Science.gov

Sample records for military surveillance systems

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    women.5 Screening practices may also contribute to higher rates of E. coli infections among females of reproductive age, as the Infectious Disease...Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical

  2. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    incidence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report is a calendar year (CY) 2016 update to the CY...Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-364-2017 Appendix A: Acronym and Abbreviation List Acronym/Abbreviation Definition CHCS  Composite  Health   Care  System CO...Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

  3. The state of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the military health system: a review of improvements made in the last 10 years and remaining surveillance gaps.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekera, Ruvani M; Lesho, Emil P; Chukwuma, Uzo; Cummings, James F; Waterman, Paige E

    2015-02-01

    During a military public health laboratory symposium held in 1999, concerns were raised that the military health system lacked a standardized antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance system that allowed comparison of data across sites, investigation of trends, and understanding of resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this review was to assess if current AMR activities in the military health system have addressed the aforementioned gaps. It was determined that much progress has already been made within the Department of Defense with respect to monitoring and understanding AMR through initiatives such as the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program-a strong Department of Defense-wide surveillance program. These surveillance efforts can be made more robust through harmonization of testing and reporting structures across military treatment facilities, and by encouraging military treatment facility participation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Optimizing the utility of military injury surveillance systems: a qualitative study within the Australian Defence Force.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Adam D; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Pope, Rodney

    2009-05-01

    Injury prevention guided by robust injury surveillance systems (ISS's) can effectively reduce military injury rates, but ISS's depend on human interaction. This study examined experiences and requirements of key users of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) ISS to determine whether the operation of the ISS was optimal, whether there were any shortcomings, and if so, how these shortcomings might be addressed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 Australian Defence Department participants located throughout Australia. Grounded theory methods were used to analyze data by developing an understanding of processes and social phenomena related to injury surveillance systems within the military context. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed and information contained in the transcripts was analyzed using NVivo. Key themes relating to the components of an injury surveillance system were identified from the analysis. A range of processes and sociocultural factors influence the utility of military ISS's. These are discussed in detail and should be considered in the future design and operation of military ISS's to facilitate optimal outcomes for injury prevention.

  5. Proposal of a framework for evaluating military surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks on duty areas

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Chaudet, Herve; Green, Andrew D; Jefferson, Henry L; Texier, Gaetan; Webber, Daniel; Dupuy, Bruce; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years a wide variety of epidemiological surveillance systems have been developed to provide early identification of outbreaks of infectious disease. Each system has had its own strengths and weaknesses. In 2002 a Working Group of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced a framework for evaluation, which proved suitable for many public health surveillance systems. However this did not easily adapt to the military setting, where by necessity a variety of different parameters are assessed, different constraints placed on the systems, and different objectives required. This paper describes a proposed framework for evaluation of military syndromic surveillance systems designed to detect outbreaks of disease on operational deployments. Methods The new framework described in this paper was developed from the cumulative experience of British and French military syndromic surveillance systems. The methods included a general assessment framework (CDC), followed by more specific methods of conducting evaluation. These included Knowledge/Attitude/Practice surveys (KAP surveys), technical audits, ergonomic studies, simulations and multi-national exercises. A variety of military constraints required integration into the evaluation. Examples of these include the variability of geographical conditions in the field, deployment to areas without prior knowledge of naturally-occurring disease patterns, the differences in field sanitation between locations and over the length of deployment, the mobility of military forces, turnover of personnel, continuity of surveillance across different locations, integration with surveillance systems from other nations working alongside each other, compatibility with non-medical information systems, and security. Results A framework for evaluation has been developed that can be used for military surveillance systems in a staged manner consisting of initial, intermediate and final evaluations. For each stage

  6. Proposal of a framework for evaluating military surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks on duty areas.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Chaudet, Herve; Green, Andrew D; Jefferson, Henry L; Texier, Gaetan; Webber, Daniel; Dupuy, Bruce; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2008-04-30

    In recent years a wide variety of epidemiological surveillance systems have been developed to provide early identification of outbreaks of infectious disease. Each system has had its own strengths and weaknesses. In 2002 a Working Group of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced a framework for evaluation, which proved suitable for many public health surveillance systems. However this did not easily adapt to the military setting, where by necessity a variety of different parameters are assessed, different constraints placed on the systems, and different objectives required. This paper describes a proposed framework for evaluation of military syndromic surveillance systems designed to detect outbreaks of disease on operational deployments. The new framework described in this paper was developed from the cumulative experience of British and French military syndromic surveillance systems. The methods included a general assessment framework (CDC), followed by more specific methods of conducting evaluation. These included Knowledge/Attitude/Practice surveys (KAP surveys), technical audits, ergonomic studies, simulations and multi-national exercises. A variety of military constraints required integration into the evaluation. Examples of these include the variability of geographical conditions in the field, deployment to areas without prior knowledge of naturally-occurring disease patterns, the differences in field sanitation between locations and over the length of deployment, the mobility of military forces, turnover of personnel, continuity of surveillance across different locations, integration with surveillance systems from other nations working alongside each other, compatibility with non-medical information systems, and security. A framework for evaluation has been developed that can be used for military surveillance systems in a staged manner consisting of initial, intermediate and final evaluations. For each stage of the process parameters

  7. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report...Comparison of community- and health care -associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. JAMA. 2003;290(22):2976-84. 10. Patel...community‐associated CHCS  Composite  Health   Care  System CO  community‐onset CTS  Contingency Tracking System CY  calendar year DMDC  Defense Manpower Data

  8. Marriage of military and commercial RECCE products for surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Brendan P.

    1994-10-01

    During recent years, in order to meet increased demands for aerial surveillance data and due to decreased availability of support from military tactical reconnaissance organizations, many state and federal agencies have begun to expand their organic reconnaissance capabilities. Agencies have attempted to minimize system costs by procuring excess military sensors, only to find that adaptation of existing military sensor control and data annotation systems, or development of application specific systems, is cost prohibitive. One proposed solution to this dilemma, as presented within this paper, is user integrated reconnaissance systems which can include excess military sensors, but which also make extensive use of cost effective commercially procurable reconnaissance management system (RMS) components.

  9. Defence Against Terrorism: The Evolution of Military Surveillance Systems into Effective Counter Terrorism Systems Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-25

    Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? C J Skinner, S Cochrane, M Field, R Johnston AMS Ltd Lyon Way, Frimley...Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Terrorism Systems Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? RTO-MP-SCI-158 25 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED

  10. Combining surveillance systems: effective merging of U.S. Veteran and military health data.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Julie A; Burkom, Howard S; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A; Cox, Kenneth L; Oda, Gina; Lombardo, Joseph S; Holodniy, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) had more than 18 million healthcare beneficiaries in 2011. Both Departments conduct individual surveillance for disease events and health threats. We performed joint and separate analyses of VA and DoD outpatient visit data from October 2006 through September 2010 to demonstrate geographic and demographic coverage, timeliness of influenza epidemic awareness, and impact on spatial cluster detection achieved from a joint VA and DoD biosurveillance platform. Although VA coverage is greater, DoD visit volume is comparable or greater. Detection of outbreaks was better in DoD data for 58% and 75% of geographic areas surveyed for seasonal and pandemic influenza, respectively, and better in VA data for 34% and 15%. The VA system tended to alert earlier with a typical H3N2 seasonal influenza affecting older patients, and the DoD performed better during the H1N1 pandemic which affected younger patients more than normal influenza seasons. Retrospective analysis of known outbreaks demonstrated clustering evidence found in separate DoD and VA runs, which persisted with combined data sets. The analyses demonstrate two complementary surveillance systems with evident benefits for the national health picture. Relative timeliness of reporting could be improved in 92% of geographic areas with access to both systems, and more information provided in areas where only one type of facility exists. Combining DoD and VA data enhances geographic cluster detection capability without loss of sensitivity to events isolated in either population and has a manageable effect on customary alert rates.

  11. Combining Surveillance Systems: Effective Merging of U.S. Veteran and Military Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Julie A.; Burkom, Howard S.; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Oda, Gina; Lombardo, Joseph S.; Holodniy, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) had more than 18 million healthcare beneficiaries in 2011. Both Departments conduct individual surveillance for disease events and health threats. Methods We performed joint and separate analyses of VA and DoD outpatient visit data from October 2006 through September 2010 to demonstrate geographic and demographic coverage, timeliness of influenza epidemic awareness, and impact on spatial cluster detection achieved from a joint VA and DoD biosurveillance platform. Results Although VA coverage is greater, DoD visit volume is comparable or greater. Detection of outbreaks was better in DoD data for 58% and 75% of geographic areas surveyed for seasonal and pandemic influenza, respectively, and better in VA data for 34% and 15%. The VA system tended to alert earlier with a typical H3N2 seasonal influenza affecting older patients, and the DoD performed better during the H1N1 pandemic which affected younger patients more than normal influenza seasons. Retrospective analysis of known outbreaks demonstrated clustering evidence found in separate DoD and VA runs, which persisted with combined data sets. Conclusion The analyses demonstrate two complementary surveillance systems with evident benefits for the national health picture. Relative timeliness of reporting could be improved in 92% of geographic areas with access to both systems, and more information provided in areas where only one type of facility exists. Combining DoD and VA data enhances geographic cluster detection capability without loss of sensitivity to events isolated in either population and has a manageable effect on customary alert rates. PMID:24386335

  12. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  13. VA AND DEFENSE HEALTH CARE: Progress Made, but DOD Continues To Face Military Medical Surveillance System Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    unexplained symptoms in populations that have deployed. • Implement a joint computerized patient record and other automated recordkeeping that meets the...implementation of a health surveillance system that completely spans an individual’s time in service. • Implement strategies to address medically

