic strengths (0.07 and 5 mmol L(-1)) and flow rates (2.67, 5.30 and 10.6 cm h(-1)) to mobilize Pb and soil colloids. Our results showed that colloids dominated Pb transport in both soils and there was a significant correlation between colloids and Pb in the leachates. Decreases in ionic strength and increases in flow rate enhanced the release of both colloids and Pb in the soils. Size fraction analyses showed that in OCR soils (sandy soils with low organic carbon), most of the Pb (87%) was associated with coarse colloid fraction (0.45-8 microm). However, high Pb level (66%) was found in the dissolved and nano-sized colloid fraction (<0.1 microm) in the MPR soils (sandy soils with high organic carbon). This suggests that soil properties are important to Pb migration in soils and groundwater. Our study indicated that colloids play an important role in facilitating Pb transport in shooting range soils.

  11. Colloid-facilitated Pb transport in two shooting-range soils in Florida.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianqiang; Gao, Bin; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam Kumar; Sun, Huimin; Wang, Guodong

    2010-05-15

    Shooting range soils with elevated Pb contents are of environmental concern due to their adverse impacts on human and animals. In Florida, the problem merits special attention because of Florida's sandy soil, high rainfall, and shallow groundwater level, which tend to favor Pb migration. This study used large intact soil column to examine colloid-facilitated Pb transport in two Florida shooting-range soils with different physicochemical properties (e.g., organic carbon content, pH, and clay content). Simulated rainwater (SRW) was pumped through the intact soil columns under different ionic strengths (0.07 and 5 mmol L(-1)) and flow rates (2.67, 5.30 and 10.6 cm h(-1)) to mobilize Pb and soil colloids. Our results showed that colloids dominated Pb transport in both soils and there was a significant correlation between colloids and Pb in the leachates. Decreases in ionic strength and increases in flow rate enhanced the release of both colloids and Pb in the soils. Size fraction analyses showed that in OCR soils (sandy soils with low organic carbon), most of the Pb (87%) was associated with coarse colloid fraction (0.45-8 microm). However, high Pb level (66%) was found in the dissolved and nano-sized colloid fraction (<0.1 microm) in the MPR soils (sandy soils with high organic carbon). This suggests that soil properties are important to Pb migration in soils and groundwater. Our study indicated that colloids play an important role in facilitating Pb transport in shooting range soils. PMID:20079969

  12. The role of biochar, natural iron oxides, and nanomaterials as soil amendments for immobilizing metals in shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ahmad, Mahtab; Vithanage, Meththika; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-01

    High concentration of toxic metals in military shooting range soils poses a significant environmental concern due to the potential release of metals, such as Pb, Cu, and Sb, and hence requires remediation. The current study examined the effectiveness of buffalo weed (Ambrosia trifida L.) biomass and its derived biochars at pyrolytic temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, natural iron oxides (NRE), gibbsite, and silver nanoparticles on metal immobilization together with soil quality after 1-year soil incubation. Destructive (e.g., chemical extractions) and non-destructive (e.g., molecular spectroscopy) methods were used to investigate the immobilization efficacy of each amendment on Pb, Cu, and Sb, and to explore the possible immobilization mechanisms. The highest immobilization efficacy was observed with biochar produced at 300 °C, showing the maximum decreases of bioavailability by 94 and 70% for Pb and Cu, respectively, which were attributed to the abundance of functional groups in the biochar. Biochar significantly increased the soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and P contents. Indeed, the scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic (EXAFS) studies revealed associations of Pb with P (i.e., the formation of stable chloropyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl]) in the biomass- or biochar-amended soils. However, no amendment was effective on Sb immobilization.

  13. Effect of soil type on distribution and bioaccessibility of metal contaminants in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Bowman, Mark; McLure, Stuart

    2012-11-01

    Shooting ranges from Department of Defence sites around Australia were investigated for extent of metal contamination. Shooting range soils contained concentrations ranging from 399 to 10,403 mg/kg Pb, 6.57 to 252 mg/kg Sb, 28.7 to 1250 mg/kg Cu, 5.63 to 153 mg/kg Zn, 1.35 to 8.8 mg/kg Ni and 3.08 to 15.8 mg/kg As. Metal(loid)s were primarily concentrated in the stop butt and the surface soil (0-10 cm). The distribution of contamination reflected firing activity, soil properties, climate and management practices. Climatic variations among sites in Australia are significant, with a temperate climate in the south and tropical climate with high rainfall in the north. Up to 8% of total Pb resided in soil fines (<0.075 mm), due to the fragmentation of bullets on impact. Distribution and bioaccessibility varied between each site. Acidic Townsville soil had the highest proportion of water extractable Pb at 10%, compared to the alkaline Murray Bridge with only 2% Pb water extractable. Soil properties such as CEC, pH and dissolved organic carbon influence mobility. This is reflected in the subsoil concentrations of Pb in Townsville and Darwin which are up to 30 and 46% of surface concentration in the subsoil respectively. Similarly bioaccessibility is influenced by soil properties and ranges from 46% in Townsville to 70% in Perth. Acidic pH promotes dissolution of secondary minerals and the downward movement of Pb in the profile. The secondary Pb minerals formed as a result of weathering in these soils were cerussite, hydrocerussite, pyromorphite, galena and anglesite. Copper oxide was also reported on fragments from bullet jackets. These results have implications for range management. PMID:23026152

  14. The cetaceopteryx: A global range military transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brivkalns, Chad; English, Nicole; Kazemi, Tahmineh; Kopel, Kim; Kroger, Seth; Ortega, ED

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a military transport aircraft capable of carrying 800,000 lbs of payload from any point in the United States to any other point in the world. Such massive airlift requires aggressive use of advanced technology and a unique configuration. The Cetaceopteyx features a joined wing, canard and six turbofan engines. The aircraft has a cost 1.07 billion (1993) dollars each. This paper presents in detail the mission description, preliminary sizing, aircraft configuration, wing design, fuselage design, empennage design, propulsion system, landing gear design, structures, drag, stability and control, systems layout, and cost analysis of the aircraft.

  15. Lead contamination of an agricultural soil in the vicinity of a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Hájek, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    In this study, coupled Pb concentration/Pb isotope data were used to evaluate the effect of a shooting range (operational for over 30 years) on Pb contamination of adjacent agricultural soils and the associated environmental risks. Lead was mainly concentrated in the arable layer of the contaminated agricultural soils at total concentrations ranging from 573 to 694 mg kg(-1). Isotopic analyses ((206)Pb/(207)Pb) proved that Pb originated predominantly from the currently used pellets. Chemical fractionation analyses showed that Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction of the contaminated soil, which is in accordance with its predominant soil phases (PbO, PbCO(3)). The 0.05 M EDTA extraction showed that up to 62% of total Pb from the contaminated site is potentially mobilizable. Furthermore, Pb concentrations obtained from the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure extraction exceeded the regulatory limit set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Ion exchange resin bags showed to be inefficient for determining the vertical distribution of free Pb(2 + ) throughout the soil profile. Increased Pb concentrations were found in the biomass of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sampled at the studied site and two possible pathways of Pb uptake have been identified: (1) through passive diffusion-driven uptake by roots and (2) especially through atmospheric deposition, which was also proved by analyses of a bioindicator species (bryophyte Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.). This study showed that shooting ranges can present an important source of Pb contamination of agricultural soils located in their close vicinity.

  16. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area?

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  17. Antimony sinks in the weathering crust of bullets from Swiss shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sonia; Gieré, Reto; Newville, Matthew; Majzlan, Juraj

    2009-02-15

    Shooting ranges represent sites heavily polluted by Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni, and Zn, which are released during the weathering of bullets. The pristine bullets are made of a Pb-Sb core, Fe mantle, and minor amounts of Cu, Ni, and Zn in an interlayer between the core and mantle. At two selected sampling sites (Losone and Lucerne, both in Switzerland), corroding bullets were collected to determine the sinks of Sb within the weathering crust of the bullets. Bulk Sb concentrations in the crust were found to be as high as 1.3 wt.%. The oxalate-extractable fraction of Fe showed that the amorphous Fe oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) prevail over goethite and lepidocrocite, which were identified by bulk X-ray diffraction experiments. Crystalline Pb phases are litharge (only found by X-ray diffraction) and cerussite, which result from weathering of the Pb core. No distinct Sb minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction. Investigations with electron microprobe (EMP) showed that Sb is mostly accumulated in those regions in the weathering crust where there is also a high concentration of Fe. In the weathering crust from Losone, such Fe-rich regions with Sb are represented by material that cements or rims silicate mineral grains. The cement was identified as lepidocrocite by micro-Raman analysis. At Lucerne, Sb is found in Fe-oxide aggregates, in sawdust particles where it may be bound to organic matter, or in aggregates enriched in Pb and depleted in Fe. Bulk EXAFS experiments suggested that the Fe oxides are the most important sink for Sb. Our modelling of Sb next-nearest neighbours suggests two types of inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of Fe oxides. These are edge- and corner-sharing adsorption complexes. Hence, the predominant sink of Sb in the weathering crust of the bullets at the selected shooting ranges is Fe oxides, amorphous or crystalline.

  18. Using Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles to reduce metal mobility in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Lago, D; Rodríguez-Seijo, A; Lago-Vila, M; Couce, L Andrade; Vega, F A

    2016-11-15

    Shooting activities are a very important source of contamination as they are commonly detected high concentrations of Pb in the soils from these facilities. Different remediation methods imply the immobilization of the pollutants by decreasing their mobility and availability and nanotechnology is a promising technique in this field. The effectiveness of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNs) in the remediation of small-arms firing range and trap shooting range soils is evaluated in this work. The operationally defined extractable content of Pb, Cu and Zn is determined together with the interaction of the pollutants with the nanomaterials. Soil samples were treated with the CPNs and after the treatment the extractable contents of Cu, Pb and Zn decrease. To check the retention by the nanoparticles TOF-SIMS (Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and HR-TEM-EDS (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) techniques were applied. The association of Pb and Cu to the CPNs was demonstrated by TOF-SIMS although it also indicated that not all the Pb and Cu contents are linked to the nanoparticles. By means of HR-TEM/EDS it was made out the filamentous shape and the size (50-150nm long and 20-40nm wide) of the CPNs together with their elemental composition (Ca, P and O). The CPNs were identified in treated soil samples together with signals of metals. The decrease on metal extractability detected is, in part, due to the association with CPNs but still more investigation is needed regarding mobility and availability of potentially hazardous elements in soils treated with nanoparticles. PMID:27450953

  19. Using Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles to reduce metal mobility in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Lago, D; Rodríguez-Seijo, A; Lago-Vila, M; Couce, L Andrade; Vega, F A

    2016-11-15

    Shooting activities are a very important source of contamination as they are commonly detected high concentrations of Pb in the soils from these facilities. Different remediation methods imply the immobilization of the pollutants by decreasing their mobility and availability and nanotechnology is a promising technique in this field. The effectiveness of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNs) in the remediation of small-arms firing range and trap shooting range soils is evaluated in this work. The operationally defined extractable content of Pb, Cu and Zn is determined together with the interaction of the pollutants with the nanomaterials. Soil samples were treated with the CPNs and after the treatment the extractable contents of Cu, Pb and Zn decrease. To check the retention by the nanoparticles TOF-SIMS (Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and HR-TEM-EDS (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) techniques were applied. The association of Pb and Cu to the CPNs was demonstrated by TOF-SIMS although it also indicated that not all the Pb and Cu contents are linked to the nanoparticles. By means of HR-TEM/EDS it was made out the filamentous shape and the size (50-150nm long and 20-40nm wide) of the CPNs together with their elemental composition (Ca, P and O). The CPNs were identified in treated soil samples together with signals of metals. The decrease on metal extractability detected is, in part, due to the association with CPNs but still more investigation is needed regarding mobility and availability of potentially hazardous elements in soils treated with nanoparticles.

  20. Extreme soil acidity from biodegradable trap and skeet targets increases severity of pollution at shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    McTee, Michael R; Mummey, Daniel L; Ramsey, Philip W; Hinman, Nancy W

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution at shooting ranges overshadows the potential for contamination issues from trap and skeet targets. We studied the environmental influence of targets sold as biodegradable by determining the components of the targets and sampling soils at a former sporting clay range. Targets comprised approximately 53% CaCO3, 41% S(0), and 6% modifiers, and on a molar basis, there was 2.3 times more S(0) than CaCO3. We observed a positive correlation between target cover and SO4(2-) (ρ=0.82, P<0.001), which indicated the oxidation of S(0) to H2SO4. Sulfate was negatively correlated with pH (ρ=-0.93, P<0.001) because insufficient CaCO3 existed in the targets to neutralize all the acid produced from S(0) oxidation. Plant cover decreased with decreasing soil pH (ρ=0.62, P=0.006). For sites that had pH values below 3, 24tons of lime per 1000tons of soil would be required to raise soil pH to 6.5. Lime-facilitated pH increases would be transitory because S(0) would continue to oxidize to H2SO4 until the S(0) is depleted. This study demonstrates that biodegradable trap and skeet targets can acidify soil, which has implications for increasing the mobility of Pb from shotgun pellets.

  1. Quantitative Antimony Speciation in Shooting-Range Soils by EXAFS Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinost,A.; Rossberg, A.; Vantelon, D.; Xifra, I.; Kretzschmar, R.; Leuz, A.; Funke, H.; Johnson, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Sb speciation in soil samples from Swiss shooting ranges was determined using Sb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and advanced statistical data analysis methods (iterative transformation factor analysis, ITFA). The XAS analysis was supported by a spectral data set of 13 Sb minerals and 4 sorption complexes. In spite of a high variability in geology, soil pH (3.1-7.5), Sb concentrations (1000-17,000 mg/kg) and shooting-range history, only two Sb species were identified. In the first species, Sb is surrounded solely by other Sb atoms at radial distances of 2.90, 3.35, 4.30 and 4.51 Angstroms, indicative of metallic Sb(0). While part of this Sb(0) may be hosted by unweathered bullet fragments consisting of PbSb alloy, Pb L{sub III}-edge XAS of the soil with the highest fraction (0.75) of Sb(0) showed no metallic Pb, but only Pb{sup 2+} bound to soil organic matter. This suggests a preferential oxidation of Pb in the alloy, driven by the higher standard reduction potential of Sb. In the second species, Sb is coordinated to 6 O-atoms at a distance of 1.98 Angstroms, indicative of Sb(V). This oxidation state is further supported by an edge energy of 30,496-30,497 eV for the soil samples with <10% Sb(0). Iron atoms at radial distances of 3.10 and 3.56 Angstroms from Sb atoms are in line with edge-sharing and bidentate corner-sharing linkages between Sb(O,OH)6 and Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra. While similar structural units exist in tripuhyite, the absence of Sb neighbors contradicts formation of this Fe antimonate. Hence the second species most likely consists of inner-sphere sorption complexes on Fe oxides, with edge and corner-sharing configuration occurring simultaneously. This pentavalent Sb species was present in all samples, suggesting that it is the prevailing species after weathering of metallic Sb(0) in oxic soils. No indication of Sb(III) was found.

  2. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  3. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-06-15

    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress.

  4. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-06-15

    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress. PMID:25770944

  5. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality. PMID:27513552

  6. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants. PMID:26150282

  7. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

  8. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

  9. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  10. Impacts of two best management practices on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Gress, Julie; Gao, Jie; Ma, Lena Q

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impacts of two best management practices (BMPs) recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils. The two BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm and periodically removing bullets or shot from a berm. A column experiment corresponding to the first BMP was conducted by mixing the bullets with sand/soil, or placing bullets on the surface of sand/soil. After a 16-18-week incubation under high or low rainfall simulations, total Pb concentrations in sand were lower than that in soil. Total leachable Pb in sand (8.48 and 5.52 μg kg(-1)) was also lower than that in soil (60.0 and 30.4 μg kg(-1)) when bullets were mixed with sand/soil; however, they were comparable when bullets were placed on the sand/soil surface. These results indicate that lower Pb concentration in the sand than in soil may be attributed to reduced weathering of bullets. Mechanical removal of Pb bullets in the field transferred Pb from large to finer particles, increasing total Pb in the soil (<2 mm) from 2,170 to 5,000 mg kg(-1). In contrast, mechanical removal of Pb shot effectively reduced the shot in the soil by 86-92 %. Thus, we concluded that, while replacing soil berm with sand berm can slow down Pb weathering, it may increase Pb leachability in the long term. Removal of Pb bullets and Pb shot can be effective, but caution needs to be exercised to minimize the adverse impacts, especially in pistol/rifle ranges because of increased total Pb content in the soil.

  11. Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of Agrostis capillaris L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Seijo, Andrés; Lago-Vila, Manoel; Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A

    2016-01-01

    Pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. The aims of this study were firstly to analyze Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [CaCl2, DTPA, NH4OAc, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), and bidistilled water (BDW)] in order to determine Pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of spontaneous vegetation (Agrostis capillaris L.). To this end, 13 soils from an old trap shooting range (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. It was found that Pb levels in the soils were higher than 100 mg kg(-1), exceeding the generic reference levels, and three of these samples even exceeded the USEPA threshold level (400 mg kg(-1)). In general, the reagent that best represents Pb bioavailability and has the greatest extraction efficiency was CaCl2, followed by DTPA, NH4OAc, LMWOA, and BDW. A. capillaris Pb contents ranged between 9.82 and 1107.42 mg kg(-1) (root) and between 6.43 and 135.23 mg kg(-1) (shoot). Pb accumulation in roots, as well as the presence of secondary mineral phases of metallic Pb in the adjacent soil, showed the phytostabilization properties of A. capillaris.

  12. A case study of contaminants on military ranges: Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jay; Robb, Joe; Curry, Diane; Korte, Nic

    2004-05-01

    An extensive investigation at the Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) demonstrates that assessment of groundwater and soil contamination at military ranges can be limited primarily to explosive-related compounds such as RDX, HMX, perchlorate, TNT and their transformation products. A modified analytical method is recommended to expand the list of explosives and to improve the detection limits. Analyses of metals, VOCs, SVOCs, and TICs are unnecessary. Soil samples may require the analyses of PAHs and PCNs for burn areas. Camp Edwards, as one of the few military ranges that have been exhaustively investigated for contaminants, is an ideal point of departure for evaluating other ranges. The permeable site soils promote leaching of contaminants and inhibit biotic and abiotic transformations. Moreover, the site has experienced an unusual extent of activities in its more than ninety years of active use. The recommendations in this report are based on data obtained for more than 200 analytes from more than 15,000 environmental samples.

  13. Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2014-02-01

    Five chemical amendments (soft rock phosphate, lime, commercial phosphate amendment, red mud and magnesium oxide) were applied across four different shooting range soils to chemically stabilise metal(loid)s in the soils. Soils were contaminated with Pb between 2330 and 12,167 mg/kg, Sb from 7.4 to 325 mg/kg and soil pH ranged from 5.43 to 9.29. Amendments were tested for their ability to reduce the bioavailability of Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As in the soils to soil organisms after one year of aging, by measuring a series of ecotoxicological endpoints for earthworms and plants and soil microbial activity. Growth-based endpoints for earthworms and plants were not significantly affected by amendment addition, except in the most contaminated soil. Per cent survival and weight-loss reduction of earthworms was enhanced by amendment addition in only the most contaminated soil. Plant biomass and root elongation was not significantly affected by amendment addition (p=<0.05). Red mud and magnesium oxide appeared toxic to plants and earthworms, probably due to highly alkaline pH (9-12). Lead in soil organisms was relatively low despite the high concentrations of Pb in the soils, suggesting low bioavailability of Pb. Uptake of Pb by earthworms was reduced by between 40 and 96 per cent by amendments, but not across all soils. Amendments reduced Sb in earthworms in Townsville soil by up to 92 per cent. For lettuce the average uptake of Pb was reduced by 40 to 70 per cent with amendment addition in Townsville, Darwin and Perth soil. The effect of amendments on the uptake of Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As was variable between soils and amendments. Microbial activity was increased by greater than 50 per cent with amendments addition, with soft rock phosphate and lime being the most effective in Murray Bridge and TV soils and commercial phosphate and MgO being the most effective in Darwin and Perth soils.

  14. Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2014-02-01

    Five chemical amendments (soft rock phosphate, lime, commercial phosphate amendment, red mud and magnesium oxide) were applied across four different shooting range soils to chemically stabilise metal(loid)s in the soils. Soils were contaminated with Pb between 2330 and 12,167 mg/kg, Sb from 7.4 to 325 mg/kg and soil pH ranged from 5.43 to 9.29. Amendments were tested for their ability to reduce the bioavailability of Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As in the soils to soil organisms after one year of aging, by measuring a series of ecotoxicological endpoints for earthworms and plants and soil microbial activity. Growth-based endpoints for earthworms and plants were not significantly affected by amendment addition, except in the most contaminated soil. Per cent survival and weight-loss reduction of earthworms was enhanced by amendment addition in only the most contaminated soil. Plant biomass and root elongation was not significantly affected by amendment addition (p=<0.05). Red mud and magnesium oxide appeared toxic to plants and earthworms, probably due to highly alkaline pH (9-12). Lead in soil organisms was relatively low despite the high concentrations of Pb in the soils, suggesting low bioavailability of Pb. Uptake of Pb by earthworms was reduced by between 40 and 96 per cent by amendments, but not across all soils. Amendments reduced Sb in earthworms in Townsville soil by up to 92 per cent. For lettuce the average uptake of Pb was reduced by 40 to 70 per cent with amendment addition in Townsville, Darwin and Perth soil. The effect of amendments on the uptake of Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As was variable between soils and amendments. Microbial activity was increased by greater than 50 per cent with amendments addition, with soft rock phosphate and lime being the most effective in Murray Bridge and TV soils and commercial phosphate and MgO being the most effective in Darwin and Perth soils. PMID:24287010

  15. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH.

  16. Mapping and modeling three dimensional lead contamination in the wetland sediments of a former trap-shooting range.

    PubMed

    Perroy, Ryan L; Belby, Colin S; Mertens, Cody J

    2014-07-15

    Legacy lead (Pb) contamination from sport shooting activities is a well-known hazard. Assessing the risk this contamination presents to the environment and public health requires a detailed understanding of its spatial distribution, yet our knowledge in this area is limited, especially for wetland shooting ranges. In this study, we analyzed 1351 sediment samples from 456 surficial (0-5 cm) locations and 38 sediment cores (0.3 to 0.9 m) to quantify the three dimensional spatial distribution of Pb contamination in an urban wetland at the site of a former trap shooting range located in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. Non-destructive X-ray images of the sediment cores were used to quantify Pb shot abundance and burial depth. Surficial and core sediment samples were processed and analyzed for total Pb content via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. X-ray and XRF results were interpolated to create a three-dimensional model of Pb shot density and sediment concentration across the study area. Over 31,000 m(3) of sediment surpassed the US Environmental Protection Agency's contamination threshold of 400mg/kg Pb, with a maximum calibrated value of 26,700 mg/kg Pb occurring near the center of the expected shot fallout zone. Shot densities of >50,000 pellets/m(2) were found in the shot fallout zone, primarily 10-30 cm below the sediment surface. X-ray image analysis and XRF analysis of sediment cores provide an accurate and inexpensive technique for rapidly mapping Pb contamination associated with gun clubs and hunting; these findings will benefit environmental contamination studies and remediation efforts at active and abandoned shooting ranges worldwide.

  17. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH. PMID:25894550

  18. Effect of heavy metal contaminated shooting range soils on mycorrhizal colonization of roots and metal uptake by leek.

