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Sample records for military shooting range

  1. Accumulation of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd by various plants species on two different relocated military shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Hockmann, Kerstin; Pokharel, Rasesh; Jakob, Alfred; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-10-15

    Annually, more than 400 t Pb and 10 t Sb enter Swiss soils at some 2000 military shooting ranges. After the decommission of military shooting ranges, heavily contaminated soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) Pb) are landfilled or processed by soil washing, whereas for soils with less contamination, alternate strategies are sought. Although the use of military shooting ranges for grazing in Switzerland is common practice, no assessment has been done about the uptake of Sb in plants and its subsequent potential intake by grazing animals. We determined the uptake of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the aboveground biomass of nine plant species growing on a calcareous (Chur) and a weakly acidic (Losone) military shooting range soil in order to assess if grazing would be safe to employ on decommissioned military shooting ranges. The two soils did not differ in their total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sb and Cd, they differed however in the total concentration of Pb. Additionally, their physical and chemical properties were significantly different. The accumulation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the shoots of all nine plant species remained below the Swiss tolerance values for fodder plants (150 mg kg(-1) Zn, 15-35 mg kg(-1) Cu, 40 mg kg(-1) Pb, and 1 mg kg(-1) Cd DW), with the only exception of Pb in Chenopodium album shoots which reached a concentration of 62 mg kg(-1) DW. Antimony concentrations were 1.5-2.6-fold higher in plants growing on the calcareous soil than on the weakly acidic soil. Considering Cu, Zn, Pb, Sb and Cd, all plants, with the exception C. album, would be suitable for grazing on similar shooting range soils.

  2. Plant uptake of trace elements on a Swiss military shooting range: uptake pathways and land management implications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett H; Bischofberger, Simone; Stoll, Andreas; Schroer, Dirk; Furrer, Gerhard; Roulier, Stéphanie; Gruenwald, Anna; Attinger, Werner; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    Over 400tons of Pb enters Swiss soils annually at some 2000 military shooting ranges (MSRs). We measured elements in the leaves of 10 plant species and associated rhizospheric soil on the stop butt of a disused MSR. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni in rhizospheric soils were 10,171mg/kg, 5067mg/kg, 4125mg/kg and 917mg/kg. Some species contained Pb, Cu and Ni, above concentrations (30mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) shown to be toxic to livestock. Most contaminants in leaves resulted from surface deposition. However, at soil Pb concentrations >60,000mg/kg, Equisetum arvense and Tussilago farfara took up >1000mg/kg Pb into the leaves. These plants are not hyperaccumulators, having <100mg/kg Pb in leaves at lower soil concentrations. Removal of soil with more than 30,000 Pb, from which one could smelt this metal to offset remediation costs, followed by revegetation, would minimise dust and hence leaf-borne contaminants.

  3. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: an integrated mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-03-30

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ≈ 1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)(2)] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb(2)O(SO(4))]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Annoyance caused by shooting range noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levein, B.; Åhrlin, U.

    1988-12-01

    Noise from shooting ranges is characterized by high levels of impulse noise with a large contribution of low frequencies. The knowledge of human reactions to this kind of noise is as yet incomplete. A questionnaire study was performed around one civilian and three military artillery ranges in order to elucidate the annoyance reactions among nearby residents. The extent of annoyance was determined through postal questionnaires. In a first questionnaire, containing general questions about the residential area, persons "annoyed" by "noise from shooting ranges" were identified. A second questionnaire, distributed only to those annoyed by the noise, contained more detailed questions concerning the annoyance reaction. A total of 299 persons participated in the study. Among the residents in the vicinity of the three artillery ranges, 31-35% reported that they were "very annoyed" by the noise. Corresponding data for the civilian shooting range was 15%. The characteristics of the exposure most frequently reported as the main source of annoyance was "heavy weapons" and "vibrations" in all areas. Furthermore, the annoyance reactions were most frequently experienced in the evening and night hours. Establishment of dose-response relationships was not considered relevant due to the small number of areas studied and the similarity in exposure levels (around 85 dB(A) FAST expressed as peak levels). The results of the study demonstrate that noise from shooting ranges, especially such with a large contribution of heavy weapons, is a potential source of great annoyance. Further studies have been initiated in order to obtain a wider distribution of peak levels which will enable the establishment of dose-response relationships.

  5. Phytoremediation and microbial community structure of soil from a metal-contaminated military shooting range: comparisons of field and pot experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Baek, Kyunghwa; Lee, Insook

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal uptake ability of two plant species, barnyard grass and Indian mallow, and the effects of associated micro-communities on the rhizosphere of these plants were investigated in metal-contaminated sites. In addition, the effectiveness of phytoremediation using these plants was compared under field and pot conditions. To accomplish this analysis, phytoremediation of general military shooting range soil was conducted for 8 weeks under the two conditions. The results showed that metal uptake by plants and reductions in soil metal concentration were lower in the field than in pots. However, soil dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversity increased in response to phytoremediation in the field. Specifically, the soil dehydrogenase activities of barnyard grass in field soils were 3-fold higher than those of potted soils. Moreover, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that groups formed according to plant species. Finally, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index and Simpson dominance index were higher in the rhizosphere of barnyard grass than in the rhizosphere of Indian mallow under field conditions. These results indicate that it is difficult to apply the results obtained from pot experiments to field conditions. These findings can be used to inform future studies conducted to determine if field sites are suitable for phytoremediation based on the results of pot studies.

  6. Burn disasters in shooting range areas.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Fatih; Oksüz, Sinan; Yüksel, Fuat

    2008-08-06

    Shooting range injuries are generally caused by ballistic accidents, and so far no burn disaster has been reported. In this article we reported a disaster caused by a gunpowder explosion in an indoor shooting range area in Istanbul, Turkey. Fourteen injured people were evacuated from the scene. Our burn center accepted 7 of them. Of the 7 injured people, 2 who were accepted by our burn center, and 3 people who were admitted by another center died. It is clearly identified how this mechanism of injury differs from that of usual burn injuries, due to both the high temperature generated, and the combination of hot and toxic gases produced by the explosion. We described the features of burn injury, and possible reasons of burn disasters.

  7. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela; de Jager, Pieter; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10μg/dl (p<0.001). Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of computer-aided measurement in a shooting range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanlao; Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Rensheng; Sun, Yishang

    2000-10-01

    In the view of the blindness of photoelectric measurement scheme argument and the danger of live shell measurement in shooting range, this paper provided a computer aided measurement method guiding the measurement scheme argument and equipment researching and producing and driving the measurement process visiblization and standardization. The computer aided measurement in shooting range can be divided into the mathematical simulation of targets moving, the mathematical simulation of measurement method, the mathematical simulation of photoelectric system, the animated displaying of measurement process, and so on. By adding random jamming, Gaussian white noise and so on, the live measurement environment and condition was built. By using mathematical discretization, the time series pictures was obtained. By controlling the time changing and time unifying of several equipment, the animated displaying of measurement process was built. The programming language was MATLAB. The method was proved through simulating the intersection measurement trajectory of antiaircraft gun's shell successfully.

  9. Evaluation of hearing protection used by police officers in the shooting range.

    PubMed

    Guida, Heraldo Lorena; Taxini, Carla Linhares; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia

    2014-01-01

    Impact noise is characterized by acoustic energy peaks that last less than a second, at intervals of more than 1s. To quantify the levels of impact noise to which police officers are exposed during activities at the shooting range and to evaluate the attenuation of the hearing protector. Measurements were performed in the shooting range of a military police department. An SV 102 audiodosimeter (Svantek) was used to measure sound pressure levels. Two microphones were used simultaneously: one external and one insertion type; the firearm used was a 0.40 Taurus® rimless pistol. The values obtained with the external microphone were 146 dBC (peak), and a maximum sound level of 129.4 dBC (fast). The results obtained with the insertion microphone were 138.7 dBC (peak), and a maximum sound level of 121.6 dBC (fast). The findings showed high levels of sound pressure in the shooting range, which exceeded the maximum recommended noise (120 dBC), even when measured through the insertion microphone. Therefore, alternatives to improve the performance of hearing protection should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. High performance military laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorgno, M.

    A high-power and high-repetition-frequency military laser range finder based on a Nd:YAG Q-switched laser pumped by a Xenon flash lamp is presented. The laser range finder has an emitted power of 20-30 MW (with a pulselength of 8-10 ns), a beam divergence of 2.2-2.5 mrad, a repetition rate of 15 Hz, and a minimum detectable power of 20 nW. Although the range finder is designed for anti-aircraft fire control systems, its possible applications can include air-ground attack range finding with some modifications and various civilian applications requiring high power infrared laser pulses.

  11. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers.

  12. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (<1%). Despite being an immobile element in the soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state.

  13. A global range military transport: The ostrich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, John; Booker, Cecilia; Hoffman, Eric; Kramar, James; Manahan, Orlando; Serranzana, Ray; Taylor, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is an increasing need for a global range transport capable of carrying large numbers of troops and equipment to potential trouble spots throughout the world. The Ostrich is a solution to this problem. The Ostrich is capable of carrying 800,000 pounds 6,500 n.m. and returning with 15 percent payload, without refueling. With a technology availability date in 2010 and an initial operating capability of 2015, the aircraft incorporates many advanced technologies including laminar flow control, composite primary structures, and a unique multibody design. By utilizing current technology, such as using McDonnell Douglas C-17 fuselage for the outer fuselages on the Ostrich, the cost for the aircraft was reduced. The cost of the Ostrich per aircraft is $1.2 billion with a direct operating cost of $56,000 per flight hour. The Ostrich will provide a valuable service as a logistical transport capable of rapidly projecting a significant military force or humanitarian aid anywhere in the world.

  14. Shooting Performance as a Function of Shooters’ Anthropometrics, Weapon Design Attributes, Firing Position, Range, and Sex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Shooting Performance as a Function of Shooters’ Anthropometrics, Weapon Design Attributes, Firing Position, Range, and Sex by Paul L Shorter...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-7135 October 2014 Shooting Performance as a Function of Shooters’ Anthropometrics, Weapon...September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shooting Performance as a Function of Shooters’ Anthropometrics, Weapon Design Attributes, Firing Position, Range

  15. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on effectiveness of remediation techniques on these soils is scarce. We tested effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to...

  16. Persistent Mercury Contamination in Shooting Range Soils: The Legacy from Former Primers.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, M; Pignolet, A; Corcho Alvarado, J A

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) compounds were used in the past in primers for rifle and handgun ammunition. Despite its toxicity, little is known about the contamination of shooting-range soils with this metal. We present new data about the Hg contamination of surface soils from numerous shooting ranges of Switzerland. Our study demonstrates that Hg is measurable at high levels in surface soils from the shooting ranges. In three of the investigated ranges, concentrations above the maximum Swiss guidance value of Hg in soil of 500 µg kg(-1) were measured. Since the use of mercury-containing ammunition was stopped in the 1960s, our results demonstrate the high persistence of Hg in soils and their slow recovery by natural mechanisms.

  17. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet

    2005-06-16

    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr, or U

  18. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices.

  19. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil.

  20. Characteristics of backspatter on the firearm and shooting hand--an experimental analysis of close-range gunshots.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Brandtner, Herwig; Meyer, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    Contact and close-range gunshot injuries can produce bloodstains on the shooting hand and weapon. In this study, backspatter was analyzed in experimental horizontal pistol shots into blood-filled sponges. The shooting distances were set between 0 and 45 cm. With increasing shooting distance, there was a significant decrease in the degree of backspatter. Microspatter could be detected on the weapon and shooting hand up to a shooting distance of 40 cm. They were predominantly located on thumb and index finger as well as the radial dorsal aspects of the hand. Fine spray of microspatter combined with elongated droplets in the shape of exclamation marks was found at contact and 2-cm distance shots. An angular calculation based on the shape of the bloodstains was possible up to a shooting distance of 2 cm. No bloodstains were detected beyond 45 cm.

  1. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soils by means of cement, quicklime, and phosphate amendments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Dermatas, Dimitris; Xu, Xuanfeng; Shen, Gang

    2008-03-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting range sites is increasingly under environmental concern. Controlling Pb leachability from shooting range soil media is an important step to minimize Pb exposure to the surrounding environment. This study investigated stabilization of Pb in shooting range soils treated with cement, quicklime, and phosphate. Two soils were used and collected from two shooting ranges, referred to as SR1 and SR2. The treatment additives were applied to the soils at rates from 2.5% to 10% (w/w). The effectiveness of each treatment was evaluated by Pb (w/w). The effectiveness of each treatment was evaluated by Pb leachability, measured by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The possible mechanisms for Pb immobilization were elucidated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Cement and quicklime treatments were effective in immobilizing Pb in SR1 soil, with reduction of Pb concentration in TCLP leachate (TCLP-Pb) to be below the U.S. EPA non-hazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) at application rates of > or =5% and 28-d incubation. By contrast, cement and quicklime amendments were less effective for Pb stabilization in SR2 soil because the TCLP-Pb levels in the treated soil were still higher than the limit of 5 mg L(-1) at all application rates, although they were significantly reduced in comparison with the untreated soil. Phosphate application was most effective in reducing Pb leach ing in both soils. Even at an application rate as low as 5% and 1-d incubation, phosphate could reduce TCLP-Pb to be below the limit of 5 mg L(-1) in both soils. Immobilization of Pb in the SR1 soil amended with cement and quicklime was attributed to the formation of pozzolanic minerals (e.g., calcium silicate hydrate C-S-H and ettringite) that could encapsulate soil Pb. The pozzolanic reaction was limited in the SR2 soil upon the application of cement and quicklime. Reduction of the TCLP-Pb might result from complexation of Pb on the surface of the

  2. Evaluation of exposure to airborne heavy metals at gun shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Lach, Karel; Steer, Brian; Gorbunov, Boris; Mička, Vladimír; Muir, Robert B

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols formed during shooting events were studied with various techniques including the wide range size resolving sampling system Nano-ID(®) Select, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and fast mobility particle sizing. The total lead mass aerosol concentration ranged from 2.2 to 72 µg m(-3). It was shown that the mass concentration of the most toxic compound lead is much lower than the total mass concentration. The deposition fraction in various compartments of the respiratory system was calculated using the ICRP lung deposition model. It was found that the deposition fraction in the alveolar range varies by a factor >3 for the various aerosols collected, depending on the aerosol size distribution and total aerosol concentration, demonstrating the importance of size resolved sampling in health risk evaluation. The proportion of the total mass of airborne particles deposited in the respiratory tract varies from 34 to 70%, with a median of 55.9%, suggesting the health risk based upon total mass significantly overestimates the accumulated dose and therefore the health risk. A comparison between conventional and so called 'green' ammunition confirmed significant lowering of concentrations of lead and other toxic metals like antimony in the atmosphere of indoor shooting ranges using 'green' ammunition, although higher concentrations of manganese and boron were measured. These metals are likely to be the constituents of new types of primers. They occur predominantly in the size fraction <250 nm of aerosols.

  3. Antimony (Sb) contaminated shooting range soil: Sb mobility and immobilization by soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Amstätter, Katja; Lassen Bue, Helga; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Henriksen, Thomas; Mulder, Jan

    2013-06-18

    Antimony (Sb) in lead bullets poses a major environmental risk in shooting range soils. Here we studied the effect of iron (Fe)-based amendments on the mobility of Sb in contaminated soil from shooting ranges in Norway. Untreated soil showed high Sb concentrations in water extracts from batch tests (0.22-1.59 mg L(-1)) and soil leachate from column tests (0.3-0.7 mg L(-1)), occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Sorption of Sb to different iron-based sorbents was well described by the Freundlich equation (Fe2(SO4)3, log KF = 6.35, n = 1.51; CFH-12 (Fe oxyhydroxide), log KF = 4.16-4.32, n = 0.75-0.76); Fe(0) grit, log KF = 3.26, n = 0.47). These sorbents mixed with soil (0.5 and 2% w/w), showed significant sorption of Sb in batch tests (46-92%). However, for Fe2(SO4)3 and CFH-12 liming was also necessary to prevent mobilization of lead, copper, and zinc. Column tests showed significant retention of Sb (89-98%) in soil amended with CFH-12 (2%) mixed with limestone (1%) compared to unamended soil. The sorption capacity of soils amended with Fe(0) (2%) increased steadily up to 72% over the duration period of the column test (64 days), most likely due to the gradual oxidation of Fe(0) to Fe oxyhydroxides. Based on the experimental results, CFH-12 and oxidized Fe(0) are effective amendments for the stabilization of Sb in shooting range soils.

  4. The role of biochar, natural iron oxides, and nanomaterials as soil amendments for immobilizing metals in shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ahmad, Mahtab; Vithanage, Meththika; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-01

    High concentration of toxic metals in military shooting range soils poses a significant environmental concern due to the potential release of metals, such as Pb, Cu, and Sb, and hence requires remediation. The current study examined the effectiveness of buffalo weed (Ambrosia trifida L.) biomass and its derived biochars at pyrolytic temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, natural iron oxides (NRE), gibbsite, and silver nanoparticles on metal immobilization together with soil quality after 1-year soil incubation. Destructive (e.g., chemical extractions) and non-destructive (e.g., molecular spectroscopy) methods were used to investigate the immobilization efficacy of each amendment on Pb, Cu, and Sb, and to explore the possible immobilization mechanisms. The highest immobilization efficacy was observed with biochar produced at 300 °C, showing the maximum decreases of bioavailability by 94 and 70% for Pb and Cu, respectively, which were attributed to the abundance of functional groups in the biochar. Biochar significantly increased the soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and P contents. Indeed, the scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic (EXAFS) studies revealed associations of Pb with P (i.e., the formation of stable chloropyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl]) in the biomass- or biochar-amended soils. However, no amendment was effective on Sb immobilization.

  5. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification.

  6. Effect of soil type on distribution and bioaccessibility of metal contaminants in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Bowman, Mark; McLure, Stuart

    2012-11-01

    Shooting ranges from Department of Defence sites around Australia were investigated for extent of metal contamination. Shooting range soils contained concentrations ranging from 399 to 10,403 mg/kg Pb, 6.57 to 252 mg/kg Sb, 28.7 to 1250 mg/kg Cu, 5.63 to 153 mg/kg Zn, 1.35 to 8.8 mg/kg Ni and 3.08 to 15.8 mg/kg As. Metal(loid)s were primarily concentrated in the stop butt and the surface soil (0-10 cm). The distribution of contamination reflected firing activity, soil properties, climate and management practices. Climatic variations among sites in Australia are significant, with a temperate climate in the south and tropical climate with high rainfall in the north. Up to 8% of total Pb resided in soil fines (<0.075 mm), due to the fragmentation of bullets on impact. Distribution and bioaccessibility varied between each site. Acidic Townsville soil had the highest proportion of water extractable Pb at 10%, compared to the alkaline Murray Bridge with only 2% Pb water extractable. Soil properties such as CEC, pH and dissolved organic carbon influence mobility. This is reflected in the subsoil concentrations of Pb in Townsville and Darwin which are up to 30 and 46% of surface concentration in the subsoil respectively. Similarly bioaccessibility is influenced by soil properties and ranges from 46% in Townsville to 70% in Perth. Acidic pH promotes dissolution of secondary minerals and the downward movement of Pb in the profile. The secondary Pb minerals formed as a result of weathering in these soils were cerussite, hydrocerussite, pyromorphite, galena and anglesite. Copper oxide was also reported on fragments from bullet jackets. These results have implications for range management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in Sb speciation with waterlogging of shooting range soils and impacts on plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-ming; Tandy, Susan; Hockmann, Kerstin; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the solubility and redox species of antimony (Sb) in a relocated shooting range soil and its uptake by Lolium perenne L. and Holcus lanatus L. under different water regimes. After 1-week waterlogging, the total Sb concentration in soil solution decreased from ∼110 μg L(-1) to <20 μg L(-1), and slowly increased over the following 4 weeks, with the dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. In this process, half of the Sb in soil solution was reduced to Sb(III), which greatly affected the plant uptake of Sb. Waterlogging increased shoot Sb concentrations of L. perenne by ∼10 fold but decreased uptake in H. lanatus by 80%. Results indicate that Sb might primarily be taken up as Sb(III) by L. perenne and as Sb(V) by H. lanatus. Temporary waterlogging of soil may increase the risk of trace elements entering the food chain.

  8. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area?

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  9. Using Ca3(PO4)2 nanoparticles to reduce metal mobility in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Lago, D; Rodríguez-Seijo, A; Lago-Vila, M; Couce, L Andrade; Vega, F A

    2016-11-15

    Shooting activities are a very important source of contamination as they are commonly detected high concentrations of Pb in the soils from these facilities. Different remediation methods imply the immobilization of the pollutants by decreasing their mobility and availability and nanotechnology is a promising technique in this field. The effectiveness of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNs) in the remediation of small-arms firing range and trap shooting range soils is evaluated in this work. The operationally defined extractable content of Pb, Cu and Zn is determined together with the interaction of the pollutants with the nanomaterials. Soil samples were treated with the CPNs and after the treatment the extractable contents of Cu, Pb and Zn decrease. To check the retention by the nanoparticles TOF-SIMS (Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and HR-TEM-EDS (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) techniques were applied. The association of Pb and Cu to the CPNs was demonstrated by TOF-SIMS although it also indicated that not all the Pb and Cu contents are linked to the nanoparticles. By means of HR-TEM/EDS it was made out the filamentous shape and the size (50-150nm long and 20-40nm wide) of the CPNs together with their elemental composition (Ca, P and O). The CPNs were identified in treated soil samples together with signals of metals. The decrease on metal extractability detected is, in part, due to the association with CPNs but still more investigation is needed regarding mobility and availability of potentially hazardous elements in soils treated with nanoparticles.

  10. Extreme soil acidity from biodegradable trap and skeet targets increases severity of pollution at shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    McTee, Michael R; Mummey, Daniel L; Ramsey, Philip W; Hinman, Nancy W

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution at shooting ranges overshadows the potential for contamination issues from trap and skeet targets. We studied the environmental influence of targets sold as biodegradable by determining the components of the targets and sampling soils at a former sporting clay range. Targets comprised approximately 53% CaCO3, 41% S(0), and 6% modifiers, and on a molar basis, there was 2.3 times more S(0) than CaCO3. We observed a positive correlation between target cover and SO4(2-) (ρ=0.82, P<0.001), which indicated the oxidation of S(0) to H2SO4. Sulfate was negatively correlated with pH (ρ=-0.93, P<0.001) because insufficient CaCO3 existed in the targets to neutralize all the acid produced from S(0) oxidation. Plant cover decreased with decreasing soil pH (ρ=0.62, P=0.006). For sites that had pH values below 3, 24tons of lime per 1000tons of soil would be required to raise soil pH to 6.5. Lime-facilitated pH increases would be transitory because S(0) would continue to oxidize to H2SO4 until the S(0) is depleted. This study demonstrates that biodegradable trap and skeet targets can acidify soil, which has implications for increasing the mobility of Pb from shotgun pellets.

  11. Quantitative Antimony Speciation in Shooting-Range Soils by EXAFS Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinost,A.; Rossberg, A.; Vantelon, D.; Xifra, I.; Kretzschmar, R.; Leuz, A.; Funke, H.; Johnson, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Sb speciation in soil samples from Swiss shooting ranges was determined using Sb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and advanced statistical data analysis methods (iterative transformation factor analysis, ITFA). The XAS analysis was supported by a spectral data set of 13 Sb minerals and 4 sorption complexes. In spite of a high variability in geology, soil pH (3.1-7.5), Sb concentrations (1000-17,000 mg/kg) and shooting-range history, only two Sb species were identified. In the first species, Sb is surrounded solely by other Sb atoms at radial distances of 2.90, 3.35, 4.30 and 4.51 Angstroms, indicative of metallic Sb(0). While part of this Sb(0) may be hosted by unweathered bullet fragments consisting of PbSb alloy, Pb L{sub III}-edge XAS of the soil with the highest fraction (0.75) of Sb(0) showed no metallic Pb, but only Pb{sup 2+} bound to soil organic matter. This suggests a preferential oxidation of Pb in the alloy, driven by the higher standard reduction potential of Sb. In the second species, Sb is coordinated to 6 O-atoms at a distance of 1.98 Angstroms, indicative of Sb(V). This oxidation state is further supported by an edge energy of 30,496-30,497 eV for the soil samples with <10% Sb(0). Iron atoms at radial distances of 3.10 and 3.56 Angstroms from Sb atoms are in line with edge-sharing and bidentate corner-sharing linkages between Sb(O,OH)6 and Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra. While similar structural units exist in tripuhyite, the absence of Sb neighbors contradicts formation of this Fe antimonate. Hence the second species most likely consists of inner-sphere sorption complexes on Fe oxides, with edge and corner-sharing configuration occurring simultaneously. This pentavalent Sb species was present in all samples, suggesting that it is the prevailing species after weathering of metallic Sb(0) in oxic soils. No indication of Sb(III) was found.

  12. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-06-15

    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress.

  13. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

  14. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

  15. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  16. Lead and PAHs contamination of an old shooting range: A case study with a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Seijo, A; Cachada, A; Gavina, A; Duarte, A C; Vega, F A; Andrade, M L; Pereira, R

    2017-01-01

    Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms. The sum of 15 PAHs ranged between 38 and 360mgkg(-1), which exceed, together with Pb (160-720mgkg(-1)), the Galician generic reference value for urban and sporting field soils. Bioaccumulation in E. andrei showed contents up to 104,000μgPbkg(-1)dw, and up to 645μgPAHskg(-1)fw. High contents of Pb and PAHs in soil samples and in Eisenia andrei whole body, caused a reduction in the number of juveniles produced, whereas, Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Daphnia magna displayed a slight toxic response to the soil elutriates tested. Therefore, the function of these soils to retain contaminants seemed not compromised, probably due to the high organic matter content and pH values, which are weakly acidic. The habitat function was affected, indicating that soil solution is not the only route of exposure to contaminants to E. andrei. The integration of chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence give rise to high risks values, restricting the use of these areas, and pointing for risks to surrounding ecosystems due to possible trophic transferences. The calculation of risks using the chemical and ecotoxicological data, required by Spanish legislation, could be a good approach to communicate with those responsible and/or involved in the management of contaminated sites.

  17. Impacts of two best management practices on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Gress, Julie; Gao, Jie; Ma, Lena Q

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impacts of two best management practices (BMPs) recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils. The two BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm and periodically removing bullets or shot from a berm. A column experiment corresponding to the first BMP was conducted by mixing the bullets with sand/soil, or placing bullets on the surface of sand/soil. After a 16-18-week incubation under high or low rainfall simulations, total Pb concentrations in sand were lower than that in soil. Total leachable Pb in sand (8.48 and 5.52 μg kg(-1)) was also lower than that in soil (60.0 and 30.4 μg kg(-1)) when bullets were mixed with sand/soil; however, they were comparable when bullets were placed on the sand/soil surface. These results indicate that lower Pb concentration in the sand than in soil may be attributed to reduced weathering of bullets. Mechanical removal of Pb bullets in the field transferred Pb from large to finer particles, increasing total Pb in the soil (<2 mm) from 2,170 to 5,000 mg kg(-1). In contrast, mechanical removal of Pb shot effectively reduced the shot in the soil by 86-92 %. Thus, we concluded that, while replacing soil berm with sand berm can slow down Pb weathering, it may increase Pb leachability in the long term. Removal of Pb bullets and Pb shot can be effective, but caution needs to be exercised to minimize the adverse impacts, especially in pistol/rifle ranges because of increased total Pb content in the soil.