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    network and use the specific presentation methods. In addition, the S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards to efficiently discover, access, use, and control heterogeneous sensors and their metadata. These S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. The S4 system is directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  15. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  16. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  17. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    type of Staphylococcus bacteria that has developed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin, oxacillin, and penicillin, 1-5 thus...nature of the bacteria and the limited treatment options created by the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Surveillance of MRSA is important to ensure...from which bacteria can cause infection. 6,7 Non-invasive infections account for the majority of MRSA infections and generally manifest as skin or

  18. Military Production Urgencies System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-08-17

    echelons. I4. To guide preparation of specific urgency lists for the time -phased demands of supporting industrial resources. 5. To indicate the...AD-A270 736 ELECTE aeprlnt Incorporating Transmittal 61-2 Au-uast 17, 1955 Department of Defense Directive SUBJECT Military Production Urgencies ...Departaent of Defense Military Production Urgencies System which will provide authoritative information for guidance as to the relative urgency of desired

  19. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  20. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  1. Civilian Demonstrations Near the Military Installation: Restraints on Military Surveillance and Other Intelligence Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    may be used as a tool to deter lawful political activity, and courts may view overt military surveillance as evidence of a bad faith purpose instead of...a good faith physical security purpose.19 Evidence of bad faith makes it more likely that a court will find standing.󈨧 Surveillance can become...event of a delu~ohoal aflhto srenewved or the iiaUtKi’i is o)therisie nainr and assorted Srauik" fils may be McAWi~i * retnainabh!e munder this

  2. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  3. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  4. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  5. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  6. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  7. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  8. Veterinary hospital surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    We cannot manage what we do not measure. In order to provide optimal patient care appropriate effort must be given to the prevention of infectious disease transmission through the development and maintenance of an infection control program that is founded on results obtained through organized surveillance efforts. Every facility is unique - thus efforts should be tailored to distinctive physical attributes and organizational limitations of individual practices. There is not only an ethical responsibility to do so, but there is a legal responsibility to meet the minimum standard of practice with respect to veterinary infection prevention and control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  10. Air pollution surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G B; Ozolins, G; Tabor, E C

    1970-10-16

    Atmospheric surveillance is necessary in order to identify airborne pollutants, to establish ambient concentrations of these pollutants, and to record their trends and patterns. Air pollutants may occur in the form of gases, liquids, and solids, both singly and in combination. Gaseous pollutants make up about 90 percent of the total mass emitted to the atmosphere with particulates and aerosols accounting for the remaining 10 percent. Small particulates are of particular importance because they may be in the respirable size range. These small particles may contain biologically active elements and compounds. Furthermore, they tend to remain in the atmosphere where they interfere with both solar and terrestrial infrared radiation, which may affect climate on a global basis.

  11. Surveillance data management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Ralph

    2002-10-01

    On October 8, 2001, an Executive Order was signed creating the White House Office of Homeland Security. With its formaiton comes focused attention in setting goals and priorities for homeland security. Analysis, preparation, and implementation of strategies will hinge not only on how information is collected and analyzed, but more important, on how it is coordinated and shared. Military installations/facilities, Public safety agencies, airports, federal and local offices, public utilities, harbors, transportation and others critical areas must work either independently or as a team to ensure the safety of our citizens and visitor. In this new era of increased security, the key to interoperation is continuous information exchanged-events must be rapidly identified, reported and responded to by the appropriate agencies. For instance when a threat has been detected the security officers must be immediately alerted and must have access to the type of threat, location, movement, heading, threat size, etc to respond accordingly and the type of support required. This requires instant communications and teamwork with reliable and flexible technology.

  12. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  13. A Retrospective Comparison of Military Health Surveillance Systems: An Example of Respiratory Illness at Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD) San Diego

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-04

    duty trainees who visit the clinic with an oral temperature of 100.5oF or higher, and who have a respiratory symptom such as a cough or sore throat , are...New York, NY. Melcer, T., & the NHRC Test and Evaluation Group. (2003). Retrospective evaluation of MDSS and ESSENCE surveillance of Strep A

  14. Changing Families in a Changing Military System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

    Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

  15. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  16. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  17. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  18. [Center of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district celebrates 70 years].

    PubMed

    Bedniakov, V V; Kunaev, A V

    2012-04-01

    The history of the centre of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district stationed in Kazan is stated shortly. This institution originated in 104th sanitary and epidemiological detachment, which was formed in May 1942 in complement of Bryansk Navy. During 1942-1945 104th SED was allotted to Braynsk, Central, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belarus's fronts. Nowadays this Center in Kazan is component part of the united territorial system of medical supply of troops stationed in republic of Tatarstan, Udmurtiya, Chuvashiya, Mariy Al. It is modern profile institution where work highly skilled physicians and medical stuff of medium-level. Employees of the center have great experience in realization of prophylactic and anti-epidemiological actions.

  19. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  20. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  1. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Surveillance among Angolan Military Men

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Eric G.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Ovalle-Bahamón, Ricardo E.; Cheng, Karen G.; Huang, Fannie H.; Ernesto, Francisco; Duan, Naihua

    2010-01-01

    To assess HIV-related risk behavior among military men in a post-conflict sub-Saharan African country with low HIV prevalence this study evaluated sexual risk taking and related behaviors among a stratified random sample of 1710 military personnel in four regions of Angola. Over 90% were sexually active and 60% had two or more sexual partners within the past year. Condom use varied depending on partner type, from a low of 10% to a high of 54%. Factors independently predicting the number of sexual partners included younger age, younger age of sexual debut, being away from home, being in the eastern part of the country, higher military rank, higher education, alcohol before sex, and problem alcohol use. Independent predictors of sexually transmitted infection symptoms included age of sexual debut, lower education, higher rank, and having had sex with a casual partner or a commercial sex worker in the previous 12 months. These findings indicate high rates of HIV-risk taking behaviors among military personnel and the need for aggressive prevention campaigns to reduce HIV risk among military personnel and the populations they serve. PMID:17641966

  2. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011.

    PubMed

    Odoom, John Kofi; Bel-Nono, Samuel; Rodgers, David; Agbenohevi, Prince G; Dafeamekpor, Courage K; Sowa, Roland M L; Danso, Fenteng; Tettey, Reuben; Suu-Ire, Richard; Bonney, Joseph H K; Asante, Ivy A; Aboagye, James; Abana, Christopher Zaab-Yen; Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Kronmann, Karl C; Oyofo, Buhari A; Ampofo, William K

    2012-11-08

    Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance and prevention in military barracks.

  3. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance

  4. Energy Efficiency for Military Aircraft and Operations: Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Tanker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    JET & TURBO-PROP 4.1. Tanker & Surveillance Aircraft, General Overview 4.2. Bomber Aircraft, General Overview 5. TANKERS 5.1. Analysis Method 5.2...A400M MRTT 5.9. Tanker Performance Comparisons (Turbo-jet / Turbo-fan / Turbo-prop) 6. RECONNAISSANCE / SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT 6.1. General 6.2...Boeing / Northrop Grumman E-8C (JSTARS) 6.10. Boeing 737-AEW �Wedgetail� 6.11. Comparisons 7. BOMBERS 7.1. General 7.2. B-1B & TU-160 7.3. B-52

  5. [Circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of establishing the circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea is to ensure that the problems of circulatory disease importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. The goals of circulatory disease surveillance system are to monitor the epidemiological trends of circulatory disease and to evaluate the outcome of health activity for controlling circulatory diseases. Surveillance system are being updated to achieve the needs for the integration of the surveillance and information system, the establishment of data standards, the electronic exchange of data, and changes in the goals of circulatory disease surveillance system to facilitate the response of this system to manage the national health problem effectively. This article provides the target diseases and determinant indicators to be monitored, structure of circulatory disease surveillance system, and many tasks and related activities that should be applied to this system.

  6. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  7. MILITARY INFORMATION SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    upward are usually indications of how effectively the system is developing or operating. The use of computers in information systems tends to increase...computers into information systems must always begin at the lowest level of aggregation in the job hierarchy. Only those information-processing jobs

  8. Gastrointestinal illnesses among French forces deployed to Djibouti: French military health surveillance, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Darar, Houssein Y; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005-2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness.

  9. Evaluation of a syndromic surveillance for the early detection of outbreaks among military personnel in a tropical country.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Henry; Dupuy, Bruce; Chaudet, Hervé; Texier, Gaetan; Green, Andrew; Barnish, Guy; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate a new military syndromic surveillance system (2SE FAG) set up in French Guiana. The evaluation was made using the current framework published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. Two groups of system stakeholders, for data input and data analysis, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires to assess timeliness, data quality, acceptability, usefulness, stability, portability and flexibility of the system. Validity was assessed by comparing the syndromic system with the routine traditional weekly surveillance system. Qualitative data showed a degree of poor acceptability among people who have to enter data. Timeliness analysis showed excellent case processing time, hindered by delays in case reporting. Analysis of stability indicated a high level of technical problems. System flexibility was found to be high. Quantitative data analysis of validity indicated better agreement between syndromic and traditional surveillance when reporting on dengue fever cases as opposed to other diseases. The sophisticated technical design of 2SE FAG has resulted in a system which is able to carry out its role as an early warning system. Efforts must be concentrated on increasing its acceptance and use by people who have to enter data and decreasing the occurrence of the frequency of technical problems.

  10. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  11. Military deployment health surveillance policy and its application to Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Richard T; Wolfson, Jay; Yevich, Steven J

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation research methodology was used to determine whether deployment health surveillance for Special Operations Forces conformed with Department of Defense policy directives for the specified target population. Data for this methodology were based on pre- and postdeployment health assessments as well as patient encounters recorded during deployments. The data represented 1,094 individual and unique Special Operations Forces members deployed to 12 different countries from October 2000 through December 2001. Results from the study suggested that military deployment health surveillance policy goals for predeployment medical referrals, patient data capture, and documentation during the deployment and postdeployment medical referrals were being poorly met when Department of Defense and Joint Chiefs of Staff mandates were applied to Special Operations Forces in an unconventional operations environment. Preliminary evaluation indicates that deployment health surveillance implementation could be improved with the introduction of policy awareness education, training, and technology.