    PubMed

    Mozafar, A; Ruh, R; Klingel, P; Gamper, H; Egli, S; Frossard, E

    2002-10-01

    We grew leek (Allium porrum) in soils of two shooting ranges heavily contaminated with heavy metals in the towns of Zuchwil and Oberuzwil in Switzerland as a bioassay to test the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in these soils. Soil samples were taken from (1) front of the shooting house (HOUSE), (2) the area between house and target (FIELD) and (3) the berm (BACKSTOP). Samples of Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) growing naturally within the shooting ranges were also collected and the colonization of its roots by mycorrhizal fungi was measured. The number of AM spores in the soils was significantly reduced concomitant with the increase in the degree of soil contamination with metals. In Zuchwil, mycorrhizal fungi equally colonized roots of Ribwort plantain sampled from BACKSTOP and HOUSE. In Oberuzwil, however, plants from BACKSTOP had lower colonization when compared with those sampled from HOUSE. Colonization of leek was strongly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Zuchwil and slightly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Oberuzwil when compared with plants grown in respective HOUSE soil. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of leek grown in the BACKSTOP soil was within the range considered toxic for human consumption. This points to the high degree of bioavailability of these metal in these soils. Significant decrease in the number of mycorrhizal spores in the BACKSTOP soils in Zuchwil and the low colonization of leek roots grown in these soils point to possible changes in the species diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in these soils. PMID:12413302

  19. Effectiveness of best management practices in reducing Pb-bullet weathering in a shooting range in Florida.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianqiang; Saha, Uttam K; Ma, Lena Q

    2010-07-15

    This field study evaluated the effectiveness of three best management practices (BMPs) in reducing the weathering of Pb-bullets in a shooting range. The BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm, liming sand berm, and removing Pb-bullets from soil berm. Berm samples were collected before and after implementing BMPs and analyzed for total Pb and/or water-soluble Pb. After 11 months of operation, the total Pb concentrations in the sand berm (57 mg kg(-1)) were significantly lower than that in the soil berm (277 mg kg(-1)). The reduced weathering of Pb-bullets in the sand berm was attributed to its lower moisture content and organic matter as both water and CO(2) are critical in chemical weathering. Though liming reduced total Pb concentrations in the sand berm from 497-777 to 302-362 mg kg(-1) after 15 months of application, it increased water-soluble Pb in some cases. While removal of Pb-bullets removed the sources of Pb, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that its abrasive action transferred metallic Pb to the soil fraction (<2 mm), with total Pb in soil berm increasing from 4,694 to 11,479 mg kg(-1). While all BMPs can be applied to mange Pb in shooting ranges, cautions need to be excised to minimize the adverse impacts.

  20. Extractability and leachability of Pb in a shooting range soil amended with poultry litter ash: investigations for immobilization potentials.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-05-01

    The use of agricultural and industrial by-products as a metal immobilizing agent is cost effective for remediation of vast amounts of contaminated soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of an amendment (poultry litter ash) on immobilizing Pb in a shooting range soil. For a contaminant transport study, the soil admixed with amendment at the rate of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 3 and 6%(w/w) was packed into soil columns and eluted solutions were collected through 40 pore volumes. The amendment application significantly reduced the concentrations of water-extractable and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Pb by > 96% and > 97% of control, respectively. The contaminant transport study demonstrated that increasing amendment additions up to 3% decreased eluted Pb concentration below 0.5 mg L(-1). The X-ray diffraction peaks indicative of chloropyromorphite were observed in the soil of the 1 and 3% treatments, but were less intense in the 0.5 and 6% treatments. The 6% treatment had an eluted Pb concentration of 13 mg L(-1) at the first pore volume and significantly increased the total Pb elution (38 mg kg(-1)), mainly due to a drastic increase of organically complexed Pb as a result of soil alkalinization. These results suggest that poultry litter ash may have potential for immobilizing Pb in shooting range sites, if the soil pH is properly managed. PMID:19337921

  1. Chemical Speciation and Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Hazards in Two Army Shooting Range Backstop Soils.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    The chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in two shooting range backstop soils in Korea were studied. Both soils were highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sb. The chemical speciation of heavy metals reflected the present status of contamination, which could help in promoting management practices. We-rye soil had a higher proportion of exchangeable and carbonate bound metals and water-extractable Cd and Sb than the Cho-do soil. Bioavailable Pb represented 42 % of the total Pb content in both soils. A significant amount of Sb was found in the two most bioavailable fractions, amounting to ~32 % in the soil samples, in good agreement with the batch leaching test using water. Based on the values of ecological risk indices, both soils showed extremely high potential risk and may represent serious environmental problems.

  2. Application of Hybrid Laminar Flow Control to Global Range Military Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the application of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to global range military transport aircraft. The global mission included the capability to transport 132,500 pounds of payload 6500 nautical miles, land and deliver the payload and without refueling return 6500 nautical miles to a friendly airbase. The preliminary design studies show significant performance benefits obtained for the HLFC aircraft as compared to counterpart turbulent flow aircraft. The study results at M=0.77 show that the largest benefits of HLFC are obtained with a high wing with engines on the wing configuration. As compared with the turbulent flow baseline aircraft, the high wing HLFC aircraft shows 17 percent reduction in fuel burned, 19.2 percent increase in lift-to-drag ratio, an insignificant increase in operating weight, and a 7.4 percent reduction in gross weight.

  3. Apatite ore mine tailings as an amendment for remediation of a lead-contaminated shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Salla H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the use of tailings from apatite ore beneficiation in the remediation of a heavily contaminated shooting range soil. The tailings originating in Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland, consist of apatite residues accompanied by phlogopite and calcite. In a pot experiment, organic top layer of a boreal forest soil predisposed to pellet-derived lead (Pb) was amended with tailings of various particle-sizes (Ø>0.2mm, Ø<0.2mm and unsieved material) differing in their mineralogical composition. After 9-, 10-, 14- and 21-month incubation, the samples were monitored for tailings-induced changes in the different Pb pools by means of sequential fractionation. Following the incubation, the samples were extracted with water and the extracts were analyzed for Pb species distribution by means of a cation exchange resin. The results revealed that Pb was continuously released from the shotgun pellet fragments due to weathering. However, the apatite and calcite compartments in the tailings counteracted the mobility of the released Pb through the formation of sparingly soluble fluorpyromorphite and cerussite. Furthermore, the tailings efficiently reduced the bioavailability of Pb by transferring it from the water-soluble and exchangeable pools into the organic one. The material also increased the proportion of the less toxic non-cationic Pb to the total dissolved Pb from the initial level of 5% to 9-12%. The results suggest that the tailings-induced stabilization of Pb may be an environmentally sound remediation technique at polluted sites. PMID:21871651

  4. Apatite ore mine tailings as an amendment for remediation of a lead-contaminated shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Salla H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the use of tailings from apatite ore beneficiation in the remediation of a heavily contaminated shooting range soil. The tailings originating in Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland, consist of apatite residues accompanied by phlogopite and calcite. In a pot experiment, organic top layer of a boreal forest soil predisposed to pellet-derived lead (Pb) was amended with tailings of various particle-sizes (Ø>0.2mm, Ø<0.2mm and unsieved material) differing in their mineralogical composition. After 9-, 10-, 14- and 21-month incubation, the samples were monitored for tailings-induced changes in the different Pb pools by means of sequential fractionation. Following the incubation, the samples were extracted with water and the extracts were analyzed for Pb species distribution by means of a cation exchange resin. The results revealed that Pb was continuously released from the shotgun pellet fragments due to weathering. However, the apatite and calcite compartments in the tailings counteracted the mobility of the released Pb through the formation of sparingly soluble fluorpyromorphite and cerussite. Furthermore, the tailings efficiently reduced the bioavailability of Pb by transferring it from the water-soluble and exchangeable pools into the organic one. The material also increased the proportion of the less toxic non-cationic Pb to the total dissolved Pb from the initial level of 5% to 9-12%. The results suggest that the tailings-induced stabilization of Pb may be an environmentally sound remediation technique at polluted sites.

  5. Effect of organic amendment and plant roots on the solubility and mobilization of lead in soils at a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H; Kairesalo, T

    2006-01-01

    Lead (Pb) dissolving gradually from spent pellets constitutes a serious environmental risk in and near shooting ranges, and remediation measures are necessary to prevent its movement to deeper soil layers and ground water. In this study, the effectiveness of organic amendment and plant roots in stabilizing Pb was assessed in a microcosm experiment. Planted (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and unplanted microcosms consisting of coarse-textured mineral soil covered with Pb-contaminated humic topsoil were coated with uncontaminated peat layers of 1 to 3 cm and incubated for 77 d. In a percolation test, the microcosms were washed with ultra pure water to simulate heavy rain so as to rinse water-soluble lead (Pbw) from the topsoil layer. Although Pbw remained below detection limits in the mineral soils in all test units, acid-soluble lead (Pba) increased. Peat amendment diminished Pba in the mineral soil layer, this effect being more pronounced in planted soils, indicating that Pb was taken up by the plants. The percolation test showed that the effect of Scots pine seedlings on Pb movement was minor when peat was added. A long-term dissolution test revealed that considerably more Pb was released from old pellets into soil extracts than from new ones, whereas only traces of Pb, if any, were dissolved in sterilized pure water.

  6. Lead contamination of an old shooting range affecting the local ecosystem--A case study with a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Minna-Liisa; Torkkeli, Minna; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to uncover the consequences of lead pellet-derived heavy lead contamination at a cast-off shooting range in southern Finland, covering aspects from soil chemistry and biology up to ecosystem level. The observed changes in the soil properties of the most contaminated areas suggest that the contamination may be disturbing processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralisation. Also two functionally important groups of soil organisms, microbes (as analysed using the PLFA analysis) and enchytraeid worms, were negatively affected by the contamination. Furthermore, there was an indication of reduced pine litter production at the contaminated areas. On the other hand, lead contamination appears not to have affected pine growth or soil-dwelling nematodes and microarthropods, and the general outlook of the whole ecosystem is that of a healthy forest. Thus, the boreal forest ecosystem studied as a whole appears to bear strong resistance to contamination, despite negative effects of lead on many of its components. This resistance may result from e.g. low bioavailability of lead, avoidance of the most contaminated soil horizons and microsites by the organisms, and functional redundancy and development of lead-tolerant populations amongst the organisms. The relative importance of these factors and the mechanisms behind them will be investigated in forthcoming studies.

  7. Use of sorbents for purification of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from small arms shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Ljønes, Marita; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2012-12-01

    Different sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb in drainage water from a shooting range. The sorbents tested were: Brimac(®) charcoal, olivine mixed with elemental iron powder, magnetite and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 84%, 66%, 85% with Brimac(®) charcoal and 58%, 78% and 69% with Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. Good sorption of Cu and Pb was achieved using olivine with 5% elemental Fe powder, which resulted in a sorption of 81% and 87%, respectively. The Fe-olivine filters were less efficient in reducing the concentration of Sb, but increasing the Fe content improved Sb sorption. In periods with high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb in the creek, such as during precipitation, the sorbent efficacy improved. This might be due to changes in the physico-chemical form of the metals, or to a higher fraction of elements being physically retained in the form of particles or colloids. PMID:23122729

  8. The Success of a National Dialogue on Sustainable Military Range Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lenny

    2003-01-01

    Military munitions are the silent giant of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the United States. Toward the end of the first Clinton administration, the Navy and Air Force prevailed upon the Army--the armed service with the biggest ordnance problem--to consider co-sponsoring a formal dialogue on military munitions facilitated by the…

  9. Efficiency of liming in controlling the mobility of lead in shooting range soils as assessed by different experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H

    2007-12-15

    Shooting range soils contaminated by lead (Pb) are a great environmental risk. Reducing mobility and leaching of Pb by liming, for example, has produced contradictory results. This laboratory study compares the efficiency of two liming agents differing in their reactivity, CaCO(3) and blast furnace slag (BFS), in diminishing the mobility of Pb. In a batch test, contaminated humic soil samples were incubated in closed vessels without and with liming materials added in quantities to correspond additions of 5 t ha(-1). Water soluble Pb (Pb(w)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soils were monitored for 21 days. In the experiment carried out with freely drained vessels, contaminated humic soil treated without and with liming agents was leached five times during the experimental period of 141 days. Leachates were analyzed for pH, DOC and Pb. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were analyzed for pH, DOC, Pb(w), and SIR. In both systems, CaCO(3) raised pH and DOC more than BFS. The liming agents did not significantly differ in their effect on Pb chemistry. Neither had any effect on SIR: however, liming agents markedly reduced the leaching of Pb in the open system, while in the closed system they increased rather than reduced the extractability of Pb. Incubation in a closed vessel proved not to be a suitable experimental system for Pb mobility estimation, since the ionic strength may be raised to abnormal levels, resulting from accumulated reaction products of liming agents.

  10. Environmental assessment on a soil washing process of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Moon, Deok-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on a soil washing process for the remediation of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site was conducted, using a green and sustainable remediation tool, i.e., SiteWise ver. 2, based on data relating specifically to the actual remediation project. The entire soil washing process was classified into four major stages, consisting of soil excavation (stage I), physical separation (stage II), acid-based (0.2 N HCl) chemical extraction (stage III), and wastewater treatment (stage IV). Environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, water consumption, and critical air pollutant productions such as PM10, NO x , and SO x , were calculated, and the relative contribution of each stage was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In stage I, the relative contribution of the PM10 emissions was 55.3 % because the soil excavation emitted the fine particles. In stage II, the relative contribution of NO x and SO x emissions was 42.5 and 52.5 %, respectively, which resulted from electricity consumption for the operation of the separator. Stage III was the main contributing factor to 63.1 % of the GHG emissions, 67.5 % of total energy used, and 37.4 % of water consumptions. The relatively high contribution of stage III comes from use of consumable chemicals such as HCl and water-based extraction processes. In stage IV, the relative contributions of GHG emissions, total energy used, and NO x and SO x emissions were 23.2, 19.4, 19.5, and 25.3 %, respectively, which were caused by chemical and electricity demands for system operation. In conclusion, consumable chemicals such as HCl and NaOH, electric energy consumption for system operation, and equipment use for soil excavation were determined to be the major sources of environmental pollution to occur during the soil washing process. Especially, the acid-based chemical extraction process should be avoided in order to improve the sustainability of soil

  11. Impacts of chemical amendment and plant growth on lead speciation and enzyme activities in a shooting range soil: an x-ray absorption fine structure investigation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Matsufuru, Hiroki; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanida, Hajime; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical immobilization is a practical remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils because of its capability to reduce cost and environmental impacts. We assessed the immobilization effects of poultry waste amendment and plant growth (Panicum maximum Jacq.) on Pb speciation and enzyme activities in shooting range soils. Soil contaminated with Pb was obtained from the top 20 cm of a shooting range. To evaluate Pb mobility in the soil profile treated with plants and immobilizing amendment, we used large columns filled with Pb-contaminated soil (0-20 cm, surface soils) and non-contaminated soil (20-75 cm, subsurface soils). The column study demonstrated that the amendment reduced the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-extractable Pb in the surface soil by 90% of the Control soil. Lead mobility from the surface to subsurface profiles was significantly attenuated by plant growth but was promoted by the amendment without plant application. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed that the amendment reduced the proportion of PbCO(3) and Pb-organic complexes and transformed them into a more geochemically stable species of Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl with 30 to 35% of the total Pb species. Applications of plant and amendment increased activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase in the surface soil with 2.7- and 1.1-fold greater than those in Control, respectively. The use of amendments in combination with plant growth may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  12. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study.

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl-Alexander; Amstaetter, Katja; Bue, Helga Lassen; Herzel, Hannes; Mariussen, Espen; Rossebø Almås, Åsgeir; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Rasmussen, Grete; Mulder, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349μgL(-1)) and Pb (7-1495μgPbL(-1)) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe°) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil.

  13. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study.

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl-Alexander; Amstaetter, Katja; Bue, Helga Lassen; Herzel, Hannes; Mariussen, Espen; Rossebø Almås, Åsgeir; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Rasmussen, Grete; Mulder, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349μgL(-1)) and Pb (7-1495μgPbL(-1)) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe°) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil. PMID:26799225

  14. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents. PMID:25527987

  15. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents.

  16. Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1 year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1 year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50 %. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils. PMID:23807560

  17. Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1 year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1 year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50 %. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils.

  18. Secondary shock features for large surface explosions: results from the Sayarim Military Range, Israel and other experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A series of surface explosions was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert, including two large-scale explosions: approx. 82 tons of high explosives in 2009, and approx. 100 tons of low-grade ANFO explosives in 2011. The main goal of the explosions was to provide large controlled sources for calibration of global infrasound stations designated for monitoring nuclear tests; however, the geophysical experiment also provided valuable observations for shock wave research. High-pressure gauges were deployed at distances between 100 and 600 m to record air blast properties and to provide reliable estimation of the true charge yield compared to the design value. Secondary shock phenomena were clearly observed at all near-source gauges as characteristic shock wave shapes. Secondary shocks were also observed at numerous seismic and acoustic sensors deployed in the range 0.3-20 km as acoustic phases. Empirical relationships for standard air blast parameters (peak pressure and impulse) and for a new parameter called secondary shock time delay, as a function of distance, were established and analyzed. The standard parameters, scaled by the cubic root of the estimated TNT yield, were found to be consistent for all analyzed explosions. However, the scaled secondary shock delays were clearly separated for the 2009 and 2011 explosions, thus demonstrating dependence on the explosive type. Additionally, air blast records from other experiments were used to extend the charge and distance ranges for the secondary shock observation, and showed consistency with the Sayarim data. Analysis and interpretation of observed features of the secondary shock phenomenon are proposed and a new empirical relationship of scaled secondary shock delay versus scaled distance is established. The results suggest that the secondary shock delay can be used as a new additional waveform feature for simple and cost-effective explosive

  19. Assessment of Soil-Gas and Soil Contamination at the Former Military Police Range, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas and soil were assessed for organic and inorganic contaminants at the former military police range at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from May to September 2010. The assessment evaluated organic contaminants in soil-gas samplers and inorganic contaminants in soil samples. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Soil-gas samplers deployed and collected from May 20 to 24, 2010, identified masses above method detection level for total petroleum hydrocarbons, gasoline-related and diesel-related compounds, and chloroform. Most of these detections were in the southwestern quarter of the study area and adjacent to the road on the eastern boundary of the site. Nine of the 11 chloroform detections were in the southern half of the study area. One soil-gas sampler deployed adjacent to the road on the southern boundary of the site detected a mass of tetrachloroethene greater than, but close to, the method detection level of 0.02 microgram. For soil-gas samplers deployed and collected from September 15 to 22, 2010, none of the selected organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives were detected above method detection levels. Inorganic concentrations in the five soil samples collected at the site did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional screening levels for industrial soil and were at or below background levels for similar rocks and strata in South Carolina.

  20. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  1. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  2. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-15

    Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700°C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals' (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils. PMID:26355413

  3. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-15

    Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700°C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals' (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  4. Viminaria juncea does not vary its shoot phosphorus concentration and only marginally decreases its mycorrhizal colonization and cluster-root dry weight under a wide range of phosphorus supplies

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Mariana C. R.; Pearse, Stuart J.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The Australian legume species Viminaria juncea forms both cluster roots and mycorrhizal associations. The aim of this study was to identify if these root specializations are expressed at differential supplies of phosphorus (P) and at different shoot P concentrations [P]. Methods Seedlings were planted in sand and provided with a mycorrhizal inoculum and basal nutrients plus one of 21 P treatments, ranging from 0 to 50 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks, and roots, shoots and cluster roots were measured for length and fresh and dry weight. The number of cluster roots, the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and shoot [P] were determined. Key Results Shoot biomass accumulation increased with increasing P supply until a shoot dry weight of 3 g was reached at a P supply of approx. 27·5 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Neither cluster-root formation nor mycorrhizal colonization was fully suppressed at the highest P supply. Most intriguingly, shoot [P] did not differ across treatments, with an average of 1·4 mg P kg−1 shoot dry weight. Conclusions The almost constant shoot [P] in V. juncea over the very wide range of P supplies is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. To maintain these stable values, this species down-regulates its growth rate when no P is supplied; conversely, it down-regulates its P-uptake capacity very tightly at the highest P supplies, when its maximum growth rate has been reached. It is proposed that the persistence of cluster roots and mycorrhizal colonization up to the highest P treatments is a consequence of its tightly controlled shoot [P]. This unusual P physiology of V. juncea is surmised to be related to the habitat of this N2-fixing species. Water and nutrients are available at a low but steady supply for most of the year, negating the need for storage of P which would be metabolically costly and be at the expense of metabolic energy and P available for symbiotic N2 fixation. PMID:23456689

  5. Military audiological aspects in noise-induced hearing losses.

    PubMed

    Salmivalli, A

    1979-01-01

    The sound pressure of a single shot ranges from about 165 up to 190 dB, depending on the type of weapon. In general, most shooting practice is carried out from a sheltered shooting gallery. Groupshooting and multiple reverberations from sheltered galleries maximize the acoustic strain. Clinically the acoustic trauma can be considered to be a combination of both acute and chronic noise injury, because very intense impulse noise, such as gunfire, can injure the inner ear both mechanically and by mean of disturbances in metabolism. When the ears are not protected, acoustic trauma develops in about 10% of military conscripts and 60% of regular army personnel.

  6. Sorption of dissolved lead from shooting range soils using hydroxyapatite amendments synthesized from industrial byproducts as affected by varying pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-04-01

    For immobilization technologies to be successful, the use of readily available and cost advantageous amendment is important when the remediation targets vast amounts of contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the byproduct-synthesized hydroxyapatite can be used as an immobilizing amendment for dissolved Pb from a shooting range soil, and to model the kinetic data collected from dissolution experiments. A soil-solution kinetic experiment was conducted under fixed pH conditions as a function of time. A Pb-contaminated soil was reacted with various hydroxyapatite amendments to determine the dissolution rate and mineral products of soil Pb. Three types of amendments used were pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatites synthesized from gypsum waste (CHA), and synthesized from incinerated poultry litter (PHA). The dissolved Pb concentration decreased with the addition of amendments at pH 3-7. Both CHA and PHA were more effective than HA for attenuating Pb dissolution at pH 6 and above. According to the thermodynamic calculation at pH 6, the dissolved Pb concentration for CHA and PHA treatments was predicted to be 66% and 50% lower than that of HA treatment, respectively. A better Pb immobilization effect demonstrated by CHA and PHA resulted in their greater solubility at higher pH, which may promote the formation of chloropyromorphite precipitates. Dissolution kinetics of soil Pb was adequately explained by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in acid pH ranges. According to the ion exchange model, an adequate agreement between the experimental data and regression curves was shown in the initial 40 min of the reaction process, but the accuracy of model predictability decreased thereafter. According to kinetic models and dissolution phenomena, CHA and PHA amendments had better Pb sorption capacity with rapid kinetics than pure hydroxyapatite at weak acid to neutral pH.