  18. Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of Agrostis capillaris L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Seijo, Andrés; Lago-Vila, Manoel; Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A

    2016-01-01

    Pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. The aims of this study were firstly to analyze Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [CaCl2, DTPA, NH4OAc, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), and bidistilled water (BDW)] in order to determine Pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of spontaneous vegetation (Agrostis capillaris L.). To this end, 13 soils from an old trap shooting range (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. It was found that Pb levels in the soils were higher than 100 mg kg(-1), exceeding the generic reference levels, and three of these samples even exceeded the USEPA threshold level (400 mg kg(-1)). In general, the reagent that best represents Pb bioavailability and has the greatest extraction efficiency was CaCl2, followed by DTPA, NH4OAc, LMWOA, and BDW. A. capillaris Pb contents ranged between 9.82 and 1107.42 mg kg(-1) (root) and between 6.43 and 135.23 mg kg(-1) (shoot). Pb accumulation in roots, as well as the presence of secondary mineral phases of metallic Pb in the adjacent soil, showed the phytostabilization properties of A. capillaris.

  19. Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2014-02-01

    Five chemical amendments (soft rock phosphate, lime, commercial phosphate amendment, red mud and magnesium oxide) were applied across four different shooting range soils to chemically stabilise metal(loid)s in the soils. Soils were contaminated with Pb between 2330 and 12,167 mg/kg, Sb from 7.4 to 325 mg/kg and soil pH ranged from 5.43 to 9.29. Amendments were tested for their ability to reduce the bioavailability of Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As in the soils to soil organisms after one year of aging, by measuring a series of ecotoxicological endpoints for earthworms and plants and soil microbial activity. Growth-based endpoints for earthworms and plants were not significantly affected by amendment addition, except in the most contaminated soil. Per cent survival and weight-loss reduction of earthworms was enhanced by amendment addition in only the most contaminated soil. Plant biomass and root elongation was not significantly affected by amendment addition (p=<0.05). Red mud and magnesium oxide appeared toxic to plants and earthworms, probably due to highly alkaline pH (9-12). Lead in soil organisms was relatively low despite the high concentrations of Pb in the soils, suggesting low bioavailability of Pb. Uptake of Pb by earthworms was reduced by between 40 and 96 per cent by amendments, but not across all soils. Amendments reduced Sb in earthworms in Townsville soil by up to 92 per cent. For lettuce the average uptake of Pb was reduced by 40 to 70 per cent with amendment addition in Townsville, Darwin and Perth soil. The effect of amendments on the uptake of Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As was variable between soils and amendments. Microbial activity was increased by greater than 50 per cent with amendments addition, with soft rock phosphate and lime being the most effective in Murray Bridge and TV soils and commercial phosphate and MgO being the most effective in Darwin and Perth soils.

  20. Distribution of chlorophyll-bearing organelles in the shoot apex of a range of dicotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D; White, R G; Wildman, S G

    2005-10-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to study the distribution of the smallest detectable autofluorescing, chlorophyll-bearing structures in fresh, 40 microm thick longitudinal sections of the shoot apex of four dicotyledonous plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana glauca, Lupinus alba, and Spinacia oleracea). In all species, the smallest chlorophyll-bearing particles were found in the outermost cell layers (L1 and L2) of the shoot apex. Their distribution between these layers differed in each species. The smallest such particles were about 0.5-1.0 microm in maximum dimension, approximating the size of a single granum in the developing leaf. Their size and abundance increased with increasing cell age and distance from the peak of the apex. Immediately beneath the L1 and L2 layers was a zone largely devoid of these particles. Below this nonfluorescing zone, in the region where the derivatives of the meristematic zone differentiate into cells of the central pith region, the size and abundance of the chlorophyll-bearing particles increased progressively with increasing distance from the nonfluorescing zone. The presence of these small autofluorescing particles in the L1 and L2 cell layers of the shoot apex places the development of photosystem II fluorescence at an earlier stage of leaf development than previously observed. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to study unfixed sections provides another useful metabolic marker for mapping patterns of differentiation and development in the cells of the shoot apex.

  1. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH.

  2. Effect of heavy metal contaminated shooting range soils on mycorrhizal colonization of roots and metal uptake by leek.

    PubMed

    Mozafar, A; Ruh, R; Klingel, P; Gamper, H; Egli, S; Frossard, E

    2002-10-01

    We grew leek (Allium porrum) in soils of two shooting ranges heavily contaminated with heavy metals in the towns of Zuchwil and Oberuzwil in Switzerland as a bioassay to test the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in these soils. Soil samples were taken from (1) front of the shooting house (HOUSE), (2) the area between house and target (FIELD) and (3) the berm (BACKSTOP). Samples of Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) growing naturally within the shooting ranges were also collected and the colonization of its roots by mycorrhizal fungi was measured. The number of AM spores in the soils was significantly reduced concomitant with the increase in the degree of soil contamination with metals. In Zuchwil, mycorrhizal fungi equally colonized roots of Ribwort plantain sampled from BACKSTOP and HOUSE. In Oberuzwil, however, plants from BACKSTOP had lower colonization when compared with those sampled from HOUSE. Colonization of leek was strongly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Zuchwil and slightly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Oberuzwil when compared with plants grown in respective HOUSE soil. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of leek grown in the BACKSTOP soil was within the range considered toxic for human consumption. This points to the high degree of bioavailability of these metal in these soils. Significant decrease in the number of mycorrhizal spores in the BACKSTOP soils in Zuchwil and the low colonization of leek roots grown in these soils point to possible changes in the species diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in these soils.

  3. Mapping and modeling three dimensional lead contamination in the wetland sediments of a former trap-shooting range.

    PubMed

    Perroy, Ryan L; Belby, Colin S; Mertens, Cody J

    2014-07-15

    Legacy lead (Pb) contamination from sport shooting activities is a well-known hazard. Assessing the risk this contamination presents to the environment and public health requires a detailed understanding of its spatial distribution, yet our knowledge in this area is limited, especially for wetland shooting ranges. In this study, we analyzed 1351 sediment samples from 456 surficial (0-5 cm) locations and 38 sediment cores (0.3 to 0.9 m) to quantify the three dimensional spatial distribution of Pb contamination in an urban wetland at the site of a former trap shooting range located in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. Non-destructive X-ray images of the sediment cores were used to quantify Pb shot abundance and burial depth. Surficial and core sediment samples were processed and analyzed for total Pb content via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. X-ray and XRF results were interpolated to create a three-dimensional model of Pb shot density and sediment concentration across the study area. Over 31,000 m(3) of sediment surpassed the US Environmental Protection Agency's contamination threshold of 400mg/kg Pb, with a maximum calibrated value of 26,700 mg/kg Pb occurring near the center of the expected shot fallout zone. Shot densities of >50,000 pellets/m(2) were found in the shot fallout zone, primarily 10-30 cm below the sediment surface. X-ray image analysis and XRF analysis of sediment cores provide an accurate and inexpensive technique for rapidly mapping Pb contamination associated with gun clubs and hunting; these findings will benefit environmental contamination studies and remediation efforts at active and abandoned shooting ranges worldwide.

  4. The cetaceopteryx: A global range military transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brivkalns, Chad; English, Nicole; Kazemi, Tahmineh; Kopel, Kim; Kroger, Seth; Ortega, ED

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a military transport aircraft capable of carrying 800,000 lbs of payload from any point in the United States to any other point in the world. Such massive airlift requires aggressive use of advanced technology and a unique configuration. The Cetaceopteyx features a joined wing, canard and six turbofan engines. The aircraft has a cost 1.07 billion (1993) dollars each. This paper presents in detail the mission description, preliminary sizing, aircraft configuration, wing design, fuselage design, empennage design, propulsion system, landing gear design, structures, drag, stability and control, systems layout, and cost analysis of the aircraft.

  5. Short range shooting distance estimation using variable pressure SEM images of the surroundings of bullet holes in textiles.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Frank, Paulo Ricardo Ost; Vasconcellos, M A Z

    2017-03-01

    Modifications of cotton and polyester textiles due to shots fired at short range were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Different mechanisms of fiber rupture as a function of fiber type and shooting distance were detected, namely fusing, melting, scorching, and mechanical breakage. To estimate the firing distance, the approximately exponential decay of GSR coverage as a function of radial distance from the entrance hole was determined from image analysis, instead of relying on chemical analysis with EDX, which is problematic in the VP-SEM. A set of backscattered electron images, with sufficient magnification to discriminate micrometer wide GSR particles, was acquired at different radial distances from the entrance hole. The atomic number contrast between the GSR particles and the organic fibers allowed to find a robust procedure to segment the micrographs into binary images, in which the white pixel count was attributed to GSR coverage. The decrease of the white pixel count followed an exponential decay, and it was found that the reciprocal of the decay constant, obtained from the least-square fitting of the coverage data, showed a linear dependence on the shooting distance.

  6. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  7. Chemical Speciation and Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Hazards in Two Army Shooting Range Backstop Soils.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    The chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in two shooting range backstop soils in Korea were studied. Both soils were highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sb. The chemical speciation of heavy metals reflected the present status of contamination, which could help in promoting management practices. We-rye soil had a higher proportion of exchangeable and carbonate bound metals and water-extractable Cd and Sb than the Cho-do soil. Bioavailable Pb represented 42 % of the total Pb content in both soils. A significant amount of Sb was found in the two most bioavailable fractions, amounting to ~32 % in the soil samples, in good agreement with the batch leaching test using water. Based on the values of ecological risk indices, both soils showed extremely high potential risk and may represent serious environmental problems.

  8. LEAD IMMOBILIZATION TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING POTASSIUM DEHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE AND ORGANIC ACID IN AN ACTUAL SHOOTING RANGE LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takatoshi; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    This paper addressed potassium dehydrogen phosphate (KP) and acetic acid (OAc) amendments of neutral pH soil sampled from the lead contaminated soil in a shooting range to promote immobilization by modification of Pb speciation in solid and liquid phases. This study evaluated the amount of antimony leachability in the so il. The single KP application increased Pb and Sb leachabilitie s due to soil pH increase, wheres combined KP and OAc amendments decreased them in compar ison with the control. Sequential extraction analysis reveal ed that Pb residual fraction in KP amended soil increased to 72% than that in the control (5%). Th e residual fraction (82%) in KP an d OAc amended soil was higher than the single application of KP. This st udy indicated that combined appli catons of KP and OAc promoted Pb immobilization and suppressed Pb leachabilities.

  9. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    58 92 Shell hole target details, Fort Bragg, NC, 1957 (Standard drawing 28...71 113 Range latrine, roof detail, Fort Bragg, NC, 1983 (DEH 4122...212 334 Shell hole target details, Fort Bragg, NC, 1957 (Standard drawing 28-13-05, close combat course, plan and details, 8

  10. Counter-current acid leaching process for the removal of Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn from shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Stéphanie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Martel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn extraction in a polluted shooting range soil. The initial metal concentrations in the soil were 1790 mg Cu/kg, 48,300 mg Pb/kg, 840 mg Sb/kg and 368 mg Zn/kg. The leaching process consisted of five one-hour acid leaching steps, which used 1 M H2SO4 + 4 M NaCl (20 degrees C, soil suspension = 100 g/L) followed by two water rinsing steps. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed and the average metal removal yields were 98.3 +/- 0.3% of Cu, 99.5 +/- 0.1% of Pb, 75.5 +/- 5.1% of Sb and 29.1 +/- 27.2% of Zn. The quality of metal leaching did not deteriorate throughout the 10 remediation cycles completed for this study. The CCLP reduced acid and salt use by approximately 68% and reduced water consumption by approximately 60%, exceeding reductions achieved by a standard acid leaching process.

  11. Effect of organic amendment and plant roots on the solubility and mobilization of lead in soils at a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H; Kairesalo, T

    2006-01-01

    Lead (Pb) dissolving gradually from spent pellets constitutes a serious environmental risk in and near shooting ranges, and remediation measures are necessary to prevent its movement to deeper soil layers and ground water. In this study, the effectiveness of organic amendment and plant roots in stabilizing Pb was assessed in a microcosm experiment. Planted (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and unplanted microcosms consisting of coarse-textured mineral soil covered with Pb-contaminated humic topsoil were coated with uncontaminated peat layers of 1 to 3 cm and incubated for 77 d. In a percolation test, the microcosms were washed with ultra pure water to simulate heavy rain so as to rinse water-soluble lead (Pbw) from the topsoil layer. Although Pbw remained below detection limits in the mineral soils in all test units, acid-soluble lead (Pba) increased. Peat amendment diminished Pba in the mineral soil layer, this effect being more pronounced in planted soils, indicating that Pb was taken up by the plants. The percolation test showed that the effect of Scots pine seedlings on Pb movement was minor when peat was added. A long-term dissolution test revealed that considerably more Pb was released from old pellets into soil extracts than from new ones, whereas only traces of Pb, if any, were dissolved in sterilized pure water.

  12. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Goyes, Ricardo; Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-06-30

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks.

  13. Infection of non-host model plant species with the narrow-host-range Cacao swollen shoot virus.

    PubMed

    Friscina, Arianna; Chiappetta, Laura; Jacquemond, Mireille; Tepfer, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. CSSV is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. Furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. Thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that have been experimentally described so far are by particle bombardment or the agroinoculation of cacao plants with an infectious clone. We have genetically transformed three non-host species with an infectious form of the CSSV genome: two experimental hosts widely used in plant virology (Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana) and the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In transformed plants of all three species, the CSSV genome was able to replicate, and, in tobacco, CSSV particles could be observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy, demonstrating that the complete virus cycle could be completed in a non-host plant. These results will greatly facilitate the preliminary testing of CSSV control strategies using plants that are easy to raise and to transform genetically. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Use of sorbents for purification of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from small arms shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Ljønes, Marita; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2012-12-01

    Different sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb in drainage water from a shooting range. The sorbents tested were: Brimac(®) charcoal, olivine mixed with elemental iron powder, magnetite and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 84%, 66%, 85% with Brimac(®) charcoal and 58%, 78% and 69% with Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. Good sorption of Cu and Pb was achieved using olivine with 5% elemental Fe powder, which resulted in a sorption of 81% and 87%, respectively. The Fe-olivine filters were less efficient in reducing the concentration of Sb, but increasing the Fe content improved Sb sorption. In periods with high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb in the creek, such as during precipitation, the sorbent efficacy improved. This might be due to changes in the physico-chemical form of the metals, or to a higher fraction of elements being physically retained in the form of particles or colloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park

    PubMed Central

    Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. PMID:28665307

  16. Lead contamination of an old shooting range affecting the local ecosystem--A case study with a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Minna-Liisa; Torkkeli, Minna; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to uncover the consequences of lead pellet-derived heavy lead contamination at a cast-off shooting range in southern Finland, covering aspects from soil chemistry and biology up to ecosystem level. The observed changes in the soil properties of the most contaminated areas suggest that the contamination may be disturbing processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralisation. Also two functionally important groups of soil organisms, microbes (as analysed using the PLFA analysis) and enchytraeid worms, were negatively affected by the contamination. Furthermore, there was an indication of reduced pine litter production at the contaminated areas. On the other hand, lead contamination appears not to have affected pine growth or soil-dwelling nematodes and microarthropods, and the general outlook of the whole ecosystem is that of a healthy forest. Thus, the boreal forest ecosystem studied as a whole appears to bear strong resistance to contamination, despite negative effects of lead on many of its components. This resistance may result from e.g. low bioavailability of lead, avoidance of the most contaminated soil horizons and microsites by the organisms, and functional redundancy and development of lead-tolerant populations amongst the organisms. The relative importance of these factors and the mechanisms behind them will be investigated in forthcoming studies.

  17. MILITARY TRAINING: DOD Lacks a Comprehensive Plan to Manage Encroachment on Training Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Marine Fisheries Service list species that are at risk of becoming extinct throughout all or a significant portion of their range. For each listed...Related Groups 36 Appendix III DOD’s Draft Sustainable Ranges Action Plans for Addressing Encroachment Issues 38 Endangered Species Act Action Plan 38...readiness. The eight encroachment issues are: endangered species habitat on military installations, unexploded ordnance and munitions constituents,2

  18. Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Pettersen, Marit Nandrup; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2017-01-01

    An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtjønn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtjønn the total water concentrations of Pb (14µg/L), Cu (6.1µg/L) and Sb (1.3µg/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitjønn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12µg/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtjønn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtjønn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtjønn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance.

  19. Efficiency of liming in controlling the mobility of lead in shooting range soils as assessed by different experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H

    2007-12-15

    Shooting range soils contaminated by lead (Pb) are a great environmental risk. Reducing mobility and leaching of Pb by liming, for example, has produced contradictory results. This laboratory study compares the efficiency of two liming agents differing in their reactivity, CaCO(3) and blast furnace slag (BFS), in diminishing the mobility of Pb. In a batch test, contaminated humic soil samples were incubated in closed vessels without and with liming materials added in quantities to correspond additions of 5 t ha(-1). Water soluble Pb (Pb(w)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soils were monitored for 21 days. In the experiment carried out with freely drained vessels, contaminated humic soil treated without and with liming agents was leached five times during the experimental period of 141 days. Leachates were analyzed for pH, DOC and Pb. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were analyzed for pH, DOC, Pb(w), and SIR. In both systems, CaCO(3) raised pH and DOC more than BFS. The liming agents did not significantly differ in their effect on Pb chemistry. Neither had any effect on SIR: however, liming agents markedly reduced the leaching of Pb in the open system, while in the closed system they increased rather than reduced the extractability of Pb. Incubation in a closed vessel proved not to be a suitable experimental system for Pb mobility estimation, since the ionic strength may be raised to abnormal levels, resulting from accumulated reaction products of liming agents.

  20. Military Training: DOD Met Annual Reporting Requirements in Its 2016 Sustainable Ranges Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    domain. Examples include, but are not limited to, endangered species and critical habitat, unexploded ordnance and munitions, radio frequency spectrum...security, (4) threatened and endangered and candidate species , (5) demand for electromagnetic spectrum, (6) continued growth in domestic use of unmanned...Management for Endangered Species Affecting Training Ranges. GAO-03-976. Washington, D.C.: September 29, 2003. Military Training: DOD Approach to

  1. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AFRL- RH -FS-TR-2014-0035 MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques Paul...Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). (AFRL- RH -FS-TR- - ) has been reviewed and is approved for...Texas 78234 711 HPW/RHDO 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL- RH -FS-TR-2014-0035 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution A

  2. Unexploded Ordnance Site Investigation of US Military Ranges in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Distribution Unlimited: Approved For Public Release REPOT DCUMNTATON AGEFor Approved REPOT DCUMNTATON AGEOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Balboa West Ranges Table ES-i Hectares With Indicated UXO Density Hectares with Indicated UXO Density Total Range No Evidence Very-High High Med Low...report also defined three additional types of areas: suspect UXO AOCs, area of interest, and areas with no evidence of UXO concentrations. Suspect areas

  3. Environmental assessment on a soil washing process of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Moon, Deok-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on a soil washing process for the remediation of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site was conducted, using a green and sustainable remediation tool, i.e., SiteWise ver. 2, based on data relating specifically to the actual remediation project. The entire soil washing process was classified into four major stages, consisting of soil excavation (stage I), physical separation (stage II), acid-based (0.2 N HCl) chemical extraction (stage III), and wastewater treatment (stage IV). Environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, water consumption, and critical air pollutant productions such as PM10, NO x , and SO x , were calculated, and the relative contribution of each stage was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In stage I, the relative contribution of the PM10 emissions was 55.3 % because the soil excavation emitted the fine particles. In stage II, the relative contribution of NO x and SO x emissions was 42.5 and 52.5 %, respectively, which resulted from electricity consumption for the operation of the separator. Stage III was the main contributing factor to 63.1 % of the GHG emissions, 67.5 % of total energy used, and 37.4 % of water consumptions. The relatively high contribution of stage III comes from use of consumable chemicals such as HCl and water-based extraction processes. In stage IV, the relative contributions of GHG emissions, total energy used, and NO x and SO x emissions were 23.2, 19.4, 19.5, and 25.3 %, respectively, which were caused by chemical and electricity demands for system operation. In conclusion, consumable chemicals such as HCl and NaOH, electric energy consumption for system operation, and equipment use for soil excavation were determined to be the major sources of environmental pollution to occur during the soil washing process. Especially, the acid-based chemical extraction process should be avoided in order to improve the sustainability of soil

  4. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  5. Sphaeropsis Shoot Blight

    Treesearch

    Jill D. Pokorny

    1998-01-01

    Sphaeropsis shoot blight, formerly called Diplodia shoot blight, is worldwide in distribution and can infect many conifer hosts. Although many pine species are reported hosts, this disease causes severe damage only to trees that are predisposed by unfavorable environmental conditions. Non-native, exotic pine species growing outside their natural range are especially...

  6. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study.

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl-Alexander; Amstaetter, Katja; Bue, Helga Lassen; Herzel, Hannes; Mariussen, Espen; Rossebø Almås, Åsgeir; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Rasmussen, Grete; Mulder, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349μgL(-1)) and Pb (7-1495μgPbL(-1)) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe°) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil.

  7. Military reconnaissance platform for the spectral range from the visible to the MWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, M.; Fritze, J.; Münzberg, M.; Weispfenning, M.

    2017-02-01

    The reconnaissance capability of a military observation and targeting platform is mainly driven by the performance of the used sensors. In general, the MWIR thermal imager is the primary sensor and the use of a visible camera increases the identification capability of the platform during day for very long observation ranges. In addition to the imaging sensors a laser pointer, a laser rangefinder (LRF), and a combined laser rangefinder/ designator (LRF/D) completes the sensor suite. As LRF a single pulse eye safe rangefinder based on an OPO shifted Nd:YAG transmitter can be used. The alternative LRF/D uses an diode laser pumped dual wavelength OPO/Nd:YAG transmitter and can be operated either at 1570 nm or at 1064 nm with a pulse rate of maximum 25 pps [1]. A MWIR thermal imager [2] with a 1280x1024 MWIR detector and an optical zoom range between 1.2° and 20° horizontal fields of view provides a HD-SDI video stream in the 720p or 1080p standard. A camera build in software image stabilizer and a smart tone mapping algorithm improves the reconnaissance results for the observer. A combined camera covers the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral range [3] using a common entrance optics. The resolution of the color camera Si-CMOS chip is 1920x1080 and of the InGaAs focal plane array it is 640x512 detector pixel. The combined VIS/NIR/SWIR camera provides improved ranging under hazy and misty atmospheric conditions and also improved detection of laser spots e.g. of the integrated laser designator with high sensitivity in the spectral range between 450 nm up to 1700 nm, most of the military lasers are operating in the NIR and SWIR spectral band [3]. The combination of the sensors in the platform improves significantly the operational use. The application of the described platform is not limited to military scout vehicles, the available sensors are also integrated in a targeting platform with similar performances but other environmental demands. The possibilities, improvements in

  8. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents.

  9. Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1 year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1 year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50 %. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils.

  10. Application of Hybrid Laminar Flow Control to Global Range Military Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the application of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to global range military transport aircraft. The global mission included the capability to transport 132,500 pounds of payload 6500 nautical miles, land and deliver the payload and without refueling return 6500 nautical miles to a friendly airbase. The preliminary design studies show significant performance benefits obtained for the HLFC aircraft as compared to counterpart turbulent flow aircraft. The study results at M=0.77 show that the largest benefits of HLFC are obtained with a high wing with engines on the wing configuration. As compared with the turbulent flow baseline aircraft, the high wing HLFC aircraft shows 17 percent reduction in fuel burned, 19.2 percent increase in lift-to-drag ratio, an insignificant increase in operating weight, and a 7.4 percent reduction in gross weight.

  11. Military Training: DOD’s Annual Sustainable Ranges Report Addressed Statutory Reporting Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    military lands, marine areas, or airspace. DOD’s 2015 report provides updates to several elements of the plan required by the Act , including: (1...by limitations on the use of military lands, marine areas, and airspace. Additionally, the Act includes a provision that GAO submit evaluations of...limitations on the use of military lands, marine areas, or airspace. We also reviewed any updates to the elements of the plan required by the Act to

  12. The Success of a National Dialogue on Sustainable Military Range Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lenny

    2003-01-01

    Military munitions are the silent giant of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the United States. Toward the end of the first Clinton administration, the Navy and Air Force prevailed upon the Army--the armed service with the biggest ordnance problem--to consider co-sponsoring a formal dialogue on military munitions facilitated by the…

  13. The Success of a National Dialogue on Sustainable Military Range Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Lenny

    2003-01-01

    Military munitions are the silent giant of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the United States. Toward the end of the first Clinton administration, the Navy and Air Force prevailed upon the Army--the armed service with the biggest ordnance problem--to consider co-sponsoring a formal dialogue on military munitions facilitated by the…

  14. Photolysis of RDX and nitroglycerin in the context of military training ranges.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and nitroglycerin (NG) are two energetic materials commonly found in the environment on military training ranges. They are deposited on the ground in the form of solid particles, which can then dissolve in infiltration water or in surface water bodies. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether photolysis by sunlight can significantly contribute to the natural attenuation of RDX and NG (as solid particles or dissolved in surface water) at mid-northern latitudes, where training ranges of Canada and many European countries are located. Experiments conducted at 46.9°N show that both compounds are degraded by sunlight when dissolved in water, with half-lives between 1 and 120d, depending on the compound and time of year. Numerical models may be useful in predicting such photolysis rates, but the models should take into account current ozone levels, as older radiation datasets, collected before the ozone depletion observed since the late 1970s, underestimate the RDX/NG photolysis rate. For solid RDX or NG-bearing particles, photolysis is slower (half-lives of 2-4months), but the degradation rate is still rapid enough to make this process significant in a natural attenuation context. However, photolysis of NG embedded within solid propellant particles cannot proceed to completion, due to the stable nitrocellulose matrix of the propellant. Nonetheless, photolysis clearly constitutes an important attenuation mechanism that should be considered in conceptual models and included in numerical modeling efforts.

  15. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  16. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2017-04-01

    An environmental survey was performed on shooting ranges for small arms located on minerotrophic mires. The highest mean concentrations of Pb (13 g/kg), Cu (5.2 g/kg), Zn (1.1 g/kg), and Sb (0.83 g/kg) in the top soil were from a range located on a poor minerotrophic and acidic mire. This range had also the highest concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Sb in discharge water (0.18 mg/L Pb, 0.42 mg/L Cu, 0.63 mg/L Zn, and 65 μg/L Sb) and subsurface soil water (2.5 mg/L Pb, 0.9 mg/L Cu, 1.6 mg/L Zn, and 0.15 mg/L Sb). No clear differences in the discharge of ammunition residues between the mires were observed based on the characteristics of the mires. In surface water with high pH (pH ~7), there was a trend with high concentrations of Sb and lower relative concentrations of Cu and Pb. The relatively low concentrations of ammunition residues both in the soil and soil water, 20 cm below the top soil, indicates limited vertical migration in the soil. Channels in the mires, made by plant roots or soil layer of less decomposed materials, may increase the rate of transport of contaminated surface water into deeper soil layers and ground water. A large portion of both Cu and Sb were associated to the oxidizable components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form inner-sphere complexes with organic matter. The largest portion of Pb and Zn were associated with the exchangeable and pH-sensitive components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form outer-sphere complexes with the peat.