  12. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  13. Surveillance of transcriptomes in basic military trainees with normal, febrile respiratory illness, and convalescent phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Thach, D C; Agan, B K; Olsen, C; Diao, J; Lin, B; Gomez, J; Jesse, M; Jenkins, M; Rowley, R; Hanson, E; Tibbetts, C; Stenger, D A; Walter, E

    2005-10-01

    Gene expression profiles permit analysis of host immune response at the transcriptome level. We used the Pax gene Blood RNA (PAX) System and Affymetrix microarrays (HG-U133A&B) to survey profiles in basic military trainees and to classify them as healthy, febrile respiratory illness (FRI) without adenovirus, FRI with adenovirus, and convalescent from FRI with adenovirus. We assessed quality metrics of RNA processing for microarrays. Class prediction analysis discovered nested sets of transcripts that could categorize the phenotypes with optimized accuracy of 99% (nonfebrile vs febrile, P<0.0005), 87% (healthy vs convalescent, P=0.001), and 91% (febrile without vs with adenovirus, P<0.0005). The discovered set for classification of nonfebrile vs febrile patients consisted of 40 transcripts with functions related to interferon induced genes, complement cascades, and TNF and IL1 signaling. The set of seven transcripts for distinguishing healthy vs convalescent individuals included those associated with ribosomal structure, humoral immunity, and cell adhesion. The set of 10 transcripts for distinguishing FRI without vs with adenovirus had functions related to interferon induced genes, IL1 receptor accessory protein, and cell interactions. These results are the first in vivo demonstration of classification of infectious diseases via host signature transcripts and move us towards using the transcriptome in bio-surveillance.

  14. The impact of U.S. military operations in Kuwait, Bosnia, and Kosovo (1991-2000) on environmental health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Deployments of U.S. Forces to the Persian Gulf (1991), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995), and Kosovo (1999) were associated with diverse, potential environmental exposures. Health effects possibly associated with these exposures were cause for concern among service members, veterans, and military and civilian leaders. A need for the military to effectively respond to these exposures, and more importantly, to assess and mitigate exposures before deployments and to conduct environmental surveillance during deployments was identified. The Department of Defense encountered many obstacles in dealing with the exposures of 1991. Even though these obstacles were being identified, and in some cases, addressed, responses to historical exposure concerns continued to be reactive. In 1996, efforts were intensified to improve policy and doctrine, field sampling equipment, risk assessment processes, geographic information systems, and other tools needed to effectively identify and reduce the impact of exposures before troops deploy and to conduct environmental surveillance while deployed. Success in these efforts resulted in a comprehensive, planned approach being implemented to address environmental health concerns during the 1999 Kosovo deployment.

  15. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  16. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  17. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  18. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  19. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  20. New York City syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Richard; Mostashari, F; Das, D; Besculides, M; Rodriguez, C; Greenko, J; Steiner-Sichel, L; Balter, S; Karpati, A; Thomas, P; Phillips, M; Ackelsberg, J; Lee, E; Leng, J; Hartman, J; Metzger, K; Rosselli, R; Weiss, D

    2004-09-24

    New York City's first syndromic surveillance systems were established in 1995 to detect outbreaks of waterborne illness. In 1998, daily monitoring of ambulance dispatch calls for influenza-like illness began. After the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, concern about biologic terrorism led to the development of surveillance systems to track chief complaints of patients reporting to emergency departments, over-the-counter and prescription pharmacy sales, and worker absenteeism. These systems have proved useful for detecting substantial citywide increases in common viral illnesses (e.g., influenza, norovirus, and rotavirus). However, the systems have not detected more contained outbreaks earlier than traditional surveillance. Future plans include monitoring school health and outpatient clinic visits, augmenting laboratory testing to confirm syndromic signals, and conducting evaluation studies to identify which of these systems will be continued for the long term.

  1. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  2. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  3. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  4. An Emergency Response UAV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pedro A.; Geckle, William J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z.; Martin, Sean R.

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  5. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  6. Clonal distribution and associated characteristics of Escherichia coli clinical and surveillance isolates from a military medical center.

    PubMed

    Manges, Amee R; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Johnston, Brian D; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Johnson, James R

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli are a concern for military health services. We studied 100 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-producing E. coli clinical and surveillance isolates from military personnel and civilians at Brooke Army Medical Center (2007-2011). Major E. coli lineages, most prominently ST10 (24%), ST131 (16%), and ST648 (8%), were distributed much as reported for other North American populations. ST131, represented mainly by its resistance-associated ST131-H30 clonal subset, was uniquely associated with a clinical origin, regardless of ESBL status. Thus, clonal background predicted resistance phenotype and clinical versus surveillance origin, and these findings could assist military clinicians and epidemiologists.

  7. Timeliness of Malaria Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    AKBARI, Hossein; MAJDZADEH, Reza; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; RAEISI, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the timeliness of reporting of malaria surveillance system and understanding the existing problems. Methods: The timeliness of malaria surveillance system of Iran was evaluated in four provinces of Iran including Sistan & Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman (as provinces with local malaria transmission) and Khuzestan (without local malaria transmission). In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study two levels of Primary Health Care service providers including first level (Health Houses) and second level (Urban or Rural Health care units) were evaluated with regard to reporting of malaria surveillance system. Results: Forms number 1 (87% reported within one day) and number 2 (reporting median: 2 days) are reported from first level to second level, and forms number 4 (median: 4 days), number 3 (median: 6 days), number 7 (median: 9 days), number 5 (median: 11 days) and number 6 (median: 19 days) are reported from second level to the third level respectively in a shorter time. Independent variables such as distance, local malaria transmission level, and case finding type, are the factors affecting the reporting delay. Conclusion: Reporting in the first level compared to the second level is done with lower delay. In the areas where there is a deadline set for reporting, reporting is done more timely. Whatever number of malaria cases is decreased, sensitivity and subsequently timeliness reduced. It is recommended that the studies of timeliness be done with sensitivity and usefulness analysis of surveillance system. PMID:23515191

  8. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  9. [Biostatistical study on health surveillance of Military Navy personnel in Sicilia and Calabria regions].

    PubMed

    Gaudioso, F; Anastasio, G; Truglio, O; Managò, A; Fuda, P; Degano, F; Toscano, A; Iermano, P

    2007-01-01

    The Maritime Military Health submit to periodic medical examination civilian employees exposed to health risks and all military personnel. The latest, because of particular use in operational duties, as well as the characteristic of seafarers employed, undergoes an extensive medical protocol. In 2006 there were around 3200 access to the Service of Medicine Labor Navy Hospital in Augusta (SR). We wanted then to make a collection of data with purpose to highlight the diseases that most often affect the area of military jurisdiction. The illnesses were divided into two main groups: those who did not produce any result on the job because of insignificant impact functional, and those for which they have been taken to unfitness, temporary or permanent. From a statistical evaluation of the acquired data, it results that most affected systems are the skeletical, hematologic, psychic, ENT, heart, the Body Mass Index.

  10. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  11. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  12. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  13. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  14. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  15. The Department of Defense laboratory-based global influenza surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Canas, L C; Lohman, K; Pavlin, J A; Endy, T; Singh, D L; Pandey, P; Shrestha, M P; Scott, R M; Russell, K L; Watts, D; Hajdamowicz, M; Soriano, I; Douce, R W; Neville, J; Gaydos, J C

    2000-07-01

    Military global influenza surveillance began in 1976 as an Air Force program. In 1997, the Department of Defense (DoD) Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System expanded the program to include all services. Also included were local residents in areas where DoD overseas research activities operated. This new, worldwide DoD surveillance infrastructure provides valuable information and can respond quickly to outbreaks. This was demonstrated during the current influenza season when a suspected outbreak was reported in Panama. In less than 3 weeks, specimens were collected, transported, and cultured, and isolates were subtyped and sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for further studies. This influenza surveillance initiative combines viral isolation, antigenic characterization, and molecular sequencing with clinical and public health management of information. The information obtained is shared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization and has contributed to important decisions in influenza vaccine composition.

  16. Modernizing the Military Retirement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    higher than that of average civilians with the same level of education . Enlisted and officer pay now ranks in the top quartile of all high school... higher yielding equities and bonds Findings 5 Findings (Continued) Military retirement is more generous and expensive compared to the...component of overall compensation. Other elements, such as current compensation, and other benefits (e.g. healthcare and education ) constitute the broad

  17. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  18. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed

    Tante, Sheila; Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  19. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  20. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  1. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  2. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  3. Health surveillance of deployed military personnel occasionally leads to unexpected findings.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander C

    2012-10-24

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be caused by life threatening illness, such as cancer and coronary events. The study by Forbes et al. made the unexpected finding that military personnel evacuation with medical illness have similar rates of PTSD to those evacuated with combat injuries. It may be that the illness acts as a nonspecific stressor that interacts with combat exposures to increase the risk of PTSD. Conversely, the inflammatory consequence of systemic illness may augment the effects to traumatic stress and facilitate the immunological abnormalities that are now being associated with PTSD and depression. The impact of the stress on cytokine systems and their role in the onset of PTSD demands further investigation. Military personnel evacuated due to physical illness require similar screening and monitoring for the risk of PTSD to those injured who are already known to be at high risk.