  7. Speciation of lead, copper, zinc and antimony in water draining a shooting range--time dependant metal accumulation and biomarker responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    PubMed

    Heier, Lene Sørlie; Lien, Ivar B; Strømseng, Arnljot E; Ljønes, Marita; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Salbu, Brit

    2009-06-15

    The speciation of Pb, Cu, Zn and Sb in a shooting range run-off stream were studied during a period of 23 days. In addition, metal accumulation in gills and liver, red blood cell ALA-D activity, hepatic metallothionine (Cd/Zn-MT) and oxidative stress index (GSSG/ tGSH levels) in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to the stream were investigated. Fish, contained in cages, were exposed and sampled after 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 23 days of exposure. Trace metals in the water were fractionated in situ according to size (nominal molecular mass) and charge properties. During the experimental period an episode with higher runoff occurred resulting in increased levels of metals in the stream. Pb and Cu were mainly found as high molecular mass species, while Zn and Sb were mostly present as low molecular mass species. Pb, Cu and Sb accumulated on gills, in addition to Al origination from natural sources in the catchment. Pb, Cu and Sb were also detected at elevated concentration in the liver. Blood glucose and plasma Na and Cl levels were significantly altered during the exposure period, and are attributed to elevated concentrations of Pb, Cu and Al. A significant suppression of ALA-D was detected after 11 days. Significant differences were detected in Cd/Zn-MT and oxidative stress (tGSH/GSSG) responses at Day 4. For Pb the results show a clear link between the HMM (high molecular mass) positively charged Pb species, followed by accumulation on gills and liver and a suppression in ALA-D. Thus, high flow episodes can remobilise metals from the catchment, inducing stress to aquatic organisms.

  8. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  9. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  10. Shoot dieback in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field evaluation found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining p...

  11. A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

    1973-01-01

    Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

  12. Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janet L. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Forging Partnerships into the Twenty-First Century" (Brown); "Uncle Sam Wants You to Go to School!" (Perez); "Maintaining Educational Access" (Kelly); "College on Military Bases" (Anderson); "Air Force Members Set High Goals for Continuing Education" (Hoban); "Post-Secondary Education for Military Students through Contracting" (Erdman);…

  13. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Risch, James E. [R-ID

    2014-07-16

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Labrador, Raul R. [R-ID-1

    2014-07-09

    11/18/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Mechanism of shoot gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A better understanding of the cellular basis of plant shoot gravitropism was sought. A critical evaluation of the role of auxin gravitropism was provided. An alternative hypothesis which links Ca(42) fluxes to the asymmetric growth that leads to gravicurvature was evaluated.

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  18. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  19. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  20. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  1. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. Methods We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Results Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10−9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to −197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5

  2. The endodermis and shoot gravitropism

    PubMed

    Tasaka, M; Kato, T; Fukaki, H

    1999-03-01

    Shoots and roots of higher plants exhibit negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. A variety of gravitropic mutants have recently been isolated from Arabidopsis, the characterization of which demonstrates that the molecular mechanisms of the gravitropic responses in roots, hypocotyls and inflorescence stems are different. The cytological and molecular analysis of two mutants, shoot gravitropism 1 (sgrl), which is allelic to scarecrow (scr), and sgr7, which is allelic to short-root(shr), indicate that the endodermis is the site of gravity perception in shoots. These data suggest a new model for shoot gravitropism.

  3. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  4. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

  5. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  6. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  7. The Clinton military budget

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. )

    1993-05-01

    In February, the Clinton administration presented the overall contours, if not the details, of its military budget plans for the next five years. $263.5 billion was requested in new budget authority for fiscal 1994. By fiscal 1995, according to the administration blueprint, the budget would be reduced to about $250 billion annually. The three points that stand out, apart from the modest nature of the reductions from the previous administration's five-year Pentagon plan, are discussed in this article. First, the Clinton team downplayed the magnitude of the cutbacks. Second, the Clinton reductions generated great confusion, as an extraordinary range of numbers was banded about. Third, the pro-military members of Congress were remarkably quiet about the Clinton defense plan. Explanations and implications of these points are explained.

  8. Neurophysiological responses to gun-shooting errors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowen; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the neural responses to errors in a shooting game - and how these neural responses may relate to behavioral performance - by examining the ERP components related to error detection (error-related negativity; ERN) and error awareness (error-related positivity; Pe). The participants completed a Shooter go/no-go task, which required them to shoot at armed targets using a gaming gun, and avoid shooting innocent non-targets. The amplitude of the ERN and Pe was greater for shooting errors than correct shooting responses. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by incorrect shooting appeared to have good internal reliability. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by shooting behaviors also predicted better behavioral sensitivity towards shoot/don't-shoot stimuli. These results suggest that it is possible to obtain online brain response measures to shooting responses and that neural responses to shooting are predictive of behavioral responses. PMID:25448268

  9. Neurophysiological responses to gun-shooting errors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowen; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the neural responses to errors in a shooting game - and how these neural responses may relate to behavioral performance - by examining the ERP components related to error detection (error-related negativity; ERN) and error awareness (error-related positivity; Pe). The participants completed a Shooter go/no-go task, which required them to shoot at armed targets using a gaming gun, and avoid shooting innocent non-targets. The amplitude of the ERN and Pe was greater for shooting errors than correct shooting responses. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by incorrect shooting appeared to have good internal reliability. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by shooting behaviors also predicted better behavioral sensitivity towards shoot/don't-shoot stimuli. These results suggest that it is possible to obtain online brain response measures to shooting responses and that neural responses to shooting are predictive of behavioral responses.

  10. Optimal Physical Training During Military Basic Training Period.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Viskari, Jarmo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    The goal for military basic training (BT) is to create a foundation for physical fitness and military skills of soldiers. Thereafter, more advanced military training can safely take place. Large differences in the initial physical performance of conscripts or recruits have led military units to develop more safe and effective training programs. The purpose of this review article was to describe the limiting factors of optimal physical training during the BT period. This review revealed that the high volume of low-intensity physical activity combined with endurance-type military training (like combat training, prolonged physical activity, and field shooting) during BT interferes with optimal development of maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength of the soldiers. Therefore, more progressive, periodized, and individualized training programs are needed. In conclusion, optimal training programs lead to higher training responses and lower risks for injuries and overloading.

  11. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships. PMID:15449854

  12. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  13. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  14. Occupational exposure to impulse noise associated with shooting.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jóźków, Paweł; Mędraś, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Shooting training is associated with exposure to a considerable amount of unique noise. We wanted to evaluate noise exposure during such training. Our observations especially apply to professional sport shooters, but they are also valid for shooting coaches/instructors. We collected acoustic signals in 10-, 25- and 50-m as well as open-air shooting ranges. The recorded material was analysed with orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur. The mean duration of a single acoustic signal was 250-800 ms with the C-weighted sound peak pressure level of 138.2-165.2 dB. Shooters may be exposed to as many as 600-1350 acoustic impulses during a training unit. The actual load for the hearing organ of a professional shooter or a shooting coach is ~200 000 acoustic stimuli in a year-long training macrocycle. Orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur makes safe scheduling of shooters' training possible. PMID:21375955

  15. Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball.

    PubMed

    Applegate, R A; Applegate, R A

    1992-10-01

    Common sense suggests that decreasing visual acuity will have a negative effect on basketball shooting performance. To test the hypothesis that basketball shooting performance monotonically decreases with decreasing acuity, 19 subjects attempted 25 set shots from a fixed location at each of 5 different acuity levels: 6/6 or better and vision blurred (by optical defocus) to visual acuities of 6/12, 6/24, 6/48, and 6/75. Our results revealed a small but statistically nonsignificant decrease in shooting performance between the 6/6+ and 6/12 conditions. For visual acuities between 6/12 and 6/75, the number of baskets made remained constant. We conclude that decreases in visual acuity over the range of 6/6+ to 6/75 resulting from defocus do not significantly reduce set shot shooting performance.

  16. Reforming the Military Health Care System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slackman, Joel

    Serious problems beset the military's extensive system of health care: rising budgetary costs, dissatisfaction among its beneficiaries, and inadequate readiness for war. This report was written at the request of the House Committee on Armed Services to examine some of these issues. It looks at a range of possible reforms in the military health…

  17. Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Adam T; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and a critical shooting error-response inhibition and firing on civilians, respectively. Individual-difference measures demonstrated, perhaps counterintuitively, that simulated civilian casualties were not related to motor impulsivity (i.e., an itchy trigger finger) but rather to an individual's cognitive ability to withhold an already initiated response (i.e., an itchy brain). Furthermore, active-response-inhibition training reduced simulated civilian casualties, which revealed a causal relationship. This study therefore illustrates the potential of using cognitive training to possibly improve shooting performance, which might ultimately provide insight for military and law-enforcement personnel.

  18. Safety and streamlining of woody shoots in wind: an empirical study across 39 species in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Don W; Gleason, Sean M; Davidson, Ian; Onoda, Yusuke; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    • Wind is a key mechanical stress for woody plants, so how do shoot traits affect performance in wind? • We used a vehicle mounted apparatus to measure drag, streamlining and mechanical safety in 127 vertical lead-shoots, 1.2 m long, across 39 species in tropical Australia. • Shoot dimensions and stem tissue properties were closely coupled so that shoots with low stem specific gravity or larger projected area had thicker stems. Thicker stems provide larger second moment of area (I), which increased shoot safety and bending stiffness but impeded shoot reconfiguration in strong winds, including frontal area reduction. Nonetheless, increasing I also improved streamlining. Streamlining was unrelated to traits except I. Stem tissue material properties only had small effects. Higher modulus of rupture increased shoot safety and higher Young's modulus impeded shoot reconfiguration. • We found no conflict between bending stiffness and streamlining for woody shoots. Stiffness might help streamlining by increasing damping and stability, thereby reducing flagging in wind. Tissue-level traits did influence shoot-level mechanical safety and behaviour, but shoot geometry was much more important. Variable shoot and stem traits, which all influenced shoot biomechanics, were integrated in shoots to yield a relatively narrow range of outcomes in wind.

  19. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  20. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  1. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  2. Literacy Instruction in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Thomas M.

    Despite the fact that military careers require much higher levels of literacy than do comparable civilian careers, the range of literacy levels of enlistees is roughly representative of the abilities found amoung high school graduates. In response to the need to raise the literacy levels of their personnel, the Armed Forces have paid increasing…

  3. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  4. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  5. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... EFMP + Special Needs Health Care Leaving the Military Marriage + Divorce Survivors Wounded + Caregivers Spouses + Scholarships NMFA Scholarships ... EFMP + Special Needs Health Care Leaving the Military Marriage + Divorce Survivors Wounded + Caregivers Spouses + Scholarships NMFA Scholarships ...

  6. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  7. High-throughput phenotyping of plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bettina; de Regt, Bas; Tester, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Advances in automated plant handling and image acquisition now make it possible to use digital imaging for the high-throughput phenotyping of plants. Various traits can be extracted from individual images. However, the potential of this technology lies in the acquisition of time series. Since whole shoot imaging is nondestructive, plants can now be monitored throughout their lifecycle, and dynamic traits such as plant growth and development can be captured and quantified. The technique is applicable to a wide range of plants and research areas and makes high-throughput screens possible, reducing the time and labor needed for the phenotypic characterization of plants.

  8. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  9. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  10. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  11. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  12. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  13. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  14. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  15. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  16. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  17. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  18. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  19. Patterns of photoassimilate translocation to reproductive shoots from adjacent shoots in Camellia sasanqua by manipulation of sink-source balance between the shoots.

    PubMed

    Oitate, Hiroki; Noguchi, Ko; Sone, Kosei; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Alata Antönio

    2011-01-01

    To know to what extent reproductive shoots are autonomous in Camellia sasanqua, we manipulated the sink-source balance between the reproductive shoots and their adjacent shoots by selecting vegetative or reproductive adjacent shoots, or defoliating the reproductive shoots, and photosynthetically labeled adjacent shoots with (13)C. The atom% of (13)C did not increase in the unlabeled shoots that had leaves, whereas that in the defoliated, unlabeled shoot was significantly increased. These results indicated that the pattern of translocation of photoassimilates to adjacent reproductive shoots occurs depending on the sink-source balance between shoots. PMID:20574679

  20. BRX promotes Arabidopsis shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Julien; Scacchi, Emanuele; Tarkowska, Danuse; Ragni, Laura; Strnad, Miroslav; Hardtke, Christian S

    2010-10-01

    • BREVIS RADIX (BRX) has been identified through a loss-of-function allele in the Umkirch-1 accession in a natural variation screen for Arabidopsis root growth vigor. Physiological and gene expression analyses have suggested that BRX is rate limiting for auxin-responsive gene expression by mediating cross-talk with the brassinosteroid pathway, as impaired root growth and reduced auxin perception of brx can be (partially) rescued by external brassinosteroid application. • Using genetic tools, we show that brx mutants also display significantly reduced cotyledon and leaf growth. • Similar to the root, the amplitude and penetrance of this phenotype depends on genetic background and shares the physiological features, reduced auxin perception and brassinosteroid rescue. Furthermore, reciprocal grafting experiments between mutant and complemented brx shoot scions and root stocks suggest that the shoot phenotypes are not an indirect consequence of the root phenotype. Finally, BRX gain-of-function lines display epinastic leaf growth and, in the case of dominant negative interference, increased epidermal cell size. Consistent with an impact of BRX on brassinosteroid biosynthesis, this phenotype is accompanied by increased brassinosteroid levels. • In summary, our results demonstrate a ubiquitous, although quantitatively variable role of BRX in modulating the growth rate in both the root and shoot.

  1. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  2. Learning Objectives for Shooting Sports Instruction. 554A: Using Measurable Criteria To Evaluate Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Delwin E.; Manning, Jan

    This publication contains objectives that range from basic shooting sports safety and proficiency to more specialized activities. They can be applied to hunter safety education, 4-H shooting sports, scouting, and club or community activities for youth or adults. The specific learning objectives in each list have been grouped into learning…

  3. Shoot meristem: an ideal explant for Zea mays L. transformation.

    PubMed

    Sairam, R V; Parani, M; Franklin, G; Lifeng, Z; Smith, B; MacDougall, J; Wilber, C; Sheikhi, H; Kashikar, N; Meeker, K; Al-Abed, D; Berry, K; Vierling, R; Goldman, S L

    2003-04-01

    We report on a rapid high-frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration protocol for Zea mays. Maize plants were regenerated from complete shoot meristem (3-4 mm) explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. In organogenesis, the shoot meristems were directly cultured on a high-cytokinin medium comprising 5-10 mg x L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The number of multiple shoots produced per meristem varied from six to eight Plantlet regeneration through organogenesis resulted in just four weeks. Callus was induced in five days of incubation on an auxin-modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Prolific callus, with numerous somatic embryos, developed within 3-4 weeks when cultured on an auxin medium containing 5 mg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid x L(-1). The number of multiple shoots varied from three to six per callus. Using R23 (Pioneer, Hi-Bred, Johnston, Iowa), the frequency of callus induction was consistently in excess of 80% and plant regeneration ranged between 47 and 64%. All regenerated plantlets survived in the greenhouse and produced normal plants. Each transgenic plant produced leaves, glumes, and anthers that uniformly expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). The GFP gene segregated in the pollen. Based on this data it is concluded that the transgenics arose from single-cell somatic embryos. The rate of transfer DNA (T-DNA) transfer to complete shoot meristems of Zea mays was high on the auxin medium and was independent of using super-virulent strains of Agrobacterium.

  4. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716

  5. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range.

  6. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes. PMID:25085235

  7. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  8. Advising Transfer Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

  9. Tuberculosis and the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality among the global civilian population. Historically, TB has also been responsible for a considerable burden of disease among military populations during periods of both peace and conflict. TB will continue to be of importance to the military for several reasons. Military units live and work in confined environments, personnel may deploy to areas highly endemic for TB where there is the potential to be exposed to infected local communities, and they undertake physiologically stressful activities during training and operations. These are just a few of the factors that may increase the risk of acquiring, developing and transmitting TB among military personnel. This review examines the military relevance of TB in the modern era within the context of epidemiological, pathological and clinical considerations of this ancient disease.

  10. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation. PMID:16585042

  11. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  12. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  13. Myocarditis and the military patient.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew T; White, S; Ayalew, Y; Boos, C; Haworth, K; McKenna, W J

    2015-09-01

    Myocarditis, simply defined as inflammation of the heart muscle, is a commonly encountered cardiac disease in primary and secondary care, both in the UK and on Operational deployments. In the UK Armed Forces, myocarditis results in deaths as well as the premature termination of military careers on medical grounds. The aetiology is usually the result of a number of infectious aetiologies with viruses being the most common pathogens in the vast majority of cases. However, it may also be the result of autoimmune activation, chemical or pharmacological toxins, environmental insult or hypersensitivity reactions. Particular aetiologies that are more likely to be seen in a military population are discussed and include certain infections, smallpox vaccine, and hyperthermia and hypothermia. The clinical features can be highly variable ranging from an asymptomatic infection to fulminant heart failure. Features pertinent to the military doctor, including the natural history, investigative modalities and management strategies, with a particular emphasis on the occupational impact of myocarditis in the UK Armed Forces are reviewed.

  14. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  15. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... have led to deployment of large numbers of military personnel (active duty, Reserves, National Guard). As a result ... worries and plans for the future. Let your child know that the family member is making a ...

  16. Music in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

  17. Vaccines for military use.

    PubMed

    Artenstein, Andrew W

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have long been used by military forces in order to prevent communicable diseases and thereby preserve the fighting force. A tradition that began with the mass vaccination of the Continental Army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution in the late 18th century continues today with routine and deployment-based vaccination of military forces against potential pathogens of nature and biological weapon threats. As their role has expanded in recent years to include humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, the military's use of vaccines against infectious diseases has concomitantly broadened to include civilian populations worldwide. The emergence of new threats and the recognition of additional global challenges will continue to compel the development and promotion of vaccines to combat infectious diseases of military significance. PMID:19837279

  18. Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star: The Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star was America's first fully operation jet fighter. This all-yellow example arrived at Langley in November 1946. The P-80 was used for air speed calibration and development of a tuned vibration damper.

  19. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  20. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  1. Radiometry in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  2. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes.

  3. Growth and carbohydrate status of coppice shoots of hybrid poplar following shoot pruning.

    PubMed

    Tschaplinski, T J; Blake, T J

    1995-05-01

    Fifteen, 1-year-old Populus maximowiczii Henry x P. nigra L. 'MN9' trees were decapitated and allowed to sprout. After 8 weeks, all had 6 to 10 coppice shoots. All shoots, except the tallest (dominant) shoot, were removed from five of the trees (pruned treatment), and shoot growth, gas exchange and carbohydrate status were compared in the pruned and unpruned trees. Although photosynthetic rate of recently mature leaves of pruned trees was approximately 50% greater than that of leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, and the dry weight of leaves of pruned trees was 37% greater than that of the leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, the shoot dry matter relative growth rate did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in the uppper stem and leaves of the dominant shoot were similar in pruned and unpruned trees. However, relative to that of the dominant shoot in unpruned trees, the lower stem in pruned trees was depleted in both soluble carbohydrates and starch. Starch deposition, assessed as the quantity of (14)C-starch in tissues 24 h after a fully expanded source leaf was labeled with (14)CO(2), was 3.9 times greater in roots of pruned trees than in roots of unpruned trees. We conclude that early removal of all but the dominant shoot reduces the carbohydrate status of the roots and the lower portion of the stem by eliminating the excised shoots as a source of photosynthate.

  4. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  5. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS.

  6. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  7. Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

  8. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins. PMID:21741261

  9. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  10. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) shoot-feeding characteristics and overwintering behavior in Scotch pine Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Lawrence, R K; Heaton, G C

    2001-04-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were most often found in shoot-feeding tunnels that were still surrounded by green needles, whereas few were in tunnels surrounded by yellow or brown needles. For all years and sites combined, the range in the percentage of recently tunneled shoots that contained live T. piniperda adults decreased from 89 to 96% in mid-October, to 15- 66% in early November, to 2-10% in mid-November, and to 0-2% by late November to early December. In each year, the first subfreezing temperatures in autumn occurred in October, before most adults left the shoots. Of 1,285 T. piniperda-tunneled shoots, one to seven tunnels (mean = 1.6) and zero to three adults were found per infested shoot. Of these 1,285 attacked shoots, 55% of the shoots had one tunnel, 33% had two, 9% had three, 3% had four, and <1% had five to seven tunnels each. When two or more tunnels occurred in a single shoot, adults were most commonly found in the innermost (most basal) tunnel. For the 2,070 tunnels found in the 1,285 shoots, average shoot thickness at the tunnel entrance was 6.0 mm, average distance from the tunnel entrance to the shoot tip was 6.3 cm, and average tunnel length was 2.3 cm. Four Scotch pine Christmas trees were dissected in January 1993. Eighty percent of the tunneled shoots were in the upper quarter of the tree crown and 98% were in the upper half. For the four trees inspected in January, one live adult was found in a shoot and 85 adults were found in the outer bark along the lower trunk from 1 cm below the soil line to 19 cm above the soil line. No overwintering adults were found outside the trunk in the duff or soil near the base of each test tree. Implications of

  11. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  12. Guide to Military-Loan Film (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Over 1,400 16 millimeter films are listed which are available from United States military organizations. They are free of charge for public, non-profit exhibition and cover a widely diverse range of subjects including vocational education, military history, industrial safety, transportation, and public works. The guide lists these films in…

  13. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  14. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    SciTech Connect

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-03-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references.

  15. Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

  16. [The military pharmocopoeias in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Kruse, P R

    2000-09-01

    In 1812, the Danish king decided to reform the medicine supply to the military on the initiative of the pharmacist Jens Peter Groth (1785-1832), the tenant of the Royal Orphanage Pharmacy in Copenhagen. Up till then, the military physicians themselves for fixed medicine money had supplied the army and the navy with the necessary medicine, but now it was decided that Groth should establish a military pharmacy to manage the future medicine supply to the army and the navy in Copenhagen and also that the medicial members of the General Direction of the Military Medical Service should compile a military pharmacopoeia for both of the fighting services. The Royal Orphanage Pharmacy was named the Royal Military & Orphanage Pharmacy and the ordered military pharmacopoeia was issued in 1813. Compared with the national pharmacopoeia, the military pharmacopoeia was characterized by a limitation of the number of medicaments and by a simplification of the compositions. These facts were caused by the economic considerations and the duty of the military physicians themselves to prepare the simple medicaments. The subsequent editions of the military pharmacopoeia were published in 1840, 1857 og 1869, but in 1874, the military pharmacopoeia was cancelled, because the medicaments in the military pharmacopoeia were less effectual and less palatable than the medicaments in the national pharmacopoeia, and because the use of the military pharmacopoeia did not result in economic savings. PMID:11640530

  17. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    PubMed

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  18. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  19. Influence of Military Training and Standardized Nutrition in Military Unit on Soldiers' Nutritional Status and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Andrzej; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Kłos, Anna; Kłos, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Tomczak, A, Bertrandt, J, Kłos, A, and Kłos, K. Influence of military training and standardized nutrition in military unit on soldiers' nutritional status and physical fitness. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2774-2780, 2016-Despite suspension of conscription in Polish Army, trainings of soldiers are still carried out. It is expected that they will be effective and will contribute to obtaining optimum level of psychophysical efficiency that enables fulfillment of military tasks. Total of 60 soldiers took part in the study. During the 9-month military service, soldiers had 200 hours of physical training and basic military training (shooting, drill, anti-chemical training, topography, general tactics, and military equipment operation). The training lasted 8 hours everyday. To assess fitness level, 4 trials were done: long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, and 1,000 m run. Evaluation of food was based on the analysis of full board menus using the "Tables of composition and nutritional value of food products." Energy value was assessed, and content of basic nutrients was calculated. Assessment of nutritional status was based on anthropometric measurements, such as body height, body mass, and thickness of 4 selected skinfolds. Body height and body mass were the basis for the body mass index calculation. Soldiers serving in the mechanized infantry unit, after completing the training, got better results only in 1,000 m run (from 250.3 to 233.61 seconds). During the research, an average energy value of a daily food ration planned for consumption was 4,504 kcal. This value consisted of 13.2% of energy from protein, 31.9% of energy from fat, and 54.9% from carbohydrates. In the course of military service, percentage of subjects indicating overweight increased from 10.2 to 25.4%.