  17. Viminaria juncea does not vary its shoot phosphorus concentration and only marginally decreases its mycorrhizal colonization and cluster-root dry weight under a wide range of phosphorus supplies

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Mariana C. R.; Pearse, Stuart J.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Lambers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The Australian legume species Viminaria juncea forms both cluster roots and mycorrhizal associations. The aim of this study was to identify if these root specializations are expressed at differential supplies of phosphorus (P) and at different shoot P concentrations [P]. Methods Seedlings were planted in sand and provided with a mycorrhizal inoculum and basal nutrients plus one of 21 P treatments, ranging from 0 to 50 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks, and roots, shoots and cluster roots were measured for length and fresh and dry weight. The number of cluster roots, the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and shoot [P] were determined. Key Results Shoot biomass accumulation increased with increasing P supply until a shoot dry weight of 3 g was reached at a P supply of approx. 27·5 mg P kg−1 dry soil. Neither cluster-root formation nor mycorrhizal colonization was fully suppressed at the highest P supply. Most intriguingly, shoot [P] did not differ across treatments, with an average of 1·4 mg P kg−1 shoot dry weight. Conclusions The almost constant shoot [P] in V. juncea over the very wide range of P supplies is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. To maintain these stable values, this species down-regulates its growth rate when no P is supplied; conversely, it down-regulates its P-uptake capacity very tightly at the highest P supplies, when its maximum growth rate has been reached. It is proposed that the persistence of cluster roots and mycorrhizal colonization up to the highest P treatments is a consequence of its tightly controlled shoot [P]. This unusual P physiology of V. juncea is surmised to be related to the habitat of this N2-fixing species. Water and nutrients are available at a low but steady supply for most of the year, negating the need for storage of P which would be metabolically costly and be at the expense of metabolic energy and P available for symbiotic N2 fixation. PMID:23456689

  18. Implementation and Commercialization of New Plant Germplasms for Use on Military Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    9 Figure 2. A conceptual model on how an introduced nurse- crop species acts as an “ecological bridge” on sandy soils at Fort Drum...introduced nurse- crop species acts as an “ecological bridge” on sandy soils at Fort Drum, allowing fescues and eventually the desired native grass, SG, to...elevation (Figure 5). The military mission of Fort Carson is to train, mobilize, deploy, and 19 sustain combat- ready , multicomponent integrated forces

  19. Vulnerability of surface water bodies to potential contamination by ammunition residues from military training ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquille Temgoua, André Guy; Martel, Richard; Gabriel, Uta; Furlan, Adriana; Jouveau, Marie-Juliette

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade, a major effort has been made by Canadian Forces to understand the hydrodynamic of groundwater flow on range training areas (RTA). However, there is also a need to study surface water bodies and especially its vulnerability to potential contamination by ammunition residues. Nearly half of the surface (42%) of the studied RTA is located on bedrock prone to high rate of surface runoff. Rugged terrain is located to the north of the RTA, whereas to the south; the surface is on deltaic sediment made of sand that is favorable to high infiltration rate. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of topography were used in Geographic Information System (GIS) Software (ArcGis) to derive hydrologic processes. The GIS grid cells encompass basic terrain flow data that can be used to represent the flow processes at the free surface. They can also be used to derive a wide variety of information useful for the study of hydrologic processes such as topographic slope, water flow direction, contributing and drainage areas, catchments, watersheds and channel networks. The free surface flow was defined everywhere in the RTA but more specifically around targets locations, firing positions, and in impact areas. The developed methodology allows determining the hydrologic network with potential accumulation areas. The main objective is to identify areas where surficial geology and hydrological properties are favorable to rainfall-runoff and to establish if the quality of surface water may be altered by training ranges activities and subsequently if potential contaminants may migrate to receptors such as lakes and rivers. Vulnerable sectors that have high, medium or low rainfall-runoff index and surface water flow accumulation were shown on a regional map. Many other local maps were produced to define in more details surface water vulnerability in specific ranges. The possible relationship between the detection of ammunition residues in surface water bodies, the vulnerability

  20. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  1. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  2. Assessment of Soil-Gas and Soil Contamination at the Former Military Police Range, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas and soil were assessed for organic and inorganic contaminants at the former military police range at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from May to September 2010. The assessment evaluated organic contaminants in soil-gas samplers and inorganic contaminants in soil samples. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Soil-gas samplers deployed and collected from May 20 to 24, 2010, identified masses above method detection level for total petroleum hydrocarbons, gasoline-related and diesel-related compounds, and chloroform. Most of these detections were in the southwestern quarter of the study area and adjacent to the road on the eastern boundary of the site. Nine of the 11 chloroform detections were in the southern half of the study area. One soil-gas sampler deployed adjacent to the road on the southern boundary of the site detected a mass of tetrachloroethene greater than, but close to, the method detection level of 0.02 microgram. For soil-gas samplers deployed and collected from September 15 to 22, 2010, none of the selected organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives were detected above method detection levels. Inorganic concentrations in the five soil samples collected at the site did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional screening levels for industrial soil and were at or below background levels for similar rocks and strata in South Carolina.

  3. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  4. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  5. U.S. Corps of Engineers (COE) Letters to California, Texas and Illinois Regarding Munitions on Closed Military Ranges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum responds to three letters sent by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) representatives to the States of Texas, California, and Illinois involving interpretations of the Military Munitions Rule and state authority.

  6. Evaluation of Small Arms Range Soils for Metal Contamination and Lead Bioavailability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-03

    Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), using a JEOL 8600 electron microprobe, was used to identify and count lead particles (17); backscatter imaging was...the target area of a military shooting range. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 1997, 139, 403–407. (24) Bennett, J. R.; Kaufman, C. A.; Koch, I.; Sova, J

  7. Long-shoot/short-shoot phenomenon in woody plants

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Sosebee

    2001-01-01

    Shoot growth in shrubs is often overlooked as an important component of phenological development in woody plants. However, shoot growth dictates the pattern of growth of deciduous trees or shrubs, especially following defoliation or canopy damage. In general, woody shoots are divided into short- and long-shoots. Short-shoots, sometimes called "spurs," are...

  8. Shoot dieback in pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field evaluation found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining p...

  9. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  10. Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

    2012-08-01

    Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition.

  11. Violence and school shootings.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  12. Close Quarters Combat Shooting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    1994.at the Palm Beach Community College Criminal Justice Institute ofLakeworth, Florida to the more dynamic force-on-force, realistic scenario...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC...Shooting is the Superior Method for Close Quarters Combat 5b. GRANT NUMBER Shooting" N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT

  13. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Risch, James E. [R-ID

    2014-07-16

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Labrador, Raul R. [R-ID-1

    2014-07-09

    11/18/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Risch, James E. [R-ID

    2014-07-16

    07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Labrador, Raul R. [R-ID-1

    2014-07-09

    11/18/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Risch, James E. [R-ID

    2014-07-16

    Senate - 07/30/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-433. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Idaho County Shooting Range Land Conveyance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Labrador, Raul R. [R-ID-1

    2014-07-09

    Senate - 11/18/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Military Psychology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS....MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. The Hungerford shooting incident.

    PubMed

    Broome, G; Butler-Manuel, A; Budd, J; Carter, P G; Warlow, T A

    1988-09-01

    Thirty people sustained gunshot injuries on one afternoon in Hungerford, a small rural town in Berkshire. Fourteen people died at the scene of the shootings and three of the 16 patients who were admitted to hospital subsequently died. We describe the management of the 14 patients admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital, Swindon.

  2. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  3. Point and Shoot Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, John E.

    2011-05-01

    A new generation of point and shoot digital cameras, when combined with open source firmware enhancements can operate as astrographs. This paper explores the research and astro-photographic opportunities and capabilities offered by this pairing of mass production optics and open source functional extensions that retail for as little as $200.

  4. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  5. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  6. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  7. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. Methods We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Results Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10−9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to −197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5

  8. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W J; van Leeuwen, Johan L; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in cnidarians, the

  9. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  10. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  11. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  12. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  13. The Effects of Physical Impairment on Shooting Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    experimental objectives and procedures, told how results would be used, and told what benefits the military can expect from this investigation. Any questions...within the armed services. Two of the 15 participants were left-handed, two reported being ambidextrous , and two expressed left-eye dominance. 3.3...as discussion with shooters also revealed that there may be a benefit to impairment. That is, shooting with simulated impairment followed by

  14. Seasonal patterns of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root of loblolly pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Allen P. Drew; F. Thomas Ledig

    1981-01-01

    Seedlings of six full-sib families of loblolly pine were grown outdoors in clay pots for two growing seasons. Dark respiration of shoot and root and CO2 exchange of the shoot in the light were measured periodically over a temperature range bracketing ambient conditions. Both shoot and root showed different physiological responses as seasonal...

  15. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  16. Identification of microbial populations assimilating nitrogen from RDX in munitions contaminated military training range soils by high sensitivity stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Lillis, Lorraine; Strand, Stuart E

    2013-09-17

    The leaching of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) from particulates deposited in live-fire military training range soils contributes to significant pollution of groundwater. In situ microbial degradation has been proposed as a viable method for onsite containment of RDX. However, there is only a single report of RDX degradation in training range soils and the soil microbial communities involved in RDX degradation were not identified. Here we demonstrate aerobic RDX degradation in soils taken from a target area of an Eglin Air Force Base bombing range, C52N Cat's Eye, (Eglin, Florida U.S.A.). RDX-degradation activity was spatially heterogeneous (found in less than 30% of initial target area field samples) and dependent upon the addition of exogenous carbon sources to the soils. Therefore, biostimulation (with exogenous carbon sources) and bioaugmentation may be necessary to sustain timely and effective in situ microbial biodegradation of RDX. High sensitivity stable isotope probing analysis of extracted soils incubated with fully labeled (15)N-RDX revealed several organisms with (15)N-labeled DNA during RDX-degradation, including xplA-bearing organisms. Rhodococcus was the most prominent genus in the RDX-degrading soil slurries and was completely labeled with (15)N-nitrogen from the RDX. Rhodococcus and Williamsia species isolated from these soils were capable of using RDX as a sole nitrogen source and possessed the genes xplB and xplA associated with RDX-degradation, indicating these genes may be suitable genetic biomarkers for assessing RDX degradation potential in soils. Other highly labeled species were primarily Proteobacteria, including: Mesorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp., and Rhizobium sp.

  17. Hebrew Military Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarbanel, Joel I.

    Designed to give the military student a broad range of vocabulary on military subjects and a general understanding of the structure and operations of the Israel Defense Forces, this reader parallels advanced materials prepared for Foreign Service students of Hebrew and consists of short reading passages, each followed by a vocabulary list…

  18. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

  19. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  20. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  1. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  2. Cryopreservation of isolated mint shoot tips by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Towill, L E

    1990-08-01

    Shoot tips isolated from a mint clone, Mentha aquatica x M. spicata, were gradually exposed to a mixture containing 35% ethylene glycol, 1 M dimethylsulfoxide and 10% polyethylene glycol-8000 and then immersed into liquid nitrogen. Cooling and warming rates were approximately 4800°C/min and 9000°C/min respectively. Survival after liquid nitrogen treatment ranged from 31% to 75% among experiments. There was no obvious reason for this variation. In many cases the treated shoot tip directly developed into a shoot without any or with only slight callus formation.

  3. A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.

    PubMed

    Sang-A-Gad, Pensiriwan; Guharat, Suriya; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-11-01

    Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. To describe cyanide poisoning in eight victims who were exposed to HCN produced in a well containing pickling bamboo shoots. Due to a series of botched rescue attempts, a total of eight patients entered into a 27 m(3) well containing pickled bamboo shoots and immediately lost consciousness. After rescue, two patients developed cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis and died. Four other patients suffered metabolic acidosis, but recovered after supportive care. The remaining two regained consciousness and recovered soon after the event. Ambient air study and cyanide content of bamboo shoots helped confirm the diagnosis. All patients had high anion gap metabolic acidosis with normal oxygenation. Blood cyanide levels ranged from 2.66 to 3.30 mcg/ml (taken after about 18 h of incident). Ambient air study (21 h after incident) revealed oxygen 20.9%, and sulfur dioxide 19.4 ppm. The instrument was unfortunately not equipped to detect HCN. A simulation study revealed HCN and sulfur dioxide in the ambient air at 10 ppm and 7.5 ppm, respectively. Cyanide content in the bamboo shoots ranged from 39 to 434 mg/kg in the wet shoots. This series of patients developed sudden onset of alteration of consciousness and metabolic acidosis upon exposure, and cyanide was confirmed in all victims. The simulation study confirmed the presence of HCN in the ambient air of the well containing bamboo shoots. We have reported mass acute cyanide poisoning with two fatalities. The source of HCN was unusual as it was produced from pickling bamboo shoot.

  4. Neurophysiological responses to gun-shooting errors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowen; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the neural responses to errors in a shooting game - and how these neural responses may relate to behavioral performance - by examining the ERP components related to error detection (error-related negativity; ERN) and error awareness (error-related positivity; Pe). The participants completed a Shooter go/no-go task, which required them to shoot at armed targets using a gaming gun, and avoid shooting innocent non-targets. The amplitude of the ERN and Pe was greater for shooting errors than correct shooting responses. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by incorrect shooting appeared to have good internal reliability. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by shooting behaviors also predicted better behavioral sensitivity towards shoot/don't-shoot stimuli. These results suggest that it is possible to obtain online brain response measures to shooting responses and that neural responses to shooting are predictive of behavioral responses.

  5. Hermeneutics and Victimage: A Critical Approach to News of the Shooting of KAL Flight 007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    The shooting down of KAL Flight 007, a South Korean airliner, by a Soviet jet fighter, and the resulting deaths of the 269 people on board, has brought into focus the Reagan's administration's equivocal relationship with the Soviet Union, provided insights into the channels of power in the Soviet military hierarchy, and led other nations to…

  6. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  7. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  8. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  9. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability after rifle shooting.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Transition path sampling of rare events by shooting from the top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hendrik; Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Transition path sampling is a powerful tool in the study of rare events. Shooting trial trajectories from configurations along existing transition paths proved particularly efficient in the sampling of reactive trajectories. However, most shooting attempts tend not to result in transition paths, in particular in cases where the transition dynamics has diffusive character. To overcome the resulting efficiency problem, we developed an algorithm for "shooting from the top." We first define a shooting range through which all paths have to pass and then shoot off trial trajectories only from within this range. For a well chosen shooting range, nearly every shot is successful, resulting in an accepted transition path. To deal with multiple mechanisms, weighted shooting ranges can be used. To cope with the problem of unsuitably placed shooting ranges, we developed an algorithm that iteratively improves the location of the shooting range. The transition path sampling procedure is illustrated for models of diffusive and Langevin dynamics. The method should be particularly useful in cases where the transition paths are long so that only relatively few shots are possible, yet reasonable order parameters are known.

  11. Safety and streamlining of woody shoots in wind: an empirical study across 39 species in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Don W; Gleason, Sean M; Davidson, Ian; Onoda, Yusuke; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    • Wind is a key mechanical stress for woody plants, so how do shoot traits affect performance in wind? • We used a vehicle mounted apparatus to measure drag, streamlining and mechanical safety in 127 vertical lead-shoots, 1.2 m long, across 39 species in tropical Australia. • Shoot dimensions and stem tissue properties were closely coupled so that shoots with low stem specific gravity or larger projected area had thicker stems. Thicker stems provide larger second moment of area (I), which increased shoot safety and bending stiffness but impeded shoot reconfiguration in strong winds, including frontal area reduction. Nonetheless, increasing I also improved streamlining. Streamlining was unrelated to traits except I. Stem tissue material properties only had small effects. Higher modulus of rupture increased shoot safety and higher Young's modulus impeded shoot reconfiguration. • We found no conflict between bending stiffness and streamlining for woody shoots. Stiffness might help streamlining by increasing damping and stability, thereby reducing flagging in wind. Tissue-level traits did influence shoot-level mechanical safety and behaviour, but shoot geometry was much more important. Variable shoot and stem traits, which all influenced shoot biomechanics, were integrated in shoots to yield a relatively narrow range of outcomes in wind.

  12. Determination of Airborne Concentrations of Dichlorvos Over a Range of Temperatures When Using Commercially Available Pesticide Strips In a Simulated Military Guard Post

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-22

    military exposure guidelines ( MEGs ) and the 8-hour OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) for dichlorvos (0.99 mg/m3). Findings indicated that...3   Table  2.    Dichlorvos   MEGs  (31...9   Table  3.    U.S.  Army  Public  Health  Command  categorical   MEGs  for

  13. Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Adam T; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and a critical shooting error-response inhibition and firing on civilians, respectively. Individual-difference measures demonstrated, perhaps counterintuitively, that simulated civilian casualties were not related to motor impulsivity (i.e., an itchy trigger finger) but rather to an individual's cognitive ability to withhold an already initiated response (i.e., an itchy brain). Furthermore, active-response-inhibition training reduced simulated civilian casualties, which revealed a causal relationship. This study therefore illustrates the potential of using cognitive training to possibly improve shooting performance, which might ultimately provide insight for military and law-enforcement personnel.

  14. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  15. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  16. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  17. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  18. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  19. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  20. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  1. Pine Shoot Beetle Research Update

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Therese M. Poland

    2000-01-01

    Established populations of the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), were first detected in the US in 1992. As of January 2000, T. piniperda was known to be established in 271 counties in 11 US states (IL, IN, MD, MI, NH, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI, WV) and 25 counties in Ontario and 8 counties in Quebec,...

  2. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  3. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  4. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  5. Tragedy and the meaning of school shootings.

    PubMed

    Warnick, Bryan R; Johnson, Benjamin A; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings might be seen as ceremonial rituals, (2) how schools come to be seen as appropriate places for shootings, and (3) how advice to educators relating to school shootings might change the practice of teaching. The authors present various ways of understanding school shootings that may eventually prove helpful, but they also highlight the problems, tensions, and contradictions associated with each position. In the end, the authors argue, the circumstances surrounding school shootings demonstrate the need for the "tragic sense" in education. This need for the tragic sense, while manifest in many different areas of schooling, is exemplified most clearly in targeted school shootings.

  6. Giant Shoot Apical Meristems in Cacti Have Ordinary Leaf Primordia but Altered Phyllotaxy and Shoot Diameter

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in most seed plants are quite uniform in size and zonation, and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis and other model plants are revealing details of SAM morphogenesis. Some cacti have SAMs much larger than those of A. thaliana and other seed plants. This study examined how SAM size affects leaf primordium (LP) size, phyllotaxy and shoot diameter. • Methods. Apices from 183 species of cacti were fixed, microtomed and studied by light microscopy. • Key Results Cactus SAM diameter varies from 93 to 2565 µm, the latter being 36 times wider than SAMs of A. thaliana and having a volume 45 thousand times larger. Phyllotaxy ranges from distichous to having 56 rows of leaves and is not restricted to Fibonacci numbers. Leaf primordium diameter ranges from 44 to 402 µm, each encompassing many more cells than do LP of other plants. Species with high phyllotaxy have smaller LP, although the correlation is weak. There is almost no correlation between SAM diameter and LP size, but SAM diameter is strongly correlated with shoot diameter, with shoots being about 189·5 times wider than SAMs. • Conclusions Presumably, genes such as SHOOT‐MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL and CLAVATA must control much larger volumes of SAM tissue in cacti than they do in A. thaliana, and genes such as PERIANTHIA might establish much more extensive fields of inhibition around LP. These giant SAMs should make it possible to more accurately map gene expression patterns relative to SAM zonation and LP sites. PMID:15145794

  7. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  8. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  9. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  10. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  11. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  12. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  13. Shoot growth and heterophylly in ginko biloba

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1970-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba resembles other woody plants with long and short shoots in having variable leaves, and this variability in shape and other characteristics is closely related to the specialization of the shoots. The unlobed or bilobed early leaves of short shoots are preformed in the winter bud, and their nearly synchronous expansion in the spring is not accompanied by...

  14. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  15. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  16. Risk factors in school shootings.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  17. Learning Objectives for Shooting Sports Instruction. 554A: Using Measurable Criteria To Evaluate Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Delwin E.; Manning, Jan

    This publication contains objectives that range from basic shooting sports safety and proficiency to more specialized activities. They can be applied to hunter safety education, 4-H shooting sports, scouting, and club or community activities for youth or adults. The specific learning objectives in each list have been grouped into learning…

  18. Learning Objectives for Shooting Sports Instruction. 554A: Using Measurable Criteria To Evaluate Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Delwin E.; Manning, Jan

    This publication contains objectives that range from basic shooting sports safety and proficiency to more specialized activities. They can be applied to hunter safety education, 4-H shooting sports, scouting, and club or community activities for youth or adults. The specific learning objectives in each list have been grouped into learning…

  19. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  20. Phytochrome coordinates Arabidopsis shoot and root development.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Frances J; Hall, Anthony; Grierson, Claire S; Halliday, Karen J

    2007-05-01

    The phytochrome family of photoreceptors are potent regulators of plant development, affecting a broad range of responses throughout the plant life cycle, including hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion and apical dominance. The plant hormone auxin has previously been linked to these phytochrome-mediated responses; however, these studies have not identified the molecular mechanisms that underpin such extensive phytochrome and auxin cross-talk. In this paper, we show that phytochrome regulates the emergence of lateral roots, at least partly by manipulating auxin distribution within the seedling. Thus, shoot-localized phytochrome is able to act over long distances, through manipulation of auxin, to regulate root development. This work reveals an important role for phytochrome as a coordinator of shoot and root development, and provides insights into how phytochrome is able to exert such a powerful effect on growth and development. This new link between phytochrome and auxin may go some way to explain the extensive overlap in responses mediated by these two developmental regulators.

  1. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes.

  2. 'A band of brothers'-an exploration of the range of medical ethical issues faced by British senior military clinicians on deployment to Afghanistan: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bernthal, Elizabeth M; Draper, H J A; Henning, J; Kelly, J C

    2017-06-01

    To identify and explore features of ethical issues that senior clinicians faced as deployed medical directors (DMDs) to the British Field Hospital in Afghanistan as well as to determine the ethical training requirements for future deployments. A qualitative study in two phases conducted from November 2014 to June 2015. Phase 1 analysed 60 vignettes of cases that had generated ethical dilemmas for DMDs. Phase 2 included focus groups and an interview with 13 DMDs. Phase 1 identified working with limited resources, dual conflict of meeting both clinical and military obligations and consent of children as the most prevalent ethical challenges. Themes found in Phase 2 included sharing clinical responsibilities with clinicians from other countries and not knowing team members' ways of working, in addition to the themes from Phase 1. This study has drawn together examples of scenarios to form a repository that will aid future training. Recommendations included undertaking ethics training together as a team before, during and after deployment which must include all nationalities who are assigned to the same operational tour, so that different ethical views can be explored beforehand. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  4. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter M.; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L.; Ravensbergen, Rianne H. J. C.; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the

  5. Outsourcing: Reforms Imperative to Restoring Military Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    roles.3 Peter Singer of the Brookings Institution says, "We have pushed the envelope of military outsourcing past the point of what anyone contemplated...CoL Peter Mansoor noted in January 2007, "if they push traffic off the roads or if they shoot up a car that looks suspicious, whatever it may be...America’s wars. 21 NOTES 1. Peter W. Singer, Corporate Warriors (Cornell University Press, 2003), 197. 2. Robert O’Harrow Jr. and Dana Hedgpeth

  6. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  7. Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Sakaguchi, Hisako; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Wagstaff, Steven J; Ito, Motomi; Deguchi, Hironori; Sato, Toshiyuki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2008-01-01

    The shoot is a repeated structure made up of stems and leaves and is the basic body plan in land plants. Vascular plants form a shoot in the diploid generation, whereas nonvascular plants such as mosses form a shoot in the haploid generation. It is not clear whether all land plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development or how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved. The control of auxin distribution, especially by polar auxin transport, is essential for shoot development in flowering plants. We did not detect polar auxin transport in the gametophytic shoots of several mosses, but did detect it in the sporophytes of mosses without shoot structure. Treatment with auxin transport inhibitors resulted in abnormal embryo development, as in flowering plants, but did not cause any morphological changes in the haploid shoots. We fused the soybean auxin-inducible promoter GH3 with a GUS reporter gene and used it to indirectly detect auxin distribution in the moss Physcomitrella patens. An auxin transport inhibitor NPA did not cause any changes in the putative distribution of auxin in the haploid shoot. These results indicate that polar auxin transport is not involved in haploid shoot development in mosses and that shoots in vascular plants and mosses are most likely regulated differently during development.

  8. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  9. Archerfish use their shooting technique to produce adaptive underwater jets.

    PubMed

    Dewenter, Jana; Gerullis, Peggy; Hecker, Alexander; Schuster, Stefan

    2017-03-15

    Archerfish are renowned for dislodging aerial prey using well-aimed shots of water. Recently it has been shown that these fish can shape their aerial jets by adjusting the dynamics of their mouth opening and closing. This allows the fish to adjust their jet to target distance so that they can forcefully hit prey over considerable distances. Here, we suggest that archerfish use the same technique to also actively control jets under water. Fired from close range, the underwater jets are powerful enough to lift up buried food particles, which the fish then can pick up. We trained fish so that we could monitor their mouth opening and closing maneuvers during underwater shooting and compare them with those employed in aerial shooting. Our analysis suggests that the fish use the same dynamic mechanism to produce aerial and underwater jets and that they employ the same basic technique to adjust their jets in both conditions. When food is buried in substrate that consists of large particles, the fish use a brief pulse, but they use a longer one when the substrate is more fine-grained. These findings extend the notion that archerfish can flexibly shape their jets to be appropriate in different contexts and suggest that archerfish shooting might have been shaped both by constraints in aerial and underwater shooting.

  10. Annual cycle of shoot development in sugar maple

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Cytohistology and the development and morphogenesis of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) shoots were studied. Three types were recognized: short shoots, long shoots entirely preformed in the bud (Epf long), and long shoots partially preformed in the bud (heterophyllous). The three shoot types varied not only in the size and number of internodes...

  11. Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star: The Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star was America's first fully operation jet fighter. This all-yellow example arrived at Langley in November 1946. The P-80 was used for air speed calibration and development of a tuned vibration damper.

  12. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  13. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  14. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  15. Shoot Growth Patterns of Young Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1970-01-01

    Most shoot elongation on Pinus taeda L. seedlings and saplings near Durham. North Carolina. was supplied by the lirst growth Ilush, which began about April 1 and ended in mid-May 1967. New growth per shoot declined with distance from the tree top. All leaders had three flushes and half had four. Variation in internode growth was dependent upon...

  16. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter in Plant Cell Culture, Development and Biotechnology describes student laboratory exercises for cryopreservation of the growing shoot tips of plants in liquid nitrogen. It includes two exercises involving step by step protocols for use with shoot tips. Vitrification (fast freezing) an...

  17. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes.

  18. Optimal Physical Training During Military Basic Training Period.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Viskari, Jarmo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    The goal for military basic training (BT) is to create a foundation for physical fitness and military skills of soldiers. Thereafter, more advanced military training can safely take place. Large differences in the initial physical performance of conscripts or recruits have led military units to develop more safe and effective training programs. The purpose of this review article was to describe the limiting factors of optimal physical training during the BT period. This review revealed that the high volume of low-intensity physical activity combined with endurance-type military training (like combat training, prolonged physical activity, and field shooting) during BT interferes with optimal development of maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength of the soldiers. Therefore, more progressive, periodized, and individualized training programs are needed. In conclusion, optimal training programs lead to higher training responses and lower risks for injuries and overloading.

  19. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS.

  20. Influence of intra-shoot trophic competition on shoot development in two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Louarn, Gaëtan; Christophe, Angélique; Lebon, Eric; Lecoeur, Jérémie

    2008-09-01

    The effect of trophic competition between vegetative sources and reproductive sinks on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) shoot development was analyzed. Two international cultivars (Grenache N and Syrah) grown in pots, which were well watered, were studied. A large range of trophic competition levels was obtained by modifying the cluster loads per plant. An analytical breakdown of the branching system was used to analyze the effects of trophic competition. Phytomer production on the primary axis and the probability and timing of axillary budburst were not affected by trophic competition. However, the duration of development and leaf production rate for secondary axes were both significantly affected. The impact of trophic competition differed within the P0-P1-P2 architectural module, locally within the shoot and between cultivars. Trophic competition reduced the organogenesis of secondary axes most strongly close to clusters, on P1-P2 phytomers and in Grenache N. Based on these results, a modeling approach simulating sink strength variation and the local effects of sink proximity would be more relevant than a model considering only development as a function of thermal time or the global distribution of available biomass.