  4. Geographic variation within the military health system.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, Linda; Olaiya, Samuel; Smith, Chad; Hoburg, Andrew; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Nguyen, Louis L; Weissman, Joel S

    2017-04-13

    This study seeks to quantify variation in healthcare utilization and per capita costs using system-defined geographic regions based on enrollee residence within the Military Health System (MHS). Data for fiscal years 2007 - 2010 were obtained from the Military Health System under a data sharing agreement with the Defense Health Agency (DHA). DHA manages all aspects of the Department of Defense Military Health System, including TRICARE. Adjusted rates were calculated for per capita costs and for two procedures with high interest to the MHS- back surgery and Cesarean sections for TRICARE Prime and Plus enrollees. Coefficients of variation (CoV) and interquartile ranges (IQR) were calculated and analyzed using residence catchment area as the geographic unit. Catchment areas anchored by a Military Treatment Facility (MTF) were compared to catchment areas not anchored by a MTF. Variation, as measured by CoV, was 0.37 for back surgery and 0.13 for C-sections in FY 2010- comparable to rates documented in other healthcare systems. The 2010 CoV (and average cost) for per capita costs was 0.26 ($3,479.51). Procedure rates were generally lower and CoVs higher in regions anchored by a MTF compared with regions not anchored by a MTF, based on both system-wide comparisons and comparisons of neighboring areas. In spite of its centrally managed system and relatively healthy beneficiaries with very robust health benefits, the MHS is not immune to unexplained variation in utilization and cost of healthcare.

  5. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  6. Military trauma system in Afghanistan: lessons for civil systems?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeffrey A; Morrison, Jonathan J; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on development and maturation of the tactical evacuation and en route care capabilities of the military trauma system in Afghanistan and discusses hard-learned lessons that may have enduring relevance to civilian trauma systems. Implementation of an evidence-based, data-driven performance improvement programme in the tactical evacuation and en route care elements of the military trauma system in Afghanistan has delivered measured improvements in casualty care outcomes. Transfer of the lessons learned in the military trauma system operating in Afghanistan to civilian trauma systems with a comparable burden of prolonged evacuation times may be realized in improved patient outcomes in these systems.

  7. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  8. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  9. Military use of commercial satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaura, Mary A.

    1992-03-01

    Military communications requirements are discussed, and commercial communication is presented as a potential solution for increased satellite capacity. Both the Army's tactical warfighting concept and the evolution of the modern battlefield to a highly sophisticated data environment in which large databases are transferred among echelons of command have caused a need for increased satellite capacity. This need combined with technology advancements in commercial communications (small mobile satellite terminals in conjunction with narrow spot beam technology) has resulted in the potential commercial communications that can meet the increased military requirements. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite which is intended to provide greater than a gigabit throughput capacity is considered to be one of the most promising wideband systems for military use.

  10. Creativity: Creativity in complex military systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    36 Plucker and Beghetto., 156. 37 Csikszentmihalyi, Creativity, 42. 38 Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions...Ikujiro Nonaka. Enabling Knowledge Creation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd. Chicago...understanding of the system that yield military creativity would enable commanders and staffs to structure their operations process to fully exploit

  11. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  12. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  13. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  14. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  15. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  16. [Analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the National Surveillance System in 2007.].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hao-jie; Chang, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    To improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease. Data was collected through China Disease Reporting Information System (CDRIS) and National Sentinel Surveillance Sites on bacillary dysentery. Data from the CDRIS was compared with the data from the National Sentinel Surveillance to identify the exiting problems. Data from the monitoring sites showed that the detection rate of infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection was 1%, less than that of other age groups. The highest rates were seen in children aged 3 through 9 years. Rate on misdiagnosis in all age group was 23.38%, when using the surveillance case definition of clinical cases and suspect case. The rate of misdiagnosis on infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection by clinical diagnosis was 50%. It showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei were dominant with the positive rates as 57.21% and 42.41%, respectively. From the national sentinel surveillance sites, the confirmed cases taking up 43.39% which did not match the figure from the CDRIS. The diagnostic criterion for bacillary dysentery fit well on other age groups in surveillance system except on infants. Active surveillance on bacillary dysentery that combining both clinical and laboratory diagnosis seems quite necessary on CDRIS, especially for infants.

  17. Long Range Infrared Surveillance System (LRIRSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregg W.

    1987-09-01

    The contract requirement for the LRIRSS program was to design, fabricate, test, and deliver infrared (IR) surveillance systems capable of target detection and recognition at extended ranges. Several significant technical advancements were made during the course of the program. The twenty three inch primary reflecting surface had to be of aluminum due to thermal and weight considerations. This was accomplished through the use of diamond point turned aluminum. The IR and laser receivers are active simultaneously; this has been achieved through the incorporation of a "chopping" mirror that time shares the main aperture between the FLIR and CO2 laser receivers. In addition, the laser had to be eye-safe at the transmitter exit aperture. The use of a single pulse Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser has met the requirement, and is certified by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in Study No. 25-42-0335-85. The major technical challenges have been met, as well as several minor difficulties that arose during the execution of the effort. All hardware has been delivered to the Government in accord with the contractual schedule. NOMENCLATURE CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing Unit FLIR Forward Looking Infrared FOV Field of View IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IR Infrared LRF Laser Rangefinder LRIRSS Long Range Infrared Surveillance System PCB Printed Circuit Board

  18. Legionellosis in Military Health System beneficiaries, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Legionellosis is an infection caused by exposure to mist or vapor contaminated with Legionella bacteria. During the 16-year surveillance period, 73 cases of legionellosis were identified in active component service members; 37 were identified among the reserve component; and 1,044 were identified among all other beneficiaries of the Military Health System (MHS). Of the total 1,154 cases of legionellosis, 11 percent (n=126) were confirmed cases (i.e., reportable medical events); 52 percent (n=599) were probable cases (i.e., hospitalizations); and 37 percent (n=429) were suspected cases (i.e., ambulatory visits). Most of the cases (59%) were identified in individuals aged 60 years and older. The annual number of cases increased during the surveillance period and demonstrated a seasonal trend with more cases occurring in the summer and early fall. Recent trends in the incidence of legionellosis among MHS beneficiaries and civilian populations in the United States highlight the importance of correctly identifying the etiologic agents of bacterial pneumonia and submitting reports of cases of legionellosis through the appropriate reporting system.

  19. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  20. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  1. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-09-28

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).

  2. VISSTM: : A Video Intelligent Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriss, William P.; Price, Wayne G.; Bober, Miroslaw Z.

    2002-12-01

    Video surveillance is gaining increasing popularity as a possible response to various threats such as terrorism, vandalism and crime. The need for automated analysis of the events monitored by video cameras and support for fast search and browsing of such recorded video data is evident. In this paper we present VISSTM, a prototype system that uses advanced video segmentation and MPEG-7 technology to analyse and index visual events in real time. Visual features such as shape, colour and texture are extracted and used to describe the images stored on the system. A search of large volumes of data can be performed very quickly. We show examples of the fast search made possible with VISSTM.

  3. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  4. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in the French Armed Forces: evaluation of three surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Gache, Kristel; Mayet, Aurélie; Manet, Ghislain; Ligier, Caroline; Piarroux, Martine; Faure, Nina; Trichereau, Julie; Verret, Catherine; Decam, Christophe; Chaudet, Hervé; Rapp, Christophe; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Deparis, Xavier; Migliani, René; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-08-01

    The French military forces had to modify their epidemiological surveillance systems at the time of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. The aim of this article was to present an evaluation of the different systems used. Two influenza surveillance systems are usually used in the French forces: one permanent (Surveillance épidémiologique des armées or SEA) and one seasonal (Système militaire d'observation de la grippe or SMOG). The pandemic required the implementation of a daily surveillance system (Surveillance quotidienne--SQ), which aimed to monitor disrupted activity owing to 2009 A(H1N1) influenza. The qualitative evaluation of these three systems during the period from September 2009 to February 2010 was performed using 11 criteria based on the list defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta. Although it included only 30 sentinel units vs. 320 for the other systems, the SMOG system was the best-performing system in terms of relevance, feasibility, efficacy, quality of data, usefulness, acceptability, efficiency and cost/benefits/costs ratio. The SQ proved very expensive in terms of logistics. The SQ did not bring any significant advantage compared with the weekly surveillance schemes. In the eventuality of another similar episode, influenza surveillance could be significantly improved by using the SMOG system extended to more units for better geographical coverage.

  5. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Software is a key component in nearly every critical system used by the Department of Defense. Attacking the software in a system- cyber warfare - is a...revolutionary method of pursuing war. This article describes various cyber warfare approaches and suggests methods to counter them.

  6. [Personal e-cards for military personnel and military-medical information system].

    PubMed

    Kalachev, O V; Stolyar, V P; Kuandykov, M G; Papkov, A Yu

    2015-08-01

    The article presents main directions of activities of the medical service, dealing with implementation of personal electronic cards for military personnel, organizing the process of automation of medical service management, military and medical organizations and health care departments. The given article, reveals the on-going activity, concerning creation of the military-medical information system, which will unite all medical units, organizations, and governments into one information space.

  7. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  8. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  9. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases.

  10. Motion and ranging sensor system for through-the-wall surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jeffrey D.

    2002-08-01

    A portable Through-the-Wall Surveillance System is being developed for law enforcement, counter-terrorism, and military use. The Motion and Ranging Sensor is a radar that operates in a frequency band that allows for surveillance penetration of most non-metallic walls. Changes in the sensed radar returns are analyzed to detect the human motion that would typically be present during a hostage or barricaded suspect scenario. The system consists of a Sensor Unit, a handheld Remote Display Unit, and an optional laptop computer Command Display Console. All units are battery powered and a wireless link provides command and data communication between units. The Sensor Unit is deployed close to the wall or door through which the surveillance is to occur. After deploying the sensor the operator may move freely as required by the scenario. Up to five Sensor Units may be deployed at a single location. A software upgrade to the Command Display Console is also being developed. This software upgrade will combine the motion detected by multiple Sensor Units and determine and track the location of detected motion in two dimensions.