  20. Easy transition path sampling methods: flexible-length aimless shooting and permutation shooting.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Shea, Joan-Emma; Peters, Baron

    2015-06-01

    We present new algorithms for conducting transition path sampling (TPS). Permutation shooting rigorously preserves the total energy and momentum of the initial trajectory and is simple to implement even for rigid water molecules. Versions of aimless shooting and permutation shooting that use flexible-length trajectories have simple acceptance criteria and are more computationally efficient than fixed-length versions. Flexible-length permutation shooting and inertial likelihood maximization are used to identify the reaction coordinate for vacancy migration in a two-dimensional trigonal crystal of Lennard-Jones particles. The optimized reaction coordinate eliminates nearly all recrossing of the transition state dividing surface.

  1. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  2. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  3. The application of CRM to military operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  4. Gifted Military Dependents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Bess M.; Walters, Debbie

    1985-01-01

    Two articles address problems and issues in serving gifted military dependents. The first offers suggestions for parents, including handcarrying records, involving themselves in schools, and maintaining a positive attitude toward service life. The second article describes TAG (talented and gifted) programs at the Department of Defense Dependents…

  5. HIV ban in military.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Defense Department has written into its budget a proposal to discharge all HIV-positive members of the armed services. The House Committee on National Security has approved the fiscal 1996 defense budget with the ban included. Rep. Robert K. Dornan, R- Calif., contends that having HIV-positive service members in the military compromises the nation's readiness because, under Defense Department policy, they cannot be stationed abroad. However, only one-fifth of all service members on limited assignment have HIV, the others have diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This shows the military's readiness to discriminate against HIV-positive individuals, according to William J. Freeman of the National Association of People with AIDS. Currently all recruits are tested for HIV; if they test positive, they are denied entry to the armed services. All service members are tested annually for HIV antibodies. In anticipation of cutbacks in military-related AIDS research due to the Republican control of Congress, the military has begun to eliminate most of the AIDS research it conducts. PMID:11362530

  6. HIV ban in military.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Defense Department has written into its budget a proposal to discharge all HIV-positive members of the armed services. The House Committee on National Security has approved the fiscal 1996 defense budget with the ban included. Rep. Robert K. Dornan, R- Calif., contends that having HIV-positive service members in the military compromises the nation's readiness because, under Defense Department policy, they cannot be stationed abroad. However, only one-fifth of all service members on limited assignment have HIV, the others have diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. This shows the military's readiness to discriminate against HIV-positive individuals, according to William J. Freeman of the National Association of People with AIDS. Currently all recruits are tested for HIV; if they test positive, they are denied entry to the armed services. All service members are tested annually for HIV antibodies. In anticipation of cutbacks in military-related AIDS research due to the Republican control of Congress, the military has begun to eliminate most of the AIDS research it conducts.

  7. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  8. Resilience among Military Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  9. Nutrition research in the military.

    PubMed

    Hill, Neil E; Fallowfield, J L; Delves, S K; Wilson, D R

    2014-06-01

    Military research performed in an operational environment involves mission-specific considerations. The Institute of Naval Medicine was tasked in 2008 by the Surgeon General to investigate the nutritional status of deployed British military personnel, and how this might affect body composition, physical fitness and operational capability. This paper briefly describes the logistic and technical issues specific to military research that were encountered by the study team, how these issues were overcome and how this research has influenced military practice.

  10. Academic and Military Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.

    This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and…

  11. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter.

  12. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  13. Precooking processing of bamboo shoots for removal of anti-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Ojha, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots being low in fat, high in dietary fiber and rich in mineral content, like an ideal vegetable have been used traditionally. Besides nutrients, bamboo shoots also contain lethal concentration of the anti-nutrient (cyanogen) that need to be removed before human consumption. Therefore an attempt has been made to find out the best processing method for confiscation of cyanogens. B. bambos, B. tulda, D. strictus and D.asper were selected for the study. Fresh and processed bamboo shoots were analyzed for their various nutritional and anti-nutritional contents. Carbohydrate content in fresh shoots of studied species ranged from 2.39%-3.6%, proteins from 1.65%-2.08%, phenols from 0.36%-0.63%, cyanogens from 0.011%-0.018%, minerals did not vary significantly among the species except potassium which ranged from 0.32%-0.52%. The shoots were processed by boiling in water and different concentrations of NaCl (1%, 5% and 10%) for different intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 min) to achieve maximum removal of cyanogens with minimum loss of nutrients. Boiling shoots in 5% NaCl for 15 min was found to be the best method for B. bamboos, 10 min boiling in 1% NaCl for B. tulda, 15 min boiling in 1% NaCl for D. strictus and 10 min boiling in 5% NaCl for D. asper. These processing methods will be very useful in utilization of bamboo shoots as these are very simple and can be used by the local inhabitants and shoot processing industries. PMID:24426046

  14. Precooking processing of bamboo shoots for removal of anti-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Ojha, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots being low in fat, high in dietary fiber and rich in mineral content, like an ideal vegetable have been used traditionally. Besides nutrients, bamboo shoots also contain lethal concentration of the anti-nutrient (cyanogen) that need to be removed before human consumption. Therefore an attempt has been made to find out the best processing method for confiscation of cyanogens. B. bambos, B. tulda, D. strictus and D.asper were selected for the study. Fresh and processed bamboo shoots were analyzed for their various nutritional and anti-nutritional contents. Carbohydrate content in fresh shoots of studied species ranged from 2.39%-3.6%, proteins from 1.65%-2.08%, phenols from 0.36%-0.63%, cyanogens from 0.011%-0.018%, minerals did not vary significantly among the species except potassium which ranged from 0.32%-0.52%. The shoots were processed by boiling in water and different concentrations of NaCl (1%, 5% and 10%) for different intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 min) to achieve maximum removal of cyanogens with minimum loss of nutrients. Boiling shoots in 5% NaCl for 15 min was found to be the best method for B. bamboos, 10 min boiling in 1% NaCl for B. tulda, 15 min boiling in 1% NaCl for D. strictus and 10 min boiling in 5% NaCl for D. asper. These processing methods will be very useful in utilization of bamboo shoots as these are very simple and can be used by the local inhabitants and shoot processing industries.

  15. A transcranial Doppler sonography study of shoot/don't-shoot responding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natasha B; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Washburn, David A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in cerebral blood-flow velocity and performance on a speeded shoot/don't-shoot task. Brain activity as indicated by cerebral blood-flow velocity (hemovelocity) was recorded using the transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. A shoot/don't-shoot decision-making task presented participants with threat/nonthreat stimuli in the form of bull's-eye images of various colors. Participants were required to shoot threat targets using a laser-modified handgun. Results support a vigilance decrement in both the performance measures and hemovelocity. Performance, as measured by reaction time, number of hits, and marksmanship, decreased across the length of the vigil. Hemovelocity slowed across the left and right hemispheres as the task progressed, and hemovelocity was slower in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. PMID:19587168

  16. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    PubMed

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists.

  17. Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J C

    2012-12-01

    The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity.

  18. BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Visual training programme applied to precision shooting.

    PubMed

    Quevedo i Junyent, L; Solé i Fortó, J

    1995-09-01

    A three month visual training programme was conducted at the CAR of Sant Cugat (Olympic Training Center). Eleven members of 'The Catalan Government Special Intervention Squad' were used in a clinical trial. Pre-test and post-test results were obtained for pistol shooting, visual function, and psychological and physical states. Statistical analysis indicated significant gains in visual function and pistol shooting scores after the programme, while psychological (anxiety) and physical condition remained the same. Some conclusive statements can be made with regard to the relation of visual function improvement and shooting performance increment, after analysing the data. This improvement is evident in statistically significant post-test gains in the following variables: 'phoria at distance, recovery points in fusional reserves at distance, analytical amplitude, negative relative accommodation, saccadic fixations, and accommodative facility at distance and at near. The rest of the controlled visual variables also showed clinical improvement.

  20. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  1. Military needs for orbital power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, L. D.; Barthelemy, R. R.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the DoD/ERDA (now Department of Energy) Space Power Study completed in October 1977 are presented. The major new thrust of Air Force Advanced Technology Plans center on the development of military solar power systems which will extend capabilities to the 10 - 50 KW sub e power range for new classes of missions while maintaining technology applicability to the 0.5 - 10 KW sub e present mission class. The status of FY78 efforts for Project 682J (Air Force Space Power Advanced Development Program) are reported. Project 682J is divided into the following tasks: (1) high efficiency solar panel; (2) nickel-hydrogen battery; (3) gallium arsenide solar concentrator hardness study; and (4) new-start nuclear dynamic power system applications/integration study.

  2. Thermal behavior of the SHOOT gallery arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, J. A.; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    The planned Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment will show the feasibility of resupplying orbiting facilities with liquid helium. The SHOOT experiment, designed for transfer rates of 300 to 800 liters/hr, will use a thermomechanical pump and four screen covered flow channels for fluid acquisition. Cavitation and thermal behavior was examined in ground based tests of the pump and of a full sized channel. A model for estimating the temperature profile at the pump inlet is presented. Large temperature increases in this region can significantly degrade the performance of the fountain pump.

  3. Thermal behavior of the SHOOT gallery arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, J. A.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The planned Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment will show the feasibility of resupplying orbiting facilities with liquid helium. The SHOOT experiment, designed for transfer rates of 300 to 800 liters/hr, will use a thermomechanical pump and four screen covered flow channels for fluid acquisition. Cavitation and thermal behavior was examined in ground based tests of the pump and of a full sized channel. A model for estimating the temperature profile at the pump inlet is presented. Large temperature increases in this region can significantly degrade the performance of the fountain pump.

  4. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  5. Shoot or don't shoot? Why police officers are more inclined to shoot when they are anxious.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effect of anxiety on police officers' shooting decisions. Thirty-six police officers participated and executed a low- and high-anxiety video-based test that required them to shoot or not shoot at rapidly appearing suspects that either had a gun and "shot," or had no gun and "surrendered." Anxiety was manipulated by turning on (high anxiety) or turning off (low anxiety) a so-called "shootback canon" that could fire small plastic bullets at the participants. When performing under anxiety, police officers showed a response bias toward shooting, implying that they accidentally shot more often at suspects that surrendered. Furthermore, shot accuracy was lower under anxiety and officers responded faster when suspects had a gun. Finally, because gaze behavior appeared to be unaffected by anxiety, it is concluded that when they were anxious, officers were more inclined to respond on the basis of threat-related inferences and expectations rather than objective, task-relevant visual information. PMID:22023363

  6. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  7. Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements.

    PubMed

    Billing, Daniel C; Silk, Aaron J; Tofari, Paul J; Hunt, Andrew P

    2015-11-01

    Current military operations require soldiers to carry heavy external loads that are widely acknowledged to impair the ability to move tactically on the battlefield. However, to date, the effect of load on susceptibility to enemy fire (the probability of being hit) has not been examined. Nineteen soldiers completed a break contact simulation (five 30-m sprints commencing every 44 seconds) and a fire and movement simulation (sixteen 6-m bounds commencing every 20 seconds) in each of the 5 load conditions (ranging from 9.8 to 30.1 kg). For each simulation, the impact of load on exposure time and peak movement velocity was examined. In addition, the 6 fastest and 6 slowest soldiers (determined by exposure time in the heaviest condition) were parsed into subgroups to examine interindividual differences in response to load. Susceptibility for the 2 subgroups was modeled using exposure time for the 2 simulations and the assumed reaction time, shooting cadence, and shooting accuracy of the enemy. Susceptibility increased as a function of load for both the break contact and fire and movement simulations and became more pronounced when the participant population was parsed into fast and slow groups. When the impact of personal protection systems was isolated and analyzed, it was found that not only were the slower participants more vulnerable (as a result of not wearing the personal protection system) but also more susceptible than the faster participants who carried 11.2 kg more load. Large interindividual differences in response to external load have meaningful consequences for battlefield susceptibility, and it is therefore critical that personnel are afforded tailored training such that they maximize their proficiency in the execution of tactical combat movements.

  8. Formulary management in a military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Carr, V F; Walker, J C

    1997-03-01

    In an environment of increased fiscal responsibility and cost constraints, the medical staff must take an active role in deciding how an institution's operating budget is spent. A major expense of a military treatment facility (MTF) is maintaining an adequate and cost-effective formulary. The large number of pharmaceuticals available on the market forces a decision regarding which products to stock. Decision analysis is a technique that helps a medical staff to manage its formulary by listing all of the objective and subjective considerations. The Department of Defense Pharmacoeconomic Center has developed a tri-service formulary to standardize a basic drug list that would be available in each military treatment facility. However, this list cannot be expected to answer all of the factors a medical staff must weigh in developing an MTF-specific formulary. Many considerations must be addressed in these decisions, including the beneficiary population, the potential diagnoses as defined by a database such as the Retrospective Case Mix Analysis System or the Military Health Services System, the institution's mission and defined scope of care, physician interests and specialization, and facility limitations. Military treatment facilities can maintain an appropriate stock of medications that is specific for the scope and practice of a medical staff and work within a budget through careful planning and employment of a decision matrix. This balance of appropriateness and fiscal responsibility allows the maximum range of services within a facility. PMID:9121669

  9. Formulary management in a military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Carr, V F; Walker, J C

    1997-03-01

    In an environment of increased fiscal responsibility and cost constraints, the medical staff must take an active role in deciding how an institution's operating budget is spent. A major expense of a military treatment facility (MTF) is maintaining an adequate and cost-effective formulary. The large number of pharmaceuticals available on the market forces a decision regarding which products to stock. Decision analysis is a technique that helps a medical staff to manage its formulary by listing all of the objective and subjective considerations. The Department of Defense Pharmacoeconomic Center has developed a tri-service formulary to standardize a basic drug list that would be available in each military treatment facility. However, this list cannot be expected to answer all of the factors a medical staff must weigh in developing an MTF-specific formulary. Many considerations must be addressed in these decisions, including the beneficiary population, the potential diagnoses as defined by a database such as the Retrospective Case Mix Analysis System or the Military Health Services System, the institution's mission and defined scope of care, physician interests and specialization, and facility limitations. Military treatment facilities can maintain an appropriate stock of medications that is specific for the scope and practice of a medical staff and work within a budget through careful planning and employment of a decision matrix. This balance of appropriateness and fiscal responsibility allows the maximum range of services within a facility.

  10. Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...

  11. Multiple Shoot Tip Cultures in Peas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an exercise used as a follow-up activity to a lecture presentation exploring the basic methodology and theory of shoot tip cultures. Utilizes a factorial experimental design which allows for the determination of the effects of each factor alone and in combination with each other. Other concepts emphasized include dependent and…

  12. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  13. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  14. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of Manhattan in New York…

  15. Role of nuclear reactors in future military satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Future military capabilities will be profoundly influenced by emerging Shuttle Era space technology. Regardless of the specific direction or content of tomorrow's military space program, it is clear that advanced space transportation systems, orbital support facilities, and large-capacity power subsystems will be needed to create the generally larger, more sophisticated military space systems of the future. This paper explores the critical role that space nuclear reactors should play in America's future space program and reviews the current state of nuclear reactor power plant technology. Space nuclear reactor technologies have the potential of satisfying power requirements ranging from 10 kW/sub (e)/ to 100 MW/sub (e)/.

  16. Respiratory infections in the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Military training facilities and operational theatres, and the stressful activities undertaken in such settings, are unique. Military personnel living and working in these environments are at considerable risk of the acquisition and onward transmission of a variety of respiratory infections. While these generally cause mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant associated morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Epidemic outbreaks among military personnel may have a significant detrimental impact on training schedules and operational effectiveness. The recognition of the burden of such illness among British military personnel, and the development of strategies required to prevent or limit negative impacts, can only be achieved through the use of comprehensive laboratory-based surveillance programmes.

  17. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  18. Recruits' Military Preferences and Their Accommodation by the Military Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

    The research report provides information on recruits' military occupational preferences, match of military assignments to recruits' preferences, and changes that occur in these preferences between service entry and completion of basic training. Questionnaires were administered to recruits from four services just before classification interviewing…

  19. Structural variation in current-year shoots of broad-leaved evergreen tree saplings under forest canopies in warm temperate Japan.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, A

    1997-03-01

    Stem length and leaf area of current-year shoots were measured in saplings of eight broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under a forest canopy. Stem length varied over a range of one to two orders of magnitude within each species. In all species, both the number of leaves and the mean stem length between successive leaves were greater in longer shoots. Mean leaf size and stem length were not correlated in six of eight species, and only weakly positively correlated in the other two species. Thus, total leaf area per stem increased with stem length, but not in direct proportion: leaf area per stem length was smaller in shoots with long stems and larger in shoots with short stems. I conclude that the within-species variation in the leaf-stem balance of current-year shoots is related to variation in shoot functional roles, as has been observed for long and short shoots in many deciduous tree species: shoots with long stems are extension oriented and contribute to the framework of the crown, whereas shoots with short stems serve mainly for leaf display. Among species, large differences were found in the leaf area per stem length ratio. In the species with larger leaf area per stem length ratios, leaves had narrower blades or longer petioles, or both, resulting in a reduction of mutual shading among the leaves on the shoot.

  20. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M; Morgart, Ruth E

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  1. Diameters and dry weights of tree shoots: effects of Young's modulus, taper, deflection and angle.

    PubMed

    Cannell, M G; Morgan, J; Murray, M B

    1988-09-01

    The structural theory for cantilever beams was used to calculate the diameters and dry weights of wood that unbranched shoots must produce to support their own weights. The study was done on Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., Pinus contorta Dougl., Larix decidua Mill. and Betula pendula Roth. syn. verrucosa Ehrh. The weights of wood increased in a non-linear fashion with increase in shoot length. A large investment in wood (as measured by diameter and dry weight) was required to maintain a small endpoint deflection (1-5% of the length). By contrast, the degree of linear taper had only a small effect on support costs, as did the Young's modulus of the wood (over the range 1-4 GPa) and the angle of the shoot from the horizontal (over the range 0-45 degrees ). Current year's shoots on young trees of P. sitchensis and P. contorta incur a high support cost in order to maintain small (1-5%) deflections throughout the year: similar shoots of L. decidua and B. pendula have smaller support costs because they deflect by about 20% after leaf expansion in spring.

  2. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  3. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  4. Military R&D Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Ulrich

    1983-01-01

    Military research and development (R&D) in Western countries and the USSR are analyzed in terms of growth; self-perception of R&D personnel; relationships with industry and the state bureaucracy; reproduction schemes which result in war-oriented work; and worker training. Prospects are slim for the conversion of military production to civilian…

  5. How do plant shoots bend up? The initial step to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of shoot gravitropism using Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, H; Fujisawa, H; Tasaka, M

    1996-06-01

    In higher plants, shoots show a negative gravitropic response. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, mutational analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana are in progress. This minireview aims to present recent developments in the genetic analysis of shoot gravitropism in this organism. We focus mainly on our studies on the novel shoot gravitropic (sgr) mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana that have dramatic defects in shoot gravitropism.

  6. Precision shooting: Sampling long transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünwald, Michael; Dellago, Christoph; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2008-11-01

    The kinetics of collective rearrangements in solution, such as protein folding and nanocrystal phase transitions, often involve free energy barriers that are both long and rough. Applying methods of transition path sampling to harvest simulated trajectories that exemplify such processes is typically made difficult by a very low acceptance rate for newly generated trajectories. We address this problem by introducing a new generation algorithm based on the linear short time behavior of small disturbances in phase space. Using this "precision shooting" technique, arbitrarily small disturbances can be propagated in time, and any desired acceptance ratio of shooting moves can be obtained. We demonstrate the method for a simple but computationally problematic isomerization process in a dense liquid of soft spheres. We also discuss its applicability to barrier-crossing events involving metastable intermediate states.

  7. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Coen, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments.

  8. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1994-12-31

    At the Glenn Pool field in Northeastern Oklahoma, a series of crosswell seismic surveys have been acquired. The acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were careful developed using a test survey. The first full survey resulted in high quality data, but the second encountered high ambient noise. The noise levels were high enough to prohibit first-arrival picking over in much of the data. Analysis of the data from the second survey shows that tube waves are emanating from the perforated interval in the receiver well. This is interpreted to be fluid flow or circulation noise through the perforations, even though the well was not flowing fluid at the surface. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was re-shot by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important acquisition factor.

  9. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Coen, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. PMID:27478985

  10. Canadian military space activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Geoffrey W.

    This paper outlines the Department of National Defence (DND) of Canada policy on the military use of space and discusses DND space systems. The NAVSTAR global positioning system will be the standard for future navigation systems. Canada is one of four founding nations of the international COSPAS/SARSAT satellite assisted search and rescue system. Three new earth stations will provide complete coverage of Canadian synthetic aperture radar (SAR) territory. In addition, funds have been committed for research and development of space based surveillance radar technology. The Canadian Forces Weather Service will receive digitalized satellite imagery and weather charts as part of the planned Meteorological Satellite Information System (METSIS). METSIS will provide weather information through Anik D satellite broadcast. A three phased approach is planned to satisfy satellite communications requirements. Leased point to point communications have been established for some locations. Mobile terminals are being developed and are being used to test technologies and operating techniques. Phase two will be the acquisition of a mix of fixed and mobile terminals to use existing commercial and military space bands. Encryption capabilities and antijamming technologies are being developed. Phase three calls for launching of several nongeostationary satellites to provide continuous coverage to the areas in the high Arctic which are below the horizon for geostationary satellites. DND policy can be summarized as follows: (1) the DND will enhance defence commitments by using space technology where appropriate and cost effective; (2) it will enhance the peaceful use of space; and (3) DND will use space programs to contribute to the Canadian economic and defence production base.

  11. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    PubMed

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock. PMID:26701746

  12. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  13. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  14. Influence of Diffused Solar Radiation on the Solar Concentrating System of a Plant Shoot Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    Investigation of a plant shoot configuration is used to obtain valuable information concerning the received light system. Additionally, analysis results concerning a plant shoot configuration interaction with direct solar radiation were taken from a past study. However, in order to consider a plant shoot as a received sunlight system, it is necessary to understand the received light characteristics of both direct solar radiation and diffused solar radiation. Under a clear sky, the ratio of direct solar radiation to diffused solar radiation is large. However, under a clouded sky, the amount of diffused solar radiation becomes larger. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the received light characteristics of a plant shoot configuration under the influence of diffused solar radiation. As a result, we clarify the relationship between the amount of diffused solar radiation and the amount of received light as a function of the characteristics of the plant shoot configuration. In order to obtain diffused solar radiation, it is necessary to correspond to the radiation of the multi-directions. In the analysis, the characteristic of the difference in arrangement of the top leaf and the other leaf was obtained. Therefore, in analysis, leaves other than the top were distributed in the wide range.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  16. Prospective trajectories of posttraumatic stress in college women following a campus mass shooting.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Holly K; Bonanno, George A; Hannan, Susan M; Miron, Lynsey R

    2014-06-01

    In a sample with known levels of preshooting posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, we examined the impact of a campus mass shooting on trajectories of PTS in the 31 months following the shooting using latent growth mixture modeling. Female students completed 7 waves of a longitudinal study (sample sizes ranged from 812 to 559). We identified 4 distinct trajectories (n = 660): (a) minimal impact-resilience (60.9%), (b) high impact-recovery (29.1%), (c) moderate impact-moderate symptoms (8.2%), and (d) chronic dysfunction (1.8%). Individuals in each trajectory class remained at or returned to preshooting levels of PTS approximately 6 months postshooting. The minimal impact-resilience class reported less prior trauma exposure (η(2) = .13), less shooting exposure (η(2) = .07), and greater emotion regulation skills than all other classes (η(2) > .30). The chronic dysfunction class endorsed higher rates of experiential avoidance prior to the shooting than the minimal-impact resilient and high impact-recovery classes (η(2) = .15), as well as greater shooting exposure than the high impact-recovery class (η(2) = .07). Findings suggest that preshooting functioning and emotion regulation distinguish between those who experience prolonged distress following mass violence and those who gradually recover.