  1. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  2. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article…

  3. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    PubMed

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) shoot-feeding characteristics and overwintering behavior in Scotch pine Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Lawrence, R K; Heaton, G C

    2001-04-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were most often found in shoot-feeding tunnels that were still surrounded by green needles, whereas few were in tunnels surrounded by yellow or brown needles. For all years and sites combined, the range in the percentage of recently tunneled shoots that contained live T. piniperda adults decreased from 89 to 96% in mid-October, to 15- 66% in early November, to 2-10% in mid-November, and to 0-2% by late November to early December. In each year, the first subfreezing temperatures in autumn occurred in October, before most adults left the shoots. Of 1,285 T. piniperda-tunneled shoots, one to seven tunnels (mean = 1.6) and zero to three adults were found per infested shoot. Of these 1,285 attacked shoots, 55% of the shoots had one tunnel, 33% had two, 9% had three, 3% had four, and <1% had five to seven tunnels each. When two or more tunnels occurred in a single shoot, adults were most commonly found in the innermost (most basal) tunnel. For the 2,070 tunnels found in the 1,285 shoots, average shoot thickness at the tunnel entrance was 6.0 mm, average distance from the tunnel entrance to the shoot tip was 6.3 cm, and average tunnel length was 2.3 cm. Four Scotch pine Christmas trees were dissected in January 1993. Eighty percent of the tunneled shoots were in the upper quarter of the tree crown and 98% were in the upper half. For the four trees inspected in January, one live adult was found in a shoot and 85 adults were found in the outer bark along the lower trunk from 1 cm below the soil line to 19 cm above the soil line. No overwintering adults were found outside the trunk in the duff or soil near the base of each test tree. Implications of

  5. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins.

  6. Validation of Sampling Protocol and the Promulgation of Method Modifications for the Characterization of Energetic Residues on Military Testing and Training Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    live-fire training ranges. Chemosphere 63 (8):1280-1290 ______, G. Ampleman, S. Thiboutot, S.R. Bigl, S. Taylor, M.R. Walsh, D. Faucher, R. Martel... Chemosphere 49 (10): 1267-1273. ______, C.M. Collins, A.D. Hewitt, M.R. Walsh, T.F. Jenkins, J. Stark, A. Gelvin, T.S. Douglas, N. Perron, D. Lambert... 171 2,10 55.9 0.211 0.252 Pet-172 3,1 48.7 0.825 11.4 Pet-173 3,2 63.2 0.372 5.34 Pet-174 3,3 67.6 0.567 5.67 Pet-175 3,4 62.6 0.069 0.880 Pet

  7. Suicide prevention in military organizations.

    PubMed

    Zamorski, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem in the demographic group that forms the bulk of military populations, namely young and middle-aged men. Suicide in the military also has special significance: certain aspects of military service can lead to serious mental disorders that increase the risk of suicidal behaviour. Moreover, military organizations have control over a broad range of factors (notably the direct delivery of mental health care) that could mitigate suicide risk. This article will review the literature on suicide risk in military organizations to answer the important question: Are military personnel at increased risk for suicide? Next, Mann et al.'s (2005) model for specific suicide preventive interventions in civilian settings will be reviewed and then expanded, with an emphasis on identifying special opportunities for suicide prevention in military organizations, including: 1) organizational interventions to mitigate work stress; 2) selection, resilience training, and risk factor reduction; 3) interventions to overcome barriers to care; and 4) systematic quality improvement efforts in mental health care. Finally, the evidence behind comprehensive suicide prevention programmes will be reviewed, with a special focus on the US Air Force's benchmark programme.

  8. Soviet Military Power 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    deployed in both a fixed and mobile ver- Kremlin should cease its massive military aid rrograms. sion. the mobile SS-25, and the new version of the...Libya. Angola, Vict- ability of mobile systems, coupled with greater yield and nam, Syria, and especially Cuba, which is only 90 miles accuracy of the...of severe repression in Poland, Moscow also deployed SS-20 intermediate-range mobile nuclear missiles that These apparent contradictions in Soviet

  9. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  10. Duck shooting injuries in Southland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Watts, Martin; Densie, Ian

    2013-05-10

    Duck shooting is a common sport in New Zealand. The opening weekend is anticipated and celebrated, often with significant alcohol intake which is cause for concern, and potentially very dangerous. Hunters are annually warned about the dangers. There have been few duck shooting incidents which lead to injury or death. In the last decade two duck shooters in New Zealand have been killed, while 16 suffered non fatal gunshot injuries. We present a series of injuries identified during the 2012 duck shooting season in Southland Province.

  11. Military Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    with a grass surface. This aircraft has the following cal- culated characteristics: maximum «peed 2500-2700 km/hour, service cell - ing up to...mobi- lisation of all the national resources to repel the enemy, and the systematic growth of the technical equipment of our Armed Forces. For...bombers. Cannon- machlnegun aircraft weapons have been replaced by rocket weapons. In recent years the speed and celling of military planes has

  12. Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-07-15

    A study of the chemical contents and sizes of gunshot residue originating from 9×18mm PM ammunition, depositing in the vicinity of the shooting person was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Samples of the residue were collected from targets placed at various distances in the range 0-100cm as well as from hands and clothing of the shooting person. Targets were covered by fragments of white cotton fabric or black bovine leather. In the case of cotton targets microtraces were collected from circles of 5 and 10cm in radius. Results of the examinations in the form of numbers of particles, proportions of their chemical classes and dimensions revealed a dependence on the distance from the gun muzzle, both in the direction of shooting and in the opposite one, i.e., on the shooting person. The parameters describing gunshot residue differed also depending on the kind of the target substrate. The kind of obtained information gives rise to understanding the general rules of the dispersion of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting gun. Thus, it may be utilised in the reconstruction of shooting incidences, especially in establishing the mutual positions of the shooter and other participants of the incident.

  13. The use of unburned propellant powder for shooting-distance determination. Part I: Infrared luminescence.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Rolf; Graf, Stefan; Christen, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Unburned propellant powder particles in gunshot residue (GSR) were detected at near infrared by optical excitation in the visible wavelength range. A series of ammunition (different brands and different manufacturers) was analyzed concerning the luminescence of their propellant. Shooting target samples with different shooting distances were produced on standard textile tissue and analyzed with this optical infrared inspection. The number of luminescent GSR particles per area was measured and curves with particle density vs. shooting distance were drawn. The method was applied on three ammunition types with different particle morphology shot with a pistol and one ammunition type shot with a revolver. The shooting series performed with the revolver showed a large particle density variation within the samples of identical shooting distances. In this case, the ratio of the amount of particles within the area around the bullet hole and within a ring with a defined distance from the bullet hole was calculated. These data resulted in measures with much lower standard deviations, which is a prove that the distribution pattern depends on the shooting distance and not on the amount of GSR particles. It has been shown, that imaging of target tissue with the aid of infrared luminescence is an easy, fast, reproducible and non-destructive method for shooting-distance determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

  15. The growth and form of plant shoots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Growing plant stems and shoots exhibit a variety of shapes that embody growth in response to various stimuli. We provide a quantitative biophysical theory for these shapes by accounting for the inherent observed passive and active effects: (i) the passive elastic deflection of the shoot due to its own weight, and (ii) the active controllable growth response of the shoot in response to its orientation relative to gravity, and (iii) proprioception, the shoot's growth response to its own observable shape, which is itself determined by its elasticity and weight. A morphospace diagram in terms of two dimensionless parameters representing a scaled local active gravitropic sensitivity, and a scaled passive elastic sag shows how a variety of observed transient and steady morphologies with effective positive, negative and even oscillatory gravitropic behaviors arise in a sentient growing filament naturally, without the need for ad-hoc complex spatio-temporal control strategies.

  16. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... have good news and bad news for military families. MORE Military Families Brace for What’s Next In Syria President Trump ordered an airstrike in Syria leaving military families wondering what's next. More April is the Month ...

  17. The effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue on shooting accuracy and cognitive performance in infantry soldiers.

    PubMed

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Ubink, Emiel M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-01-01

    Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on cognitive and shooting performance of 22 soldiers in a real-world setting. Findings indicated that soldiers' shooting accuracy and decision-making and mathematical skills decreased significantly under anxiety. Whether exercise-induced fatigue was beneficial or detrimental to task performance depended on the task at hand. The increased arousal levels through exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating in the decision task. In contrast, cognitive performance suffered from the increased arousal: participants more often failed to shoot when being fired at by an opponent and also math performance seemed to decrease. We conclude that anxiety can deteriorate soldier performance and that exercise-induced fatigue may improve or deteriorate performance in combination with anxiety depending on the nature of the task. Soldiers encounter anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue. We investigated to what degree these factors influence soldiers' shooting and cognitive performance. Experimental manipulation of anxiety and exercise during a representative field course indicated decreased performance under anxiety. Exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating under anxiety, although cognitive performance was negatively affected after exercise.

  18. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    PubMed

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  19. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  20. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  1. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    PubMed

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  2. The effect of meditation on shooting performance.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, E E; Berglund, K A; Engen, O; Ekeberg, O; Loeb, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study effects of meditation on the shooting performance. METHODS: 25 elite shooters were investigated in an independent groups design. The results in standardised test shootings indoors and in ordinary competitions outdoors were assessed before and after regular meditation training for the experimental group. The experience of tension during the test shootings was self recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: The competition results in the outdoor season (1993), just after the meditation training period, compared with the results the previous season (1992), were better in the meditation group (P < 0.05). No significant difference between the groups was observed in the test shootings before and after the relaxation intervention. A significant association was shown between low tension and the results in the test shootings (correlation r = 0.42, P < 0.0001; Wilcoxon rank sum test, z = -3.36, P < 0.001); 18% (= r2) of the variance in performance was explained by tension. CONCLUSIONS: Meditation may enhance competitive shooting performance. PMID:9015599

  3. Easy transition path sampling methods: flexible-length aimless shooting and permutation shooting.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Shea, Joan-Emma; Peters, Baron

    2015-06-09

    We present new algorithms for conducting transition path sampling (TPS). Permutation shooting rigorously preserves the total energy and momentum of the initial trajectory and is simple to implement even for rigid water molecules. Versions of aimless shooting and permutation shooting that use flexible-length trajectories have simple acceptance criteria and are more computationally efficient than fixed-length versions. Flexible-length permutation shooting and inertial likelihood maximization are used to identify the reaction coordinate for vacancy migration in a two-dimensional trigonal crystal of Lennard-Jones particles. The optimized reaction coordinate eliminates nearly all recrossing of the transition state dividing surface.

  4. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  5. Environmental Impacts of Military Range Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-18

    imminent and substantial endangerment to public health. The first three orders were issued under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the fourth under...Safe Drinking Water Act in 1982. 11 The Cape Cod aquifer provides drinking water for 200,000 year-round and 500,000 seasonal residents of Cape Cod...under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to the National Guard Bureau. This order requires that munitions found subsurface or in

  6. Beyond the Range of Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    proposed for the new term that stated not only what it is but what it is not.6 The Next Step A later version had a condensed MOOTW definition7 and one...revised as needed and then renumbered during their assessments . The end of the Cold War brought new challenges which require that joint doctrine clearly and...needed. The assessment process and the subsequent revision of Joint Pub 3-0 can correct this flaw. This is not a call for immediate changes in joint

  7. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter.

  8. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting.

    PubMed

    Share, Bianca; Sanders, Nick; Kemp, Justin

    2009-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the influence that caffeine has on accuracy and cognitive performance in precision activities such as shooting and archery. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two doses of caffeine on shooting performance, reaction time, and target tracking times in the sport of clay target shooting. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was undertaken by seven elite male shooters from the double-trap discipline. Three intervention trials (2 mg caffeine . kg(-1) body mass (BM); 4 mg caffeine . kg(-1) BM; placebo) were undertaken, in which shooters completed four rounds per trial of 50 targets per round. Performance accuracy (score) and digital video footage (for determination of reaction time and target tracking times) were gathered during competition. Data were analysed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. No differences in shooting accuracy, reaction time or target tracking times among the three intervention trials or across the four rounds within each intervention were observed (P > 0.05). The results indicate that ingestion of < or =4 mg caffeine . kg(-1) BM does not provide performance benefits to elite performers of clay target shooting in the double-trap discipline.

  10. Ontogeny of the maize shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Elizabeth M; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Schnable, Patrick S; Timmermans, Marja C P; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize.

  11. Slowing Military Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Military Models to Ottoman Turkey and Meiji Japan,” in Theo Farrell and Terry Terriff, eds., The Sources of Military Change: Culture, Politics, Technology...2002; Farrell and Terriff, “The Sources of Military Change”; Goldman, “The Spread of Western Military Models to Ottoman Turkey and Meiji Japan.” 107

  12. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid concentrations in shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Shoot-forming tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38) callus tissues contain significantly lower concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid compared to non-shoot-forming callus tissues. This difference is evident 1 day after subculture to shoot-forming or non-shoot-forming medium, and is maintained through the first week of growth. The lack of auxin in shoot-forming medium is the probable cause for this difference in ACC concentrations.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Shoot Development and Branching Patterns in Actinidia

    PubMed Central

    SELEZNYOVA, ALLA N.; THORP, T. GRANT; BARNETT, ANDREW M.; COSTES, EVELYNE

    2002-01-01

    We developed a framework for the quantitative description of Actinidia vine architecture, classifying shoots into three types (short, medium and long) corresponding to the modes of node number distribution and the presence/absence of neoformed nodes. Short and medium shoots were self‐terminated and had only preformed nodes. Based on the cut‐off point between their two modes of node number distribution, short shoots were defined as having nine or less nodes, and medium shoots as having more than nine nodes. Long shoots were non‐terminated and had a number of neoformed nodes; the total number of nodes per shoot was up to 90. Branching patterns for each parent shoot type were represented by a succession of branching zones. Probabilities of different types of axillary production (latent bud, short, medium or long shoot) and the distributions of length for each branching zone were estimated from experimental data using hidden semi‐Markov chain stochastic models. Branching was acrotonic on short and medium parent shoots, with most axillary shoots being located near the shoot tip. For long parent shoots, branching was mesotonic, with most long axillary shoots being located in the transition zone between the preformed and neoformed part of the parent shoot. Although the shoot classification is based on node number distribution there was a marked difference in average (per shoot) internode length between the shoot types, with mean values of 9, 27 and 47 mm for short, medium and long shoots, respectively. Bud and shoot development is discussed in terms of environmental controls. PMID:12096808

  14. BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    PubMed

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  16. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  17. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  18. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  19. Thermal behavior of the SHOOT gallery arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, J. A.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The planned Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment will show the feasibility of resupplying orbiting facilities with liquid helium. The SHOOT experiment, designed for transfer rates of 300 to 800 liters/hr, will use a thermomechanical pump and four screen covered flow channels for fluid acquisition. Cavitation and thermal behavior was examined in ground based tests of the pump and of a full sized channel. A model for estimating the temperature profile at the pump inlet is presented. Large temperature increases in this region can significantly degrade the performance of the fountain pump.

  20. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  1. Literacy Instruction in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Thomas M.

    Despite the fact that military careers require much higher levels of literacy than do comparable civilian careers, the range of literacy levels of enlistees is roughly representative of the abilities found amoung high school graduates. In response to the need to raise the literacy levels of their personnel, the Armed Forces have paid increasing…

  2. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  3. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  4. Shoot growth and heterophylly in Acer

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1971-01-01

    In Acer and many other woody genera, leaf form changes drastically and often abruptly during the life of the plant. Heterophylly is of two principal kinds in these woody plants: (1) changes during seedling and post-seedling stages, and (2) changes during the development of single annual shoots of adult plants. Type (1) is ubiquitous in Acer] type (2) is a regular...

  5. Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...

  6. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of…

  7. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  8. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Zhou, Ruilian; Sarkar, Ananda; Hargreaves, Sarah; Elshire, Robert J.; Eudy, Douglas; Pawlowska, Teresa; Ware, Doreen; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Buckner, Brent; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1) or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1), a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize. PMID:19424435

  9. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lionel; Strable, Josh; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Zhou, Ruilian; Sarkar, Ananda; Hargreaves, Sarah; Elshire, Robert J; Eudy, Douglas; Pawlowska, Teresa; Ware, Doreen; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Buckner, Brent; Timmermans, Marja C P; Schnable, Patrick S; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1) or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1), a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  10. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  11. Shooting under cardiovascular load: Electroencephalographic activity in preparation for biathlon shooting.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Germano; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Sattlecker, Gerold; Lindinger, Stefan; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the influence of sub-maximal cardiovascular load on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity preceding biathlon shooting. Frontal-midline theta and alpha power were examined to assess monitoring processes and cortical inhibition, respectively. Thirteen experienced biathletes (mean age: 17years; 5 males, 8 females) fired sets of five consecutive shots from the standing position at a 50-meter-distant target, under two fixed-order conditions: (i) at rest and (ii) immediately after 3-minute exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 90% of maximum heart rate (HR). HR and rate of physical exertion (RPE) were measured as manipulation checks. Shooting accuracy was assessed in target rings for each shot. Frontal-midline theta and alpha power were computed in the last second preceding each shot from average-reference 61-channel EEG and inter-individual differences were minimized through a median-scaled log transformation (Appendix). HR and RPE increased under cardiovascular load, however, shooting accuracy did not change. Pre-shooting frontal-midline theta power decreased, whereas alpha power increased over temporal and occipital - but not central - regions. These changes were larger for greater HR values. Additionally, higher frontal-midline theta, lower left-central alpha, and higher left-temporal alpha power were associated with more accurate shooting. These findings suggest that monitoring processes are beneficial to shooting performance but can be impaired by sub-maximal cardiovascular load. Greater inhibition of movement-irrelevant regions (temporal, occipital) and concomitant activation of movement-related regions (central) indicate that greater neural efficiency is beneficial to shooting performance and can allow trained biathletes to shoot accurately despite physically demanding conditions.

  12. Ready, aim, shoot: stem cell regulation of the shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Soyars, Cara L; James, Sean R; Nimchuk, Zachary L

    2016-02-01

    Plant shoot meristems contain stem cells that are continuously renewed to replenish cells that exit and differentiate during lateral organ formation. Complex cell-to-cell signaling systems balance division and differentiation. These center on ligand-receptor networks, hormone pathways, and transcriptional regulators that function in an integrated manner. In this review, we aim to highlight new findings in shoot stem cell regulation across species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  14. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-05-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2-0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2-3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2-3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2-3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2-3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets.

  15. Assessment of Impulse Noise Level and Acoustic Trauma in Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Maryam; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Saedi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Military personnel are usually exposed to high levels of impulse noise (IN) which can lead to hearing loss. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of relatively low level exposure of impulse noise (IN) during shooting practice on hearing using pure tone audiometry (PTA) and transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) in military personnel. Materials and Methods: Forty male soldiers (mean age 20.08 years) were recruited for the study. Prior to their first shooting practice, PTA and TEOAE were recorded. After 15 minutes and one week post- practice PTA and TEOAE were compared. Results: Immediately after shooting practice significant differences in PTA at 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz were observed for the right ear and no significant difference at any frequency for the left ear. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of TEOAE 15 minutes after shooting practice at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in the right ear, while for the left ear the difference was significant at 1000 and 2000 Hz. One week after exposure a significant difference at 500 and 4000 Hz was found only in the right ear and a significant difference in the amplitude of TEOAE was observed at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz. Conclusions: Even exposure lower than permissible levels may lead to acoustic trauma. TEOAE is more sensitive than PTA in detecting early hearing loss after military shooting exercises. Hearing protection equipment and appropriate surveillance programs are recommended. PMID:24749098

  16. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world’s 34 “advanced economies.” Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. “Shooting massacres” in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were “targeted” shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were “random” or “rampage” shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages – Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School – accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a “public health crisis.” School

  17. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy Hook in perspective. School shootings were classified as random or targeted. Results The U.S. has the highest rates of firearm deaths, suicides, and homicides among the world's 34 "advanced economies." Seventy percent of U.S. homicides and more than 50% of U.S. suicides are committed using a firearm. U.S. firearm homicide rates first declined, and then stabilized, during the past 23 years, 1990-2012. "Shooting massacres" in school settings, a new phenomenon within the past 50 years, are extremely rare events. Over 23 years, 1990-2012, 215 fatal school shooting incidents resulted in 363 deaths, equivalent to 0.12% of national firearm homicides during that time period. Most episodes were "targeted" shootings in which the perpetrator intentionally killed a specific individual in a school setting. Only 25 of these 215 events (11.6%) were "random" or "rampage" shootings, resulting in 135 deaths (0.04% of national firearm homicides). Among these, just three shooting rampages - Columbine High School, Virginia Tech University, and Sandy hook Elementary School - accounted for 72 (53.3%) of these 135 deaths. The frequency of random/rampage shooting incidents in schools has remained within the narrow range of 0 to 3 episodes per year. Conclusions Each year, more than 32,000 Americans die by firearms and more than 70,000 are wounded, representing a volume of preventable deaths and injuries that the U.S. government describes as a "public health crisis." School massacres, such as Sandy Hook

  18. HOW to Identify and Minimize Red Pine Shoot Moth Damage

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; David J. Hall

    1992-01-01

    The red pine shoot moth, Dioryctria resinosella, feeds on newly expanding shoots and cones of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Damage has been reported from Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southern Ontario. The red pine shoot moth is now considered a pest due to the large increase in the number and overall acreage of red pine plantations greater than 20 years of...

  19. Managing military training-related environmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    Zentelis, Rick; Banks, Sam; Roberts, J Dale; Dovers, Stephen; Lindenmayer, David

    2017-09-17

    Military Training Areas (MTAs) cover at least 2 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface and occur in all major biomes. These areas are potentially important for biodiversity conservation. The greatest challenge in managing MTAs is balancing the disturbance associated with military training and environmental values. These challenges are unique as no other land use is managed for these types of anthropogenic disturbances in a natural setting. We investigated how military training-related disturbance is best managed on MTAs. Specifically, we explored management options to maximise the amount of military training that can be undertaken on a MTA while minimising the amount of environmental disturbance. MTAs comprise of a number of ranges designed to facilitate different types of military training. We simulated military training-related environmental disturbance at different range usage rates under a typical range rotation use strategy, and compared the results to estimated ecosystem recovery rates from training activities. We found that even at relatively low simulated usage rates, random allocation and random spatial use of training ranges within an MTA resulted in environmental degradation under realistic ecological recovery rates. To avoid large scale environmental degradation, we developed a decision-making tool that details the best method for managing training-related disturbance by determining how training activities can be allocated to training ranges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Military nursing competencies.

    PubMed

    Ross, Mary Candice

    2010-06-01

    Competencies for military nurses are much broader in scope than their civilian counterparts. Not only must they be proficient at basic nursing skills, but they must also quickly master such military skills as protecting themselves and others during attack or threat of attack, caring for major trauma victims under austere conditions, and preparing such patients for transport through the military system of evacuation. This requires consistent and specialized training. This article describes the competencies necessary for practice by military nurses.

  1. Military Business Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Military Business Success By: Lieutenant...TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Military Business Success 6. AUTHOR(S) Ahmad, Mohamad Krastev, Radostin Puciato, Arkadiusz 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...unlimited. MILITARY BUSINESS SUCCESS Mohamad Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Air Force Radostin Krastev, Captain, Bulgarian Air

  2. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1994-12-31

    At the Glenn Pool field in Northeastern Oklahoma, a series of crosswell seismic surveys have been acquired. The acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were careful developed using a test survey. The first full survey resulted in high quality data, but the second encountered high ambient noise. The noise levels were high enough to prohibit first-arrival picking over in much of the data. Analysis of the data from the second survey shows that tube waves are emanating from the perforated interval in the receiver well. This is interpreted to be fluid flow or circulation noise through the perforations, even though the well was not flowing fluid at the surface. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was re-shot by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important acquisition factor.

  3. Root : shoot ratios, optimization and nitrogen productivity.

    PubMed

    Agren, Göran I; Franklin, Oskar

    2003-12-01

    Plants respond to nitrogen availability by changing their root : shoot ratios. One hypothesis used to explain this allocation is that plants optimize their behaviour by maximizing their relative growth rate. The consequences of this hypothesis were investigated by formulating two models for root : shoot allocation, with and without explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration. The models also took into account that relative growth rate is a linear function of plant nitrogen concentration. The model without respiration gave qualitatively reasonable results when predictions were compared with observed results from growth experiments with birch and tomato. The explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration improved considerably the agreement between prediction and observation, and for birch was within the experimental accuracy. Further improvements will require additional details in the description of respiratory processes and the nitrogen uptake function. Plants growing under extreme nutrient stress may also optimize their behaviour with respect to other variables in addition to relative growth rate.

  4. Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Treesearch

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  6. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  7. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  8. Leaf-lamina conductance contributes to an equal distribution of water delivery in current-year shoots of kudzu-vine shoot, Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Tateno, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Leaf-lamina resistance, R(L), accounts for a large fraction of branch resistance across a wide range of plant species. This work hypothesized that large R(L) is essential for distributing water equally to leaves on the shoot, and tested this hypothesis through theoretical analyses and measurements using over 10-m-long current-year shoots of kudzu vine, Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi. First, the hydraulic architecture and the distribution of the motive force achieving equal distribution of water delivery were theoretically obtained by simulating water flow through a hypothetical shoot comprising an axial pathway and several lateral pathways as a stem and leaves, respectively, in a kudzu-vine shoot. The model predicts that large resistance of the lateral pathway relative to that of the axial pathway is associated strongly with small variation in the hydraulic conductance of a pathway from the base of the axial pathways to the lateral pathway among the nodes, rendering water delivery to each lateral pathway equal under small variation in motive force for water flow. For the kudzu-vine shoot, the measured ratio of the lateral (a petiole) to the axial (a stem) resistance was 115. When R(L) was added to the lateral pathway, the ratio increased to 1136. According to the model prediction, these values imply that the hydraulic conductance of a pathway comprising a stem and a petiole, K(BP), is favored strongly at the basal nodes, while the hydraulic conductance of a pathway including a stem, a petiole and a lamina, K(SL), is slightly different across the nodes. For the shoots with leaf lamina, the diurnal change in transpiration rate was not different between the leaves on the three nodes dividing the shoot into four parts. K(SL) was not related significantly to node number. Conversely, K(BP) at the distal node was ~0.06-fold that at the basal node. Furthermore, the motive force for water flow should vary by 6.64-fold among nodes to compensate for the favored distribution of

  9. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    PubMed

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  10. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  11. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  12. Salinity limits to shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake in ‘Honeoye’ strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was done to identify salinity thresholds that limit shoot and root development and lead to leaf tissue necrosis in strawberry. Plants were exposed to five levels of salinity from CaCl2 mixed with nutrient solution. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the solutions ranged from 0.3-3.7 dS/m initia...

  13. Tomicus Piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Is Shoot-Feeding Requires For Reproductive Maturation

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

    2000-01-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is a univoltine pest of pine in its native range of Europe and Asia. Tomicus piniperda is now widely established in the Great Lakes region and poses a potentially significant threat to other pine-producing areas in North America. An unusual aspect of the life...

  14. Prospective trajectories of posttraumatic stress in college women following a campus mass shooting.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Holly K; Bonanno, George A; Hannan, Susan M; Miron, Lynsey R

    2014-06-01

    In a sample with known levels of preshooting posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, we examined the impact of a campus mass shooting on trajectories of PTS in the 31 months following the shooting using latent growth mixture modeling. Female students completed 7 waves of a longitudinal study (sample sizes ranged from 812 to 559). We identified 4 distinct trajectories (n = 660): (a) minimal impact-resilience (60.9%), (b) high impact-recovery (29.1%), (c) moderate impact-moderate symptoms (8.2%), and (d) chronic dysfunction (1.8%). Individuals in each trajectory class remained at or returned to preshooting levels of PTS approximately 6 months postshooting. The minimal impact-resilience class reported less prior trauma exposure (η(2) = .13), less shooting exposure (η(2) = .07), and greater emotion regulation skills than all other classes (η(2) > .30). The chronic dysfunction class endorsed higher rates of experiential avoidance prior to the shooting than the minimal-impact resilient and high impact-recovery classes (η(2) = .15), as well as greater shooting exposure than the high impact-recovery class (η(2) = .07). Findings suggest that preshooting functioning and emotion regulation distinguish between those who experience prolonged distress following mass violence and those who gradually recover.