  11. Military Dimensions of Communist Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Abram Bergson , Productivity and the Social System-The USSR and the West, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978, for a detailed examination of...relative productivity and efficiency in the Soviet Union, the United States, and the West. An extension of that analysis is presented in Abram Bergson

  12. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kevin L; Rubenstein, Jennifer; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Johns, Matthew C; Sanchez, Jose L; Meyer, William; Fukuda, Mark M; Blazes, David L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009.

  13. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009. PMID:21388562

  14. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  15. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  16. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  17. Pertussis diagnoses among service members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System, January 2005-June 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-08-01

    Pertussis ("whooping cough") is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Individuals at highest risk are infants and unvaccinated children; however, there have been recent increases in incidence among adolescent and young adult populations in the United States. During the surveillance period, there were 476 confirmed and 3,073 probable cases of pertussis among U.S. military members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System. Among service members there were 77 and 13 confirmed cases in active and reserve component members, respectively. In comparison, infants and children aged 15 years and younger accounted for over half of all confirmed cases (n=244). Several spatiotemporal clusters of pertussis among military healthcare beneficiaries were associated with outbreaks in adjacent non-military communities, particularly in five states (California, Texas, Florida, Washington, and New York); one cluster occurred in a military community in Okinawa, Japan.

  18. Overview of 'Omics Technologies for Military Occupational Health Surveillance and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bradburne, Christopher; Graham, David; Kingston, H M; Brenner, Ruth; Pamuku, Matt; Carruth, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Systems biology ('omics) technologies are emerging as tools for the comprehensive analysis and monitoring of human health. In order for these tools to be used in military medicine, clinical sampling and biobanking will need to be optimized to be compatible with downstream processing and analysis for each class of molecule measured. This article provides an overview of 'omics technologies, including instrumentation, tools, and methods, and their potential application for warfighter exposure monitoring. We discuss the current state and the potential utility of personalized data from a variety of 'omics sources including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and efforts to combine their use. Issues in the "sample-to-answer" workflow, including collection and biobanking are discussed, as well as national efforts for standardization and clinical interpretation. Establishment of these emerging capabilities, along with accurate xenobiotic monitoring, for the Department of Defense could provide new and effective tools for environmental health monitoring at all duty stations, including deployed locations.

  19. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  20. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  1. Military and VA telemedicine systems for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Girard, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine plays a critical role within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Health Administration by allowing the surveillance and care of patients who are isolated by geography, poverty, and disability. In military settings, telemedicine is being widely used to identify injury and illness and aid in the treatment, rehabilitation, and recovery of combat-wounded soldiers in theater. Rapid advances in both domains are transforming the way clinicians provide care, education, and support to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their families. This article discusses the military and VA telemedicine capabilities that are supporting the care of service members and veterans with TBI. These capabilities include new technologies that enhance the identification of TBI, management of symptoms in theater, and application of proven technologies (interactive video, Internet, and World Wide Web) to improve overall care coordination throughout military and VA systems. The impact of distance learning, teleconsultation, telerehabilitation, and home telehealth programs is also described within this context.

  2. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km2 along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. Formal data request and proposed collaborations can be submitted at Kombewadssdata@usamru-k.org. PMID:25009309

  3. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system.

  4. Valuation of the Military Retirement System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    objectives ut the active force. It is a major management tool for the active torce and an element of the military compensation system. Provisions for the...for the volntory retirement of re, ilar oXficers ot all branches of sevice after 40 years of duty, at the discretion of tie P’resident. Suhsequnt Acts...tiscal year and are sent to the I)efense Manpower Data Ceuiter (IIMOC) where they are ,,aintained after a series o quality tests . re passed. h, data

  5. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jasseh, Momodou; Gomez, Pierre; Greenwood, Brian M; Howie, Stephen R C; Scott, Susana; Snell, Paul C; Bojang, Kalifa; Cham, Mamady; Corrah, Tumani; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Farafenni HDSS) is located 170 km from the coast in a rural area of The Gambia, north of the River Gambia. It was set up in 1981 by the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories to generate demographic and health information required for the evaluation of a village-based, primary health care programme in 40 villages. Regular updates of demographic events and residency status have subsequently been conducted every 4 months. The surveillance area was extended in 2002 to include Farafenni Town and surrounding villages to support randomized, controlled trials. With over three decades of prospective surveillance, and through specific scientific investigations, the platform (population ≈ 50,000) has generated data on: morbidity and mortality due to malaria in children and during pregnancy; non-communicable disease among adults; reproductive health; and levels and trends in childhood and maternal mortality. Other information routinely collected includes causes of death through verbal autopsy, and household socioeconomic indicators. The current portfolio of the platform includes tracking Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) attainments in rural Gambia and cause-of-death determination.

  6. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  7. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  8. EWES. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.; Herzog, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  9. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  10. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  11. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  12. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  13. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  14. Contributions of the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Network to global health security in 2011.

    PubMed

    Blazes, David L; Bondarenko, Jennifer L; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Fukuda, Mark M; Perdue, Christopher L; Tsai, Alice Y; Thomas, Alaina C; Chandrasekera, Ruvani M; Cockrill, Jenniver A; Von Thun, Annette M; Baliga, Priya; Meyers, Mitchell; Quintana, Miguel; Wurapa, Eyako K; Mansour, Moustafa M; Dueger, Erica; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Lanata, Claudio F; Gray, Gregory C; Saylors, Karen E; Ndip, Lucy M; Lewis, Sheri; Blair, Patrick J; Sloberg, Paul A; Thomas, Stephen J; Lesho, Emil P; Grogl, Max; Myers, Todd; Ellison, Damon; Ellis, Kathryn K; Brown, Matthew L; Schoepp, Randall J; Shanks, G Dennis; Macalino, Grace E; Eick-Cost, Angelia A; Russell, Kevin L; Sanchez, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    In its 15th year, the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) continued to make significant contributions to global public health and emerging infectious disease surveillance worldwide. As a division of the US Department of Defense's Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center since 2008, GEIS coordinated a network of surveillance and response activities through collaborations with 33 partners in 76 countries. The GEIS was involved in 73 outbreak responses in fiscal year 2011. Significant laboratory capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with 53 foreign health, agriculture and/or defense ministries, as well as with other US government entities and international institutions, including support for numerous national influenza centers. Equally important, a variety of epidemiologic training endeavors reached over 4,500 individuals in 96 countries. Collectively, these activities enhanced the ability of partner countries and the US military to make decisions about biological threats and design programs to protect global public health as well as global health security.

  15. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  16. Quality assessment of nonanthrax vaccination data in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Davila, Jill C; Payne, Daniel C; Zhang, Yujia; Rose, Charles E; Aranas, Aaron; Hill, Andrew N; Ruscio, Bruce; McNeil, Michael M

    2008-03-17

    We assessed nonanthrax vaccination data quality in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) during 1998-2004. We sampled servicemembers' medical charts at 28 Military Treatment Facilities and estimated the agreement between DMSS electronic and medical chart vaccination data, conditional on the data in the medical charts. Our analysis included 3831 individuals who received 39,305 nonanthrax vaccine doses. Yellow fever vaccine category had the highest conditional sensitivity for exact date match (83.4%; 95% CI = 80.1, 86.3); most vaccine categories' conditional sensitivities improved over time. Our study suggests DMSS vaccination data may be acceptable for post-marketing vaccine safety studies for certain vaccines and timeframes.

  17. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  18. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  19. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  20. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts.

  1. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library.

  2. State electronic disease surveillance systems --- United States, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-10-21

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based infrastructure for public health surveillance data exchange between CDC and the 50 states. In 2007, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment to evaluate states' electronic disease surveillance capacity. In 2010, CSTE conducted a follow-up assessment to evaluate the operational status and progress of integration, interoperability, and capacity of state electronic disease surveillance systems. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated a 17.5% increase from 40 states in 2007 to 47 states in 2010 with fully operational general communicable disease (GCD) electronic surveillance systems, a 211.5% increase from 13 to 39 states in the number of systems that were interoperable, a 22.4% increase from 23 to 34 states in the number with integrated systems, and a 20.0% increase to 42 states with the capacity to receive electronic laboratory reports (ELRs). New Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rules for meaningful use of health information technology encourage data exchange between electronic health record systems and public health agencies, including submission of ELRs. To meet national goals for health information exchange to improve population health, variation in disease surveillance systems should decrease, and functionality should increase.

  3. Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report No. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-12-31

    CON SPACE SURVEILLAN ( TECHNICAL SUMMARY ARPA Order No. Applications Research December 31, 19 bitTrLaUT170AJ- Ld U. S. NAVAL RESEARCH Li Washinzton...31 DEC 1958 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-1958 to 00-12-1958 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report...of what became the Naval Space Surveillance System. The descriptions and data were once classified, but have log since been unclassified. Additionally

  4. [Military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    DU, J

    2016-05-01

    The military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty manifested as two aspects, namely disease prevention and medical treatment. Disease prevention included ensuring food and drink safety, avoiding dangerous stations and enjoying regular vacations, etc. Medical treatment included sending medical officials to patrol, stationing military physicians to follow up, applying emergency programs, establishing military medical and pharmacy centers, dispensing required medicines, and accommodating and nursing sick and injured personnel, etc. Meanwhile, the imperial court also supervised the implementation of military medical mechanism, in order to check the soldiers' foods, check and restrict the military physicians' responsibilities, etc., which did play a positive role in protecting soldier's health, guaranteeing the military combat effectiveness, and maintaining national security.