  17. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study. PMID:26830884

  18. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  19. An improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    The minimum-time attitude maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft are considered. Generally, the associated nonsingular, nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem, derived by using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, can be solved through shooting methods to find the switching times for the bang-bang control. However, a good initial guess for the missing initial costates is important because the convergence range of the initial costates is very narrow, especially when a multi-bang-bang control strategy is needed. This paper proposes a numerical approach to generate the initial costates so that they are very close to the converged values. The initial costates are first generated by using a recently developed quasi-linearization technique for the near-minimum-time problem and then reduced in magnitude, through some properly designed scales, before the shooting method is used. Numerical examples indicate the closeness of the results from these two techniques (quasi-linearization and shooting).

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the shoot length of Cicer seeds [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toker, Cengiz; Uzun, Bulent; Canci, Huseyin; Oncu Ceylan, F.

    2005-08-01

    The effects of radiation on the shoot and root lengths of germinated seedling of irradiated seeds of Cicer species, i.e. three kabuli types and four desi types of cultivated chickpea ( Cicer arietinum Ladiz.) and 2 annual wild types ( C. reticulatum Ladiz. and C. bijugum K.H. Rech.) were investigated. The seeds were irradiated with a 60Co gamma source using 0, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses at 1.66 kGy h -1. At 200 Gy minor effects could be observed, but at 400 Gy an obvious depression of shoot length was observed. The kabuli types were more affected than the desi ones. The critical dose that prevented the shoot and root elongation varied among species and also ranged from genotypes to genotype within species.

  1. Continued growth for military PAs.

    PubMed

    Salyer, Steven W

    2002-10-01

    The US military physician assistant (PA) originated from the corpsmen and medics of the army, navy, air force, and Coast Guard. PAs have been present in every military campaign since 1980 and serve in a wide variety of medical roles. Their combat role has expanded so that in many instances the PA has replaced the physician as the front-line care provider. All have moved from warrant officer into the commissioned officer ranks, a change that has enabled them to rise into command and administrative positions. Narrowing of the pay differential between military and civilian PAs has contributed to their retention.

  2. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  3. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  7. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  8. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  9. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military...

  10. Changing Families in a Changing Military System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

    Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  12. Shoot Tip Meristem Cryopreservation of Hypericum Species.

    PubMed

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Based on our long-standing experience with in vitro culture of Hypericum perforatum, a clonal multiplication system and vitrification-based cryopreservation protocols have been applied to several Hypericum species: H. humifusum L., H. annulatum Moris, H. tomentosum L., H. tetrapterum Fries, H. pulchrum L., and H. rumeliacum Boiss. The shoot tips were cryopreserved using a uniform procedure that includes pretreatment with abscisic acid (ABA), PVS3 cryoprotection, and direct immersion into the liquid nitrogen (LN). The freezing-tolerant Hypericum species were pre-exposed to the cold acclimation conditions performed by a 7-day exposure to 4 °C. The content of naphtodianthrones (hypericins) including hypericin, pseudohypericin, and their protoforms was quantified by HPLC. Ploidy of plants was determined by both flow cytometry of leaf tissue and chromosome counts of root tip meristematic cells. We have shown that the post-thaw recovery rate of the shoot tips, pretreated with 0.076 μM ABA for 7 days at room temperature, led to the post-cryogenic survival from 5 % in H. tomentosum to 21 % in H. annulatum. As compared to the untreated (control) plants, the content of hypericins in plants regenerated after cryopreservation remained unchanged or decreased in H. perforatum, H. humifusum, H. annulatum, H. tomentosum, H. tetrapterum, and H. rumeliacum. However, the pre-exposition of the freezing-tolerant H. perforatum to cold acclimation prior to excision of the shoot tips has improved the post-thaw recovery to 45 % and resulted in threefold increase of the total hypericin content. PMID:27108308

  13. Thermoregulatory modeling use and application in the military workforce.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2014-05-01

    Thermoregulatory models have been used in the military to quantify probabilities of individuals' thermal-related illness/injury. The uses of the models have diversified over the past decade. This paper revisits an overall view of selected thermoregulatory models used in the U.S. military and provides examples of actual practical military applications: 1) the latest military vehicle designed with armor and blast/bulletproof windows was assessed to predict crews' thermal strains levels inside vehicles under hot environment (air temperature [Ta]: 29-43 °C, dew point: 13 °C); 2) a military working dog (MWD) model was developed by modifying existing human thermoregulatory models with canine physical appearance and physiological mechanisms; 3) thermal tolerance range of individuals from a large military group (n = 100) exposed to 35 °C/40% relative humidity were examined using thermoregulatory modeling and multivariate statistical analyses. Model simulation results assist in the decisions for the strategic planning and preventions of heat stress.

  14. Biodegradation of nitroglycerin from propellant residues on military training ranges.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Drouin, Mathieu; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-03-01

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is often present in soils and sometimes in pore water at antitank firing positions due to incomplete combustion of propellants. Various degradation processes can contribute to the natural attenuation of NG in soils and pore water, thus reducing the risks of groundwater contamination. However, until now these processes have been sparsely documented. This study aimed at evaluating the ability of microorganisms from a legacy firing position to degrade dissolved NG, as well as NG trapped within propellant particles. Results from the shake-flask experiments showed that the isolated culture is capable of degrading dissolved NG but not the nitrocellulose matrix of propellant particles, so that the deeply embedded NG molecules cannot be degraded. Furthermore, the results from column experiments showed that in a nutrient-poor sand, degradation of dissolved NG may not be sufficiently rapid to prevent groundwater contamination. Therefore, the results from this study indicate that, under favorable soil conditions, biodegradation can be an important natural attenuation process for NG dissolving out of fresh propellant residues. In contrast, biodegradation does not contribute to the long-term attenuation of NG within old, weathered propellant residues. Although NG in these old residues no longer poses a threat to groundwater quality, if soil clean-up of a legacy site is required, active remediation approaches should be sought.

  15. Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schueck, Linda S.; Marzluff, J.M.; Steenhof, Karen

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the influence of military training on the abundance and behavior of raptors at a military training area in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in Idaho during the breeding seasons of 1991a??1994. Raptor counts on military training ranges did not differ when we compared all training days to all non-training days. However, during one period of intensive military training in one breeding season, raptor counts were lower during training than on non-training days. During training, Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) did not alter their behavior on training days. In years when prey numbers were low, falcons, hawks, and eagles perched and flew at low levels less often and flew at higher altitudes more often during training than they did when training did not occur. We observed fewer prey capture attempts on ranges on days with training than on days without training. Specific types of military training activity affected counts of raptors on ranges. The lowest raptor counts were associated with firing of artillery, small arms, and main turret guns or machine guns on tanks. Raptor counts associated with tank preparation (i.e., assembling and loading ammunition), driving, laser training, and convoy traffic were similar to non-training periods.

  16. Passively Adaptive Inflatable Structure for the Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L..

    1998-01-01

    An inflatable structural system is described for the Shooting Star Experiment that is a technology demonstrator flight for solar thermal propulsion. The inflatable structure is a pressurized assembly used in orbit to support a fresnel lens for focusing sunlight into a thermal storage engine. When the engine temperature reaches a preset level, the propellant is injected into the storage engine, absorbs heat from a heat exchanger, and is expanded through the nozzle to produce thrust. The inflatable structure is an adaptive system in that a regulator and relief valve are utilized to maintain pressure within design limits during the full range of orbital conditions. Further, the polyimide film material used for construction of the inflatable is highly nonlinear, with modulus varying as a function of frequency, temperature, and level of excitation. A series of tests is described for characterizing the structure in response to various operating conditions.

  17. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants. PMID:25848889

  18. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants.

  19. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Ahmet; Dumanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (>80%) of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid. In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 μM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1 ± 2.4 to 96.4 ± 2.0% in the second subculture and from 76.7 ± 7.8 to 89.4 ± 3.3% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 μM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6 ± 1.6). For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2 ± 10.4%), root length (10.5 ± 2.4 mm), and root number (2.5 ± 0.6) were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55 ± 9.6% and root number was 1.8 ± 0.3 at this concentration. PMID:25873926

  20. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  1. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  2. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1996-09-01

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool Field of northeastern Oklahoma as part of a multidisciplinary reservoir characterization project. The acquisition goal was to generate data suitable for tomographic traveltime inversion. Acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were selected by conducting a parameter test at the site. Following the parameter test, the first survey resulted in high quality data showing clear first arrivals, low ambient noise, some reflection events, and strong source-generated tube waves. The second survey involved a different receiver well and encountered high ambient noise levels. The noise was strong enough to prohibit first-arrival picking for much of the data. On-site analysis of the second survey revealed tube waves emanating from a perforated interval in the receiver well. This well was shut in and was not flowing fluid or gas at the surface. They interpret the source of ambient tube waves as borehole-to-formation fluid flow (circulation) associated with the perforations. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was reshot (third survey) by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important factor in crosswell seismic acquisition. This experience influenced acquisition of a previously planned fourth survey so that the ambient noise problem would be avoided.

  3. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius FM; Coen, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18165.001 PMID:27478985

  4. Undifferentiated febrile illnesses in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) present with acute symptoms, objective fever and no specific organ focus on clinical assessment. The term is mostly used in developing and tropical countries where a wide range of infections may be responsible. Laboratory diagnosis often requires specialist microbiology investigations that are not widely available, and serology tests that only become positive during convalescence. Optimal clinical management requires a good travel history, awareness of local endemic diseases, an understanding of the features that may help distinguish different causes and appropriate use of empirical antibiotics. This review describes the most common examples of UFI in military personnel on overseas deployments, and provides a practical approach to their initial management.

  5. Economic conditions of military families.

    PubMed

    Hosek, James; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    For military children and their families, the economic news is mostly good. After a period of steady pay increases, James Hosek and Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth write, service members typically earn more than civilians with a comparable level of education. Moreover, they receive many other benefits that civilians often do not, including housing allowances, subsidized child care, tuition assistance, and top-of-the-line comprehensive health care. Of course, service members tend to work longer hours than civilians do, and they are exposed to hazards that civilians rarely, if ever, face. The extra pay they receive when they are deployed to combat zones helps their families cope financially but cannot alleviate the stress. Though service members are relatively well paid, the military lifestyle takes a toll on the earnings of their spouses. Chiefly because the military requires service members to move frequently, spouses' careers are regularly interrupted, and employers are hesitant to offer them jobs that require a large investment in training or a long learning curve. More military spouses than comparable civilian spouses are either unemployed or work fewer hours than they would like, and military spouses overall tend to earn less than their civilian counterparts. Despite the military's relatively high pay, some service members and their families--particularly among the junior enlisted ranks--report financial distress, and a handful even qualify for food stamps. Moreover, precisely because military pay tends to be higher than civilian pay, families may see a drop in income when a service member leaves the armed forces. Finally, the pay increases of recent years have slowed, and force cutbacks are coming; both of these factors will alter the financial picture for service members, possibly for the worse. PMID:25518691

  6. Micropropagation of Dendrobium nobile from shoot tip sections.

    PubMed

    Malabadi, Ravindra B; Mulgund, Gangadhar S; Kallappa, Nataraja

    2005-04-01

    Successful shoot regeneration of Dendrobium nobile was achieved using thin shoot tip sections and triacontanol (TRIA) for the first time. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) or proliferating shoot buds were observed when thin shoot tip sections were cultured on the basal medium of Mitra et at. (Indian J. Exp. Biol. 14 (1976) 350) supplemented with 4.0 microg L(-1) TRIA. The highest percentage of explants (93%) produced PLBs or proliferating shoot buds (21) at 4.0 microg L(-1) TRIA-supplemented basal medium. All the newly formed PLBs or proliferating shoot buds survived and ultimately produced healthy shoots with 2-3 leaves. Shoots produced roots when cultured on basal medium supplemented with 2.0 microg L(-1) TRIA. The well-rooted shoots were transferred to pots containing charcoal chips, coconut husk and broken tiles (2:2:1), and a 92% survival rate was achieved. This work reveals that TRIA can be used as an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation and conservation of D. nobile.

  7. MilitaryKidsConnect: Web-based prevention services for military children.

    PubMed

    Blasko, Kelly A

    2015-08-01

    Military children often present with psychological health concerns related to their experience of deployments, reintegration, and frequent moves common in military life. MilitaryKidsConnect is a Department of Defense (DoD) Web site designed to enhance the coping of military children in the context of their military life experience. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of the Web site as a resource that provides psychoeducation, coping strategies, and peer support to military children. PMID:26213795

  8. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  9. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available.

  10. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. PMID:25581029

  11. Military Career Guide: Employment and Training Opportunities in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Military Entrance Processing Command (DOD), North Chicago, IL.

    This copiously illustrated guide is a single reference source for the diverse employment and training opportunities in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It is divided into two major sections. The first section contains descriptions of 134 enlisted military occupations and provides information regarding the aptitudes needed…

  12. Incorporation of Tritiated Thymidine into Nuclei of Shoot Apical Meristems.

    PubMed

    Gifford, E M

    1960-02-01

    Tritiated thymidine enters readily into certain excised plant parts and into small aquatic plants. Attempts to introduce the radioisotope into shoot tips of seed plants via the roots have not proved satisfactory. The label readily enters the shoot if applied directly to immature leaves of a bud after the application of a wetting agent. PMID:17738067

  13. Role of endodermal cell vacuoles in shoot gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takehide; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao

    2002-06-01

    In higher plants, shoots and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. Data from surgical ablation experiments and analysis of starch deficient mutants have led to the suggestion that columella cells in the root cap function as gravity perception cells. On the other hand, endodermal cells are believed to be the statocytes (that is, gravity perceiving cells) of shoots. Statocytes in shoots and roots commonly contain amyloplasts which sediment under gravity. Through genetic research with Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism mutants, sgr1/scr and sgr7/shr, it was determined that endodermal cells are essential for shoot gravitropism. Moreover, some starch biosynthesis genes and EAL1 are important for the formation and maturation of amyloplasts in shoot endodermis. Thus, amyloplasts in the shoot endodermis would function as statoliths, just as in roots. The study of the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants provides new insights into the early steps of shoot gravitropism, which still remains unclear. SGR2 and ZIG/SGR4 genes encode a phospholipase-like and a v-SNARE protein, respectively. Moreover, these genes are involved in vacuolar formation or function. Thus, the vacuole must play an important role in amyloplast sedimentation because the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants display abnormal amyloplast sedimentation.

  14. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components.

  15. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  16. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  17. Shoot production in squash (Cucurbita pepo) by in vitro organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Xia, X; Elman, C; Singer, S; Paris, H S; Gal-On, A; Gaba, V

    2003-04-01

    Seedling-derived cotyledon explants of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) of commercial cultivars True French, Ma'yan and Goldy were regenerated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium augmented with 1 mg/l benzyladenine. After 4 weeks in culture small shoots and buds regenerated only on the most proximal cotyledon edge. Culture on an elongation medium with a reduced cytokinin concentration (0.1 mg/l) with or without 1 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA(3)) facilitated the recovery of shoots. Fresh shoots could be recovered at each subculture of the regenerating mass. Peak productivity was during the third cycle of subculture, and shoot production ceased after the fifth subculture. Culture on elongation medium supplemented with GA(3) was 55% more effective with respect to overall shoot production than that on medium without GA(3), with 22 shoots recovered in total per explant from the former. Regeneration occurred under both light and dark conditions. All of the shoots tested were diploid. The shoots were rooted and transferred to the greenhouse where they grew and flowered normally.

  18. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  19. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  20. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  1. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  2. Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

    2013-05-01

    Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

  3. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  4. Supporting Students from Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Carter, Courtney D.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 800,000 parents of school-age children have been deployed by the U.S. military. Many have deployed more than once and for extended periods, often longer than a year. As a result, increasing numbers of students experience significant distress on a daily basis and are at increased risk for behavioral problems, decreased…

  5. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  6. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  7. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MILITARY TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLIS, D.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS PART OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE ON OPERATIONAL AND PERSONNEL RESEARCH IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS, HELD IN BRUSSELS IN 1965. A MODEL ILLUSTRATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED MILITARY INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK AND CONTROL OF LEARNING. THE TRAINING COURSE INCLUDES--(1) A CLEAR…

  8. Military Deployments: Evaluating Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the possible influence of a military deployment online tutorial on teacher knowledge. DoDEA and public school teachers were the two groups used for the study. From this exploratory study, the researcher also wanted to explore if teachers would find professional development provided in an online tutorial relevant…

  9. Pastoral Care and Counseling with Military Families.

    PubMed

    Moon, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    The complex human experience of military service and the stress suffered by millions of military families each time a loved one deploys present unique challenges and opportunities in providing pastoral care and counseling. War and military service impact many facets of our society, as well as generational and interpersonal relationships. This article speaks to both academic and practitioner communities, and provides a vision for effective pastoral care and counseling with military families drawing on resources from family systems theory. PMID:27281760

  10. Pastoral Care and Counseling with Military Families.

    PubMed

    Moon, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    The complex human experience of military service and the stress suffered by millions of military families each time a loved one deploys present unique challenges and opportunities in providing pastoral care and counseling. War and military service impact many facets of our society, as well as generational and interpersonal relationships. This article speaks to both academic and practitioner communities, and provides a vision for effective pastoral care and counseling with military families drawing on resources from family systems theory.

  11. Obesity and the US Military Family

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  12. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  14. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  16. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  17. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military…

  18. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  19. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  20. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  1. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Split Benefits § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior...

  2. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  3. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  4. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  5. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Split Benefits § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior...

  6. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  7. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  8. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  9. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  10. Support for Military Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi; Hoshmand, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    This is a call for community psychologists to engage in research, consultation, and program development and evaluation in supporting military families and communities. Barriers to such involvement are identified and discussed. It is argued that the needs of military families and communities cannot be ignored when military and civilian communities…

  11. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  12. The Barracks Subculture of Military School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakov, R. Iu.

    2011-01-01

    The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  13. Intimate partner violence among female service members and veterans: information and resources available through military and non-military websites.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Joshi, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of women's roles in the military, the number of female service members and veterans has increased. Considerable knowledge about intimate partner violence (IPV) in civilian couples exists but little is known about IPV among female service members and veterans. Prevalence rates of IPV range from 17% to 39% for female service members, and 21.9% to 74% for veterans. Most service members and veterans indicated using the Internet at least occasionally and expressed willingness to seek information about services via the Internet. Informed by data, we conducted a systematic review of military (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and non-military (Veterans Affairs and Google) websites to explore the availability and presentation of information and resources related to IPV. The websites search revealed a variety of resources and information available, and important differences between sites with regard to what and how information is presented. Implications for practice and further research are discussed.

  14. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP.

  15. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  16. Optoelectronic measures in the analysis of running target shooting.

    PubMed

    Mononen, K; Viitasalo, J T; Era, P; Konttinen, N

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we examined the construct validity and practical significance of an optoelectronic shooting training system (Noptel ST 2000 Sport) for the technical analysis of running target shooting. A total of 37 male shooters of three different skill levels participated in the study. Principal component analysis revealed four common factors of 16 variables describing the aiming trajectory of the rifle barrel: (i) Holding area, (ii) Accuracy of aiming, (iii) Cleanness of triggering and (iv) Time on target. These factors were suggested to describe the essential components of running target shooting. According to the discriminant analysis, the shooters of various skill levels seemed to discriminate successfully into three groups when the aiming trajectory data were analysed. Finally, the aiming trajectory variables represented a 43% of the total variance in the shooting score. In summary, the present data indicated that the optoelectronic shooting training system had practical significance and supported the technical analysis of rifle barrel movement in running target shooting. A sub-set of variables, which reflect the essential information of running target shooting performance, were outlined for training and coaching purposes.

  17. Thermal signature training for military observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFollette, Robert; Horger, John D.

    1991-09-01

    The U.S. Army's CECOM Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics, C2NVEO, has been conducting a series of human perception tests. These tests score military observers on their ability to identify and recognize thermal images. The results of these tests are used to develop and refine the Night Vision FLIR Performance Model (FLIR90/ACQUIRE). The Thermal Image Training Package is a useful by-product of these tests. It was originally developed to train military observers for perception tests, but the soldiers tested pointed out its value for general training. Since that time, the package has been used by several Army units and has been found to be a valuable asset for training. The Thermal Image Training Package consists of software and imagery designed to quickly teach an observer how to recognize and identify thermal images. It runs on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer with VGA graphics and a hard disk. It loads into a computer in about 15 minutes and a complete training session is self- paced and usually takes less than two hours. It is effective, inexpensive, and simple to use. The package uses actual thermal images, simulated ranges, allows contrast and brightness adjustments, black or white hot polarity, red, green, or gray screen coloring and provides output files of scores for progress checking and analysis. The training package is a useful tool in its present form, but with continued interest and the development of better, cheaper PCs possible future versions have even greater potential.

  18. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  19. Derivation of site-specific surface water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems near a Korean military training facility.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study suggested the first Korean site-specific ecological surface water quality criteria for the protection of ecosystems near an artillery range at a Korean military training facility. Surface water quality (SWQ) criteria in Korea address human health protection but do not encompass ecological criteria such as limits for metals and explosives. The first objective of this study was to derive site-specific SWQ criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems in Hantan River, Korea. The second objective was to establish discharge criteria for the artillery range to protect the aquatic ecosystems of Hantan River. In this study, we first identified aquatic organisms living in the Hantan River, including fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and amphibians. Second, we collected ecotoxicity data for these aquatic organisms and constructed an ecotoxicity database for Cd, Cu, Zn, TNT, and RDX. This study determined the ecological maximum permissible concentrations for metals and explosives based on the ecotoxicity database and suggested ecological surface water quality criteria for the Hantan River by considering analytical detection limits. Discharge limit criteria for the shooting range were determined based on the ecological surface water quality criteria suggested for Hantan River with further consideration of the dilution of the contaminants discharged into the river.

  20. Military parachuting injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C; Craig, S C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a literature review of the aspects of military parachuting related to occupational medicine and focuses on 'conventional' military static line parachuting using a round parachute. The analysis of injuries resulting from military parachuting provide an excellent example of military occupational medicine practice. The techniques of military parachuting are described in order to illustrate the potential mechanisms of injury, and a number of 'classical' parachuting injuries are described. Finally some recommendations are made for the recording of parachute injuries which would assist in the international comparison of injury rates and anatomical distribution. PMID:10451583

  1. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  2. Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

  3. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    PubMed

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin.