  15. Influence of Diffused Solar Radiation on the Solar Concentrating System of a Plant Shoot Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    Investigation of a plant shoot configuration is used to obtain valuable information concerning the received light system. Additionally, analysis results concerning a plant shoot configuration interaction with direct solar radiation were taken from a past study. However, in order to consider a plant shoot as a received sunlight system, it is necessary to understand the received light characteristics of both direct solar radiation and diffused solar radiation. Under a clear sky, the ratio of direct solar radiation to diffused solar radiation is large. However, under a clouded sky, the amount of diffused solar radiation becomes larger. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the received light characteristics of a plant shoot configuration under the influence of diffused solar radiation. As a result, we clarify the relationship between the amount of diffused solar radiation and the amount of received light as a function of the characteristics of the plant shoot configuration. In order to obtain diffused solar radiation, it is necessary to correspond to the radiation of the multi-directions. In the analysis, the characteristic of the difference in arrangement of the top leaf and the other leaf was obtained. Therefore, in analysis, leaves other than the top were distributed in the wide range.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective than octopine-type strain for corn multi-shoot tissues transformation. The average frequency of Glucuronidase (GUS)-positive explants obtained from 14 corn genotypes ranged from 36% to 76%. L-proline (0.7 g L−1) in the co-culture medium apparently improved the frequency of transformation. The newly initiated multi-shoot tissues were most responsive to Agrobacterium infection. A positive correlation was found between multi-shoot tissue susceptibility to Agrobacterium and the proportion of cells in G1 phase. Transformants were identified by reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and by southern blot hybridization assays. The frequency of transformants was approximately 2% based on the number of multi-shoot explants co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. PMID:26019506

  17. Glucosinolate composition of young shoots and flower buds of capers (Capparis species) growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Musa

    2002-12-04

    The content and glucosinolate composition of young shoots and raw flower buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens at three different sizes (x 13 mm) were investigated by HPLC with UV detection. Samples were harvested in August 2001 in Turkey. Twelve different glucosinolates were identified in the young shoots and buds of both species. Total content of glucosinolates ranged from 6.55 micromol/g (large buds of C. spinosa) to 45.56 micromol/g (young shoots of C. ovata). The main glucosinolate was glucocapperin, which amounted to approximately 90% of the total glucosinolates. In both species the total glucosinolate content varied in dependence on the bud size, whereas a greater variability was given for buds from C. spinosa.

  18. An improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.

    1990-01-01

    The minimum-time attitude maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft are considered. Generally, the associated nonsingular, nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem, derived by using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, can be solved through shooting methods to find the switching times for the bang-bang control. However, a good initial guess for the missing initial costates is important because the convergence range of the initial costates is very narrow, especially when a multi-bang-bang control strategy is needed. This paper proposes a numerical approach to generate the initial costates so that they are very close to the converged values. The initial costates are first generated by using a recently developed quasi-linearization technique for the near-minimum-time problem and then reduced in magnitude, through some properly designed scales, before the shooting method is used. Numerical examples indicate the closeness of the results from these two techniques (quasi-linearization and shooting).

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the shoot length of Cicer seeds [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toker, Cengiz; Uzun, Bulent; Canci, Huseyin; Oncu Ceylan, F.

    2005-08-01

    The effects of radiation on the shoot and root lengths of germinated seedling of irradiated seeds of Cicer species, i.e. three kabuli types and four desi types of cultivated chickpea ( Cicer arietinum Ladiz.) and 2 annual wild types ( C. reticulatum Ladiz. and C. bijugum K.H. Rech.) were investigated. The seeds were irradiated with a 60Co gamma source using 0, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses at 1.66 kGy h -1. At 200 Gy minor effects could be observed, but at 400 Gy an obvious depression of shoot length was observed. The kabuli types were more affected than the desi ones. The critical dose that prevented the shoot and root elongation varied among species and also ranged from genotypes to genotype within species.

  20. Alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas

    2012-01-15

    The alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 18 alkaloids were identified, and galanthamine, hamayne and lycorine were dominant. The L. aestivum 80 shoot culture, cultivated at temporary immersion conditions, is a prospective biological matrix for obtaining wide range Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, showing valuable biological and pharmacological activities. The temperature of cultivation influenced enzyme activities, catalyzing phenol oxidative coupling of 4'-O-methylnorbelladine and formation of the different groups Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Decreasing the temperature of cultivation of L. aestivum 80 shoot culture led to activation of para-ortho' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of galanthamine type alkaloids) and inhibited ortho-para' and para-para' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of lycorine and haemanthamine types alkaloids). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  2. Military Diplomacy: A Need for Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Diplomacy: A Need for Doctrine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...population and interacted with many Icelanders. A U.S. Navy jazz band performed for “residents of the Hrafnista nursing home, and sailors visited the...Operations (CMO) can be used for Military Diplomacy yet it covers too broad a range of operations with differing planning and execution methods. Also

  3. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  4. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society.

  8. Lead exposure in a firing range.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Cook, M; Hughes, J; Lee, S A

    1987-01-01

    We report lead exposure in four employees of a privately owned shooting range, one of whom had neurological toxicity due to lead. Increasing time worked at the range was associated with elevation of blood lead. This incident emphasizes the risk of airborne lead exposure to employees of firing ranges. PMID:3618861

  9. Temporary changes in hearing after exposure to shooting noise.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Bak, Marek; Fiszer, Marta; Kotyło, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2004-01-01

    Firearm is a common source of impulse noise that may potentially damage hearing organ. It has been suggested that otoacoustic emissions, particularly transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), might be more sensitive than pure-tone audiometry (PTA) in the assessment of changes to cochlea caused by noise. The aim of this study was to: (i) evaluate exposure to impulse noise from small-caliber weapons, (ii) compare the post-exposure changes in hearing measured by PTA and TEOAE and correlate them with noise parameters. The study included 18 male hunters (group I) and 28 candidate policemen (group II) exposed to impulse noise from small firearms during target practices. Group I was unprotected during shooting, whereas group II used commonly available hearing protectors. PTA and TEOAE were performed before and 2-10 min after shooting. Exposure to impulse noise was evaluated by in situ measurements. Groups I and II were exposed to 3-4 and 4-144 impulses of noise at mean C-weighted peak sound pressure levels of 154 dB and 156 dB, respectively. No post-exposure audiometric threshold shift was observed in group I. Significant reductions of TEOAE levels were found both for the whole response (-2.2 dB SPL) and for 1/2 -octave band responses in the frequency range of 1000-4000 Hz (from -1.6 to -3.0 dB SPL). These changes were not correlated with C-weighted peak sound pressure levels or equivalent-continuous A-weighted sound pressure level. Significant correlation was found for peak sound pressure and maximum sound pressure levels in 1/3-octave bands in the frequency range corresponding with the main part of the acoustic energy of impulses (correlation coefficients r from -0.58 to -0.77, p < 0.05). In group II neither PTA nor TEOAE showed significant hearing impairment after shooting. The results show that even short-term exposure to impulse noise from small-calibre firearms might cause temporary hearing impairment measured by TEOAE. Therefore, the use of earmuffs is

  10. French military general practitioner: ultrasound practice.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Olga; De Regloix, S; Lefort, H; Delort, G; Domanski, L; Tourtier, J-P; Palmier, B

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound has been used in the field and in emergency departments for more than two decades. In a military setting, its use has grown rapidly as it has gained widespread acceptance among emergency physicians and as the range of diagnostic and triage applications has continued to expand. Technological changes have enabled ultrasound devices to become accessible to general practitioners (GP), and it could be of particular interest for military GPs in isolated environments. We have investigated both the training of French military GPs in the area of ultrasonography and the use of ultrasound devices, in daily practice and abroad, in isolated military settings. In 2011, a questionnaire was sent to all 147 in-the-field GPs of the French southeast regional military health service. The questionnaire evaluated the training of military GPs in ultrasonography, the use of ultrasound in France in daily practice, and during military operations in isolated environments abroad during 2010. The response rate was 52%. On the one hand, half the responding GPs had been specially trained in ultrasound, mainly (97%) in military institutes. On the other hand, only a quarter of doctors used ultrasound in daily practice. Among those GPs performing ultrasound examinations in France, 75% used it in 2010 during isolated operations abroad. Ultrasound examinations performed in such an austere environment were retrospectively declared useful to guide clinical reasoning (41% of examinations carried out), diagnosis (21%) and decision making as regards evacuation (11%). The challenge for the future is to make ultrasound courses mandatory for all military GPs going on overseas operations, to develop daily practice, and to investigate effective triage systems, combining both ultrasound imagery and physical examination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Passively Adaptive Inflatable Structure for the Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L..

    1998-01-01

    An inflatable structural system is described for the Shooting Star Experiment that is a technology demonstrator flight for solar thermal propulsion. The inflatable structure is a pressurized assembly used in orbit to support a fresnel lens for focusing sunlight into a thermal storage engine. When the engine temperature reaches a preset level, the propellant is injected into the storage engine, absorbs heat from a heat exchanger, and is expanded through the nozzle to produce thrust. The inflatable structure is an adaptive system in that a regulator and relief valve are utilized to maintain pressure within design limits during the full range of orbital conditions. Further, the polyimide film material used for construction of the inflatable is highly nonlinear, with modulus varying as a function of frequency, temperature, and level of excitation. A series of tests is described for characterizing the structure in response to various operating conditions.

  12. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants. PMID:25848889

  13. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants.

  14. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  15. Responses of the Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens (Wollaston) to pine shoot and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco

    2008-09-01

    The pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens has two dispersal phases per generation. In the first, mature adults move toward trunks of dying pines to lay eggs; in the second, callow adults move toward the shoots of healthy pines for maturation feeding. However, there is no information on the chemical stimuli that govern host selection by T. destruens adults. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the volatiles released by shoots and bark of stone pine that are behaviorally and electrophysiologically active on T. destruens; (2) to verify which blends and concentrations of such volatiles are differently active on males and females, as well as on callow and mature adults, during the two host search phases (breeding and feeding). A four-arm olfactometer was used to test the behavior of walking T. destruens adults toward various sources of volatiles including fresh shoots and bark, their collected volatiles, and two synthetic blends. For each odor, the behavior of both callow and mature males and females was recorded individually. Shoot and bark extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and tested by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) on T. destruens males and females. Two blends of two (alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene; blend A) and three (alpha-pinene, beta- myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene; blend B) synthetic compounds, chosen among those that induce EAD responses and known to be attractive for other bark beetle species, were tested in the olfactometer at five concentrations. Insect behavior was affected by the degree of sexual maturation but not by sex. Callow insects were attracted by shoots and their extracts, while mature individuals by bark and its extracts. Six extracted compounds were active on T. destruens antennae: limonene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene. alpha-Terpinolene, released only by bark, was active only on mature insects

  16. Immunization and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Benenson, A S

    1984-01-01

    This lecture, a memorial to Joseph E. Smadel, reviews the involvement of the military in the development and use of immunizing materials. Smallpox and smallpox immunization in the military and the development and present status of immunization against typhoid, cholera, yellow fever, typhus, tetanus, diphtheria, plague, influenza, adenovirus, meningitis, rubella, and malaria are reviewed. Dr. Smadel's personal contributions to the significant achievements of the military program to civilian practice are emphasized.

  17. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1996-09-01

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool Field of northeastern Oklahoma as part of a multidisciplinary reservoir characterization project. The acquisition goal was to generate data suitable for tomographic traveltime inversion. Acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were selected by conducting a parameter test at the site. Following the parameter test, the first survey resulted in high quality data showing clear first arrivals, low ambient noise, some reflection events, and strong source-generated tube waves. The second survey involved a different receiver well and encountered high ambient noise levels. The noise was strong enough to prohibit first-arrival picking for much of the data. On-site analysis of the second survey revealed tube waves emanating from a perforated interval in the receiver well. This well was shut in and was not flowing fluid or gas at the surface. They interpret the source of ambient tube waves as borehole-to-formation fluid flow (circulation) associated with the perforations. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was reshot (third survey) by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important factor in crosswell seismic acquisition. This experience influenced acquisition of a previously planned fourth survey so that the ambient noise problem would be avoided.

  18. Gunshot injuries due to celebratory gun shootings.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Mevci; Unlü, Ağahan

    2009-01-01

    Traditional shooting with guns often occurs and leads to unwanted gunshot injuries in areas where celebrations are held. Such injuries have been classified as celebratory gun shooting injury in the international disease classification system. An 8-year-old female patient presented with respiratory arrest. The heartbeats normalized upon cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On physical examination, the only pathological finding was a skin defect measuring 1 x 1 cm on the midline and located 2 cm in front of the coronal suture. Cranial CT revealed a bone defect of 0.5 cm in the area 2 cm in front of the coronal suture on the midline, tetraventricular and extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and parenchymal hematoma in the frontal area. It was initially thought to be a gunshot injury; however, on cranial CT, no bullet fragments or bullet exit hole was observed. A cervicothoracal direct graph was obtained and an image that might have been compatible with a bullet core was detected at Th 2-3 vertebra level. Although gunshot injuries are generally well- known, this may not be a very familiar topic for neurosurgeons. The primary aim of this report is to emphasize that a bullet round randomly fired into the air ascends in reverse direction to gravity and after reaching a zero point, it returns to the ground at a high velocity that facilitates its penetration into the skull according to a principal physics law.

  19. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius FM; Coen, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18165.001 PMID:27478985

  20. Reflections on military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1978-07-01

    The need for psychiatrists in the military was recognized for the first time during World War I, which involved millions of men in unusually protracted warfare. The policy of treating psychiatric casualties close to the from and returning soldiers to their military units as quickly as possible proved of great significance in the U.S. war effort. During World War II, the Korean conflict, and the war in Viet Nam, military psychiatry made great contributions and learned many lessions, both at home and abroad. The lessions learned by military psychiatry have important applications for the rest of medicine, especially in the fields of stress, crisis therapy, and community psychiatry.

  1. About Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 15K ...

  2. Promotion of sink activity of developing rose shoots by light.

    PubMed

    Mor, Y; Halevy, A H

    1980-11-01

    Holding young rose shoots (Rosa hybrida cv. Marimba) in darkness while the rest of the plant was in light reduced the amount of (14)C assimilates recovered from the darkened shoot by half. Relative specific activity of the shoot tip grown in light was 13.5 times greater than that of the darkened one. The flower bud at the shoot tip degenerated in darkness and died. Shoots 2 to 3 centimeters long, after flower initiation, were most sensitive to the dark treatment. The degeneration is a gradual and reversible process in the first 8 days of darkness, followed by irreversible damage and atrophy. Darkening enhanced the ability of the young leaves to compete for the available assimilates over that of the darkened shoot tip. The enhancement of the mobilizing ability of the shoot tip by light is independent of photosynthesis since spraying with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or holding shoots in a CO(2)-free atmosphere did not diminish the promoting effect of light on flower bud development or assimilate import. The possibility that light exerts its effect by photoproduction of ATP was also excluded inasmuch as no differences were found in ATP levels of shoot tips held in darkness and those held in light.

  3. The role of small RNAs in vegetative shoot development

    PubMed Central

    Fouracre, Jim P.; Poethig, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Shoot development consists of the production of lateral organs in predictable spatial and temporal patterns at the shoot apex. To properly integrate such programs of growth across different cell and tissue types, plants require highly complex and robust genetic networks. Over the last twenty years, the roles of small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in these networks have become increasingly apparent, not least in vegetative shoot growth. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the contribution of sRNAs to the regulation of vegetative shoot growth, and outline persisting experimental limitations in the field. PMID:26745378

  4. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    MILITARY RESEARCH, * NUTRITION , MILITARY PERSONNEL, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), METABOLISM, NUTRIENTS, HIGH ENERGY, MEDICAL RESEARCH, FOOD, DIET, MENTAL ABILITY, WORKSHOPS, BIOMEDICINE, CAFFEINE, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.

  5. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available.

  6. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  7. Guide to Military-Loan Film (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Over 1,400 16 millimeter films are listed which are available from United States military organizations. They are free of charge for public, non-profit exhibition and cover a widely diverse range of subjects including vocational education, military history, industrial safety, transportation, and public works. The guide lists these films in…

  8. Guide to Military-Loan Film (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Over 1,400 16 millimeter films are listed which are available from United States military organizations. They are free of charge for public, non-profit exhibition and cover a widely diverse range of subjects including vocational education, military history, industrial safety, transportation, and public works. The guide lists these films in…

  9. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  10. Military Perspectives on Cyberpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Zimet and Charles L. Barry Military cyberpower is the application of the domain of cyber- space to operational concepts to accomplish military objec...pable global backbone, unrestrained information sharing among com- mands, and truly interoperable networks wherein every authorized user can access...Special Operations Forces (SOF), and space forces performing missions around the world, and their supporting in- telligence networks. DOD divides

  11. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  12. Sustaining the Military Arts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    pidgin isn’t the antidote for strategic illiteracy. The military arts of strategy, operations, and tactics are merely the creative bridges that allow...Strategic pidgin isn’t the antidote for strategic illiteracy. about military arts and sciences is not merely a ’question of rhetorical clarity. Indeed

  13. Military Culture and Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    mines the success of transformation. The period between 1914 and 1945 shows the dynamic nature of military innova - tion and the difficulty military...maximized unity of effort. Leaders can foster a disciplined culture that encourages change and innova - tion by “creating a consistent system with clear

  14. Advising Transfer Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

  15. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  16. Trouble-shooting process operations, Second Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    This expanded edition of the bestselling Trouble-shooting Refinery Process, now includes chapters on fluidized catalytic cracking, natural gas production, and delayed coking. Contents include: Crude unit; Delayed coking cycles; Delayed coking process; Amine regeneration and scrubbing; Sulfur recovery; Alkylation; Fluidized catalyst cracking units; FCU product fractionation; Saving energy at reduced feed rates; Refrigeration systems; Centrifugal pumps; Distillation towers; Vacuum towers; Treating liquid hydrocarbons; Process heaters; Water coolers; Alarms and trips; Unstable gas plant operations; Fouled trays; Dehydrating light end towers; Vapor-liquid separation; Refining metallurgy for novices; Unusual noises and vibrations; Natural gas drying; Enhancing natural gas production; Suggestions for new operations engineers; Planning a performance test; Understanding control board instruments; How to make field measurements; The people problem; Calculating dew point, bubble point, and pressure drop; Index.

  17. Case report: Military subcultural competency.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric

    2013-07-01

    The military is comprised of numerous subcultures. These subcultures can dramatically impact perceptions of illness and care. Although efforts are currently underway to improve the military cultural competence of all health care providers, efforts to improve the subcultural competence of military providers require attention. Military providers, although part of the military culture, may not appreciate their patients' military subculture or be aware of the impact their own subculture plays on the encounter. To illustrate potential difficulties, a case is described where limited military subcultural competence disrupted care. As the military medical corps continues to integrate across service lines, this case underscores the importance of training military physicians to assess the influence of a service member's specific military subculture. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  19. Differentiating Arabidopsis Shoots from Leaves by Combined YABBY Activities[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sarojam, Rajani; Sappl, Pia G.; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Efroni, Idan; Floyd, Sandra K.; Eshed, Yuval; Bowman, John L.

    2010-01-01

    In seed plants, leaves are born on radial shoots, but unlike shoots, they are determinate dorsiventral organs made of flat lamina. YABBY genes are found only in seed plants and in all cases studied are expressed primarily in lateral organs and in a polar manner. Despite their simple expression, Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking all YABBY gene activities have a wide range of morphological defects in all lateral organs as well as the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Here, we show that leaves lacking all YABBY activities are initiated as dorsiventral appendages but fail to properly activate lamina programs. In particular, the activation of most CINCINNATA-class TCP genes does not commence, SAM-specific programs are reactivated, and a marginal leaf domain is not established. Altered distribution of auxin signaling and the auxin efflux carrier PIN1, highly reduced venation, initiation of multiple cotyledons, and gradual loss of the SAM accompany these defects. We suggest that YABBY functions were recruited to mold modified shoot systems into flat plant appendages by translating organ polarity into lamina-specific programs that include marginal auxin flow and activation of a maturation schedule directing determinate growth. PMID:20628155

  20. Influence of Shoot Structure on Light Interception and Photosynthesis in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gregory A.; Smith, William K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of shoot structure on net photosynthesis was evaluated under field conditions for the central Rocky Mountain (United States) conifers Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm.), Abies lasiocarpa ([Hook] Nutt.), and Pinus contorta (Engelm.). In all species, the greater number of needles per unit stem length on sun shoots correlated with a smaller silhouette leaf area to total leaf area ratio (STAR). Decreased STAR was due primarily to greater needle inclination toward the vertical, plus some needle mutual shading. However, photosynthesis expressed on a total leaf area basis did not decrease in sun shoots (lower STAR) but remained nearly constant at approximately 3 micromoles per square meter per second over a wide range of STAR (0.1 to 0.3). Relatively low light saturation levels of 200 to 1400 microeinsteins per square meter per second and diffuse light to 350 microeinsteins per meter per second maintained photosynthetic flux densities in inclined and/or shaded needles at levels comparable to those in unshaded needles oriented perpendicular to the solar beam. As a result, net CO2 uptake per unit stem length increased as much as 2-fold in sun shoots (low STAR) in direct proportion to increasing needle density. PMID:16664525

  1. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

    2011-10-01

    The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.

  2. Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2003-04-09

    In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were composed of more than 75 compounds, 65 of which were identified. The 10 major compounds were, by order of retention time, alpha-pinene (4.1-5.4%), camphene (6-7.1%), beta-pinene (9.3-14.5%), limonene (2-2.3%), 1,8-cineole (3.6-5.6%), (-)-thujone (13.2-16.1%), (+)-isothujone (6.6-7.4%), camphor (19.8-24%), alpha-humulene (5.1-6.8%), and manool (4.2-7.7%). Notwithstanding the eight different hormonal supplementations tested, the percentage composition of the shoot essential oils were kept in a narrow range of variation. However, the type and concentration of growth regulators apparently influenced the accumulation of essential oils. The highest accumulation of essential oils and the highest shoot biomass growth were obtained with 2.0 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  3. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  4. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  5. [Stability in shooting: the effect of expertise in the biathlon and in rifle shooting].

    PubMed

    Larue, J; Bard, C; Otis, L; Fleury, M

    1989-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the body-gun stability of biathletes and rifle shooters up to the firing of a shot, when shooting in standing position. Eight subjects are tested: two experts and two novices in rifle shooting, two experts and two novices in biathlon. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius and deltoid muscles, as well as rifle oscillation and centre-of-pressure displacements were recorded during a set of ten shots per subject. The results revealed that expert biathletes seem to use a different strategy than expert rifle shooters, each of them adapting to the characteristics of their respective discipline. No significant pattern emerged from tests with novice rifle shooters, as their scores correlated only weakly with the various parameters measured in this study.

  6. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components.

  7. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  8. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  9. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  10. Determination of Shooting Distance from Deformation of the Recovered Bullet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    shooting distance was over 100 yds (90 in). Personnel at the State Criminalistics Laboratory were aware of work done at the Wound Ballistics Laboratory of...ies 1.31. The query by the California Department of Justice Criminalistic Laboratory concerning the determination of shooting distance from a recovered

  11. Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.

    This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

  12. Planting Depth of Hybrid Poplar Cuttings Influences Number of Shoots

    Treesearch

    Edward Hansen; David Tolsted; Matthew Tower

    1991-01-01

    Reports that planting unrooted hybrid poplar cuttings flush with the soil surface resulted in significantly fewer multiple-stem shoots compared to letting the cutting protrude 2.5 or 5.0 cm above the soil surface. There were no significant effects on shoot height growth or cutting mortality.

  13. Shoot Morphogenesis Associated With Flowering in Populus deltoides (Salicaceae)

    Treesearch

    Cetin Yuceer; Samuel B. Land; Mark E. Kubiske; Richard L. Harkess

    2003-01-01

    Temporal and spatial formation and differentiation of axillary buds in developing shoots of mature eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) were investigated. Shoots sequentially initiate early vegetative, floral, and late vegetative buds. Associated with these buds is the formation of three distinct leaf types. In May of the first growing season, the...

  14. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  15. Gene Expression patterns in cryogenically stored Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genes expressed in response to cryostress in plant shoot tips are not known. In this project we compared the gene expression patterns in untreated, cryoprotectant-treated, and recovering shoot tips using differential display methods. This project identified two genes that appeared to be differ...

  16. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  17. The influence of muscle tremor on shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Lakie, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Shooting ability is compromised by involuntary movement. Some of this movement is physiological tremor. Tremor size has a demonstrable inverse correlation with shooting performance. Consequently, factors which affect tremor size should affect shooting ability. Adrenaline and local muscle warming markedly increase tremor size, whereas local muscle cooling reduces it. The physiological mechanisms behind these changes are not well understood, but they have the potential to affect shooting performance in subjects who exercise heavily and/or are exposed to extreme environments. The Olympic biathlon is an event in which vigorous physical exercise alternates with rifle shooting and it often takes place in a cold environment. The possible impact of exercise, temperature and other factors on the Olympic biathlete is considered here.

  18. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  19. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  20. Effects of shoot pruning on carbon partitioning in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Blake, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of removal of all but the largest shoot on shoot growth, gas exchange (P/sub N/) and /sup 14/C- partitioning were determined on trees previously decapitated. Pruned trees had higher shoot and leaf relative growth rates, a higher rate of P/sub N/ but a lower turnover of carbohydrates, particularly sucrose. They also exported less carbohydrates but translocation was basipetal to the roots. Unpruned multi-stemmed plants showed a higher rate of turnover of carbohydrates which accumulated acropetally. The downward movement and accumulation of newly fixed carbon was correlated with the release of apical dominance on the lower stem of pruned trees resulting in a high specific activity in the new sprouts compared with the low translocation of carbon to the smaller shoots of multi-shoot trees. These results will be discussed in terms of carbon partitioning and source-sink relationships.

  1. Influence of Military Training and Standardized Nutrition in Military Unit on Soldiers' Nutritional Status and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Andrzej; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Kłos, Anna; Kłos, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Tomczak, A, Bertrandt, J, Kłos, A, and Kłos, K. Influence of military training and standardized nutrition in military unit on soldiers' nutritional status and physical fitness. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2774-2780, 2016-Despite suspension of conscription in Polish Army, trainings of soldiers are still carried out. It is expected that they will be effective and will contribute to obtaining optimum level of psychophysical efficiency that enables fulfillment of military tasks. Total of 60 soldiers took part in the study. During the 9-month military service, soldiers had 200 hours of physical training and basic military training (shooting, drill, anti-chemical training, topography, general tactics, and military equipment operation). The training lasted 8 hours everyday. To assess fitness level, 4 trials were done: long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, and 1,000 m run. Evaluation of food was based on the analysis of full board menus using the "Tables of composition and nutritional value of food products." Energy value was assessed, and content of basic nutrients was calculated. Assessment of nutritional status was based on anthropometric measurements, such as body height, body mass, and thickness of 4 selected skinfolds. Body height and body mass were the basis for the body mass index calculation. Soldiers serving in the mechanized infantry unit, after completing the training, got better results only in 1,000 m run (from 250.3 to 233.61 seconds). During the research, an average energy value of a daily food ration planned for consumption was 4,504 kcal. This value consisted of 13.2% of energy from protein, 31.9% of energy from fat, and 54.9% from carbohydrates. In the course of military service, percentage of subjects indicating overweight increased from 10.2 to 25.4%.