  5. Imported malaria in Jakarta, Indonesia: passive surveillance of returned travelers and military members postdeployment.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith R; Sutanto, Inge; Wibudi, Aris; Ratulangie, Lina; Rudiansyah, Irwan; Fatmi, Aida; Kurniawan, Liliana; Nelwan, Ronald H H; Maguire, Jason D

    2006-01-01

    Autochthonous malaria does not currently occur in Jakarta, the most populous city in Indonesia. Military, forestry, mining, and tourist activities draw Jakarta residents to distant parts of the archipelago with high rates of malaria. Although malaria is a reportable disease in Jakarta, little has been published. We collected demographic and travel information from patients in Jakarta with microscopically confirmed malaria from January 2004 to February 2005, using a standardized data collection form. These results were compared to regional rainfall statistics and transit patterns of Jakarta residents to and from rural areas. Data from 240 patients were collected. Aceh Province was the travel destination most commonly recorded for military members, while Papua and Bangka Island were the most frequently cited by civilians. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 53% of cases, of which 15% had detectable gametocytemia. The most common admission diagnoses were malaria (39%), febrile illness not otherwise specified (23%), viral hepatitis (19%), and dengue (11%). The median time from admission to microscopic diagnosis was 2 days for civilian patients and 2.5 days for military patients. The highest number of cases occurred in May, July, and December with the nadir in October. The diagnosis of malaria may be overlooked and therefore delayed, in nonendemic areas such as Jakarta. Travel destinations associated with contracting malaria vary significantly for civilian and military populations. The factors affecting the peak months of importation likely include rainfall, holiday transit, military flight availability, and referral center locations.

  6. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Imagery Approach to Historical Urban Growth Trends Around Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    MILITARY FACILITIES, *URBAN AREAS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, INFORMATION SYSTEMS , COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, LAND AREAS, GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS , SATELLITE IMAGERY, REGIONAL PLANNING.

  7. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  8. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  9. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  10. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS).

    PubMed

    Beguy, Donatien; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mberu, Blessing; Oduor, Clement; Wamukoya, Marylene; Nganyi, Bonface; Ezeh, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was the first urban-based longitudinal health and demographic surveillance platform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The NUHDSS was established in 2002 to provide a platform to investigate the long-term social, economic and health consequences of urban residence, and to serve as a primary research tool for intervention and impact evaluation studies focusing on the needs of the urban poor in SSA. Since its inception, the NUHDSS has successfully followed every year a population of about 65,000 individuals in 24,000 households in two slum communities--Korogocho and Viwandani--in Nairobi, Kenya. Data collected include key demographic and health information (births, deaths including verbal autopsy, in- and out-migration, immunization) and other information that characterizes living conditions in the slums (livelihood opportunities, household amenities and possessions, type of housing etc.). In addition to the routine data, it has provided a robust platform for nesting several studies examining the challenges of rapid urbanization in SSA and associated health and poverty dynamics. NUHDSS data are shared through internal and external collaborations, in accordance with the Centre's guidelines for publications, data sharing.

  11. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel.

    PubMed

    Plat, M J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-12-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for selected jobs. The search strategy systematically searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and OSH-update databases. The search strategy consisted of several synonyms of the job titles of interest, combined with synonyms for workers' health surveillance. The methodological quality was checked. At least one study was found for each of the following occupations fire fighters, ambulance personnel, police personnel and military personnel. For the first objective, 24 studies described several job-specific WHS activities aimed at aspects of psychological, 'physical' (energetic, biomechanical and balance), sense-related, environmental exposure or cardiovascular requirements. The seven studies found for the second objective measured different outcomes related to work functioning. The methodological quality of the interventions varied, but with the exception of one study, all scored over 55% of the maximum score. Six studies showed effectiveness on at least some of the defined outcomes. The studies described several job-specific interventions: a trauma resilience training, healthy lifestyle promotion, physical readiness training, respiratory muscle training, endurance and resistance training, a physical exercise programme and comparing vaccines. Several examples of job-specific WHS activities were found for the four occupations. Compared to studies focusing on physical tasks, a few studies were found that focus on psychological tasks. Effectiveness studies for job-specific WHS interventions were scarce, although their results were promising. We recommend studying

  13. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  14. Suicide Surveillance in the U.S. Military?Reporting and Classification Biases in Rate Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joel R.; Hoge, Charles W.; Gardner, John; Potter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The military has a well-defined population with suicide prevention programs that have been recognized as possible models for civilian suicide prevention efforts. Monitoring prevention programs requires accurate reporting. In civilian settings, several studies have confirmed problems in the reporting and classification of suicides. This analysis…

  15. Suicide Surveillance in the U.S. Military?Reporting and Classification Biases in Rate Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joel R.; Hoge, Charles W.; Gardner, John; Potter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The military has a well-defined population with suicide prevention programs that have been recognized as possible models for civilian suicide prevention efforts. Monitoring prevention programs requires accurate reporting. In civilian settings, several studies have confirmed problems in the reporting and classification of suicides. This analysis…

  16. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  17. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on similarities and differences among circumpolar

  18. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; On Behalf Of The International Circumpolar Surveillance-Tuberculosis Working Group

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on

  19. A system architecture for long duration free floating flight for military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Epley, L.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Accessibility is today's space frontier. Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging an sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is endless but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about potential vulnerability. Military commanders want space assets more accessible and under direct local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Buoyant vehicles, free floating in the middle stratosphere could provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a verity of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric wind modeling and materials combined with ever-improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The fundamental question is whether a free floating balloon, used in a pseudo-satellite role, has value in a military system. Flight tests are ongoing under NASA sponsorship. Following these tests NASA intends to use the vehicles for research in the Antarctic. The concept is being reviewed by other agencies interested in stratospheric research. We believe that LDFFF systems have applications in areas of communications, surveillance and other traditional satellite missions. Dialogue with the broader community of space users is needed to expand the applications. This report reviews the status of the recent flight tests and presents an overview of the concept of Long Duration Free Floating Flight for military applications. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Sports injury surveillance systems. 'One size fits all'?

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, W

    1997-09-01

    Sport is beneficial to health, but may also cause injuries. Therefore there is a need for sports injury prevention. Sports injury prevention should be based on the outcome of scientific research and should be part of the 'sequence of prevention'. In applying the 'sequence of prevention', first the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem need to be established. Secondly the aetiology and the mechanism of sports injuries need to be identified. Only based on this information can preventative measures be introduced, which must subsequently be evaluated for effectiveness. The principle of the 'sequence of prevention' cannot be applied without proper sports injury surveillance. This paper addresses the question of whether one uniform sports injury surveillance system can be used to cover all aspects of sports injury research at all stages of the 'sequence of prevention'. It is argued that a general sports injury surveillance system is useful for answering questions about the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem in various subsets of a population. It can also be used for time trend studies. If the purpose of injury surveillance is to identify the aetiology or the effectiveness of preventative measures, then sports injury surveillance should be tailored to the specific sports situation. Sports injury surveillance systems are not useful in identifying the mechanism of injury.

  1. An integrated comprehensive occupational surveillance system for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Pompeii, Lisa A; Østbye, Truls; Epling, Carol; Lipscomb, Hester J; James, Tamara; Jacobs, Michael J; Jackson, George; Thomann, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Workers in the health care industry may be exposed to a variety of work-related stressors including infectious, chemical, and physical agents; ergonomic hazards; psychological hazards; and workplace violence. Many of these hazards lack surveillance systems to evaluate exposures and health outcomes. The development and implementation of a comprehensive surveillance system within the Duke University Health System (DUHS) that tracks occupational exposures and stressors as well as injuries and illnesses among a defined population of health care workers (HCWs) is presented. Human resources job and work location data were used to define the DUHS population at risk. Outcomes and exposure data from existing occupational health and safety programs, health promotion programs, and employee health insurance claims, were linked with human resources data and de-identified to create the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System (DHSSS). The surveillance system is described and four examples are presented demonstrating how the system has successfully been used to study consequences of work-related stress, hearing conservation program evaluation, risk factors for back pain and inflammation, and exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF). Utilization of existing data, often collected for other purposes, can be successfully integrated and used for occupational health surveillance monitoring of HCWs. Use of the DHSSS for etiologic studies, benchmarking, and intervention program evaluation are discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    McBrien, Kerry A; Kleinman, Ken P; Abrams, Allyson M; Prosser, Lisa A

    2010-05-07

    Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful consideration.

  3. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  4. Hunters' acceptability of the surveillance system and alternative surveillance strategies for classical swine fever in wild boar - a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Calba, Clémentine; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J

    2016-09-06

    Surveillance measures can only be effective if key players in the system accept them. Acceptability, which describes the willingness of persons to contribute, is often analyzed using participatory methods. Participatory epidemiology enables the active involvement of key players in the assessment of epidemiological issues. In the present study, we used a participatory method recently developed by CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement) to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) surveillance in wild boar in Germany, which is highly dependent on the participation of hunters. The acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies was also analyzed. By conducting focus group discussions, potential vulnerabilities in the system were detected and feasible alternative surveillance strategies identified. Trust in the current surveillance system is high, whereas the acceptability of the operation of the system is medium. Analysis of the acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies showed how risk-based surveillance approaches can be combined to develop strategies that have sufficient support and functionality. Furthermore, some surveillance strategies were clearly rejected by the hunters. Thus, the implementation of such strategies may be difficult. Participatory methods can be used to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of existing surveillance plans for CSF among hunters and to optimize plans regarding their chances of successful implementation.