  4. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  5. History of U.S. military contributions to the study of bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, George W; Agan, Maj Brian K; Cieslak, Theodore J; Olson, Patrick E

    2005-04-01

    Bacterial zoonoses have afflicted campaigns throughout military history, at times playing an important role in determining their outcomes. In addition, zoonotic bacteria are among the leading biological warfare threats. The U.S. military medical services have been at the forefront of research to define the basic microbiology, ecology, epidemiology, and clinical aspects of these diseases. This historical review discusses the military significance of plague, Q fever, anthrax, leptospirosis, bartonellosis, tularemia, and brucellosis and the U.S. military medical research counteroffensive. These contributions have ranged from basic molecular biology to elegant epidemiological surveys, from defining pathogenesis to developing new vaccine candidates. In an era of emerging diseases and biological weapons, the U.S. military will continue to lead a dynamic research effort to counter these disease threats. PMID:15916282

  6. Chemical Ingredients of Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms, including Cordyceps militaris, have received attention in Korea because of their biological activities. In the fruiting body and in corpus of C. militaris, the total free amino acid content was 69.32 mg/g and 14.03 mg/g, respectively. In the fruiting body, the most abundant amino acids were lysine, glutamic acid, proline and threonine. The fruiting body was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which comprised about 70% of the total fatty acids. The most abundant unsaturated acid was linoleic acid. There were differences in adenosine and cordycepin contents between the fruiting body and the corpus. The adenosine concentration was 0.18% in the fruiting body and 0.06% in the corpus, and the cordycepin concentration was 0.97% in the fruiting body and 0.36% in the corpus. PMID:23997632

  7. [Volgograd military hospital--70 years].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V Ia; Alborov, Z Ts

    2012-01-01

    History of the Volgograd military hospital dates back to July 24, 1941, when on the basis of the regional children's bone tuberculosis sanatorium in Krasnodar was transformed into 2150th military hospital consisted of 240 beds. Since May 1944 relocated in the city of Stalingrad became a garrison hospital. Today the hospital is a multidisciplinary health centre of the Russian Defense Ministry. Annually, the hospital performed at least 3000 surgical procedures, including more than 37%--are complex. In surgery, improved endovideosurgical direction, over 31% of emergency operations performed using this method. Since December 2009 the hospital became a structural division of the District Hospital in 1602 in Rostov on Don. The close connection between the branch and district hospital allows for complex diagnostic situations to consult leading experts, including consultation, thus ensuring the most effective treatment results.

  8. Military vaccines in today's environment.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohn, Connie S; Smith, Leonard A; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2012-08-01

    The US military has a long and highly distinguished record of developing effective vaccines against pathogens that threaten the armed forces. Many of these vaccines have also been of significant benefit to civilian populations around the world. The current requirements for force protection include vaccines against endemic disease threats as well as against biological warfare or bioterrorism agents, to include novel or genetically engineered threats. The cost of vaccine development and the modern regulatory requirements for licensing vaccines have strained the ability of the program to maintain this broad mission. Without innovative vaccine technologies, streamlined regulatory strategies, and coordinating efforts for use in civilian populations where appropriate, the military vaccine development program is in jeopardy. PMID:22854669

  9. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics. PMID:19780367

  10. OLED study for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  11. Ray-tube integration in shooting and bouncing ray method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Ling, H.; Chou, R.

    1988-01-01

    Based on three formulations of the Huygen's principle, explicit expressions is given for the far field contribution from a small ray tube. This expression is useful in shooting and bouncing rays for solving complex scattering problems.

  12. Production of withaferin A in shoot cultures of Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Jha, S

    2001-07-01

    Multiple shoot cultures of Withania somnifera were established from single shoot tip explants and their potential for the production of two principle withanolides, withaferin A and withanolide D was investigated. Shoot tips grown on MS medium supplemented with BA (1 mg l(-1)) induced 10.0 +/- 1.15 microshoots per explants and shoot cultures accumulated both withanolides (withaferin A = 0.04%, withanolide D = 0.06%). Supplementation of MSSM (solid) agar medium with 4% sucrose enhanced accumulation of both withaferin A (0.16%) and withanolide D (0.08%). Reduction of the agar concentration to 0.16% increased the number of microshoots induced per explant to 25.5. MSSM liquid medium containing 10% coconut milk favoured a maximum increase in biomass (27 fold); number of microshoots induced (37.6 +/- 1.45) as well as accumulation of withaferin A (0.14%). PMID:11488457

  13. School shooting as a culturally enforced way of expressing suicidal hostile intentions.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Suicide with hostile intent encompasses a wide range of behaviors, from self-killing by methods that can harm others, to the suicide that generally follows a spree-killing raid. Reports on school shooting, a highly dangerous and lethal behavior that is spreading from North America to European countries, are analyzed within the paradigm of suicide with hostile intent, with the purpose of discovering some elements that might prevent and limit the dissemination of this behavior by imitation. In school shooting, the perpetrators often register a message before their killing raid, as in an ancient form of suicidal assault, the devotio, that was widespread across ancient Mediterranean Roman, Greek, and Hebrew cultures. The development of a code of rules to report on these episodes, likely to attract the interest of the population for their bloody implications, could prevent the dissemination of cultural norms that encourage this behavior.

  14. U.S. Army Corrosion Office's storage and quality requirements for military MEMS program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III; Skelton, D. R.

    2007-04-01

    As the Army transforms into a more lethal, lighter and agile force, the technologies that support these systems must decrease in size while increasing in intelligence. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are one such technology that the Army and DOD will rely on heavily to accomplish these objectives. Conditions for utilization of MEMS by the military are unique. Operational and storage environments for the military are significantly different than those found in the commercial sector. Issues unique to the military include; high G-forces during gun launch, extreme temperature and humidity ranges, extended periods of inactivity (20 years plus) and interaction with explosives and propellants. The military operational environments in which MEMS will be stored or required to function are extreme and far surpass any commercial operating conditions. Security and encryption are a must for all MEMS communication, tracking, or data reporting devices employed by the military. Current and future military applications of MEMS devices include safety and arming devices, fuzing devices, various guidance systems, sensors/detectors, inertial measurement units, tracking devices, radio frequency devices, wireless Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs) and network systems, GPS's, radar systems, mobile base systems and information technology. MEMS embedded into these weapons systems will provide the military with new levels of speed, awareness, lethality, and information dissemination. The system capabilities enhanced by MEMS will translate directly into tactical and strategic military advantages.

  15. Managing palpitations in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Evans, Thomas; Holdsworth, D A; Jackson, S; Nicol, E

    2015-09-01

    'Palpitations' include a broad range of symptoms relating to the perception of abnormal activity of the heart. They may reflect an underlying arrhythmia or a hyperawareness of normal cardiac activity caused by stress or anxiety. The challenge to a clinician assessing patients with palpitations is to assess the likely cause of symptoms, to stratify the individual patient risk and to choose the correct management strategy delivered with appropriate urgency. The young military population, subject to increased exposure to environmental stress, is at an increased risk of palpitations. Due to the distracting nature of this symptom and the frequently sudden and unheralded onset, a common consequence is medical downgrading. This article will provide a guide to assessing the heterogeneous group presenting with palpitations and how to both establish the cause and identify the correct treatment for each patient in a timely manner.

  16. Undifferentiated febrile illnesses in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) present with acute symptoms, objective fever and no specific organ focus on clinical assessment. The term is mostly used in developing and tropical countries where a wide range of infections may be responsible. Laboratory diagnosis often requires specialist microbiology investigations that are not widely available, and serology tests that only become positive during convalescence. Optimal clinical management requires a good travel history, awareness of local endemic diseases, an understanding of the features that may help distinguish different causes and appropriate use of empirical antibiotics. This review describes the most common examples of UFI in military personnel on overseas deployments, and provides a practical approach to their initial management. PMID:24109142

  17. Physics in Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tat, Hong

    2006-12-01

    Aerospace, which includes both commercial and military applications, provides a wide variety of challenging opportunities in physics. I have worked primarily in the area of sensors with projects including airport baggage scanners and defect detection for the Space Shuttle. In my current role on the Army's Future Combat Systems, we use physical models to predict battlefield sensor performance. This talk will focus on the physical principles involved in modeling electro-optical sensor performance, including the fundamental concept of minimum resolvable contrast and minimum resolvable temperature curves. I will also touch upon my experiences at Boeing and give an overview of the range of physics-related projects at Boeing. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 15 SEP 2006, case 06-188

  18. PRIMUS: autonomous driving robot for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ingo

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the government experimental program PRIMUS (PRogram of Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) and the achieved results of phase C demonstrated in summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. In this program there shall be shown the autonomous driving on an unmanned robot in open terrain. The most possible degree of autonomy shall be reached with today's technology to get a platform for different missions. The goal is to release the soldier from high dangerous tasks, to increase the performance and to come to a reduction of personnel and costs with unmanned systems. In phase C of the program two small tracked vehicles (Digitized Wiesel 2, airtransportable by CH53) are used. One as a robot vehicle the other as a command & control system. The Wiesel 2 is configured as a drive by wire-system and therefore well suited for the adaption of control computers. The autonomous detection and avoidance of obstacles in unknown, not cooperative environment is the main task. For navigation and orientation a sensor package is integrated. To detect obstacles the scene in the driving corridor of the robot is scanned 4 times per second by a 3D- Range image camera (LADAR). The measured 3D-range image is converted into a 2D-obstacle map and used as input for calculation of an obstacle free path. The combination of local navigation (obstacle avoidance) and global navigation leads to a collission free driving in open terrain to a predefined goal point with a velocity of up to 25km/h. A contour tracker with a TV-camera as sensor is also implemented which allows to follow contours (e.g. edge of a meadow) or to drive on paved or unpaved roads with a velocity up to 50km/h. In addition to these autonomous driving modes the operator in the command & control station can drive the robot by remote control. All the functions were successfully demonstrated in the summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. During a mission example the robot vehicle covered a distance of several

  19. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  20. Shoot regeneration from stem and leaf callus of Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, M M; Minocha, S C

    1990-11-01

    Adventitious shoots were obtained from leaf and stem callus of Eucalyptus tereticornis SM. Callus was induced on B5 medium with 0.1 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) and 3 or 5 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid in the dark. Shoot initiation occurred on modified Woody Plant medium (mWP) containing 0.5 mg/l BA, 500 mg/l polyvinylpyrrolidone and 10% (v/v) coconut milk. Multiple shoots were also regenerated directly from hypocotyl segments of 4 to 6 week old seedlings on B5 medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. Regenerated shoots could be rooted with 100% efficiency on mWP medium containing 0.5 mg/l indolebutyric acid and transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Suspension cultures were obtained from the callus using B5 medium with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus clumps grew from less than 1 mm to 4-6 mm in diameter within two weeks on transfer to shoot regeneration medium but failed to form shoots or somatic embryos.

  1. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, U.

    1986-04-01

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear.

  2. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, Andrew R. G.; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Langdale, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants), the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives) represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26594222

  3. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

  4. Changes in basketball shooting patterns as a function of distance.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Burton, A W

    1999-12-01

    The effect of distance on the accuracy and movement form in basketball shooting was examined using a dynamic systems approach. Five male and five female young adults (M = 26 yr.) with no basketball experience beyond regular physical education shot a basketball 20 times at each of eight distances from 5 to 40 ft. (Natural condition). Also, they pretended to shoot the ball 5 times at each of the eight distances, for a total of 200 shots each (Pretend condition). In the Natural condition, shooting accuracy significantly decreased as shooting distance increased. Across both conditions and across four body components (feet position, hand position, trunk rotation, and jump height), the participants shifted from one movement pattern to another 86.3% of the time as shooting distance increased. The distances at which the transitions occurred were significantly shorter in the Natural than the Pretend condition for the feet and hand components but not the trunk and jump-height components. These results indicated that shooting a basketball at increasing distances can be portrayed as a dynamic system characterized by abrupt changes in at least four body components at critical distances.

  5. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jay L; Korte, Nic

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth--at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (<1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  6. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jay L; Korte, Nic

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth--at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (<1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use. PMID:19217645

  7. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    PubMed

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view. PMID:26779106

  8. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    PubMed

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  9. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored

  10. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  11. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  12. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  13. Guidelines for reliability testing of microelectromechanical systems in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Robert; Gintert, Larry; Rippen, Marc; Skelton, Don; Zunino, James; Gutmanis, Ivars

    2006-01-01

    Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) and microsystems technologies are seeing increased consideration for use in military applications. Assets ranging from aircraft and communications to munitions may soon employ MEMS. In all cases, MEMS devices must perform their required functions for the duration of the equipment's mission profile. Long-term performance in a given scenario can be assured through an understanding of the predominant MEMS failure modes. Once the failure modes have been identified, standardized tests will be developed and conducted on representative devices to detect the potential for these failures. Failure mechanisms for MEMS devices in severe environments may include wear and stiction. While corrosion is not usually a concern for commercial MEMS devices, as they are made primarily of silicon, other materials, including metallics, are being considered for MEMS to provide enhanced robustness in military applications. When these materials are exposed to aggressive military environments, corrosion may become a concern. Corrosion of metallic packaging and interconnect materials may also present issues for overall performance. Considering these corrosion and degradation issues, there is a need to implement standardized tests and requirements to ensure adequate long-term performance of MEMS devices in fielded and emerging military systems. To this end, Concurrent Technologies Corporation has been tasked by the U.S. Army to initiate efforts to standardize test methods that have been developed under previous activities. This paper presents an overview of the MEMS activities under the standardization effort and the MEMS reliability test guidelines that have been drafted as a first phase of this effort.

  14. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  15. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  16. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  17. Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl).

    PubMed

    Mithila, J; Hall, J C; Victor, J M R; Saxena, P K

    2003-01-01

    Regeneration via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was observed from thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated leaf and petiole explants of greenhouse- and in vitro-grown African violet plants. The response of cultures to other growth regulators over a range of 0.5 microM to 10 microM was 50% less than that observed with TDZ. A comparative study among several cultivars of African violet indicated that "Benjamin" and "William" had the highest regeneration potential. In "Benjamin", higher frequencies of shoot organogenesis (twofold) and somatic embryogenesis (a 50% increase) were observed from in vitro- and greenhouse-grown plants, respectively. At concentrations lower than 2.5 microM, TDZ induced shoot organogenesis, whereas at higher doses (5-10 microM) somatic embryos were formed. These findings provide the first report of simultaneous shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of African violet explants in response to TDZ. PMID:12789442

  18. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    PubMed

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots. PMID:14965950

  19. Hormonally controlled expression of the Arabidopsis MAX4 shoot branching regulatory gene.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Katherine; Sorefan, Karim; Ward, Sally; Leyser, Ottoline

    2005-11-01

    The Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 4 (MAX4) gene is required for the production of a long-range, graft-transmissible signal that inhibits shoot branching. Buds of max4 mutant plants are resistant to the inhibitory effects of apically applied auxin, indicating that MAX4 is required for auxin-mediated bud inhibition. The RAMOSUS 1 (RMS1) and DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE 1 (DAD1) genes of pea and petunia, respectively, are orthologous to MAX4 and function in a similar way. Here we show that, despite the similarities between these three genes, there are significant differences in the regulation of their expression. RMS1 is known to be upregulated by auxin in the shoot, suggesting a straightforward link between the RMS1-dependent branch-inhibiting signal and auxin, whereas we find that MAX4 is only upregulated by auxin in the root and hypocotyl, and this is not required for the inhibition of shoot branching. Furthermore, both RMS1 and DAD1 are subject to feedback regulation, for which there is no evidence for MAX4. Instead, overexpression studies and reciprocal grafting experiments demonstrate that the most functionally significant point of interaction between auxin and MAX4 is post-transcriptional and indeed post-synthesis of the MAX4-dependent graft-transmissible signal. PMID:16262707

  20. The task difficulty of free throw shooting for males and females.

    PubMed

    Looney, M A; Spray, J A; Castelli, D

    1996-09-01

    The study demonstrated how the binomial trials model could be used to enhance performance evaluation of a psychomotor task. The study was designed to accomplish three purposes: (a) calibrate the task difficulty of shooting free throws; (b) determine if free-throw shooting is a more difficult task for females than males; and (c) demonstrate how grading scales could be developed when a difference in task difficulty exists. Adults (202 males and 196 females) ranging in age from 18 to 55 years shot 17 consecutive free throws. The performance scores were analyzed using the binomial trials model. The model fit the data for the total group and the females. Because no males scored 0 or more than 13, the model did not fit the data at the extremes of the score continuum. The task difficulty for females was 0.793 (SE = 0.084) and 0.068 (SE = 0.081) for males, which indicated differential item functioning, Chi 1(2) = 38.73, p < .0001. Shooting free throws with a men's regulation basketball was a more difficult task for females than males, which indicates the task does not measure the same latent trait ability for both groups. On average the males' probability of making a free throw was .146 units higher than for the females. Ability estimates were mapped to observed scores for males and females separately and used to illustrate how fair grading scales could be developed.

  1. Military Bases and Conservation Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ankeny

    2007-09-01

    Over time, DoD is likely to be one of the largest buyers and sellers in a water quality trading market. The Department of Defense (DoD) operates military bases that resemble small cities in infrastructure. As units redeploy, bases are likely to find themselves well within their environmental limits at the originating base and potentially bumping against limits such as nitrate and phosphate loading at the destination base. Stricter rules and heavier loadings in growing watersheds also present challenges to local bases and municipalities as regulators clamp down on loadings from existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to meet water quality standards.

  2. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  4. Thank You for Your Service: Military Initiatives on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristin Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Military students and their dependents arrive on college campuses with a diverse array of academic goals and support needs. A military friendly college understands that military students are transitioning from the professional military environment to the workforce, and academic work is part of that transition. A military friendly college is not…

  5. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or...

  6. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or...

  7. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or...

  8. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or...

  9. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or...

  10. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  11. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  12. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  13. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  14. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  15. A Guide to the Study and Use of Military History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, John E., Jr.; Coakley, Robert W.

    This study guide on military history is intended for use with the young officer just entering upon a military career. There are four major sections to the guide. Part one discusses the scope and value of military history, presents a perspective on military history, and examines essentials of a study program. The study of military history has both…

  16. Conflict termination and military strategy: Coercion, persuasion, and war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Dunn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contributors examine a wide variety of topics ranging from superpower views on conflict termination to past, present, and future U.S. military service contributions. They aim to highlight the importance of thinking about conflict termination goals and objectives in peacetime to insure that plans that may be used in war have been carefully evaluated outside the heat of battle, when the emotions created by war might cloud decision making.

  17. Training MSSW Students for Military Social Work Practice and Doctoral Students in Military Resilience Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuMars, Tyler; Bolton, Kristin; Maleku, Arati; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    The demand for social workers with military-related practice and research experience exceeds the current supply. To advance military social work education, we developed an interlevel master's of science in social work (MSSW) field practicum and doctoral research practicum that provides military social work field experiences and contributes to…

  18. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were produced from lateral meristems in bread wheat. One is supernumerary shoot that was developed from an axillary bud at the axil of leaves on the elongated internodes of the main stem. The other is supernumerary spike that was generated from a spikelet meristem on a spike. In addition, supernumerary spikelets were generated on the same rachis node of the spike in the plant that had supernumerary shoot and spikes. All of these supernumerary shoots/spikes/spikelets found in the super wheat plants produced normal fertility and seeds, displaying huge yield potential in bread wheat. PMID:26986738

  19. Normal and Abnormal Development in the Arabidopsis Vegetative Shoot Apex.

    PubMed Central

    Medford, JI; Behringer, FJ; Callos, JD; Feldmann, KA

    1992-01-01

    Vegetative development in the Arabidopsis shoot apex follows both sequential and repetitive steps. Early in development, the young vegetative meristem is flat and has a rectangular shape with bilateral symmetry. The first pair of leaf primordia is radially symmetrical and is initiated on opposite sides of the meristem. As development proceeds, the meristem changes first to a bilaterally symmetrical trapezoid and then to a radially symmetrical dome. Vegetative development from the domed meristem continues as leaves are initiated in a repetitive manner. Abnormal development of the vegetative shoot apex is described for a number of mutants. The mutants we describe fall into at least three classes: (1) lesions in the shoot apex that do not show an apparent alteration in the shoot apical meristem, (2) lesions in the apical meristem that also (directly or indirectly) alter leaf primordia, and (3) lesions in the apical meristem that alter meristem size and leaf number but not leaf morphology. These mutations provide tools both to genetically analyze vegetative development of the shoot apex and to learn how vegetative development influences floral development. PMID:12297656

  20. Experimental study of visual training effects in shooting initiation.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Lluïsa; Solé, Joan; Palmi, Joan; Planas, Antoni; Soana, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of specific visual training in shooting initiation performance. METHODS: Seventy-one first-year university students were divided randomly into two groups. The experimental group followed a nine-session shooting training program that included technical, physical and psychological components, along with specific visual exercises. The control group followed the same program with one difference: this group received theoretical lectures on psychological training techniques instead of doing visual exercises. Pre- and post-test results were obtained for shooting, concentration, saccades and visual acuity. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated significant gains in the four mentioned variables for the experimental group. The control group also showed significant differences in the three first variables but no significant improvement in visual acuity. No significant differences in shooting performance were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of vision training on sports initiation performance is still not clear. It cannot be assumed that the improvement is transferable to the performance of precision shooting at the stage of sports initiation.

  1. Sonoran pronghorn habitat use on landscapes disturbed by military activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krausman, P.R.; Harris, L.K.; Haas, S.K.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Devers, P.; Bunting, D.; Barb, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis) population in the United States declined to ???33 animals in January 2003. Low population numbers and unstable recruitment are concerns for biologists managing this subspecies. We examined habitat use by pronghorn from 1999 to 2002 on a portion of the Barry M. Goldwater Range (BMGR) used for military exercises. We overlaid locations of pronghorn (n= 1,203) on 377 1-km2 blocks within the North (NTAC) and South Tactical Ranges (STAC), BMGR; we classified vegetation associations and disturbance status (e.g., airfields, targets, roads) for each block. Locations of pronghorn were distributed in proportion to vegetation associations on NTAC and STAC. Sightings of pronghorns were biased toward disturbed blocks, with 73% of locations of pronghorn occurring in proximity to mock airfields, high-explosive hills (e.g., targets for live high-explosive bombs and rockets), other targets, and roads. Disturbed landscapes on the BMGR may attract Sonoran pronghorn by creating favorable forage. Habitat manipulations simulating the effects of military disturbances on the landscape (e.g., improved forage) may improve remaining Sonoran pronghorn habitat. Antilocapra americana sonoriensis, Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range, disturbed habitat, habitat availability, habitat use, military activity, Sonoran pronghorn.

  2. Mechanically, the Shoot Apical Meristem of Arabidopsis Behaves like a Shell Inflated by a Pressure of About 1 MPa

    PubMed Central

    Beauzamy, Léna; Louveaux, Marion; Hamant, Olivier; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem) were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82±0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the range of values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex. PMID:26635855

  3. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  4. Mechanically, the Shoot Apical Meristem of Arabidopsis Behaves like a Shell Inflated by a Pressure of About 1 MPa.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Louveaux, Marion; Hamant, Olivier; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem) were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82±0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the range of values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex.

  5. Military display market: update to fourth comprehensive edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2009-05-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study, an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to 10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of

  6. Search and detection modeling of military imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Tana; Wilson, David L.; Driggers, Ronald G.

    2013-04-01

    For more than 50 years, the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has been studying the science behind the human processes of searching and detecting, and using that knowledge to develop and refine its models for military imaging systems. Modeling how human observers perform military tasks while using imaging systems in the field and linking that model with the physics of the systems has resulted in the comprehensive sensor models we have today. These models are used by the government, military, industry, and academia for sensor development, sensor system acquisition, military tactics development, and war-gaming. From the original hypothesis put forth by John Johnson in 1958, to modeling time-limited search, to modeling the impact of motion on target detection, to modeling target acquisition performance in different spectral bands, the concept of search has a wide-ranging history. Our purpose is to present a snapshot of that history; as such, it will begin with a description of the search-modeling task, followed by a summary of highlights from the early years, and concluding with a discussion of search and detection modeling today and the changing battlefield. Some of the topics to be discussed will be classic search, clutter, computational vision models and the ACQUIRE model with its variants. We do not claim to present a complete history here, but rather a look at some of the work that has been done, and this is meant to be an introduction to an extensive amount of work on a complex topic. That said, it is hoped that this overview of the history of search and detection modeling of military imaging systems pursued by NVESD directly, or in association with other government agencies or contractors, will provide both the novice and experienced search modeler with a useful historical summary and an introduction to current issues and future challenges.