  2. Homosexuality and the military.

    PubMed

    Jones, F D; Koshes, R J

    1995-01-01

    Homosexuality has remained a focus of military concern despite society's increasing acceptance of homosexual men and women and evidence that homosexuals have served and currently serve in the U.S. armed forces. President Clinton has stated a determination to end discrimination against homosexuals in the military and reverse the exclusionary policy on homosexuals serving in the armed forces. The authors review the history of the policy of the U.S. military to exclude homosexuals from serving in the armed forces. The data for this study were drawn from military archives and court cases that have shaped U.S. policy excluding homosexuals from serving in the armed forces. The three main arguments are addressed: 1) homosexuality is a mental disorder rendering a person unstable, 2) homosexual service members are a source of poor morale for military units, and 3) homosexual service members are poor security risks. Considerable evidence demonstrates that homosexuals in the military pose no documented threat to national security and show no evidence of poor work performance. Although issues of morale and fraternization in the military remain challenges, no evidence in this review supports the exclusion of homosexuals from service in the U.S. armed forces.

  3. Comparing step-and-shoot IMRT with dynamic helical tomotherapy IMRT plans for head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vulpen, Marco van . E-mail: M.vanVulpen@azu.nl; Field, Colin; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Parliament, Matthew B.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.; MacKenzie, Marc A.; Scrimger, Rufus; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Fallone, B. Gino

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: The goal of this planning study was to compare step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with helical dynamic IMRT plans for oropharynx patients on the basis of dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Five patients with oropharynx cancer had been previously treated by step-and-shoot IMRT at University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands, applying five fields and approximately 60-90 segments. Inverse planning was carried out using Plato, version 2.6.2. For each patient, an inverse IMRT plan was also made using Tomotherapy Hi-Art System, version 2.0, and using the same targets and optimization goals. Statistical analysis was performed by a paired t test. Results: All tomotherapy plans compared favorably with the step-and-shoot plans regarding sparing of the organs at risk and keeping an equivalent target dose homogeneity. Tomotherapy plans in particular realized sharper dose gradients compared with the step-and-shoot plans. The mean dose to all parotid glands (n = 10) decreased on average 6.5 Gy (range, -4 to 14; p = 0.002). The theoretical reduction in normal tissue complication probabilities in favor of the tomotherapy plans depended on the parotid normal tissue complication probability model used (range, -3% to 32%). Conclusion: Helical tomotherapy IMRT plans realized sharper dose gradients compared with the clinically applied step-and shoot plans. They are expected to be able to reduce the parotid normal tissue complication probability further, keeping a similar target dose homogeneity.

  4. The Impact of Hand Grip Strength Exercises on the Target Shooting Accuracy Score for Archers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezer, Süreyya Yonca

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of hand grip strength exercises on the target shooting accuracy score for male archers. Thirty male archers (n1 = 15, 19.85 ± 1.35, n2 = 15 19.71 ± 1.31) ranging 18-20 years old were included in our study from the archery team of the city of Elazig, department of youth sports. The…

  5. The use of unburned propellant powder for shooting-distance determination. Part II: Diphenylamine reaction.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Rolf; Wyss, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Shooting samples were produced on standard textile pats of six different ammunition types: four ammunitions with exclusively infrared luminescent propellant powder particles, one containing a mixture of luminescent and non-luminescent particles and one with only non-luminescent particles. Unburned propellant powder particles in the gunshot residue (GSR) on the textile of each sample were transferred onto TLC-plates with the aid of an organic solvent. The patterns of the partially and the all-luminescent propellant powder residue on the TLC-plates were visualized in the near infrared wavelength range by the aid of an IR-sensitive camera. The transfer TLC-plates of all six ammunition types were sprayed with a diphenylamine solution, which reacts with the nitrate groups of the nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine and produces deep blue dots thereof. A series of samples with different shooting distances produced with one of the ammunition types was used for the shooting distance determination study. Transfer on TLC-plates was performed and pictures of the plates were taken before and after the chemical reaction. An imaging software was used to measure the density of the particles on the transfer TLC-plate pictures within a defined area around the bullet hole. Curves were drawn with the particle density data vs. the shooting distance. It has been shown, that the transfer of the particles onto a TLC-plate and the chemical reaction eliminate the limitations of the IR-method presented in Part I. Therefore, this method allows shooting distance determination at any textile and for any ammunition type as soon as unburned propellant powder particles are left on the target tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uptake and accumulation of copper by roots and shoots of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, D H; Jiang, W S; Hou, W Q

    2001-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of copper sulfate on root and shoot growth of maize(Zea mays L.) and the uptake and accumulation of Cu2+ by its roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of copper sulfate (CuSO4 x 5H2O) used were in the range of 10(-5)-10(-3) mol/L. Root growth decreased progressively with increasing concentration of Cu2+ in solution. The seedlings exposed to 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ exhibited substantial growth reduction, yielding only 68% of the root length of the control. The shoot growth of the seedlings grown at 10(-5)-10(-4) mol/L Cu2+ were more or less the same as the control seedlings. The leaves treated with 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ were obviously inhibited in shoot growth. The fresh and dry weights both in roots and shots decreased progressively with increasing Cu2+ concentration. This fits well with the above mentioned effects of copper sulfate on root growth. Zea mays has considerable ability to remove Cu from solutions and accumulate it. The Cu content in roots of Z. mays increased with increasing solution concentration of Cu2+. The amount of Cu in roots of plants treated with 10(-3), 10(-4) and 10(-5) mol/L Cu2+ were 10, 8 and 1.5 fold, respectively, greater than that of roots of control plant. However, the plants transported and concentrated only a small amount of Cu in their shoots.

  7. Effects of Military Load Carriage on Susceptibility to Enemy Fire During Tactical Combat Movements.

    PubMed

    Billing, Daniel C; Silk, Aaron J; Tofari, Paul J; Hunt, Andrew P

    2015-11-01

    Current military operations require soldiers to carry heavy external loads that are widely acknowledged to impair the ability to move tactically on the battlefield. However, to date, the effect of load on susceptibility to enemy fire (the probability of being hit) has not been examined. Nineteen soldiers completed a break contact simulation (five 30-m sprints commencing every 44 seconds) and a fire and movement simulation (sixteen 6-m bounds commencing every 20 seconds) in each of the 5 load conditions (ranging from 9.8 to 30.1 kg). For each simulation, the impact of load on exposure time and peak movement velocity was examined. In addition, the 6 fastest and 6 slowest soldiers (determined by exposure time in the heaviest condition) were parsed into subgroups to examine interindividual differences in response to load. Susceptibility for the 2 subgroups was modeled using exposure time for the 2 simulations and the assumed reaction time, shooting cadence, and shooting accuracy of the enemy. Susceptibility increased as a function of load for both the break contact and fire and movement simulations and became more pronounced when the participant population was parsed into fast and slow groups. When the impact of personal protection systems was isolated and analyzed, it was found that not only were the slower participants more vulnerable (as a result of not wearing the personal protection system) but also more susceptible than the faster participants who carried 11.2 kg more load. Large interindividual differences in response to external load have meaningful consequences for battlefield susceptibility, and it is therefore critical that personnel are afforded tailored training such that they maximize their proficiency in the execution of tactical combat movements.

  8. Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

  9. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  10. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  11. Optoelectronic measures in the analysis of running target shooting.

    PubMed

    Mononen, K; Viitasalo, J T; Era, P; Konttinen, N

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we examined the construct validity and practical significance of an optoelectronic shooting training system (Noptel ST 2000 Sport) for the technical analysis of running target shooting. A total of 37 male shooters of three different skill levels participated in the study. Principal component analysis revealed four common factors of 16 variables describing the aiming trajectory of the rifle barrel: (i) Holding area, (ii) Accuracy of aiming, (iii) Cleanness of triggering and (iv) Time on target. These factors were suggested to describe the essential components of running target shooting. According to the discriminant analysis, the shooters of various skill levels seemed to discriminate successfully into three groups when the aiming trajectory data were analysed. Finally, the aiming trajectory variables represented a 43% of the total variance in the shooting score. In summary, the present data indicated that the optoelectronic shooting training system had practical significance and supported the technical analysis of rifle barrel movement in running target shooting. A sub-set of variables, which reflect the essential information of running target shooting performance, were outlined for training and coaching purposes.

  12. Factors Discriminating High From Low Score Performance in Biathlon Shooting.

    PubMed

    Sattlecker, Gerold; Buchecker, Michael; Gressenbauer, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan J

    2017-03-01

    To identify biomechanical predictors that distinguish between high- and low-score athletes in biathlon shooting and to determine the relationships among these variables in field testing. Twenty-two biathletes (8 female, 14 male) from the World Cup, the European Cup, and a federal youth squad each fired 3 clips of 5 shots in prone and standing shooting positions without physical load, followed by 2 respective series in both disciplines during a simulated 12.5-km pursuit race on roller skis. Biomechanical variables describing triggering, rifle force in the back shoulder, and body and rifle sway were calculated over the last 0.5 second before firing. For computed linear discriminant analyses, subjects were divided into high- and low-level performers based on mean scores for each condition separately. In addition, correlations among all biomechanical factors were calculated. Regarding prone shooting, shoulder force in the rest condition and vertical rifle sway in the race simulation were shown to be main discriminators. Several body- and rifle-sway variables were found to be predictors in standing rest shooting. Body sway across the shooting line discriminated the groups in the standing race situation tendentially. Thus, the main performance predictors changed due to fatigue. Correlations between triggering and rifle sway, shoulder force and rifle sway, and body sway and rifle sway were discovered. Referring to the current results, athletes are recommended to focus on vertical rifle sway in prone position and on body sway across the shooting line during standing shooting when fatigued.

  13. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  14. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  15. Plant shoots exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions.

    PubMed

    Ciszak, Marzena; Masi, Elisa; Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In animals, the ability to move has evolved as an important means of protection from predators and for enhancing nutrient uptake. In the animal kingdom, an individual's movements may become coordinated with those of other individuals that belong to the same group, which leads, for example, to the beautiful collective patterns that are observed in flocks of birds and schools of fish or in animal migration. Land plants, however, are fixed to the ground, which limits their movement and, apparently, their interactions and collective behaviors. We show that emergent maize plants grown in a group exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions that may be in-phase or anti-phase. These oscillations occur in short bursts and appear when the leaves rupture from the coleoptile tip. The appearance of these oscillations indicates an abrupt increase in the plant growth rate, which may be associated with a sudden change in the energy uptake for photosynthesis. Our results suggest that plant shoots behave as a complex network of biological oscillators, interacting through biophysical links, e.g. chemical substances or electric signals.

  16. Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem

    PubMed Central

    Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression and patterned growth. In this context, auxin transporters of the PIN and AUX families, creating auxin maxima and minima, are crucial regulators. However, auxin transport is not the only factor involved. Auxin biosynthesis genes also show specific, patterned activities, and local auxin synthesis appears to be essential for meristem function as well. In addition, auxin perception and signal transduction defining the competence of cells to react to auxin, add further complexity to the issue. To unravel this intricate signaling network at the SAM, systems biology approaches, involving not only molecular genetics but also live imaging and computational modeling, have become increasingly important. PMID:20452945

  17. Shooting through clothing in firearm suicides.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr; Safr, Miroslav

    2010-05-01

    There is a longstanding empirical rule that people who commit suicide rarely shoot through their clothing, but rather put it aside to expose the nude skin. Signs of shots through clothing have always been considered suspicious, raising presumptions of the presence of an abettor. Our report, based on a retrospective study of fatal suicidal firearm injuries from the years 1980 to 2007, points out that suicide victims only rarely remove clothing from the site of the future entry wound. The report covered 43 cases with fatal gunshot wounds in the area of the thorax, with only four persons (9%) removing the clothing present in the area of the subsequent self-inflicted wound. Defects present on the clothing of a victim cannot, therefore, be understood as an absolute criterion for disproving the possibility of suicide, and nor do they necessarily indicate an unfortunate accident or homicide. If, however, the suicide victim removes the clothing from the area of the future wound, then this is almost always an indication of suicide.

  18. Plant shoots exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions

    PubMed Central

    Ciszak, Marzena; Masi, Elisa; Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In animals, the ability to move has evolved as an important means of protection from predators and for enhancing nutrient uptake. In the animal kingdom, an individual's movements may become coordinated with those of other individuals that belong to the same group, which leads, for example, to the beautiful collective patterns that are observed in flocks of birds and schools of fish or in animal migration. Land plants, however, are fixed to the ground, which limits their movement and, apparently, their interactions and collective behaviors. We show that emergent maize plants grown in a group exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions that may be in-phase or anti-phase. These oscillations occur in short bursts and appear when the leaves rupture from the coleoptile tip. The appearance of these oscillations indicates an abrupt increase in the plant growth rate, which may be associated with a sudden change in the energy uptake for photosynthesis. Our results suggest that plant shoots behave as a complex network of biological oscillators, interacting through biophysical links, e.g. chemical substances or electric signals. PMID:27829981

  19. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  20. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  1. Music in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

  2. Music in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Following a very brief history of military bands, the author describes the musical performance opportunities currently available in the United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard, for young musicians who may wish to enlist. (SJL)

  3. Military usage of connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schade, R.

    1972-01-01

    Military specifications with general purpose parameters and termination data covering flat connectors and flat cables are proposed. The material, design, coating, and insulation are discussed, and drafts of specifications for flat cables including quality assurance provisions, and inspection are presented.

  4. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    PubMed

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin.

  5. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  6. Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

    1987-04-01

    A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

  7. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  8. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil.

    PubMed

    Prasad, T K; Sack, F D; Cline, M G

    1988-11-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  9. The Best of Both Worlds: Psychiatry Training at Combined Civilian-Military Programs.

    PubMed

    Welton, Randon S; Hamaoka, Derrick A; Broderick, Pamela J; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-08-01

    Air Force psychiatry faces the task of training competent military psychiatrists in an era of continuing reductions. Beginning in the 1980s, the Air Force started collaborating with University partners to create hybrid training programs, civilian-military psychiatry residencies. These mergers provide stability for Air Force psychiatry training in the face of increased operational missions and uncertain military recruiting. As a result of these combined programs, Air Force psychiatry residents gain access to a broader range of civilian clinical experience and expertise while maintaining a focus on distinctive military requirements. The combining of programs opens up options for academic activities which may not have otherwise existed. Both military and civilian residents benefit from the occupational psychiatry experiences available within military clinical sites. These programs give civilian residents a chance to assist active duty members and their families and provide insight into the military "lifecycle." These collaborations benefit the universities by providing access to a larger pool of residents and faculty. The synthesis of the military and civilian programs raises some ongoing obstacles such as civilian residents' ability to gain access to military resources. The programs must also accommodate separate mechanisms for selecting residents (the National Residency Matching Program versus the Joint Selection Board for Graduate Medical Education). Military residents must also comply with military standards and requirements while maintaining the universities' standards of conduct and professionalism. Merging military training programs into university programs creates a vibrant opportunity to create exceptional military and civilian psychiatrists.

  10. Change in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A survey was made of much of the current literature on the behavioral aspects of organizational change and how it pertains to the military. The survey is broad in nature and extends to processes for affecting change presently in use in the armed services. The study further describes some of the various opinions expressed in current articles on the affect of societal changes on the military.

  11. USSR Report, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-04

    area. Convinced of its tec ity, the USA still hopesXto achieve the unachievable—to gain ty over the Soviet Union and to militarize outer space... militarism was a victory for progress over reaction. It demonstrated the invincible strength of the socialist system and its great advantages over...The scientific-technical progress in military affairs, progress that has been stimulated by the military-industrial complex, a union of militarism and

  12. Evaluating Military Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    has also compared the out-of-pocket health costs of families who use its preferred-provider organization ( PPO ) or fee-for-service options with those...comparison controlled for demographic differ- ences between military and civilian families. EVALUATING MILITARY COMPENSATION 17using PPO plans. In 2005...governments would have to absorb the difference. A PP E N D IX A Total Compensation for the Median Enlisted MemberUsing a different approach from

  13. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    o Suicide Bereavement in Military and their Families, Dr. Julie Cerel, University of Kentucky, (Appendix 4) o Window to Hope: Evaluating a...Managing Suicide Risk in Primary Care . Presented at Community Based Outpatient Clinic, Appleton, WI, October 11, 2011. Gutierrez, P. M., Suicide...Appendix Pages: 32-34 A4. Suicide Bereavement in Military and their Families, Dr. Julie Cerel, University of Kentucky Appendix Pages: 35

  14. Military Energy Alternatives Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Power Generation and Alternative Energy Branch US Army RDECOM CERDEC CP&ID Power Division Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...RDER-CCA-PG PG A E - C R – 1 2– 0 1 M ili ta ry E ne rg y A lte rn at iv es C on fe re nc e Military Energy ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Energy Alternatives Conference 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan

  15. Resilience among military youth.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Much research on children in military families has taken a deficit approach--that is, it has portrayed these children as a population susceptible to psychological damage from the hardships of military life, such as frequent moves and separation from their parents during deployment. But M. Ann Easterbrooks, Kenneth Ginsburg, and Richard M. Lerner observe that most military children turn out just fine. They argue that, to better serve military children, we must understand the sources of strength that help them cope with adversity and thrive. In other words, we must understand their resilience. The authors stress that resilience is not a personal trait but a product of the relationships between children and the people and resources around them. In this sense, military life, along with its hardships, offers many sources for resilience--for example, a strong sense of belonging to a supportive community with a shared mission and values. Similarly, children whose parents are deployed may build their self-confidence by taking on new responsibilities in the family, and moving offers opportunities for adventure and personal growth. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan drew more and more service members into combat, the military and civilian groups alike rolled out dozens of programs aimed at boosting military children's resilience. Although the authors applaud this effort, they also note that few of these programs have been based on scientific evidence of what works, and few have been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. They call for a program of sustained research to boost our understanding of military children's resilience.

  16. Movies and the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    motion picture history- movies (with two exceptions discussed below) were not made about the war. Anti-war films , and films with...of this aberration. Motion pictures are made to make money, and producers of films about the military make movies which reflect the anti-military...screen. Much of our culture is defined and transmitted by movies .2 The images implanted in the mind by motion pictures are vivid and lasting.

  17. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  18. Military Production Urgencies System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-08-17

    echelons. I4. To guide preparation of specific urgency lists for the time -phased demands of supporting industrial resources. 5. To indicate the...AD-A270 736 ELECTE aeprlnt Incorporating Transmittal 61-2 Au-uast 17, 1955 Department of Defense Directive SUBJECT Military Production Urgencies ...Departaent of Defense Military Production Urgencies System which will provide authoritative information for guidance as to the relative urgency of desired

  19. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Reduction in self- esteem may impact this relationship such that if self-esteem is not reduced as a result of bullying , psychological distress and sui...resources of the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family, and commanders. There is significant...practice that will have a direct impact on suicide-related and other mental health outcomes for military personnel. 3. Disseminate Consortium

  20. Military Personnel Law Deskbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    February 2006). B. Purpose of the Physical Disability Evaluation System (PDES). 1. Personnel Management. a. Effective and Fit Military b. Quality ...discipline, or morale of troops on the base under his command.”). 3. Limitations. There must be some nexus between the authority sought and the effect on...preparing group for and steeling it to violent action). A-7 (2) Military Standard: Speech which undermines the effectiveness of response to command

  1. EHF military communication satellite alternatives study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    This Draft Final Report for the EHF Military Communication Satellite Alternatives Study documents the engineering designs developed by the team of Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). These designs address the complete spacecraft, ground terminal, and command and control system for two MILSTAR-related missions. These are a Polar Coverage Mission, and a Multi-Subscriber Equipment (MSE) Range Extension Mission. The purpose was to develop system designs for two spacecraft-based military communications systems that would address communications needs beyond those which the MILSTAR system will encompass.

  2. Radiometry in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof

    2001-08-01

    Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation in Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Choi, Sung-Keun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Pigmentation of ascospore-derived isolates from seven different natural specimens of Cordyceps militaris EFCC C-5888, EFCC C-7159, EFCC C-7833, EFCC C-7991, EFCC C-8021, EFCC C-8023 and EFCC C-8179 was observed on the plates of Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract at 25℃ under continuous illumination (500 lux). Pigmentation of the wild-type isolates of C. militaris was diverse ranging from yellowish white to orange, while white color was believed as a mutant. Inheritance of pigmentation was found to be controlled by both parental isolates when F1 progeny were analyzed. Pigmentation and mating type were shown to be either independent or distantly linked each other due to the high percentage of non-parental phenotypes among F1 progeny. Crosses between white mutant isolates of C. militaris yielded progeny with wild type pigmentations, indicating that the albino mutations in the parents were unlinked to each other. PMID:24049487

  4. The application of CRM to military operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  5. Genetic stability assessment of wWasabi plants regenerated from long-term cryopreserved shoot tips using morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshikazu; Akihiro, Takashi; Maki, Shinya; Mochida, Kouhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Niino, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effect of cryopreserved storage duration of wasabi shoot tips, which derived from the same in vitro mother-plant. We compared the survival of shoot tips and the genetic stability of regenerated plants originating from four experimental groups: shoot tips stored in a -150°C deep-freezer for 10 years; shoot tips stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 h; shoot tips treated with PVS2 vitrification solution; and untreated controls. No significant difference in survival was observed between the four experimental groups. Survival ranged between 93 and 100%. Genetic stability of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips was assessed over a period of 24 months using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers. While glucose, fructose and glutamic acid concentrations differed slightly between experimental groups after 16 months, these differences disappeared after 24 months. No significant differences were noted for the morphological markers studied (petiole length, shoot number and leaf index). No differences were observed in RAPD profiles obtained with the six primers tested.

  6. School shooting as a culturally enforced way of expressing suicidal hostile intentions.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Suicide with hostile intent encompasses a wide range of behaviors, from self-killing by methods that can harm others, to the suicide that generally follows a spree-killing raid. Reports on school shooting, a highly dangerous and lethal behavior that is spreading from North America to European countries, are analyzed within the paradigm of suicide with hostile intent, with the purpose of discovering some elements that might prevent and limit the dissemination of this behavior by imitation. In school shooting, the perpetrators often register a message before their killing raid, as in an ancient form of suicidal assault, the devotio, that was widespread across ancient Mediterranean Roman, Greek, and Hebrew cultures. The development of a code of rules to report on these episodes, likely to attract the interest of the population for their bloody implications, could prevent the dissemination of cultural norms that encourage this behavior.

  7. A case of collective responsibility: who else was to blame for the Columbine high school shootings?

    PubMed

    Lickel, Brian; Schmader, Toni; Hamilton, David L

    2003-02-01

    Two studies examined perceptions of collective responsibility for the April 20, 1999, shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. Collective responsibility refers to the perception that others, besides the wrongdoers themselves, are responsible for the event. In Study 1, the authors assessed perceptions of the shooters' parents and their peer group (the Trenchcoat Mafia), whereas Study 2 tested perceptions of collective responsibility across a range of groups. In both studies, perceptions of a target group's entitativity predicted judgments of collective responsibility. This relationship was mediated by two situational construals that justify applying collective responsibility: responsibility by commission (encouraging or facilitating the event) and responsibility by omission (failing to prevent the event). Study 2 also determined that perceptions of authority predicted judgments of collective responsibility for the Columbine shootings and was mediated by inferences of omission. Future directions in collective responsibility research are discussed. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of the new vacuum infiltration vitrification (viv) cryopreservation technique for native Australian plant shoot tips.

    PubMed

    Funnekotter, Bryn; Whiteley, Susan E; Turner, Shane R; Bunn, Eric; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2015-01-01

    The application of a vacuum during the incubation in cryoprotective agents such as PVS2 allows for increased penetration, reducing total incubation times required before vitrification and post-cryopreservation regeneration is achieved. This study compared a conventional droplet-vitrification protocol to the new vacuum infiltration vitrification protocol in four Australian plant species. The new vacuum infiltration vitrification applied an 80 kPa vacuum during incubations in loading solution and PVS2. Infiltration of the cryoprotective agents into shoot tips was determined by differential scanning calorimetry measuring ice formation in the thermographs comparing a range of loading solution and PVS2 incubation times. The application of the vacuum infiltration vitrification technique resulted in a significantly reduced PVS2 incubation time for cryogenic survival and regeneration for all four species, reducing the time needed to adequately protect shoot tips by half to a quarter when compared to a conventional droplet-vitrification technique.

  9. Ray-tube integration in shooting and bouncing ray method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Ling, H.; Chou, R.

    1988-01-01

    Based on three formulations of the Huygen's principle, explicit expressions is given for the far field contribution from a small ray tube. This expression is useful in shooting and bouncing rays for solving complex scattering problems.

  10. Application of Monte Carlo simulations to improve basketball shooting strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-10-01

    The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by using numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to the small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court position and height. The phase-space volume Ω that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations is then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but also human, factors.

  11. Unusual attempted suicide by shooting through heart.

    PubMed

    Kadis, P; Pogorevc, L; Sipek, M; Vidovic, D

    2005-01-17

    Gunshot wounds in the heart are frequent suicidal injuries, especially in men. Most of them are lethal, but some cases of survival due to immediate and proper surgical treatment are reported. However, survival without specific treatment is extremely rare. In our case, a 44-year man attempted suicide by home-made shooting device. A special 12 cm long and 2.5 mm wide needle-like missile entered his body at the left anterior part of his chest, passed through the heart and lower lobe of right lung and exited at the right side of his back. The patient was able to move normally and he also looked for medical help immediately after attempting suicide. We found large atypical-shaped entrance wound on the anterior part of the chest, which was surgically treated, and tiny pointed exit wound under the right scapula. The patient was stable from cardio-circulatory and respiratory aspects from the time of admission to discharge from the hospital. We found only minimal pericardial bleeding (up to 10 mm thick) and there was no need for surgical intervention. In the next 2 weeks the haematoma absorbed spontaneously. The gunshot injury healed without any complication. Paranoid psychosis was diagnosed by psychiatrist and this probably had been the cause of attempting suicide. We think that the favorable outcome of the proved heart gunshot injury in our patient was due to the needle-shaped low-energy missile, which caused only tiny gunshot (stab) hole in the heart. Such a heart injury caused only minimal bleeding into the pericardial sac without heart tamponade.

  12. School Shootings: Law Enforcement and School District Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    exists because of social and psychological issues with the aggressors as well as the “copycat effect .”2 Notable school shootings that have been studied...Loren Coleman, “The Copycat Effect : School Shootings and Recommendations.” In Confronting Violence in Our Schools: Planning, Response, and Recovery...community violence; however, the challenge is fully implementing these programs through practice and effective communication.18 Putting plans into 18

  13. Cryotherapy of shoot tips: novel pathogen eradication method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-03-01

    Cryotherapy is a novel application of plant cryopreservation techniques that allows pathogen eradication at a high frequency. It eliminates plant pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasmas and bacteria by briefly treating shoot tips in liquid nitrogen using cryopreservation protocols. Healthy plants are regenerated from the surviving pathogen-free meristematic tissue. The method facilitates treatment of large numbers of samples and is independent of shoot tip size. It has the potential to replace more traditional methods like meristem culture.

  14. FarAway: shoot video through haze, mist, and smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmi, Amos

    2005-05-01

    Anybody can mount a zooming lens on his camera and observe distant objects. FarAway penetrates the blanket of haze that obscures such objects, regardless of the origin - mist, smoke, dust, rain, aerosols, etc. The system works with live Video, 25 frames/second, performing the restoration in real time on a PC hardware. No pre-knowledge about the obscurants, targets or distances is required. The novelty lies in performance; the system does not use image-processing tricks or contrast-stretching, but rather restores the original true image with its true colors. The current version is capable of relative-contrast enhancement of up to 90 times in color and up to 130 in B/W or NIR, the limit dictated by electrical noise. Facing the sun, this means a three-fold and more increase in detection and recognition ranges. Both color and NIR systems were extensively and successfully tested under rain, mists, haze and dust storms at ranges from 0.2 to 65 km. Turbulence effects are treated crudely, reducing apparent turbulence dance and smear by a factor of 2 to 4. Tests have proved its superiority over existing top-rank military systems. A related technology is Very Far Away. While Far Away uses commercial as-is cameras, the Very Far Away uses a specially designed color camera. The special camera allows extension of the visibility range by a further 70%.