  5. Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, IHR (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military’s role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described. PMID:21388565

  6. A System Overview of the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    Effective Treatment Period Surveillance Traditional Disease Detection TIME ! Justification for Enhanced Surveillance (Anthrax) Definition of Surveillance...Indicator Data Comms Real - time HL-7 PHIN MS XML, etc. Secure FTP VPN, etc. Text Parsing Data Cleansing Archiving Military Data PHIN MS Etc. Synthetic Data...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing

  7. What can be gained from comprehensive disaggregate surveillance? The Avon Surveillance System for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Wendi; Sadler, Katharine; Cassell, Jackie A; Horner, Paddy; Low, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe a new disaggregate surveillance system covering key diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in a UK locality. Methods The Avon System for Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ASSIST) collects computerised person‐ and episode‐based information about laboratory‐diagnosed sexually transmitted infections from genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, the Avon Brook Clinic, and the Health Protection Agency and trust laboratories in primary care trusts in Avon. The features of the system are illustrated here, by describing chlamydia‐testing patterns according to the source of test, age and sex, and by mapping the distribution of chlamydia across Bristol, UK. Results Between 2000 and 2004, there were 821 685 records of tests for sexually transmitted infections, with 23 542 positive results. The proportion of tests and positive results for chlamydia and gonorrhoea sent from general practice increased over time. Most chlamydia tests in both GUM and non‐specialist settings were performed on women aged >25 years, but positivity rates were highest in women aged <25 years. The positivity rate remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Including data from all diagnostic settings, chlamydia rates were about twice as high as those estimated only from genitourinary clinic cases. Conclusions The ASSIST model could be a promising new tool for planning and measuring sexual health services in England if it can become sustainable and provide more timely data using fewer resources. Collecting denominator data and including infections diagnosed in primary care are essential for meaningful surveillance. PMID:17344247

  8. ESSENCE II and the framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Joseph S; Burkom, H; Pavlin, J

    2004-09-24

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE II) is a prototype syndromic surveillance system for capturing and analyzing public health indicators for early detection of disease outbreaks. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of ESSENCE II according to a CDC framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems. Each major topic of the framework is addressed in this assessment of ESSENCE II performance. ESSENCE captures data in multiple formats, parses text strings into syndrome groupings, and applies multiple temporal and spatio-temporal outbreak-detection algorithms. During a recent DARPA evaluation exercise, ESSENCE algorithms detected a set of health events with a median delay of 1 day after the earliest possible detection opportunity. ESSENCE II has provided excellent performance with respect to the framework and has proven to be a useful and cost-effective approach for providing early detection of health events.

  9. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Aviation...

  10. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  11. Oral-Maxillofacial Injury Surveillance of U.S. Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan, 2001 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mitchener, Timothy A; Chan, Rodney; Simecek, John W

    2017-03-01

    Cranial and oral-maxillofacial injuries accounted for 33% of military visits to in-theater (Level III) military treatment facilities for battle injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Even after years of conflict, the size and scope of oral-maxillofacial injuries in military armed conflict is still not fully understood. This study reports U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) rates of oral-maxillofacial injuries that can be used for further surveillance and research. The populations studied were military personnel deployed to Afghanistan in OEF or Iraq in OIF and Operation New Dawn (OND), who sought care at a Level III military treatment facility for one or more oral-maxillofacial injuries. Injuries were identified in the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR) using diagnosis codes associated with oral-maxillofacial battle and nonbattle injuries. All oral-maxillofacial injuries incurred from October 19, 2001, to June 30, 2014, were included. The Defense Manpower Data Center provided DoD troop strength numbers to serve as the study denominators. Battle injuries accounted for 80% of oral-maxillofacial injuries in OEF. There were 2,504 oral-maxillofacial injuries in OEF. The Army accounted for 1,820 (72.7%), the Marines 535 (21.3%), the Air Force 75 (3.0%), and the Navy 74 (3.0%). The oral-maxillofacial injury rates in OEF for the Army ranged from 1.10 to 4.90/1,000 person years (PY), for the Marines from 0.57 to 9.39/1,000 PY, for the Navy from 0 to 3.29/1,000 PY, and for the Air Force from 0 to 3.38/1,000 PY. The Army tended to have the highest incidence of all services in the early and latter part of the conflict, whereas Marines tended to have the highest incidence in the middle years. The Marines, Army, and Navy all had their individual highest incidences in 2009, the first year of the 2009 to 2011 OEF troop surge. Battle injuries accounted for 75% of oral-maxillofacial injuries in OIF/OND. There were 3,676 oral-maxillofacial injuries

  12. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  13. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination.

  14. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  15. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  16. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  17. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  18. [Modern ways of actualisation of military formulary system].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Goriachev, A B; Krasavin, K D; Golubenko, R A; Gaĭnov, V S; Tikhonov, V S; Stavila, A G; Klochkova, I V

    2014-06-01

    Authors presented a historical summary about formation and development of military formulary system and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the fifth edition of the Drug formulary. The new Drug formulary is a list of drugs developed on the basis of multi-criteria choice of optimal alternatives according clinical and pharmacoeconomic effectiveness, costs with due regard to possible pharmacological support for troops. The fifth edition of the Drug Formulary fully covers medical and social demands of military servicemen, of military retirees and members of their families for the effective drugs during the treatment of socially important and common aliments within the framework of established government guarantee.

  19. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  20. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  1. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2–3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence. In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network’s Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  2. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration.

  3. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105 000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

  4. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    PubMed

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged.

  5. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  6. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  7. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for surveillance systems. 15.511 Section 15.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... limits specified in the table in paragraph (c) of this section, UWB transmitters operating under the...

  8. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  9. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  10. A national framework for an antimicrobial resistance surveillance system within Iranian healthcare facilities: Towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; GhaziSaeedi, Marjan; Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Mirnia, Kayvan; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-09-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is growing rapidly, perhaps more dramatically in developing countries. A demand to monitor, surveil and predict AMR has prompted the design and implementation of AMR surveillance systems (AMRSSs) at all geographic levels, especially in the national context. This study reviewed AMRSSs in leading countries and organisations in order to customise a comprehensive framework for a national system in Iran. The research was conducted in two phases: a review of the literature and comparative analysis; and a knowledge, attitude and practice study. In the first phase, the AMRSSs of pioneering organisations and countries were reviewed by examining related documents. In the second phase, important components for the Iranian national system were determined on the basis of the World Health Organization's Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (WHO GLASS). This study determined the surveillance methods, priority specimens and pathogens, testing methods, reporting protocols and scheduling, recommended data sets, and tools and information flow necessary for the Iranian system. On this basis, a national framework was developed using the class and activity diagrams in Unified Modelling Language. A context diagram was also designed on the basis of a generic biosurveillance architecture. The design and implementation of a national AMRSS for Iranian healthcare facilities is critically required because of irrational antimicrobial use in Iran and insufficient data regarding its consequences. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Event communication in a regional disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Loschen, Wayne; Coberly, Jacqueline; Sniegoski, Carol; Holtry, Rekha; Sikes, Marvin; Happel Lewis, Sheryl

    2007-10-11

    When real-time disease surveillance is practiced in neighboring states within a region, public health users may benefit from easily sharing their concerns and findings regarding potential health threats. To better understand the need for this capability, an event communications component (ECC) was added to the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance System, an operational biosurveillance system employed in the District of Columbia and in surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Through usage analysis and user survey methods, we assessed the value of the enhanced system in daily operational use and during two simulated exercises. Results suggest that the system has utility for regular users of the system as well as suggesting several refinements for future implementations.

  12. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    PubMed

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Soviet Higher Military Educational System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    higher levels of command. Except for the work of a rela- tively small number of Western mil- itary experts fluent in Russian, most of this published...laboratory research unit for re- search on turbojet engines, com- pressors, turbines , etc., and a practice airfield for modem combat and transport...include: naval tactics; scientific Communism; philosophy; celestial navigation; radioelec- tronics; a foreign language; hydro - meteorology; military

  14. Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    prohibited. RAND electronic documents are protected under copyright law. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of...out with the bath water . It is important to recognize that there are at least two places where talented individuals are leaving the military...generally from a particular occupational group or community) “sponsor” junior officers, who then are given specific assignments to help shape their

  15. Analysis of Unmanned Systems in Military Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    hybrid nature of military theaters all around the world. Operations will be held in difficult terrains and will involve many new concepts like...emphasized that uncertainty is part of the nature of war (Clausewitz, 2007). According to Clausewitz (2007), “war is the realm of uncertainty; three...can be characterized by standardization and uniformity, tactical logistics is more variable due to the unpredictable nature of battlefield (Kress

  16. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  17. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  18. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting.

  19. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  20. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-04-20

    An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  1. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS. PMID:16626490

  2. TENTACLE: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    standard format by which blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video is disseminated via the web . SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SBIR Small Business...Thru. TIGR Tactical Ground Reporting System, a web -based information sharing system available to the United States Army TIPL Tentacle IPL TM...Earth for development due to our past experience developing with it, and the maturity of the Tentacle user interface mockup we created (located at

  3. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  4. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  5. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  6. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  7. Potentials of Advanced Database Technology for Military Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    might be promising for military information systems as well. In this paper, we discuss the potentials of multi-media databases and data mining . Both...directions focus on the handling of a vague information need of a user. In general, data mining systems allow a higher degree of vagueness than multi-media

  8. Systems Theory, Unity of Effort, and Military Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    Omid—Helmand River Valley...................57 Figure 9. Operation Omid Partner Team—Kandahar City .............................................58... cycles and patterns of behavior? Perhaps we perceive our environment as a complicated system filled with complicated subsystems and parts (nodes...car got flooded with water .” Emergent causality or perhaps systemic causality. 3 execution. However, current Military Doctrine fails to fully

  9. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  10. Quality assurance applied to animal disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Salman; Stärk, K D C; Zepeda, C

    2003-08-01

    Monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSS) are essential activities for official Veterinary Services. In addition, the increased trade in animals and animal products over recent years has increased the importance of international disease reporting. A reliable surveillance system is the key to early warning of a change in the health status of any animal population. Such a system is also essential for providing evidence about the absence of diseases or in determining the extent of a disease which is known to be present. The authors discuss a set of methods and approaches for evaluating the quality of surveillance and survey systems. Certain steps are required when assessing the quality of a service or product. Various approaches for quality assessment are available and the suitability of each method depends on the objective of the evaluation. An essential basic requirement is, however, to use an objective, transparent and systematic approach. The evidence collected and the analyses used to reach conclusions must be of such high quality that the results are acceptable to both the management of the MOSS and the assessor. Repeated discussions and negotiations may be necessary to reach consensus, particularly if the judgement affects activities between trading partners. Well-documented MOSS with specified objectives and integrated quality assurance mechanisms are likely to be easier to evaluate.