  7. Effect of training with and without a load on military fitness tests and marksmanship.

    PubMed

    Swain, David P; Ringleb, Stacie I; Naik, Dayanand N; Butowicz, Courtney M

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether military-style training performed while carrying a weighted vest and backpack (Load condition) resulted in superior training adaptations (specifically, changes in military fitness and marksmanship) than did more conventional training (No-Load condition). A total of 33 college-aged men and women (16 Load, 17 No-Load) completed all testing and 9 weeks of training (1 h·d, 4 d·wk). No-Load training consisted of military calisthenics, sprints, agility drills, and running. Load training was similar except that running was replaced with stair climbing, and Load increased across the 9 weeks to 20 kg for women and 30 kg for men. Pretraining and posttraining, all subjects performed an uphill treadmill test with full load to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)peak), the marine physical fitness test (PFT) and combat fitness test (CFT) without load, other fitness tests, and an indoor marksmanship test using a laser-fitted carbine. The marksmanship test was performed with full load and done before and immediately after a 200-m shuttle run performed in 60 seconds. Both groups significantly improved their VO(2)peak, PFT, and CFT scores by similar amounts. Pretraining, shooting score decreased significantly after the 200-m run and then rapidly recovered, with no difference between groups. A similar, but nonsignificant, pattern in shooting scores was seen in both groups posttraining. In conclusion, loaded training did not produce measurable advantages compared with unloaded training in this population. A strenuous anaerobic challenge caused a temporary reduction in marksmanship. PMID:21659886

  8. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    PubMed

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  9. Sequence of Key Events in Shoot Gravitropism 1

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Fernando; Rayle, David L.

    1984-01-01

    It has recently been shown that asymmetric acid efflux is closely correlated with the gravitropic curvature of plant shoots and roots. The research reported here addresses whether auxin (IAA) redistribution in shoots is the cause or result of asymmetric acid efflux. When abraded sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv Mammoth) hypocotyls are submerged in 20 millimolar neutral buffer, gravicurvature is greatly retarded relative to 0.2 millimolar controls. Nevertheless, in both buffer systems there is a similar redistribution of [3H]IAA toward the lower surface of gravistimulated sunflower hypocotyls. These results suggest that graviperception initiates IAA redistribution, which in turn results in auxin-induced asymmetric H+ efflux across the shoot. This interpretation is reinforced by data showing the effects of removal of the epidermal layers (peeling), osmotic shock, and morphactin treatment on gravicurvature and [3H]IAA redistribution. Peeling and osmotic shock inhibit gravicurvature but not redistribution. Morphactin inhibits both processes but does not inhibit hypocotyl straight growth. PMID:16663606

  10. Effects of preshot routine on free-throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Gayton, W F; Cielinski, K L; Francis-Keniston, W J; Hearns, J F

    1989-02-01

    The effect of prohibiting the use of a preshot routine on free-throw shooting in competitive situations was investigated. 25 male high school basketball players were instructed to attempt 50 free throws alternating in blocks of 10 between the use of their preshot routine and shooting without it. To make the situation competitive, subjects were run in groups of five and their performance was recorded on a large easel placed to the side of the free-throw line. A significantly larger number of baskets were made in the preshot routine condition than without the routine. A competitive situation led to a greater decrement in baskets than had been reported in 1986 by Lobmeyer and Wassermen during noncompetitive free-throw shooting.

  11. Assessment of pollution risk ascribed to Santa Margarida Military Camp activities (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, M. J.; Marques, J. M.; Figueiredo, P.; Basto, M. J.; Abreu, M. M.; Carreira, P. M.; Ribeiro, C.; Flambó, A.; Feliciano, J.; Vicente, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Santa Margarida Military Camp (S.M.M.C.) is the only one Portuguese military training area, including firing ranges for tactical military manoeuvres of mechanised divisions. For this reason, various negative effects on the environment were expected due to the military activities, as the Military Camp’s area is classified as a high vulnerability area to pollution of its multilayer porous aquifers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise local/regional geochemical impacts caused by the continuing military training activities performed at S.M.M.C. in the course of 52 years. An overview of the geochemical research issues as a basis for risk assessment is presented. A special attention has been put on the quality of local and regional surface waters, shallow groundwaters and groundwaters. Local soils and sediments as well as fragments of shells and bullets were sampled and analysed. The results so far obtained, indicated that none pollution effects were a consequence of the military training activities. Till now, the geochemical signatures such as, high levels of K, Cl and NO3 in waters, detected in particular sites, should be faced as tracers of diffuse pollution ascribed to urban waste disposal and cattle breading.

  12. PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, Rachel; Vermetten, Eric; McFarlane, Alexander C; Lehrner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners. PMID:25206950

  13. PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yehuda, Rachel; Vermetten, Eric; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Lehrner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners. PMID:25206950

  14. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  15. Military GP training-the future.

    PubMed

    Herod, T P; Johnson, G A

    2013-01-01

    There is clearly a significant step from being a well-supported GP Registrar to being a fully independent GP in the NHS and this is even more apparent for a newly qualified Military GP There are many additional duties and responsibilities placed upon a Military GP that the current training curriculum and exams do not cover and which must be learnt post-CCT, whilst undertaking independent practice for the first time. Having a Military First 5 initiative for support during this time would no doubt be of some use, but having a dedicated period of training to re-militarise newly qualified Military GPs would provide an opportunity to improve and make more efficient the initial transition from training to independent practice. In the long term, incorporating as much as possible of this proposed period of post-CCT Military training into a 4th year of GP training would be the ideal. However, discussions between Surgeon General, the Defence Deanery and the RCGP would be required to define which training elements would be acceptable to be incorporated and there will no doubt be some aspects (e.g. weapons handling) that might be deemed unacceptable by the RCGP, and thus a period of post-CCT Military training may still be a key component of a longer term solution. The options for enhancing Military GP training warrant thorough exploration as they have the potential to provide significant benefit not only for future trainees but also for the military in general.

  16. Conning Our Kids into Military Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2005-01-01

    There are some school leaders who believe that the military offers just one more option for students to consider. Others, however, think that military recruiters are too aggressive and that the privacy of students should be better protected. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) gives the armed services unprecedented access to potential recruits at…

  17. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  18. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  19. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  20. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  1. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  2. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  3. Unlocking Insights about Military Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Anita; London, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    As this issue of the "Future of Children" makes clear, there is much yet to learn about military children and their families. A big part of the reason, write Anita Chandra and Andrew London, is the lack of sufficiently robust sources of data. Until more and better data are collected about military families, Chandra and London say, it…

  4. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  5. Sociological Research in a Military School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    What is the content of a system of sociological support for the administration of a higher military educational institution, and what problems are involved? From October 2006 to February 2007, instructors in the department of the humanities and the social-economic disciplines at Eisk F. M. Komarov Higher Military Aviation School (EVVAU) carried…

  6. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  7. Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

  8. The Demographics of Military Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clever, Molly; Segal, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic…

  9. Engaging Military Partners: Supporting Connections to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harriett C.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Overseas Contingency Operation (OCO), families and communities have been impacted by multiple deployments. This is particularly challenging for families that are geographically isolated from military installations and resources typically available near these facilities. Operation Military Kids (OMK) is a national partnership…

  10. Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. PMID:25443853

  11. 75 FR 3448 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission AGENCY... the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (hereafter referred to as the Commission) on January 15... leadership position with either a Military Department command or combatant command; (b) a retired general...

  12. 32 CFR 9.2 - Establishment of Military Commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.2 Establishment of Military Commissions. In accordance with the President's Military...

  13. Military applications of hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briottet, X.; Boucher, Y.; Dimmeler, A.; Malaplate, A.; Cini, A.; Diani, M.; Bekman, H.; Schwering, P.; Skauli, T.; Kasen, I.; Renhorn, I.; Klasén, L.; Gilmore, M.; Oxford, D.

    2006-05-01

    Optical imaging, including infrared imaging, generally has many important applications, both civilian and military. In recent years, technological advances have made multi- and hyperspectral imaging a viable technology in many demanding military application areas. The aim of the CEPA JP 8.10 program has been to evaluate the potential benefit of spectral imaging techniques in tactical military applications. This unclassified executive summary describes the activities in the program and outlines some of the results. More specific results are given in classified reports and presentations. The JP 8.10 program started in March 2002 and ended in February 2005. The participating nations were France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and United-Kingdom, each with a contribution of 2 man-years per year. Essential objectives of the program were to: 1) analyze the available spectral information in the optronic landscape from visible to infrared; 2) analyze the operational utility of multi- and hyperspectral imaging for detection, recognition and identification of targets, including low-signature targets; 3) identify applications where spectral imaging can provide a strong gain in performance; 4) propose technical recommendations of future spectral imaging systems and critical components. Finally, a stated objective of the JP 8.10 program is to "ensure the proper link with the image processing community". The presentation is organized as follows. In a first step, the two trials (Pirrene and Kvarn) are presented including a summary of the acquired optical properties of the different landscape materials and of the spectral images. Then, a phenomenology study is conducted analyzing the spectral behavior of the optical properties, understanding the signal at the sensor and, by processing spectroradiometric measurements evaluating the potential to discriminate spectral signatures. Cameo-Sim simulation software is presented including first validation results and the

  14. CLAVATA-WUSCHEL signaling in the shoot meristem.

    PubMed

    Somssich, Marc; Je, Byoung Il; Simon, Rüdiger; Jackson, David

    2016-09-15

    Shoot meristems are maintained by pluripotent stem cells that are controlled by CLAVATA-WUSCHEL feedback signaling. This pathway, which coordinates stem cell proliferation with differentiation, was first identified in Arabidopsis, but appears to be conserved in diverse higher plant species. In this Review, we highlight the commonalities and differences between CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathways in different species, with an emphasis on Arabidopsis, maize, rice and tomato. We focus on stem cell control in shoot meristems, but also briefly discuss the role of these signaling components in root meristems. PMID:27624829

  15. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  16. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population.

  17. Decisions to shoot in a weapon identification task: The influence of cultural stereotypes and perceived threat on false positive errors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kevin K; Bandy, Carole L; Kimble, Matthew O

    2010-01-01

    The decision to shoot a gun engages executive control processes that can be biased by cultural stereotypes and perceived threat. The neural locus of the decision to shoot is likely to be found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), where cognition and affect converge. Male military cadets at Norwich University (N=37) performed a weapon identification task in which they made rapid decisions to shoot when images of guns appeared briefly on a computer screen. Reaction times, error rates, and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were recorded. Cadets reacted more quickly and accurately when guns were primed by images of Middle-Eastern males wearing traditional clothing. However, cadets also made more false positive errors when tools were primed by these images. Error-related negativity (ERN) was measured for each response. Deeper ERNs were found in the medial-frontal cortex following false positive responses. Cadets who made fewer errors also produced deeper ERNs, indicating stronger executive control. Pupil size was used to measure autonomic arousal related to perceived threat. Images of Middle-Eastern males in traditional clothing produced larger pupil sizes. An image of Osama bin Laden induced the largest pupil size, as would be predicted for the exemplar of Middle East terrorism. Cadets who showed greater increases in pupil size also made more false positive errors. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate predictions based on current models of perceived threat, stereotype activation, and cognitive control. Measures of pupil size (perceived threat) and ERN (cognitive control) explained significant proportions of the variance in false positive errors to Middle-Eastern males in traditional clothing, while measures of reaction time, signal detection response bias, and stimulus discriminability explained most of the remaining variance. PMID:19813139

  18. Decisions to Shoot in a Weapon Identification Task: The Influence of Cultural Stereotypes and Perceived Threat on False Positive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Kevin K.; Bandy, Carole L.; Kimble, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to shoot engages executive control processes that can be biased by cultural stereotypes and perceived threat. The neural locus of the decision to shoot is likely to be found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) where cognition and affect converge. Male military cadets at Norwich University (N=37) performed a weapon identification task in which they made rapid decisions to shoot when images of guns appeared briefly on a computer screen. Reaction times, error rates, and EEG activity were recorded. Cadets reacted more quickly and accurately when guns were primed by images of middle-eastern males wearing traditional clothing. However, cadets also made more false positive errors when tools were primed by these images. Error-related negativity (ERN) was measured for each response. Deeper ERN’s were found in the medial-frontal cortex following false positive responses. Cadets who made fewer errors also produced deeper ERN’s, indicating stronger executive control. Pupil size was used to measure autonomic arousal related to perceived threat. Images of middle-eastern males in traditional clothing produced larger pupil sizes. An image of Osama bin Laden induced the largest pupil size, as would be predicted for the exemplar of Middle East terrorism. Cadets who showed greater increases in pupil size also made more false positive errors. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate predictions based on current models of perceived threat, stereotype activation, and cognitive control. Measures of pupil size (perceived threat) and ERN (cognitive control) explained significant proportions of the variance in false positive errors to middle-eastern males in traditional clothing, while measures of reaction time, signal detection response bias, and stimulus discriminability explained most of the remaining variance. PMID:19813139

  19. Methyl jasmonate mediates upregulation of bacoside A production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poojadevi; Yadav, Sheetal; Srivastava, Anshu; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2013-07-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) enhances the production of a range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoid saponins in a variety of plant species. Here, it enhanced production of bacoside A, a valuable triterpenoid saponin having nootropic therapeutic activity in in vitro shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, the only known source of bacoside A. The highest yield was with 50 μM MJ giving 4.4 mg bacoside A/g dry wt; an 1.8-fold increase (compared to control) after 1 week.

  20. Environmental information for military planning.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Victoria; Croft, Darryl; Knight, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to consider the implications of presenting Environmental Information (EI; information on current environmental features including weather, topography and visibility maps) for military planning to the growing audience of non-technical users; to provide guidance for ensuring usability and for development of a suitable EI interface, and to produce an EI concept interface mock-up to demonstrate initial design ideas. Knowledge was elicited from current EI users and providers regarding anticipated use of EI by non-specialists. This was combined with human factors and cognition expertise to produce guidance for data usability and development of an EI interface. A simple mock-up of an EI concept interface was developed. Recommendations for further development were made including application of the guidance derived, identification of a user test-bed and development of business processes. PMID:23290260

  1. [The Military Medical Academy's website].

    PubMed

    Kuvakin, V I; Vasil'ev, G G

    2013-12-01

    The article deals with the organization of work, evaluation and optimization of the official web site of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. The website of the Kirov Academy is presented as a multifunctional IT tool for support of its activity. Tasks and functions of the Kirov Academy web site, as well as technological features of its work are listed. Some of its quantitative characteristics as a user tool for the access to information resources of the Kirov Academy are given. The description of the site structure and its pages are presented. The requirements for information materials submitted for posting on the site are set out. The data of webometric ranking of Russian institutions of higher education and research institutes are analyzed, the location of the Academy web site in this rating is shown. The areas for further improvement of the Academy web site, its structure and services are stated. PMID:24738276

  2. Coculture of genetically transformed roots and shoots for synthesis, translocation, and biotransformation of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Subroto, M A; Kwok, K H; Hamill, J D; Doran, P M

    1996-03-01

    Genetically transformed shooty teratomas of Atropa belladonna and a Duboisia leichhardtii x D. myoporoides hybrid were studied for biotransformation of tropane alkaloids in shake flasks and bioreactors. Although de novo synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine was limited, shoots of both species were able to translocate and accumulate significant quantities of exogenous alkaloid. The maximum yield of scopolamine from hyoscyamine fed to the Duboisia hybrid shoots was 35% w/w; the yield of the scopolamine precursor, 6beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine, was 37% w/w. Biotransformation activity was poor in A. belladonna shooty teratomas provided with exogenous hyoscyamine; however, scopolamine levels comparable with those in leaves of the whole plant accumulated in shoots fed with hairy root extract. Coculture of A. belladonna shooty teratomas and hairy roots in the same hormone-free medium was investigated as a means of providing a continuous source of hyoscyamine for conversion to scopolamine. Of the biotransformation systems tested with A. belladonna, coculture produced the highest levels of scopolamine and the highest scopolamine: hyoscyamine ratios. Cocultured shoots accumulated up to 0.84 mg g(-1) dry weight scopolamine, or 3-11 times the average concentrations found in leaves of the whole plant. The scopolamine: hyoscyamine ratio in coculture ranged from 0.07 to 1.9, a significant improvement over levels of 0-0.03 normally found in A. belladonna hairy roots. Addition of Pluronic F-68 or copper sulfate to the medium and variation in initial medium pH did not improve hyoscyamine release from hairy roots. Scopolamine levels were increased using 1 microM copper sulfate or initial medium pH between 6.0 and 8.0; however, results from elicitation of hairy roots could not match the beneficial effect on scopolamine synthesis of root-shoot coculture. Addition of 0.001-1.0% (w/v) Pluronic F-68 to the roots reduced hyoscyamine release but postponed necrosis in the root tissue for up to

  3. [Distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in Ginkgo biloba canopy and their relationships].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wei, G

    2000-04-01

    The distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in the canopy of 14 years old engrafted Ginkgo biloba and their relationships were investigated with stratification method. The result shows that long shoots, short shoots, bearing-shoots and flowers uniformly distributed in the central section of canopy. From the top to the bottom, the average age and the divaricating angle of long shoots increase 51.3% of the seeds distributed in 180-320 cm layer from the ground. The number of shoots, flowers and seeds in different canopy layers was closely correlated.

  4. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  5. Military applications for high-performance thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The recent developments in high-performance infrared sensor technology are opening up new opportunities for exploitation in the defence and security domains. In this paper, the focal plane array developments in the UK on low noise techniques, avalanche photodiodes, high operating temperature devices and large format cameras are reviewed and impact upon military capability is discussed. These technological developments are focused towards enduring challenges including the stand-off identification of hazardous materials and long range target recognition and are enabling exploitation of high performance thermal imaging onto a wide range of smaller platforms.

  6. [The Carabinieri Vice-Brigadiere Salvo D'Acquisto Gold Medal for Military Valour. Champion of justice and social solidarity].

    PubMed

    Richero, G

    2006-01-01

    The paper recalls the life and the altruistic sacrifice that led Salvo D'Acquisto to be known and remebered as a hero. On the 23rd September 1943 the Carabinieri Vice-Brigadiere D'Acquisto saved 22 human lifes accusing himself of a presumed attack against the German occupants, although he was innocent. On the first anniversary of his execution by shooting, he was made gold medal for military valour. The cause for his beatification is currently under examination by the Holy See. PMID:16705888

  7. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  8. Report on Virginia Tech Shootings Urges Clarification of Privacy Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Educators, mental-health officials, and law-enforcement officers often do not share information about troubled students because they are confused by what they can disclose under complex and overlapping privacy laws, according to a report on the Virginia Tech shootings. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and two other Bush cabinet secretaries…

  9. Developmental anatomy of the reproductive shoot in Hydrobryum japonicum (Podostemaceae).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

    2008-07-01

    Podostemaceae are unusual aquatic angiosperms adapting to extreme habitats, i.e., rapids and waterfalls, and have unique morphologies. We investigated the developmental anatomy of reproductive shoots scattered on crustose roots of Hydrobryum japonicum by scanning electron microscopy and using semi-thin serial sections. Two developmental patterns were observed: bracts arise either continuously from an area of meristematic cells that has produced leaves, or within differentiated root ground tissue beneath, and internal to, leaf base scars after an interruption. In both patterns, the bract primordia arise endogenously at the base of youngest bracts in the absence of shoot apical meristem, involving vacuolated-cell detachment to each bract separately. The different transition patterns of reproductive shoot development may be caused by different stages of parental vegetative shoots. The floral meristem arises between the two youngest bracts, and is similarly accompanied by cell degeneration. In contrast, the floral organs, including the spathella, arise exogenously from the meristem. Bract development, like vegetative leaf development, is unique to this podostemad, while floral-organ development is conserved. PMID:18506393

  10. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  11. Developmental anatomy of the reproductive shoot in Hydrobryum japonicum (Podostemaceae).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

    2008-07-01

    Podostemaceae are unusual aquatic angiosperms adapting to extreme habitats, i.e., rapids and waterfalls, and have unique morphologies. We investigated the developmental anatomy of reproductive shoots scattered on crustose roots of Hydrobryum japonicum by scanning electron microscopy and using semi-thin serial sections. Two developmental patterns were observed: bracts arise either continuously from an area of meristematic cells that has produced leaves, or within differentiated root ground tissue beneath, and internal to, leaf base scars after an interruption. In both patterns, the bract primordia arise endogenously at the base of youngest bracts in the absence of shoot apical meristem, involving vacuolated-cell detachment to each bract separately. The different transition patterns of reproductive shoot development may be caused by different stages of parental vegetative shoots. The floral meristem arises between the two youngest bracts, and is similarly accompanied by cell degeneration. In contrast, the floral organs, including the spathella, arise exogenously from the meristem. Bract development, like vegetative leaf development, is unique to this podostemad, while floral-organ development is conserved.

  12. The antioxidant melatonin boosts recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantee safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wor...

  13. Phytotoxic furanocoumarins from the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis Regel & Herder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of novel, natural herbicides has become important to manage increasing weed resistance to synthetic herbicides and environmental issues. The systematic bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis led to ...

  14. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  15. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  16. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication and impacts on shoot phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot system (scion) of another individual. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops such as Apples, Grapes, and Citrus species to shorten scion juvenile stage length, facilitate clo...

  17. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  18. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  19. Radiocesium Distribution in Bamboo Shoots after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium 134Cs and 137Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight), respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots. PMID:24831096

  20. Auxins and Shoot Tropisms--A Tenuous Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, A. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the Cholodny-Went hypothesis which explains geo- and phototropic curvature in shoots in terms of a perception phase at the apex with a response at some remote site. Hormonal messages, lateral transmission of a stimulus, auxin concentration gradients, and what should be taught concerning this hypothesis are discussed. (DS)

  1. Efficient shoots regeneration and genetic transformation of Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Uma; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Gupta, Neha; Ruby; Shirgurkar, M V; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-04-01

    Bacopa monniera is an important source of metabolites with pharmaceutical value. It has been regarded as a valuable medicinal plant and its entire commercial requirement is met from wild natural population. Recently, metabolic engineering has emerged as an important solution for sustained supply of assured and quality raw material for the production of active principles. Present report describes efficient in vitro multiplication and transformation method for genetic manipulation of this species. MS medium supplemented with 2 mgl(-1) BA and 0.2 mgl(-1) IAA was found optimum for maximum shoot regeneration (98.33 %) from in vitro leaves with 2-3 longitudinal cuts. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method was used for generating transgenic B. monniera plants. Putative transformants were confirmed by GUS assay and PCR based confirmation of hptII gene. DNA blot analysis showed single copy insertion of transgene cassette. An average of 87.5 % of the regenerated shoots were found PCR positive for hptII gene and GUS activity was detected in leaves of transgenic shoots at a frequency of 82.5 % The efficient multiple shoots regeneration system described herein may help in mass production of B. monniera plant. Also, the high frequency transformation protocol described here can be used for genetic engineering of B. monniera for enhancement of its pharmaceutically important metabolites.