  15. [Otoacoustic emission examinations in soldiers before and after shooting].

    PubMed

    Konopka, W; Pietkiewicz, P; Zalewski, P

    2000-01-01

    Firearms are a common source of impulse noise that may potentially damage hearing organ. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the click evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) before and after shooting and comparison with conventional pure tone audiometry. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, TEOAE and DPOAE were made before and 10-15 minutes after shooting. Ten male soldiers (20 ears) were exposed to impulse noise from automatic gunfire (15 single rounds of live ammunition). They did not use any earplugs. The reduction amplitude of the TEOAE after shooting was found especially for the frequency 3,4 kHz for the right ear and 1 and 2 kHz for the left ear. The DPOAE greatest reduction concerned frequency 2,5 and 4 kHz for the left ear. All our shooters were right-handed and probably the asymmetrical effect resulted from the shooting posture. Any differences existing between the audiometric threshold before and after shooting were not noticed. Clinical experience with OAE indicates that it may play a role as a screening method for the soldiers exposed to noise and as a tool for monitoring early changes in cochlea. Emissions seem to be more sensitive for monitoring early cochlear changes after shooting than pure tone audiometry.

  16. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    PubMed

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  17. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, Andrew R. G.; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Langdale, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants), the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives) represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26594222

  18. Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takema; Suzaki, Takuya; Soyano, Takashi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-09-19

    Legumes establish symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules to obtain nitrogen. Legumes control nodule number through long-distance communication between roots and shoots, maintaining the proper symbiotic balance. Rhizobial infection triggers the production of mobile CLE-RS1/2 peptides in Lotus japonicus roots; the perception of the signal by receptor kinase HAR1 in shoots presumably induces the production of an unidentified shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI) that translocates to roots and blocks further nodule development. Here we show that, CLE-RS1/2-HAR1 signalling activates the production of shoot-derived cytokinins, which have an SDI-like capacity to systemically suppress nodulation. In addition, we show that LjIPT3 is involved in nodulation-related cytokinin production in shoots. The expression of LjIPT3 is activated in an HAR1-dependent manner. We further demonstrate shoot-to-root long-distance transport of cytokinin in L. japonicus seedlings. These findings add essential components to our understanding of how legumes control nodulation to balance nutritional requirements and energy status.

  19. Cardiac glycosides from shoot cultures of Cryptostegia grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides in shoot cultures of Cryptostegia grandiflora were identified when grown in modified MS medium. The change in shoot segments and cardiac glycosides content was followed between day zero and day 12 at 2-day intervals. The content of cardiac glycosides in leaves and shoot cultures of Cryptostegia grandiflora was monitored by HPLC. Two major compounds were detected and isolated from shoot cultures extract, named oleandrigenin 3-O-β – glucopyranosyl-(1→4) – β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxopyranoside (cryptostigmin I) and oleandrigenin 3-O-β – glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-rhamnopyranoside (cryptostigmin II). The structures of the isolated compounds were verified by means of MS and NMR spectral analysis, as well as by comparison with authentic samples. The leaves and shoot cultures were analyzed for their cardiac glycosides content. The shoot cultures inoculated into MS-based culture media supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 BA, 30 g L-1 sucrose, 0.1 g L-1 myo-inositol and 0.1 g L-1 ascorbic acid were found to contain a quantity of cardiac glycosides that was about four fold the cardiac glycosides content of leaves extract. PMID:21808532

  20. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  1. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, U.

    1986-04-01

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear.

  2. Current US military operations and implications for military surgical training.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Joshua A; Clive, Kevin S; White, Christopher E; Beekley, Alec C; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2010-11-01

    Since 2001, US military surgeons have deployed frequently, with many surgeons deploying within 1 year of graduating residency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate readiness of recent graduates to manage combat-related injuries and to make recommendations for improvements in training military surgeons. We reviewed casualties treated at the 31st Combat Support Hospital in Baghdad from December 2003 to November 2004. We identified 3,426 wounded patients; of these, 2,648 (77.3%) required an operative procedure. There were 2,788 patients (81.4%) who sustained penetrating injuries. The most common procedures performed were debridement of wounds (39%), skeletal fixation (14.7%), and exploratory laparotomy (11.4%). Common procedures were compared with 15 case logs from the ACGME database for our institution from 2005 to 2009. Graduating residents averaged 973 cases during residency (range 867 to 1,293, median 921). This included experience with most procedures encountered except nephrectomy (1.5 procedures per resident [PPR]), craniotomy (1.1 PPRs), inferior vena cava injury (1.1 PPRs), bladder repair (0.87 PPR), and duodenal injury (0.6 PPR). Residents had minimal experience with skeletal fixation and external genital trauma. Recent surgical residency graduates are prepared for deployment in support of US military operations for the majority of injuries encountered. However, familiarization with procedures that fall outside the traditional general surgical curriculum would improve their ability to treat these injuries. To enhance experience with rare injuries, cadaver studies and animal models may serve as training tools before deployment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    PubMed

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  4. Military Gay Ban Revisited: Is our Military Ready for Change?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Military gay ban revisited: Is our military ready for change? Captain LS...2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military gay ban revisited: Is our military ready for change? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender ] (LGBT) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as

  5. A review of military research into alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verrall, N G

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is a part of military history. The impacts in terms of both short-term and long-term consequences require modern militaries to develop and instigate a duty of care for its personnel, which informs the military's 'cradle to the grave' approach in addressing alcohol consumption and other risky health behaviours (e.g. smoking, driving, sex, drugs, obesity, etc.). Thus, in recent years there have been numerous studies that have either focused on, or included, measures of alcohol consumption among various military populations. Therefore, a synthesis of this research is warranted in order to provide a contemporary understanding of this topic. This review addresses the military research regarding alcohol consumption. It reviews the methodological issues associated with the breadth of research, as well as commenting on a range of factors that need to be considered when interpreting and comparing the different research studies; for example, (1) when comparing findings across military to civilian and pan-military populations, (2) deployment-related research, (3) military groups at risk, and (4) the impact on readiness, operational effectiveness and force sustainability.

  6. Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis were achieved from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’. Shoot tips (1.5-2 mm) were excised from adventitious shoots that were regenerated from basal leaf segments. Precultured shoot tips were then treated with MS containing 0.4 M sucro...

  7. Military display market segment: helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  8. Evidence of improved shooting precision in biathlon after 10 weeks of combined relaxation and specific shooting training.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Ainegren, Mats; Lisspers, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined relaxation (applied tension release, ATR) and specific shooting training regimen may enhance shooting ability of biathlon athletes. Seven biathletes of high national level were randomized into an experimental group (age 20 ± 5 years; Vo2max 60 ± 8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) and were asked to add this special training intervention to their regular training for 10 weeks, while five other biathletes served as controls (age 19 ± 2 years; Vo2max 57 ± 10 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The shooting ability of the subjects was assessed before and after the intervention at rest and after roller skiing on a treadmill in a laboratory-based competition simulating assessment. After the intervention period, the experimental group demonstrated a significantly enhanced shooting performance compared to the control group. No changes in Vo2max or in heart rate and Vo2 responses were observed before and after the intervention in either group and there were no differences between the groups in these parameters. Thus, the preliminary conclusion is that a combination of ATR and specific shooting training seems to be instrumental in enhancing the shooting performance in biathlon.

  9. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  10. LOYALTY AND THE MILITARY PROFESSION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    service member possesses, the author asserts that loyalty is the cornerstone for successful service. Military loyalty extends beyond commitment and...analysis of the common trends displays the role military loyalty plays in the profession of arms as key to successful military operations in peace...not be successful . The oath of office inspires or demands service members’ loyalty while the military leaders must ensure it is given. Therefore, a

  11. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  12. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  13. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework.

  14. Cryopreservation of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid using the PVS3 method supported with preliminary histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mubbarakh, Safiah Ahmad; Rahmah, Safrina; Rahman, Zuraida Abdul; Sah, Nazrin Nadirah Mohd; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation is an alternative, safe, and cost-effective method for long-term plant genetic resource conservation. This study was conducted to optimize the conditions for cryopreserving the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid with the PVS3 vitrification method. Five parameters were assessed in this study: PLB size, sucrose concentration, preculture duration, PVS3 duration, and unloading duration. The viability of the cryopreserved PLBs was determined using the triphenytetrazolium chloride assay and growth recovery assessments. The optimum condition for the cryopreservation of the PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid is based on the size range between 3 and 4 mm precultured with half-strength semi-solid MS media supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose for 24 h, followed by treatment with loading solution mixture of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose supplemented with half-strength liquid MS media at 25 °C for 20 min. The PLBs were then dehydrated with PVS3 at 0 °C for 20 min prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen; finally, the PLBs were immersed with half-strength liquid MS media supplemented with 1.2 M sucrose for 30 min. Histological analyses displayed denser cytoplasm and voluminous nucleus in the cryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid.

  15. Technical Education in the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charles O.

    1974-01-01

    Cooperation between military and civilian technical training institutions has included evaluation and accreditation of five military training schools by a civilian evaluation team, which was impressed by the level, completeness and quality of the instruction. Additional cooperation and improved communications between military and civilian training…

  16. Academic and Military Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.

    This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and…

  17. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9478 TITLE: COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION ...COVERED (From - To) 01 Jun 99 – 31 Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the

  18. Measuring Underemployment Among Military Spouses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    widespread underemployment among military wives, this underemployment does not necessarily translate into dissatisfaction with the military...households (DMDC, 2004). Thus, a per- sistent lack of employment opportunity affects a spouse’s quality of life, and perennial dissatisfaction with...its own right, since wives’ dissatisfaction may translate into higher service member attrition from military service. The primary outcome of interest

  19. Military Psychology: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Department of Leadership and Law, provide academic and personal counseling to midshipmen, and conduct research. An example of psychological research...AD-Ai40 866 MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY : AN OYERYIEM(U) NAVY PERSONNEL i/i RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CR C NEMETH ET AL. MAY 84 UNCLASSIFIED F...G 5/1@ NL L 8 -1.25 1 1.4 11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATKiAk BURAMF OF STANDARDS- 1963-A %% a • v VjUU.U. 1 // 00 Military Psychology : An

  20. Fraternization - A Military Offense?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    34While Jiaf-ing of an appropriate regulation might be diffcult, %e recommend it to the responsible military services" (8:1.60). :iteen years later in...rank or positions for personal gain, and are prejudicial to good order and discipline, action must be taken against those involved. "The basic role and...vital, and responsive military oiqa[)_Jiza-1cn5: addition, the Air Force encourages open members*,:_ arc --_ _cpation in base *recreat ional1 ac t ivi t

  1. Role of nuclear reactors in future military satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Future military capabilities will be profoundly influenced by emerging Shuttle Era space technology. Regardless of the specific direction or content of tomorrow's military space program, it is clear that advanced space transportation systems, orbital support facilities, and large-capacity power subsystems will be needed to create the generally larger, more sophisticated military space systems of the future. This paper explores the critical role that space nuclear reactors should play in America's future space program and reviews the current state of nuclear reactor power plant technology. Space nuclear reactor technologies have the potential of satisfying power requirements ranging from 10 kW/sub (e)/ to 100 MW/sub (e)/.

  2. Importance of the method of leaf area measurement to the interpretation of gas exchange of complex shoots

    Treesearch

    W. K. Smith; A. W. Schoettle; M. Cui

    1991-01-01

    Net CO(2) uptake in full sunlight, total leaf area (TLA), projected leaf area of detached leaves (PLA), and the silhouette area of attached leaves in their natural orientation to the sun at midday on June 1 (SLA) were measured for sun shoots of six conifer species. Among species, TLA/SLA ranged between 5.2 and 10.0 (x bar = 7.3), TLA/PLA ranged between 2.5 and 2.9 (x...

  3. Looming Discontinuities in U.S. Military Strategy and Defense Planning: Colliding RMAs Necessitate a New Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    decades are many and varied. China is now a major power with impressive , high-momentum military developments in addition to its economic accom- Table S.1...controlled systems, have been only partially implemented. A common impression is that a given RMA occurs within a nominal date range and is...appropriate to summarize military developments. China’s Military Developments. China’s military developments are impressive and more comprehensive than

  4. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  5. Mechanically, the Shoot Apical Meristem of Arabidopsis Behaves like a Shell Inflated by a Pressure of About 1 MPa

    PubMed Central

    Beauzamy, Léna; Louveaux, Marion; Hamant, Olivier; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem) were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82±0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the range of values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex. PMID:26635855

  6. Preparatory heart rate patterns in competitive rifle shooting.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Lyytinen, H; Viitasalo, J

    1998-04-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between preparatory heart rate patterns and competitive shooting performance. Cardiac activity was recorded from six elite and six non-elite male rifle shooters during the 6 s before the trigger pull. The assessment of shooting performance was based on three variables: shooting score, rifle stability and electromyographic (EMG) activity in the upper body. Each shooter showed a decrease in the pre-trigger heart rate that did not covary with the shooting scores. The magnitude of this change was greater for the non-elite shooters compared to the elite shooters, suggesting that the heart rate patterns reflected skill-related aspects of preparatory performance. The analyses of rifle-hold performance (rifle stability and EMG) suggested that the observed heart rate changes were associated with a shooter's attempts to achieve a rigid rifle position, but depend on his skill level. Interpretation of preparatory heart rate patterns in competitive rifle shooting should not be based solely on the attentional focusing aspect, but should also take into account the effects of a shooter's psychomotor regulation.

  7. Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

  8. Understanding and preventing military suicide.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Jennings, Keith W; Jobes, David A; Bradley, John C

    2012-01-01

    The continual rise in the U.S. military's suicide rate since 2004 is one of the most vexing issues currently facing military leaders, mental health professionals, and suicide experts. Despite considerable efforts to address this problem, however, suicide rates have not decreased. The authors consider possible reasons for this frustrating reality, and question common assumptions and approaches to military suicide prevention. They further argue that suicide prevention efforts that more explicitly embrace the military culture and implement evidence-based strategies across the full spectrum of prevention and treatment could improve success. Several recommendations for augmenting current efforts to prevent military suicide are proposed.

  9. Military Forces in Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    families of military professionals withdrawn from East- em Europe are living in hostels , prefabricated barracks, or tents. In some cases, conscripts...Technological Capabilities: USSR/US Semiconductor Materials and Microelectronic C ircuils Software Producibility Parallel Computer Architectures ^ r...underground leadership bunker adjacent to Moscow State University . These fa- cilities are intended for the national command authority in wartime

  10. The Military Cooperation Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    stay in their respective countries and continue to face their host nation contacts daily. For host nation relations , it may be more expedient to...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE MILITARY...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this

  11. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  12. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  13. Resilience among Military Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  14. Peacetime Military Engagement: A Framework for Policy Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    maintained by a number of security systems ranging from private markets to over management by the major powers. This latter concept of a "managed peace...Support for diplomacy, economic and intermediation, and political claims Markets sanctions Armed military and/or pre-military Diplomacy, intermediation...Custom% OASD(C31). rule, reduce 1969 combat/deter Servrce , FBI. OUSD(P). DSAA. flow of drugs drug trafficking Coast Guard. DISA. JCS, into United INS. USIA

  15. The Measurement of International Military Commitments for Crisis Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING TR&A Technical Report #33 Threat Recognition and Analysis Project "Approved for...INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING Wayne R. Martin California State College, Dominguez Hills International Relations Research...Institute August 1976 The scope of the crisis analysis problem is both wide and complex. It ranges from early - warning --which is concerned primarily with the

  16. Comparative Studies of Organizational Factors, in Military Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    such agencies as military personnel, operations and maintenance, procure- went, and military construction . Many "within house" funds such ds man- power...more time doing maintenance. This indicates that, through better scheduling, any extra maintenance time would probably be put to constructive use by...INVENTORY53) 5) SUPLY (ARDWARE) (53) IRING RANGE50 •. CLEANING WEAPONS IFIELD TRAINING ( 42 TROOP ACTIVITIES DbTY GUjARD o",TROOP DUTY BASEBALL PRISONIER

  17. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    PubMed

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  18. The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Parrott, David L; Adhikari, Emma; Fraser, Nisa; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2016-07-01

    The bypass1 (bps1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) produces a root-sourced compound (the bps signal) that moves to the shoot and is sufficient to arrest growth of a wild-type shoot; however, the mechanism of growth arrest is not understood. Here, we show that the earliest shoot defect arises during germination and is a failure of bps1 mutants to maintain their shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding suggested that the bps signal might affect expression or function of SAM regulatory genes, and we found WUSCHEL (WUS) expression to be repressed in bps1 mutants. Repression appears to arise from the mobile bps signal, as the bps1 root was sufficient to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in wild-type shoots. Normally, WUS is regulated by a balance between positive regulation by cytokinin (CK) and negative regulation by CLAVATA (CLV). In bps1, repression of WUS was independent of CLV, and, instead, the bps signal down-regulates CK responses. Cytokinin treatment of bps1 mutants restored both WUS expression and activity, but only in the rib meristem. How the bps signal down-regulates CK remains unknown, though the bps signal was sufficient to repress expression of one CK receptor (AHK4) and one response regulator (AHP6). Together, these data suggest that the bps signal pathway has the potential for long-distance regulation through modification of CK signaling and altering gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. WIND1 Promotes Shoot Regeneration through Transcriptional Activation of ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Mariko; Kurata, Tetsuya; Nakata, Masaru; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Many plant species display remarkable developmental plasticity and regenerate new organs after injury. Local signals produced by wounding are thought to trigger organ regeneration but molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain largely unknown. We previously identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION1 (WIND1) as a central regulator of wound-induced cellular reprogramming in plants. In this study, we demonstrate that WIND1 promotes callus formation and shoot regeneration by upregulating the expression of the ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 (ESR1) gene, which encodes another AP2/ERF transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. The esr1 mutants are defective in callus formation and shoot regeneration; conversely, its overexpression promotes both of these processes, indicating that ESR1 functions as a critical driver of cellular reprogramming. Our data show that WIND1 directly binds the vascular system-specific and wound-responsive cis-element-like motifs within the ESR1 promoter and activates its expression. The expression of ESR1 is strongly reduced in WIND1-SRDX dominant repressors, and ectopic overexpression of ESR1 bypasses defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration in WIND1-SRDX plants, supporting the notion that ESR1 acts downstream of WIND1. Together, our findings uncover a key molecular pathway that links wound signaling to shoot regeneration in plants. PMID:28011694

  20. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings.

    PubMed

    Studdert, David M; Zhang, Yifan; Rodden, Jonathan A; Hyndman, Rob J; Wintemute, Garen J

    2017-05-16

    Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood. To determine changes in handgun acquisition patterns after the mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 and San Bernardino, California, in 2015. Time-series analysis using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models. California. Adults who acquired handguns between 2007 and 2016. Excess handgun acquisitions (defined as the difference between actual and expected acquisitions) in the 6-week and 12-week periods after each shooting, overall and within subgroups of acquirers. In the 6 weeks after the Newtown and San Bernardino shootings, there were 25 705 (95% prediction interval, 17 411 to 32 788) and 27 413 (prediction interval, 15 188 to 37 734) excess acquisitions, respectively, representing increases of 53% (95% CI, 30% to 80%) and 41% (CI, 19% to 68%) over expected volume. Large increases in acquisitions occurred among white and Hispanic persons, but not among black persons, and among persons with no record of having previously acquired a handgun. After the San Bernardino shootings, acquisition rates increased by 85% among residents of that city and adjacent neighborhoods, compared with 35% elsewhere in California. The data relate to handguns in 1 state. The statistical analysis cannot establish causality. Large increases in handgun acquisitions occurred after these 2 mass shootings. The spikes were short-lived and accounted for less than 10% of annual handgun acquisitions statewide. Further research should examine whether repeated shocks of this kind lead to substantial increases in the prevalence of firearm ownership. None.

  1. Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. Copyright © 2014

  2. Acute coronary syndromes in deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Leigh K; Turner, Barbara S; Stotts, Nancy A; Dracup, Kathleen A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile of deployed military men who experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A retrospective record review of deployed military men who experienced ACS while deployed and were treated at an overseas military medical center between 2001 and 2007 was conducted to obtain the information for this descriptive study (N= 100). Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 82% of the sample, and 18% experienced unstable angina. Subjects' mean age was 44.7 years (SD± 7.6; range 29-60) and most were enlisted and reservists. Risk factors included a family history of premature coronary artery disease (41%) and smoking (47%) as well as a history of hyperlipidemia (48%), hypertension (28%), and glucose abnormalities (6%). The group was overweight (BMI 27.77 kg/m(2) ± 3.2) and low risk for CV events (Framingham risk score 7.8%[± 4.4]). Young military men are regarded as the epitome of health and fitness; however, findings from this study suggest that this generally low-risk group do indeed have multiple CV risk factors and experience ACS. Early risk factor assessment and modification, including smoking cessation, weight management, and improving dyslipidemia, is essential. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Geographic variation within the military health system.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, Linda; Olaiya, Samuel; Smith, Chad; Hoburg, Andrew; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Nguyen, Louis L; Weissman, Joel S

    2017-04-13

    This study seeks to quantify variation in healthcare utilization and per capita costs using system-defined geographic regions based on enrollee residence within the Military Health System (MHS). Data for fiscal years 2007 - 2010 were obtained from the Military Health System under a data sharing agreement with the Defense Health Agency (DHA). DHA manages all aspects of the Department of Defense Military Health System, including TRICARE. Adjusted rates were calculated for per capita costs and for two procedures with high interest to the MHS- back surgery and Cesarean sections for TRICARE Prime and Plus enrollees. Coefficients of variation (CoV) and interquartile ranges (IQR) were calculated and analyzed using residence catchment area as the geographic unit. Catchment areas anchored by a Military Treatment Facility (MTF) were compared to catchment areas not anchored by a MTF. Variation, as measured by CoV, was 0.37 for back surgery and 0.13 for C-sections in FY 2010- comparable to rates documented in other healthcare systems. The 2010 CoV (and average cost) for per capita costs was 0.26 ($3,479.51). Procedure rates were generally lower and CoVs higher in regions anchored by a MTF compared with regions not anchored by a MTF, based on both system-wide comparisons and comparisons of neighboring areas. In spite of its centrally managed system and relatively healthy beneficiaries with very robust health benefits, the MHS is not immune to unexplained variation in utilization and cost of healthcare.

  4. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    PubMed

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs.

  6. CLAVATA-WUSCHEL signaling in the shoot meristem.

    PubMed

    Somssich, Marc; Je, Byoung Il; Simon, Rüdiger; Jackson, David

    2016-09-15

    Shoot meristems are maintained by pluripotent stem cells that are controlled by CLAVATA-WUSCHEL feedback signaling. This pathway, which coordinates stem cell proliferation with differentiation, was first identified in Arabidopsis, but appears to be conserved in diverse higher plant species. In this Review, we highlight the commonalities and differences between CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathways in different species, with an emphasis on Arabidopsis, maize, rice and tomato. We focus on stem cell control in shoot meristems, but also briefly discuss the role of these signaling components in root meristems. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. British game shooting in transition, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Martin, John

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the transformation of lowland game shooting from its heyday in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods to state-imposed rationalization during the Second World War. It evaluates the extent to which the interwar years constituted a period of depression or regeneration in the way the activity was organized and pursued, followed by an in-depth analysis of the impact of the Second World War. The study shows that the prevailing wisdom about the reasons for the decline of game shooting merits reappraisal, particularly in view of the unprecedented changes to the sport that resulted from the government's control and direction of food production during World War II.

  8. Immobilization and reduction of bioavailability of lead in shooting range soil through hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-04-15

    Immobilization of Pb in contaminated soil by hydrothermal treatment (HT) under subcritical conditions was investigated using a lab-scale apparatus. The Pb immobilization was evaluated thorough investigating the transformation of Pb fractions and by single chemical extraction. The results showed that HT and treatment temperature significantly affected the immobilization through redistribution of Pb fractions. The results of bioavailability and eco-toxicity assessment demonstrated a drastic decrease in the bioavailable fraction from 41.33 to 14.66%, and an increase in the non-bioavailable fraction from 2.90 to 15.76%. Moreover, the leaching potential of Pb was significantly reduced after treatment. Based on the risk assessment code (RAC), the treated soil residues exhibited medium risk (21.7-14.6 of RAC value for treated soil), which represented a decrease from high risk (41.3 for untreated soil). Immobilization was associated with Pb fractionation from weakly bound to stable fractions. A variety of mechanisms including adsorption and precipitation were suspected to be responsible for Pb immobilization. The findings of this study suggest that the HT may facilitate quantitative reduction of the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil. Considering the effectiveness of HT in remediating contaminated soil with organic pollutants, this approach might enable remediation of soil co-contaminated with organics and heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Military needs for orbital power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, L. D.; Barthelemy, R. R.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the DoD/ERDA (now Department of Energy) Space Power Study completed in October 1977 are presented. The major new thrust of Air Force Advanced Technology Plans center on the development of military solar power systems which will extend capabilities to the 10 - 50 KW sub e power range for new classes of missions while maintaining technology applicability to the 0.5 - 10 KW sub e present mission class. The status of FY78 efforts for Project 682J (Air Force Space Power Advanced Development Program) are reported. Project 682J is divided into the following tasks: (1) high efficiency solar panel; (2) nickel-hydrogen battery; (3) gallium arsenide solar concentrator hardness study; and (4) new-start nuclear dynamic power system applications/integration study.

  10. [Serum cholesterol of Swiss military personnel and assessment of nutrition in military service].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1990-09-18

    Two separate studies are reported. The first aimed at assessing the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in 453 military personnel who were in service in fall 1988 in a military fort. According to the risk limits of the Swiss Working Group on Lipids, the serum cholesterol values were elevated in 30% (greater than 6.5 mmol/l), in the borderline range in 31% (5.2. to 6.5 mmol/l), and only 39% had values in the ideal range (less than 5.2 mmol/l). There was a significant correlation of serum cholesterol (measured by Reflotron) with age, and the increase between age 20 and 40 was particularly remarkable (1.5 mmol/l increase). There was also a significant correlation of serum cholesterol with body weight. Only 9% of the soldiers knew their cholesterol levels before the study. One third were smokers, and 9% were hypertensive. The second aimed at analysing the consumption of food in the military service. This analysis was performed during a military service in an underground fort, where all food was controlled and known. The analysis indicated that per subject and day, 2051 kcal daily were consumed from the troup kitchen. Additional calories were consumed in the canteen (before and after the main meals) in the form of sweets, particularly as beverages. There were 1053 kcal per person and day consumed in the canteen, consisting of 39% carbohydrates, 36% fat, 15% proteins and 10% alcohol. The study demonstrates on one hand, that a significant number of military personnel demonstrates undesirably high serum cholesterol concentrations; on the other hand, the second study shows that too many calories are consumed during military service and that the foodstuff was too high in fat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Methyl jasmonate mediates upregulation of bacoside A production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poojadevi; Yadav, Sheetal; Srivastava, Anshu; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2013-07-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) enhances the production of a range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoid saponins in a variety of plant species. Here, it enhanced production of bacoside A, a valuable triterpenoid saponin having nootropic therapeutic activity in in vitro shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, the only known source of bacoside A. The highest yield was with 50 μM MJ giving 4.4 mg bacoside A/g dry wt; an 1.8-fold increase (compared to control) after 1 week.