  2. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  3. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    PubMed

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  4. A shooting scheme for boundary-value problems

    SciTech Connect

    Or, A.C.

    1994-10-01

    A systematic shooting scheme is developed to solve a cascade of boundary value problems obtained from a small-parameter expansion of the full partial differential system. The sequence of solutions and the associated solvability conditions can be obtained simultaneously by a method without having to solve an adjoint boundary problem independently. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovitz, S. )

    1991-10-01

    If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

  6. Trajectory optimization using parallel shooting method on parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Wirthman, D.J.; Park, S.Y.; Vadali, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    The efficiency of a parallel shooting method on a parallel computer for solving a variety of optimal control guidance problems is studied. Several examples are considered to demonstrate that a speedup of nearly 7 to 1 is achieved with the use of 16 processors. It is suggested that further improvements in performance can be achieved by parallelizing in the state domain. 10 refs.

  7. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia x candida Pers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3-, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weigh...

  8. Shooting through time: new insights from transcriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill

    2015-08-01

    Plant evo-devo research aims to identify the nature of genetic change underpinning the evolution of diverse plant forms. A transcriptomic study comparing gene expression profiles in the meristematic shoot tips of three distantly related vascular plants suggests that different genes were recruited to regulate similar meristematic processes during evolution.

  9. Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

  10. Shooting habits of U.S. waterfowl hunters.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Borer, Sarah E; Lehman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to high-intensity impulse noise from the recreational use of firearms is a common cause of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Although recreational firearm users who shoot firearms without proper hearing protection are at risk for NIHL, a specific subgroup involved in hunting waterfowl may also be at risk due to their particular shooting habits. The goal of the present study was to investigate the shooting habits of this particular group of U.S. recreational firearm users. A 23-item written survey was sent to waterfowl hunting club members regarding their shooting behaviors, use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), and auditory status. Results indicated that waterfowl hunters in this study typically used large bore semiautomatic shotguns, did not consistently utilize HPDs during target practice or hunting and were exposed to multiple, unprotected shots during the past waterfowl season. Most subjects reported hunting in reverberant acoustic environments (hunting blinds). This group of recreational firearm users also reported high incidences of hearing loss and tinnitus. Information provided by this study may help hearing conservationists and hearing healthcare providers understand and better educate these shooters regarding the risk of acquiring NIHL. PMID:19265248

  11. Ritual and free-throw shooting in basketball.

    PubMed

    Southard, D; Miracle, A; Landwer, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and effect of certain highly patterned behaviours utilized prior to free-throw shooting in basketball. Ten female basketball players comprising the varsity squad of Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA served as subjects for this study. Subjects were filmed with a high-speed camera and monitored for heart rate during the performance of 10 free throws in each of two conditions: ritual and non-ritual. For the ritual condition, subjects were given unlimited time and freedom of movement prior to each free-throw attempt. For the non-ritual condition, subjects were not restricted by time, but were instructed to shoot the ball without utilizing any movements other than those required to project the ball to the goal. Dependent measures were characteristics of behaviours, physiological changes measured by heart rates, mechanical data (speed, height and angle of release), and number of successful attempts. Condition x trials analyses of variance and low standard deviation concerning characteristics of behaviours indicated that the idiosyncratic behaviours prior to free-throw shooting were rituals of the auto-communicative type. Results indicated no significant difference between conditions for free-throw success. However, partial correlation between dependent measures and successful free-throw attempts indicated that duration of behaviours was most crucial to free-throw shooting success.

  12. Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting.

    PubMed

    Lamirand, M; Rainey, D

    1994-06-01

    18 female college basketball players were pretested on foul shooting, alternately assigned to relaxation or mental imagery training, and posttested after 4 training sessions over 3 weeks. Analysis of covariance indicated that the predicted improvement of the imagery group did not occur. The relaxation group was marginally superior at posttest.

  13. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  14. On winning the penalty shoot-out in soccer.

    PubMed

    McGarry, T; Franks, I M

    2000-06-01

    The penalty shoot-out is used to break tied games in the knock-out stages of soccer competition. The shoot-out, which consists of an alternating series of penalty kicks, is won by the team with the highest goal tally after n kicks per team (n = 5). In the event of a tie after five penalty kicks each, the shoot-out progresses to 'sudden death' by increasing n in iterative fashion (i.e. n = n + 1) until one team obtains a higher goal tally than the other after an equal number of kicks per team. The team to strike first is determined at the end of extra time by the toss of a coin. As each on-field player can be awarded only a single penalty kick, the line-up order in which the penalty kicks are taken allows for the possibility of tactical influence on the final outcome. Consequently, we report a probability analysis of the penalty shoot-out in soccer from which we identify the following pre- and post-game strategies. The best five ranked penalty takers from the on-field players should be assigned to the first five penalty kicks in their reverse order of ability. That is, the fifth best penalty taker should take the first penalty kick, the fourth best penalty taker should take the second penalty kick, and so on. In the event of sudden death, the next highest ranked on-field player should be assigned to the next penalty kick until the shoot-out ends. For this tactic to be successful, players should be ranked a priori on their penalty-taking ability. Similarly, goalkeepers should be ranked a priori on their penalty-stopping ability. These findings indicate that the tactical substitution of on-field players for higher ranked penalty takers, including higher ranked penalty stoppers (i.e. goalkeepers), with a view to an impending penalty shoot-out should be given due consideration. These results are of practical importance in that they are shown to maximize the likelihood of winning the penalty shoot-out under certain initial conditions.

  15. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase.

  16. Nitrogen uptake by the shoots of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mozdzer, T.J.; Kirwan, M.; McGlathery, K.J.; Zieman, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is the foundation species in intertidal salt marshes of the North American Atlantic coast. Depending on its elevation within the marsh, S. alterniflora may be submerged for several hours per day. Previous ecosystem-level studies have demonstrated that S. alterniflora marshes are a net sink for nitrogen (N), and that removal of N from flooding tidal water can provide enough N to support the aboveground biomass. However, studies have not specifically investigated whether S. alterniflora plants assimilate nutrients through their aboveground tissue. We determined in situ foliar and stem N uptake kinetics for 15NH4, 15NO3, and 15N-glycine by artificially flooding plants in a mid-Atlantic salt marsh. To determine the ecological importance of shoot uptake, a model was created to estimate the time of inundation of S. alterniflora in 20 cm height intervals during the growing season. Estimates of inundation time, shoot mass, N uptake rates, and N availability from long-term data sets were used to model seasonal shoot N uptake. Rates of aboveground N uptake rates (leaves + stems) were ranked as follows: NH4+ > glycine > NO3–. Our model suggests that shoot N uptake may satisfy up to 15% of the growing season N demand in mid-Atlantic salt marshes, with variation depending on plant elevation and water column N availability. However, in eutrophic estuaries, our model indicates the potential of the plant canopy as a nutrient filter, with shoot uptake contributing 66 to 100% of plant N demand.

  17. Nitrogen uptake by the shoots of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mozdzer, T.J.; Kirwan, M.; McGlathery, K.J.; Zieman, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is the foundation species in intertidal salt marshes of the North American Atlantic coast. Depending on its elevation within the marsh, S. alterniflora may be submerged for several hours per day. Previous ecosystem-level studies have demonstrated that S. alterniflora marshes are a net sink for nitrogen (N), and that removal of N from flooding tidal water can provide enough N to support the aboveground biomass. However, studies have not specifically investigated whether S. alterniflora plants assimilate nutrients through their aboveground tissue. We determined in situ foliar and stem N uptake kinetics for 15NH4, 15NO3, and 15N-glycine by artificially flooding plants in a mid-Atlantic salt marsh. To determine the ecological importance of shoot uptake, a model was created to estimate the time of inundation of S. alterniflora in 20 cm height intervals during the growing season. Estimates of inundation time, shoot mass, N uptake rates, and N availability from long-term data sets were used to model seasonal shoot N uptake. Rates of aboveground N uptake rates (leaves + stems) were ranked as follows: NH4 + > glycine > NO3 -. Our model suggests that shoot N uptake may satisfy up to 15% of the growing season N demand in mid-Atlantic salt marshes, with variation depending on plant elevation and water column N availability. However, in eutrophic estuaries, our model indicates the potential of the plant canopy as a nutrient filter, with shoot uptake contributing 66 to 100% of plant N demand. ?? 2011 Inter-Research.

  18. Introduction to military medicine: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the current organization and structure of the United States military medical forces. The five levels of care are presented. The "glue" that binds the five levels of care together -- medical evacuation -- is briefly discussed. The logistics system/structure that sustains military medical systems in remote locations is summarized. Finally, the overall command and control of in-theater combat medical assets, the initiative to establish a Joint Military Trauma Record system, and the ongoing efforts to collect real-time casualty data with the goal of enhancing combat care through improved training and early equipment fielding are described. PMID:16781276

  19. Alcohol and stress in the military.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Chard, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Although research has independently linked stress experienced by military personnel to both alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder, more recently researchers have noted that there also is a significant overlap between stress reactions and alcohol use in veterans and active-duty service members. This overlap seems to be most understood in individuals who have experienced combat or military sexual trauma. This article will provide a brief review of some potential causal mechanisms underlying this relationship, including self-medication and genetic vulnerability models. It also addresses the possible implications for assessment and treatment of military personnel with co-occurring disorders.

  20. Military applications of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponable, Jess M.

    1996-03-01

    With the development and operational fielding of fully reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) becoming imminent, coupled with the ``end of the Cold War'' and fractionalization of the former ``bi-polar'' world into a ``multi-polar'' one, the need and potential for military versions of RLVs are being recognized by the military strategic planner. Recognizing the instability of the world order, especially with the potential for terrorism from all quarters, planning for the development of systems capable of defending our critical space based assests is becoming more essential. This paper presents some of the potential military applications of RLVs to support the Nation's defense and security interests world-wide.

  1. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    -fuelled rocket. Goddard's work coincided with the work of a German scientist Werner Von Braun, (1912-77) who designed the V1 and V2 rocket. The V2 was the first intercontinental ballistic missile. Compared to the V1, the V2 could carry a heavier payload and the range was much longer. Von Braun had originally sketched his ideas to the Germans, that the V2 was an effective design for space travel and it was rejected. After the war the V2 became the foundation to many new technologies and these modifications marked the beginning of the space race. This competition led to space travel, taking men to the moon using the Saturn V rocket, robotic missions to the planets, and into tactical nuclear missiles (Redstone). This also marked the future for such dual-purpose technologies (i.e. military and/or civilian use) and more interestingly it took the design of weapons for space travel to be taken seriously. Arthur C Clarke commented on the possibilities of placing weapons in outer space, `the only defence against the weapons of the future is to prevent them ever being used. The problem is political and not military at all.' Ambassador Peter Jankowitsch, quoting Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in his opening address to COPUOS in Austria 1978, `we must make sure that outer space can be spared the fate of so many human discoveries of previous ages, namely becoming a mere battlefield.' These statements may be analysed by applying the United Nations Charter alongside other international treaties, such as the Outer Space Treaty 1967, the Test Ban Treaty 1963 and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in conjunction with the new Agreement signed by Russian and the USA. This may assist to highlight and conclude where problems reside whether political, legal, military, or a combination; and the impact for international peace and security.

  2. Setbacks to shoot growth are common in woody plants, so how are shoots of some species safer than others?

    PubMed

    Butler, Don W; Gleason, Sean M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Tissue turnover is a critical facet of plant life history variation. This study quantifies losses from setbacks to growth of terminal woody shoots 1.2m long, across 83 species and seven sites in eastern Australia. Setbacks, where the leading meristem had been removed or died and a new leader had emerged, were common (median three per shoot). Shoots had lost an average of 0.25 m of lead-stem length for 1.2 m net shoot-length gain. Insects like girdlers and borers were prominent causes of large setbacks. The sites spanned tropical to temperate and humid to semiarid climates, but variation in stem loss was much greater across species than across sites. We measured 17 plant functional traits related to growth form, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics. Only four traits were correlated with variation across species in stem losses: stem diameter, stem nitrogen content, bark thickness, and maximum photosynthetic rate. The correlations were weak. Stem specific gravity (wood density) showed no correlation with risk. Our results suggest a pattern similar to the growth risk trade-off known for herbaceous plants, where traits associated with fast growth increase tissue turnover and herbivory, but the weak correlations leave ample scope for other influences that remain to be identified.

  3. Explosive particle soil surface dispersion model for detonated military munitions.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, John E; Rishel, Jeremy P; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R; Taylor, Susan

    2015-07-01

    The accumulation of high explosive mass residue from the detonation of military munitions on training ranges is of environmental concern because of its potential to contaminate the soil, surface water, and groundwater. The US Department of Defense wants to quantify, understand, and remediate high explosive mass residue loadings that might be observed on active firing ranges. Previously, efforts using various sampling methods and techniques have resulted in limited success, due in part to the complicated dispersion pattern of the explosive particle residues upon detonation. In our efforts to simulate particle dispersal for high- and low-order explosions on hypothetical firing ranges, we use experimental particle data from detonations of munitions from a 155-mm howitzer, which are common military munitions. The mass loadings resulting from these simulations provide a previously unattained level of detail to quantify the explosive residue source-term for use in soil and water transport models. In addition, the resulting particle placements can be used to test, validate, and optimize particle sampling methods and statistical models as applied to firing ranges. Although the presented results are for a hypothetical 155-mm howitzer firing range, the method can be used for other munition types once the explosive particle characteristics are known.

  4. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  5. Vestibular findings in military band musicians.

    PubMed

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations.

  6. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations. PMID:25992076

  7. Two-element lenses for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigwood, Chris; Wood, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    To meet today's demanding requirements for increased performance, reduced size, lower mass, and cost, simple lenses containing multiple aspheric surfaces are required. It is now common for the number of aspheric surfaces used in an infrared lens to exceed the actual number of lens elements. Multiple aspheric and diffractive surfaces provide additional degrees of freedom in the lens design. This is required to achieve increased levels of imaging performance demanded by reduced pitch detectors. Aspheric surfaces also enable a greater diversity of materials to be used such that athermal solutions can be realized without the need for additional lens elements. More recent advances in detector technology will demand multispectral operation, but the requirements for simple, inexpensive optics will remain. Innovative use of aspheric components can also create very simple multispectral optics to fulfil this emerging need. This paper will review the range of applications that can be satisfied using no more than two optical components, highlighting the specific benefits that aspheric and diffractive surfaces provide. Consideration will also be given to future developments where enhanced functionality can be achieved using computational imaging techniques. Examples will be given for several military applications including weapon sights, driver's vision enhancement and remote weapon stations.

  8. [Hygienic characteristics of daily ration, designed for military servicemen doing call-up military service].

    PubMed

    Smagulov, N K; Mukhametzhanov, A M

    2016-01-01

    The article gives the hygienic characteristics of the daily diet of soldiers doing call-up military service. The object of study--military servicemen aged 18-22 years doing call-up military service. The material of the study data was obtained from a continuous cross-sectional study of dietary intake among military personnel. Investigation pointed out that consumption of nutrients and energy value of the surveyed military personnel was broadly in accordance with recommended physiological requirements for nutrients and energy for this age group. However; despite the adequacy of energy supply, showed signs of imbalance on the nutrients of rations provided in the military establishment. Structure of consumption of products is not in full compliance with the existing recommendations of the Kazakh academy of Nutrition. PMID:27120954

  9. [Hygienic characteristics of daily ration, designed for military servicemen doing call-up military service].

    PubMed

    Smagulov, N K; Mukhametzhanov, A M

    2016-01-01

    The article gives the hygienic characteristics of the daily diet of soldiers doing call-up military service. The object of study--military servicemen aged 18-22 years doing call-up military service. The material of the study data was obtained from a continuous cross-sectional study of dietary intake among military personnel. Investigation pointed out that consumption of nutrients and energy value of the surveyed military personnel was broadly in accordance with recommended physiological requirements for nutrients and energy for this age group. However; despite the adequacy of energy supply, showed signs of imbalance on the nutrients of rations provided in the military establishment. Structure of consumption of products is not in full compliance with the existing recommendations of the Kazakh academy of Nutrition.

  10. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    PubMed

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  11. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Gillespie, Linda; Rorabaugh, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    An alternative to the Cholodny-Went, auxin-transport hypothesis of gravitropic stem bending was proposed as early as 1958, suggesting that gravistimulation induces changes in sensitivity to auxin, accounting for differential growth and bending. To test the sensitivity hypothesis, we immersed marked, decapitated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyl sections in buffered auxin solutions over a wide concentration range (0, 10−8 to 10−2 molar IAA), photographed them at half-hour intervals, analyzed the negatives with a digitizer/computer, and evaluated surface-length changes in terms of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Bending decreases with increasing auxin concentration; above about 10−4 molar IAA the hypocotyls bend down; increasing auxin inhibits elongation growth of lower surfaces (which is high at zero or relatively low auxin levels) but promotes upper-surface growth (which is low at low auxin levels). Thus, lower surfaces have a greater Km sensitivity to applied auxin than upper surfaces. At optimum auxin levels (maximum growth), growth of bottom surfaces exceeds that of top surfaces, so bottom tissues have a greater Vmax sensitivity. Vmax sensitivity of vertical controls is slightly lower than it is for either horizontal surface; Km sensitivity is intermediate. Clearly, gravistimulation leads to significant changes in tissue sensitivity to applied auxin. Perhaps these changes are also important in normal gravitropism. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:11537435

  12. [Personal e-cards for military personnel and military-medical information system].

    PubMed

    Kalachev, O V; Stolyar, V P; Kuandykov, M G; Papkov, A Yu

    2015-08-01

    The article presents main directions of activities of the medical service, dealing with implementation of personal electronic cards for military personnel, organizing the process of automation of medical service management, military and medical organizations and health care departments. The given article, reveals the on-going activity, concerning creation of the military-medical information system, which will unite all medical units, organizations, and governments into one information space. PMID:26829864

  13. The history of military cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kumar, Anand R; Gerszten, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence that the neurosurgical procedure of cranioplasty is as ancient as its better-known counterpart, trephination. With origins in pre-Incan Peru, cranioplasty remains an important reconstructive procedure for modern craniofacial surgery teams to master. Solutions to the often challenging problem of repairing skull defects continue to evolve to improve patient outcomes. Throughout recorded history, advances in cranioplasty have paralleled major military conflicts due to survivorship after trephination or decompressive craniectomy. Primitive skull coverings used in Peru were later replaced during the Middle Ages by grafts obtained in animals and humans. Improved survivorship secondary to advances in anesthesia and battlefield medicine during the Crimean War and the American Civil War allowed the use of tantalum and acrylic cranioplasty to evolve during World Wars I and II. In the modern era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, greater survivorship after cranial injury due to improvements in protective armor, medical evacuation, and early "far-forward" neurosurgical treatment have occurred. Consequently, the last decade has seen great advancement in cranial defect reconstruction, including custom-fabricated alloplast implants and the emergence of regenerative cranial treatments such as distraction osteogenesis, protected bone regeneration, and free tissue transfers. Comprehensive rehabilitation after neurotrauma has emerged as the new standard of care. PMID:24684330

  14. Military and aerospace applications of FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, C.

    1972-01-01

    Military and NASA programs are discussed in which FCC were used. Included are Saturn 4, Pegasus satellites solar, array for Skylab orbital workshop, Poseidon missiles, MK 48 torpedo fire control, and Lunar Surveyor.

  15. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  16. Military Sleep Management: An Operational Imperative.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; Walter, Robert J; Collen, Jacob; Wesensten, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is critical for military operational readiness but is commonly disregarded during operational planning. The start of combat operations with Operation Iraqi Freedom saw a dramatic rise in diagnosis rates of clinically significant sleep disorders among officers and enlisted. This coincided with a parallel rise in behavioral health disorders. In this article, the etiology of sleep problems and sleep disorders in our military population is reviewed, and guidance is provided for improving sleep health in our military population. It is our view that appropriate sleep planning and management affords military units and commanders a near-term tactical advantage in terms of maintaining alertness, a midterm tactical advantage of decreasing susceptibility to sleep and behavioral health disorders, and a long-term strategic advantage with increased readiness and resiliency of their Soldiers. PMID:27215880

  17. The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

  18. [Dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in shoots of plants in urban plantations].

    PubMed

    Bukharina, I L

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of dynamics of total nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus content in the shoots of plants growing in plantations of different environmental categories in a large industrial center were studied. In the urban environment, an increased nitrogen content in plant shoots, the disturbance of the balance of the basic mineral elements and change in their distribution pattern in structural parts of plant shoots, and the disturbance of autumnal physiological efflux of elements from leaves to dormant shoots were detected.

  19. [Dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in shoots of plants in urban plantations].

    PubMed

    Bukharina, I L

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of dynamics of total nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus content in the shoots of plants growing in plantations of different environmental categories in a large industrial center were studied. In the urban environment, an increased nitrogen content in plant shoots, the disturbance of the balance of the basic mineral elements and change in their distribution pattern in structural parts of plant shoots, and the disturbance of autumnal physiological efflux of elements from leaves to dormant shoots were detected. PMID:25735185

  20. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  1. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  2. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  3. 20 CFR 212.3 - Crediting of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Crediting of military service. 212.3 Section... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.3 Crediting of military service. In determining an individual's entitlement to an... of a calendar month during which the individual was in the active military service of the...

  4. 20 CFR 212.2 - Military service defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Military service defined. 212.2 Section 212.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT MILITARY SERVICE § 212.2 Military service defined. Military service is the performance of active service by an...

  5. 22 CFR 120.7 - Significant military equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant military equipment. 120.7 Section... DEFINITIONS § 120.7 Significant military equipment. (a) Significant military equipment means articles for which special export controls are warranted because of their capacity for substantial military...

  6. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  7. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  8. 20 CFR 212.3 - Crediting of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crediting of military service. 212.3 Section... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.3 Crediting of military service. In determining an individual's entitlement to an... of a calendar month during which the individual was in the active military service of the...

  9. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  10. 32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Convertibility of military payment certificates... AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For authorized personnel. Authorized personnel having in their possession military...

  11. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents....

  12. 20 CFR 212.3 - Crediting of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crediting of military service. 212.3 Section... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.3 Crediting of military service. In determining an individual's entitlement to an... of a calendar month during which the individual was in the active military service of the...

  13. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  14. 20 CFR 212.3 - Crediting of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crediting of military service. 212.3 Section... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.3 Crediting of military service. In determining an individual's entitlement to an... of a calendar month during which the individual was in the active military service of the...

  15. 20 CFR 212.3 - Crediting of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Crediting of military service. 212.3 Section... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.3 Crediting of military service. In determining an individual's entitlement to an... of a calendar month during which the individual was in the active military service of the...

  16. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional...

  17. 32 CFR 538.2 - Use of military payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Use of military payment certificates. 538.2... ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.2 Use of military payment certificates. (a) Areas in which used. Military payment certificates are to be used only in the Department of Defense by...

  18. 20 CFR 226.61 - Use of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Use of military service. 226.61 Section 226.61... Use of military service. (a) Claim for use of military service. An employee is deemed to have filed a claim for the use of military service and earnings as service and compensation under the...

  19. 78 FR 3325 - Appointing Authority for Military Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 18 Appointing Authority for Military Commissions AGENCY: Department of... Authority for Military Commissions. This rule pertains to a military function of the United States and is.... As a result of the enactment of Military Commissions Act of 2009, the Deputy Secretary's issuance...

  20. 20 CFR 226.61 - Use of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of military service. 226.61 Section 226... § 226.61 Use of military service. (a) Claim for use of military service. An employee is deemed to have filed a claim for the use of military service and earnings as service and compensation under...