  12. A Conserved Potential Development Framework Applies to Shoots of Legume Species with Contrasting Morphogenetic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faverjon, Lucas; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.; Litrico, Isabelle; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2017-01-01

    A great variety of legume species are used for forage production and grown in multi-species grasslands. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they display a broad range of morphologies that markedly affect their competitive abilities and persistence in mixtures. Little is yet known about the component traits that control the deployment of plant architecture in most of these species. During the present study, we compared the patterns of shoot organogenesis and shoot organ growth in contrasting forage species belonging to the four morphogenetic groups previously identified in herbaceous legumes (i.e., stolon-formers, rhizome-formers, crown-formers tolerant to defoliation and crown-formers intolerant to defoliation). To achieve this, three greenhouse experiments were carried out using plant species from each group (namely alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, sainfoin, kura clover, red clover, and white clover) which were grown at low density under non-limiting water and soil nutrient availability. The potential morphogenesis of shoots characterized under these conditions showed that all the species shared a number of common morphogenetic features. All complied with a generalized classification of shoot axes into three types (main axis, primary and secondary axes). A common quantitative framework for vegetative growth and development involved: (i) the regular development of all shoot axes in thermal time and a deterministic branching pattern in the absence of stress; (ii) a temporal coordination of organ growth at the phytomer level that was highly conserved irrespective of phytomer position, and (iii) an identical allometry determining the surface area of all the leaves. The species differed in their architecture as a consequence of the values taken by component traits of morphogenesis. Assessing the relationships between the traits studied showed that these species were distinct from each other along two main PCA axes which explained 68% of total variance: the first

  13. Suspension Parameter Measurements of Wheeled Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    just behind the wheel location being tested, and a linear interpolation is made to estimate the motion of the vehicle body directly above the wheel...Military Vehicles, Andreatta, et al. Page 3 of 8 lateral (y) directions on linear rails with circulating balls. The effective coefficient of... friction of these rails is in the range of 0.002. Steer motion of the wheel pad is allowed by a large crossed roller bearing under the wheel pad. The

  14. Influence of shooting angle of polishing particle on surface roughness of a cobalt-chromium alloy using a centrifugal shooting type polishing machine.

    PubMed

    Ono, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Kaori; Yamaba, Osamu; Nokubi, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    The centrifugal shooting type polishing machine is a recently developed apparatus that seeks to improve the efficiency and environment of polishing removable prostheses. In an attempt to optimize the effectiveness of this apparatus, this study examined the influence of the shooting angle of polishing particle on the surface roughness of cobalt-chromium alloy casting specimens. Polishing was performed for three minutes under five shooting angle conditions: 90 degrees, 60 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees, and 15 degrees. Surface roughness (Ra, Sm) was measured after each polishing stage. There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in Ra between shooting angle of 90 degrees (0.95 microm) and shooting angles of 45 degrees (0.62 microm) or less, and in Sm between 90 degrees (207 microm), 60 degrees (350 microm), and shooting angles of 45 degrees (868 microm) or less. These findings indicated that excellent surface texture was produced when shooting angle was 45 degrees or less.

  15. Politico-Military Relations, a Basis for Military Interaction between Argentina and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    POLITICO -MILITARY RELATIONS, A BASIS FOR MILITARY INTERACTION BETWEEN ARGENTINA AND THE UNITED STATES N IN w Fn STRATEGY AND CAMPAIGN DEPARTMENT...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classificationi Politico -Military Relations, A...America. Politico -Military relations. civil-military relations, military coups. military to military relations. South American democracy -con- 𔄃

  16. Role of axis reversal from the short-shoot to long-shoot habit for crown maintenance in slow-growing Betula maximowicziana trees.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masae Iwamoto

    2013-02-01

    Branch growth and its spatial arrangement determine crown architecture, leaf display, and, thus, the productivity of trees. Branch axes elongate by the sequential production of shoots with differing morphology and function, such as short shoots and long shoots. This study investigated ontogenetic changes in axis growth in Betula maximowicziana and quantified the role of axis reversal between the short-shoot and long-shoot habits, particularly reversal from the short-shoot to the long-shoot habit. From 8 trees with varying levels of growth vigor, 716 branch axes forming the basic crown architecture were sampled. Past growth of the branch axes was reconstructed from leaf and bud scale scars and compared between slow-growing and vigorously growing trees. Branch axes reversed more frequently between the long- and short-shoot habits in slow-growing trees than in vigorously growing trees. Short-shoot-origin axes that reversed to the long-shoot habit lived for longer periods and grew larger than axes that remained in the short-shoot habit. Short-shoot-origin axes reversed as they grew away from branch apices, typically >6 yr after they had originated. Reversal of short-shoot-origin axes to the long-shoot habit is an endogenous growth process of trees with reduced vigor. Like epicormic branching, the reversal may contribute to the maintenance of productivity of large old trees by prolonging axis longevity and filling the inner part of the crown. This study presents an ontogenetic change in branch growth, which broadens our perspectives on the growth and survival of long-living trees.

  17. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    4MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds., The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge... Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050.12 A case study helps compare the extrapolation of the analysis and synthesis of their writings on MR to...affairs as defined by Knox and Murray in their book The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. 37 Professors Knox and Murray, provide a conceptual

  18. Decisions to shoot in a weapon identification task: The influence of cultural stereotypes and perceived threat on false positive errors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kevin K; Bandy, Carole L; Kimble, Matthew O

    2010-01-01

    The decision to shoot a gun engages executive control processes that can be biased by cultural stereotypes and perceived threat. The neural locus of the decision to shoot is likely to be found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), where cognition and affect converge. Male military cadets at Norwich University (N=37) performed a weapon identification task in which they made rapid decisions to shoot when images of guns appeared briefly on a computer screen. Reaction times, error rates, and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were recorded. Cadets reacted more quickly and accurately when guns were primed by images of Middle-Eastern males wearing traditional clothing. However, cadets also made more false positive errors when tools were primed by these images. Error-related negativity (ERN) was measured for each response. Deeper ERNs were found in the medial-frontal cortex following false positive responses. Cadets who made fewer errors also produced deeper ERNs, indicating stronger executive control. Pupil size was used to measure autonomic arousal related to perceived threat. Images of Middle-Eastern males in traditional clothing produced larger pupil sizes. An image of Osama bin Laden induced the largest pupil size, as would be predicted for the exemplar of Middle East terrorism. Cadets who showed greater increases in pupil size also made more false positive errors. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate predictions based on current models of perceived threat, stereotype activation, and cognitive control. Measures of pupil size (perceived threat) and ERN (cognitive control) explained significant proportions of the variance in false positive errors to Middle-Eastern males in traditional clothing, while measures of reaction time, signal detection response bias, and stimulus discriminability explained most of the remaining variance.

  19. Decisions to Shoot in a Weapon Identification Task: The Influence of Cultural Stereotypes and Perceived Threat on False Positive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Kevin K.; Bandy, Carole L.; Kimble, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to shoot engages executive control processes that can be biased by cultural stereotypes and perceived threat. The neural locus of the decision to shoot is likely to be found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) where cognition and affect converge. Male military cadets at Norwich University (N=37) performed a weapon identification task in which they made rapid decisions to shoot when images of guns appeared briefly on a computer screen. Reaction times, error rates, and EEG activity were recorded. Cadets reacted more quickly and accurately when guns were primed by images of middle-eastern males wearing traditional clothing. However, cadets also made more false positive errors when tools were primed by these images. Error-related negativity (ERN) was measured for each response. Deeper ERN’s were found in the medial-frontal cortex following false positive responses. Cadets who made fewer errors also produced deeper ERN’s, indicating stronger executive control. Pupil size was used to measure autonomic arousal related to perceived threat. Images of middle-eastern males in traditional clothing produced larger pupil sizes. An image of Osama bin Laden induced the largest pupil size, as would be predicted for the exemplar of Middle East terrorism. Cadets who showed greater increases in pupil size also made more false positive errors. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate predictions based on current models of perceived threat, stereotype activation, and cognitive control. Measures of pupil size (perceived threat) and ERN (cognitive control) explained significant proportions of the variance in false positive errors to middle-eastern males in traditional clothing, while measures of reaction time, signal detection response bias, and stimulus discriminability explained most of the remaining variance. PMID:19813139

  20. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  1. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  2. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military...

  3. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  4. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  5. Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star at the National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-08-21

    A Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star jet aircraft on the tarmac at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) NACA Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The Air Force aircraft was participating in the 1946 National Air Races over Labor Day weekend. The air races were held at the Cleveland Municipal Airport seven times between 1929 and 1939. The events included long distance, sprint, and circuit competitions, as well as aeronautical displays, demonstrations, and celebrities. The air races were suspended indefinitely in 1940 for a variety of reasons, including the start of World War II in Europe. The nature of the National Air Races changed dramatically when the event resumed in 1946. The introduction of jet aircraft, primarily the Lockheed P-80 seen here, required an entire separate division for each event. Since military pilots were the only ones with any jet aircraft experience, only they could participate in those divisions. In addition, the performance and quantity of commercially manufactured piston aircraft had increased dramatically during the war. By 1946, the custom-built racing aircraft that made the pre-war races so interesting were no longer present. The P-80 was the first US-designed and US-manufactured jet aircraft. Early models were tested during the war in NACA Lewis’ Altitude Wind Tunnel. A modified P-80 set the world’s speed record at the 1947 air races by achieving 620 miles per hour.

  6. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M; Morgart, Ruth E

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  7. Spinal disabilities in military and civil aviators.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Narinder

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the nature and cause of spinal disabilities among military and civil aircrew in India. Studies suggest that military aircrew may be more prone than nonaviators to develop spinal disabilities. An in-depth analysis of such disabilities can enable policy makers to develop data-driven preventive health programs. Extensive literature search did not reveal even a single study focusing on spinal disabilities in symptomatic aircrew. A case record of each aircrew is maintained at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Indian Air Force, Bangalore, India These records were accessed for all aircrew evaluated for spinal disabilities from the year 2000 to 2006. The total data comprises of 239 military and 11 civil aircrew. Most of the military aircrew were from the fighter stream. The spectrum of causes for spinal disabilities ranged from ejection, aircraft accidents to road traffic accidents, and falls. Degenerative disc disease was the leading cause in helicopter and transport pilots, whereas fractures were the predominant category in fighter pilots. A total of 153 vertebral fractures and 190 intervertebral discs were involved. There were significant differences in the age and distribution of this aircrew. Spinal disabilities assume significance for variety of reasons. Firstly, a large number of spinal disabilities caused by vehicular trauma are preventable. Second, they generally entail a prolonged course of recovery. Third, they can result in loss of trained human resources, especially when the individual cannot return to his or her original workspace. This study provides insights into the nature of spinal disabilities in civil and military aviation. Ejection and aircraft accidents remain the leading cause of vertebral fractures. Disc degenerative disease is a cause of concern. Physical conditioning and regular physical exercise may possibly minimize spinal disabilities in susceptible aircrew.

  8. Shoot- and root-borne cytokinin influences arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.

  9. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  10. Trajectory optimization using parallel shooting method on parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Wirthman, D.J.; Park, S.Y.; Vadali, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    The efficiency of a parallel shooting method on a parallel computer for solving a variety of optimal control guidance problems is studied. Several examples are considered to demonstrate that a speedup of nearly 7 to 1 is achieved with the use of 16 processors. It is suggested that further improvements in performance can be achieved by parallelizing in the state domain. 10 refs.

  11. Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovitz, S. )

    1991-10-01

    If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

  12. The "Trouble Shooting" Checklist for School-Based Settings (Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Brad A.

    The "Trouble Shooting Checklist" (TSC) is a diagnostic and predictive instrument designed to aid educational change agents, faculty, and administrators in estimating the effects of particular variables on an institution's potential for successfully adopting innovations. The TSC consists of 100 descriptive statements that are broken down into seven…

  13. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  14. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  15. Developmental anatomy of the reproductive shoot in Hydrobryum japonicum (Podostemaceae).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

    2008-07-01

    Podostemaceae are unusual aquatic angiosperms adapting to extreme habitats, i.e., rapids and waterfalls, and have unique morphologies. We investigated the developmental anatomy of reproductive shoots scattered on crustose roots of Hydrobryum japonicum by scanning electron microscopy and using semi-thin serial sections. Two developmental patterns were observed: bracts arise either continuously from an area of meristematic cells that has produced leaves, or within differentiated root ground tissue beneath, and internal to, leaf base scars after an interruption. In both patterns, the bract primordia arise endogenously at the base of youngest bracts in the absence of shoot apical meristem, involving vacuolated-cell detachment to each bract separately. The different transition patterns of reproductive shoot development may be caused by different stages of parental vegetative shoots. The floral meristem arises between the two youngest bracts, and is similarly accompanied by cell degeneration. In contrast, the floral organs, including the spathella, arise exogenously from the meristem. Bract development, like vegetative leaf development, is unique to this podostemad, while floral-organ development is conserved.

  16. Auxins and Shoot Tropisms--A Tenuous Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, A. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the Cholodny-Went hypothesis which explains geo- and phototropic curvature in shoots in terms of a perception phase at the apex with a response at some remote site. Hormonal messages, lateral transmission of a stimulus, auxin concentration gradients, and what should be taught concerning this hypothesis are discussed. (DS)

  17. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  18. Survey of Root and Shoot Cultural Practices for Hardwood Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Harry L. Vanderveer

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of selected forest seedling nursery managers was conducted in early 2004. About 2 dozen managers were contacted and asked to respond during a brief (15 to 30 minute) conversation about the current practices they employ to manage root and shoot growth of hardwood seedlings. The participants involved were evenly split between public agencies (...

  19. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  20. Value of Shooting Sports: New Riflery Program Available to Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Shooting sports teach discipline and responsibility, permit universal participation, and are popular with campers, yet are declining because of certification, cost, and safety issues. BB guns and air rifles are safer and quieter, need less space, can be used indoors, and are inexpensive compared to small-bore rifles. New target systems reduce…

  1. Phytotoxic furanocoumarins from the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis Regel & Herder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Discovery of novel, natural herbicides has become important to manage increasing weed resistance to synthetic herbicides and environmental issues. The systematic bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis led to ...

  2. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  3. Report on Virginia Tech Shootings Urges Clarification of Privacy Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Educators, mental-health officials, and law-enforcement officers often do not share information about troubled students because they are confused by what they can disclose under complex and overlapping privacy laws, according to a report on the Virginia Tech shootings. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and two other Bush cabinet secretaries…

  4. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  5. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  6. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Initial Flight and Shoot

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2002-01-01

    The exotic pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), established in the north central and northeastern United States (U.S.) and adjacent regions in Canada, is regulated by a federal quarantine that restricts movement of pine material during specific times of the year based on the beetle's life history. Although climatic...

  7. Report on Virginia Tech Shootings Urges Clarification of Privacy Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Educators, mental-health officials, and law-enforcement officers often do not share information about troubled students because they are confused by what they can disclose under complex and overlapping privacy laws, according to a report on the Virginia Tech shootings. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and two other Bush cabinet secretaries…

  8. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia x candida Pers.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3-, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weigh...

  9. The antioxidant melatonin boosts recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantee safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wor...

  10. Shooting through time: new insights from transcriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill

    2015-08-01

    Plant evo-devo research aims to identify the nature of genetic change underpinning the evolution of diverse plant forms. A transcriptomic study comparing gene expression profiles in the meristematic shoot tips of three distantly related vascular plants suggests that different genes were recruited to regulate similar meristematic processes during evolution.

  11. Shoot growth and leaf dimorphism in Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1970-01-01

    Boston ivy, a common ornamental vine in the grape family, successively produces two kinds of leaves during the growing season. The two "early leaves" at the base of each shoot are preformed in the winter bud, and their expansion in the spring is accompanied by little stem elongation. At maturity they have large three-lobed blades and long petioles. Most short...

  12. Node position influences viability and contamination in hazelnut shoot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Initiation of shoot cultures is difficult in many woody plants due to internal microbial contaminants and general lack of juvenility in material from the source plants. Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) are generally difficult to initiate into culture for these same reasons. This study was designed to...

  13. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication and impacts on shoot phenotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot system (scion) of another individual. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops such as Apples, Grapes, and Citrus species to shorten scion juvenile stage length, facilitate clo...

  14. Radiocesium Distribution in Bamboo Shoots after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium 134Cs and 137Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight), respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots. PMID:24831096

  15. Bioactive stilbenes from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots extracts.

    PubMed

    Chaher, Nassima; Arraki, Kamel; Dillinseger, Elsa; Temsamani, Hamza; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Izard, Jean-Claude; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2014-03-30

    Viticultural residues from commercial viticultural activities represent a potentially important source of bioactive stilbenes such as resveratrol. The main aim of the present study was therefore to isolate, identify and perform biological assays against amyloid-β peptide aggregation of original stilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots. A new resveratrol oligomer, (Z)-cis-miyabenol C (3), was isolated from Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots together with two newly reported oligostilbenes from Vitis vinifera shoots, vitisinol C (1) and (E)-cis-miyabenol C (2), and six known compounds: piceatannol, resveratrol, (E)-ε-viniferin (trans-ε-viniferin), ω-viniferin, vitisinol C and (E)-miyabenol C. The structures of these resveratrol derivatives were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. All the newly reported compounds were tested for their anti-aggregative activity against amyloid-β fibril formation. Vitisinol C was found to exert a significant activity against amyloid-β aggregation. Vitis vinifera grapevine shoots are potentially interesting as a source of new bioactive stilbenes, such as vitisinol C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Oregon Shootings: Dealing with the Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…

  17. Military Science and Academies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-06

    the Higher Education Institutions" note that the higher school, which has a highly qualified-staff of scientific workers at its disposal, is not taking...deemed it necessary to significantly raise the role of higher education establish- ments in the solution of the most important scientific problems. This...requirement is totally applicable also to the higher military education institutions, it obliges the professorial teaching staffs to re-examine their

  18. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    continuously deployed it frequently in their military journals. to South Yemen and periodically deployed to Mine warfare is a major mission of the So...plague, and cholera The results of that investment are reflected in for BW purposes, as well as botulinum toxin, a number of impressive new weapons such...since World War 11. Dur- In summary: ing the siege of Leningrad, single-cell protein "* A major outbreak of anthrax occurred at (SCP) derived from wood

  19. Military Reform -- What Next?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    at the military with small pockets of support within Congress. 13. 24 End Notes 1. Association of the United States Army, "Department of Defense...strategic reappraisal and of a much overdue organizational reordering." 2. 3’ End Notes 1. Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Gen USA, (ret), "Dont Alter the Joint Chiefs...centers for strategic thinking continue to develop joint strategic concepts that match resources with national strategy. 37 End Notes I. Fredrick H

  20. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    care resources of the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family, and commanders. There is...Psychology, 29(2), 177.,187. Gutierrez, P.M. (1999). Suicidality in parentally bereaved adolescents. Death Studies, 23(4), 359-370. Osman, A., Kopper, B. A...Gutierrez, P. M. VA continuum of care for suicidal Veterans. Panel presentation at the American Association of Suicidology conference, Pmilati.d, OR

  1. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-24

    Contents: TEKHNIKA I VOORUZHENIYE No 1, 1985 (TEKHNIKA I VOORUZHENIYE, No 1, Jan 85) 18 AIR / AIR DEFENSE FORCES Party Work, Improving Technical...One night an enemy aircraft flew over us and dropped its supply of bombs which, I think, our air defense troops and fighters did not allow it to...Eastern, Carpathian, Kiev and Turkestan military districts, the Baltic Fleet, the Moscow Air Defense District, and the organizations led by comrades

  2. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and leading seaman and honor student. The brothers Giya and Guliver Nikolaishvili of Sukhumi, Dato Metreveli of Kutaisi, who is at the Kiev higher...policy is closely related to its domestic and foreign policy and the strategy of accelerating social and economic development based on scientific...and special informational publications and become acquainted with patent materials. There is yet one more important concept in our military lexicon

  3. Military Review: Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    development this, the proponent defines the life-cycle model techn:ques, and advances in our ability todefine. to be tollowed. prect,,e, the SKAs...amnns, we nust population through the Civilian Integration continue to provide leaders the critical experi- into the Personnel Proponent System ( CIPPS ... model is not easy. Demonstrating 32 May 1991 e MILITARY REVIEW - BECKCETAMD NORTH uncompromising integrity, inculcating values But accomplishing the

  4. Prospects for Military Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    tradition has a literary side as well, one most often expressing itself through the medium of military journals. Each year, these journals publish a...beyond cranky literary mutterings and hero-worship for deceased generals of flawed reputation? Can the critique fashioned by the alternative...special timeliness. The archetypal Mac still hovered on the fringes of American politics after having been relieved the previous 40 Parameters year

  5. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Balkin, T., Wesensten, N., 2006. Impaired decision making fol- lowing 49 h of sleep deprivation . Journal of Sleep Research 15 (1), 7–13. Kim, M., Hong, S...Portland VAMC, $307,128 (Appendix 2) o A Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Suicidal Behaviors in Military Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Study, Dr...Moscowitz A, & Hom MH. (June 2015). Perceived Stigma Toward Mental Health in Association with Sleep Disturbances and as an Acute Predictor of Suicidal

  6. Sound Military Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-01-01

    included all available and’ pertinent military writings. Care has also been taken to in- S~~clude, from civil sources, the findings of those...The Advisory Function. Understanding between the civil representatives of the State and the leaders of the armed forces is manifestly essential to...conduct of war thus requires that under- standing exist (see pages 9 and 10) between the civil repre- sentatives of the State and the leaders of the armed

  7. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-03

    Some examples include:  Allison Hybrid EP System™ - Transit buses two-mode parallel hybrid with continuously variable transmission (CVT)  Azure... Transit Buses , Proceeding of the Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 5, pp 3310-3315, October 2003. [3] E. Rosenthal, U.S. Military Orders Less...applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. One of the biggest justifications for hybrids is their fuel efficiency. However, the U.S

  8. USSR Report, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to New Equipment ( Yu . Vikhrenko; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 28 Jun 86) 27 Maj Gen Avn Tabunshchikov on Results of Early Summer Training (A. Tabunshchikov...Interview; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 2 Jul 86). 31 Critique of Oversimplification in Pilot Training ( V . Vinokurov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 7 Jul 86 34 Article...Discusses Career of Maj Gen Avn N. T. Antoshkin ( V . Filatov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 7 Jun 86) 38 DOSAAF Military-Patriotic Education in Arkhangelsk

  9. Selection of Military Advisors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    this thesis will focus on the methods for selecting the best military personnel for advisor tasks. In doing so, specific qualities , capabilities...attract and keep the best personnel for subsequent advisory requirements. Finally, this document will analyze the quality and suitability of advisor...2006, p. 5-2. 5 study in its own right . Lastly, this thesis relies heavily on current published counterinsurgency doctrine since many aspects of

  10. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-20

    victorious offensive of the Soviet Army which had crushed the Nazi military machine and freed many peoples from the yoke of Naziism . 25 October is celebrated...dignation and hate for Naziism and the fascist regime grew and class contradic tions became exacerbated. In telling the people the bitter truth, the...country, Romania fought along with the Soviet Union until the complete defeat of Naziism and its troops participated in the liberation of hungary and

  11. Military Pay Comparability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    for promotions and for pay based on ability. Also included in this idea is one of equal pay for basically equal work. Thus, the sub-principle of...Report established for the first time the idea that pay within the services for basically equal jobs should be the same and that the pay should be...foundation for legislation creating the first idea of 4 P "regular military compensation" (basic pay , subsistence allowance and quarters allowance) as a

  12. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    praporshchiki] and officers bade farewell to the colors. I am sure that these instants when they pressed down to the crimson silk of the sacred military...clarify the results of the last firing in the battalion. According to the headquarters training data , those who were not at the exercise achieved...television camera, artificially developed target data is photographed and superimposed on a real air situation pre-recorded on videotape. In a matter of

  13. Rebalancing the Military Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-17

    of individual officers than the traditional ethics .”3 The authors contend this primacy of careerism over selfless service began during World War II...states the military officer, by virtue of being a professional with an oath of office and a code of ethics , is granted the moral autonomy to openly...War College on 18 April 1970, to analyze “the state of discipline, integrity, morality, ethics , and professionalism in the Army.”32 This

  14. Police or Military Police?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    their MP to Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejuene as part of the Fleet Assistance Program (FAP).12 (FAP assigns FMF Marines to fill support functions on...1778. The responsibilities of this unit were essentially the same as the MP unit of today. "...[MP] were expected to patrol the camp ... During...Marine Corps. Camp Guards turned into Base Military Police Units and the MP ranks expanded with personnel who laterally moved from every MOS in the

  15. Is Military Science Scientific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    approaches to strategy, doctrine, and planning. Early military theory in the United States was based largely on inherited European traditions pro...frequently capi- talized and placed alongside Physics, Philosophy, and other well-established academic disciplines. An irony of the term’s decline is...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Defense University,Joint Force Quarterly,260 Fifth Avenue, S.W

  16. Damage control: unintended pregnancy in the United States military.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Kathryn L; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Women's access to reproductive health care is an ongoing source of conflict in U.S. politics; however, women in the military are often overlooked in these debates. Reproductive health care, including family planning, is a fundamental component of health care for women. Unintended pregnancy carries substantial health risks and financial costs, particularly for servicewomen. Compared with their civilian counterparts, women in the military experience greater challenges in preventing unwanted pregnancy and have less access to contraceptive services and abortion. Current military policies, federal laws, and health care practices are not always consistent with evidence-based research and patient-centered care. A multidisciplinary effort on the part of military personnel, lawmakers, and health care providers is needed to eliminate these disparities. We discuss recommendations in the following categories: improving contraceptive education and adherence, expanding research, broadening access to the full range of contraceptive options including emergency contraception, and ensuring access to safe abortion.

  17. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase.

  18. Origin and development of the cryptic shoot meristem in Zeylanidium lichenoides (Podostemaceae).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Natsu; Kato, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2013-04-01

    The shoot apical meristem is the source of aerial shoot systems. In the aquatic eudicot family Podostemaceae, subfamily Podostemoideae, however, shoots develop in the absence of a distinct apical meristem. Previous studies suggest that the cryptic embryonic shoot meristem is involved in primary shoot development in some species (e.g., Zeylanidium lichenoides), although it is unclear whether the meristem maintains meristematic identity. Our aim was to determine how an embryonic shoot meristem is established during embryogenesis and how it is involved in plumular leaf development in the seedling. We observed anatomy and analyzed gene expression in Z. lichenoides, using an ortholog of the shoot meristem marker gene SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). Expression of the STM ortholog, ZlSTM, began in the apical part of the 16-cell embryo. By the heart-shaped embryo stage, its expression was restricted to the putative organizing center (OC) and the protodermal cells just above them, forming a cryptic embryonic shoot meristem without a typical stem cell (apical initials) layer. During seedling development, expression was not maintained in the meristem, but instead shifted to the adaxial bases of cotyledons where plumular leaves would form. ZlSTM expression demonstrated that the meristematic identity is partly retained in the embryonic shoot apex. This cryptic embryonic shoot meristem has a putative OC, but no typical stem cell layer, and it is not maintained during primary shoot development. Modification of the regulatory mechanism between the OC and stem cells might be responsible for this ephemeral shoot meristem in Podostemaceae.

  19. [The cradle of military medicine].

    PubMed

    Tsygan, V N

    2013-12-01

    The Kirov Military Medical Academy, included into the State Code of Particularly Valuable Objects of Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation, plays an important role in national military-medical science and education during XVIII and XIX centuries. Today the Kirov Military Medical Academy consists of 7 faculties, 63 departments (52 military departments and 11 civil departments), 31 clinics (17 surgical clinics and 14 therapeutic clinics), center of extracorporeal detoxification, 3 departments, taking part in treatment and diagnostic process, 11 clinical subdivisions, research center consisting of 4 research subdivisions and 2 laboratories, and also 14 research laboratories, 32 supply subdivisions and publications department. Glorious staff and graduates of the Academy took part in all russian wars. All famous medical schools were founded in the Academy in XIX-XX centuries. At the present time the Kirov Military Medical Academy is the main military medical university, leading research center and treatment facility of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  20. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.