  11. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  12. A comparative assessment of immunization records in the Defense Medical Surveillance System and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael M; Ma, Guihua; Aranas, Aaron; Payne, Daniel C; Rose, Charles E

    2007-04-30

    We compared immunization data in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) and immunization data for service members with an anthrax vaccine-associated adverse event reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during January 1998 through December 2004. Our main measure of agreement was sensitivity of the DMSS conditional on an immunization record(s) occurring in VAERS. The sensitivity of DMSS was 73% for all vaccines and 74% for the anthrax vaccine on the VAERS index immunization date. Our study is the first to quantify the agreement between immunization records in VAERS and DMSS. Our data suggest the immunization information in military VAERS reports and the DMSS is similar for anthrax and non-anthrax immunizations.

  13. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  14. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-02-01

    The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150 km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. TENTACLE Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-16

    IPC ( inter -process communication ) methods which would allow passing of data from the CMU SDK platform to the rest of the Tentacle system in a more...IP Internet Protocol IPC Inter -Process Communication 153 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 88ABW Cleared 05...on events meaningful to the user. 15. SUBJECT TERMS realtime video surveillance, people and vehicle tracking , multi-camera multi-sensor fusion

  16. A conditional probability approach to surveillance system sensitivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Majdzadeh, R; Pourmalek, F

    2008-01-01

    To determine the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) surveillance system sensitivity with a conditional probability approach at district level in Darregaz, a frontier town in the north of Iran. A cross-sectional survey. We used a sample survey of sexually active inhabitants for proxy measurement of the medical service utilization pattern for STD, and interviews with all practitioners to determine their knowledge of STD diagnosis and attitude towards STD reporting as proxy measures of actual STD diagnosis and reporting, respectively. Point estimates of the STD surveillance system sensitivity for each of the health service sectors were derived from multiplying the three proxy measures of sensitivity determinants, i.e., utilization, diagnosis, and reporting, as conditional probabilities. Estimates of sensitivity for all health service sectors were summed to obtain the overall sensitivity. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was 21.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-25.3%) for detecting symptomatic STD. Of the sexually active inhabitants, 8.9% (95% CI 5.5-14.2%) did not use health services if they contracted STDs. The public health sector's contribution to overall sensitivity (59.6%) was greater than its proportion of service utilization for STD (45.3%). The strengths of the conditional probability approach are feasibility of conducting necessary surveys, decomposing sensitivity into its determinants, and providing evidence for intervention at different points for planning purposes. This approach tends to overestimate the overall sensitivity.

  17. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  18. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Rules ( IFR ) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight following that depends on cooperative avionics to support surveillance source data collection systems...identify aircraft that are receiving ANSP IFR or VFR flight following service. Aircraft identity is used as a radio call sign in the NAS to address...driven by requirements to provide and sustain IFR traffic capacity, that is, to have surveillance available even during subsystem outages. Coverage

  19. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  20. [General epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Surveillance systems and programs].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Miquel; Limón, Enric

    2013-02-01

    Infections related to the health-care system are those associated with health care practices in hospitalized patients as well as in out-patients with health-care contact. Nosocomial infections affect 5% of in-patients, and carry a high morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The main types of nosocomial infections are related to invasive procedures, and include respiratory tract infection, surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, and vascular catheter bacteremia. It has been shown that the application of checklists and a bundle of measures are useful in preventing these infections. Epidemiological surveillance, defined as the gathering of information to take actions, is the basis of infection control programs. These have evolved from a global surveillance targeted at processes and indicators of nosocomial infection. The comparison of these indicators can be useful in establishing preventive measures.

  1. An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control. PMID:8130456

  2. Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) solid state transmitter modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francoeur, A. R.

    The author describes the design of the modernized solid-state transmitter for the US Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) station transmitters at Jordan Lake, AL, Gila River, AZ, and Lake Kickapoo, TX. The modernized NAVSPASUR is the highest average power solid-state transmitter ever produced. With the antenna gain of the system, it produces an effective radiated average power in excess of 98 dBw. Solid-state modernization of the NAVSPASUR transmitter has produced significant cost and performance improvements, which are expected to extend the operating life of the system into the next century.

  3. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  4. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  5. Profile: The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Crampin, Amelia C; Dube, Albert; Mboma, Sebastian; Price, Alison; Chihana, Menard; Jahn, Andreas; Baschieri, Angela; Molesworth, Anna; Mwaiyeghele, Elnaeus; Branson, Keith; Floyd, Sian; McGrath, Nuala; Fine, Paul E M; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Zaba, Basia

    2012-01-01

    The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35 000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002–2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades. PMID:22729235

  6. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  8. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 1995 Special Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities: MIL- STD -1472D Checklist Lockheed...a sequential listing of all major MIL- STD -1472D Section 5.0 paragraph headings. The main paragraph headings serve as easy reminders to make sure no

  9. Family Child Care Programs within the Military System of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carolyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Military families face challenges not found in other work environments. Shifting work schedules that are often longer than the typical 8-hour day, as well as the ever-present possibility of being deployed anywhere in the world on a moment's notice, require a child care system that is flexible but maintains high-quality standards. The U.S.…

  10. Family Child Care Programs within the Military System of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carolyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Military families face challenges not found in other work environments. Shifting work schedules that are often longer than the typical 8-hour day, as well as the ever-present possibility of being deployed anywhere in the world on a moment's notice, require a child care system that is flexible but maintains high-quality standards. The U.S.…

  11. The US Military Child Care System: A Model Worth Replicating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Military child care has not always been a model system. The services were inconsistent, many programs had serious deficiencies thus were failing to meet basic health and safety standards, and caregivers were poorly trained and poorly paid. However, in the late 1980's, the Government Accounting Office exposed the seriousness of the situation.…

  12. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  13. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  14. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  15. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  16. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  17. Value of syndromic surveillance within the Armed Forces for early warning during a dengue fever outbreak in French Guiana in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Chaudet, Hervé; Texier, Gaetan; Ardillon, Vanessa; Ravachol, Françoise; Deparis, Xavier; Jefferson, Henry; Dussart, Philippe; Morvan, Jacques; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background A dengue fever outbreak occured in French Guiana in 2006. The objectives were to study the value of a syndromic surveillance system set up within the armed forces, compared to the traditional clinical surveillance system during this outbreak, to highlight issues involved in comparing military and civilian surveillance systems and to discuss the interest of syndromic surveillance for public health response. Methods Military syndromic surveillance allows the surveillance of suspected dengue fever cases among the 3,000 armed forces personnel. Within the same population, clinical surveillance uses several definition criteria for dengue fever cases, depending on the epidemiological situation. Civilian laboratory surveillance allows the surveillance of biologically confirmed cases, within the 200,000 inhabitants. Results It was shown that syndromic surveillance detected the dengue fever outbreak several weeks before clinical surveillance, allowing quick and effective enhancement of vector control within the armed forces. Syndromic surveillance was also found to have detected the outbreak before civilian laboratory surveillance. Conclusion Military syndromic surveillance allowed an early warning for this outbreak to be issued, enabling a quicker public health response by the armed forces. Civilian surveillance system has since introduced syndromic surveillance as part of its surveillance strategy. This should enable quicker public health responses in the future. PMID:18597694

  18. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  20. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  1. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  2. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  3. Evolution of an Integrated Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Derek A.; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System—VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination. PMID:22097701

  4. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  5. Guidelines for reliability testing of microelectromechanical systems in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Robert; Gintert, Larry; Rippen, Marc; Skelton, Don; Zunino, James; Gutmanis, Ivars

    2006-01-01

    Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) and microsystems technologies are seeing increased consideration for use in military applications. Assets ranging from aircraft and communications to munitions may soon employ MEMS. In all cases, MEMS devices must perform their required functions for the duration of the equipment's mission profile. Long-term performance in a given scenario can be assured through an understanding of the predominant MEMS failure modes. Once the failure modes have been identified, standardized tests will be developed and conducted on representative devices to detect the potential for these failures. Failure mechanisms for MEMS devices in severe environments may include wear and stiction. While corrosion is not usually a concern for commercial MEMS devices, as they are made primarily of silicon, other materials, including metallics, are being considered for MEMS to provide enhanced robustness in military applications. When these materials are exposed to aggressive military environments, corrosion may become a concern. Corrosion of metallic packaging and interconnect materials may also present issues for overall performance. Considering these corrosion and degradation issues, there is a need to implement standardized tests and requirements to ensure adequate long-term performance of MEMS devices in fielded and emerging military systems. To this end, Concurrent Technologies Corporation has been tasked by the U.S. Army to initiate efforts to standardize test methods that have been developed under previous activities. This paper presents an overview of the MEMS activities under the standardization effort and the MEMS reliability test guidelines that have been drafted as a first phase of this effort.

  6. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  7. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  8. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  9. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  10. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  11. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  12. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  13. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS): purpose, production, and potential.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) developed the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) to assist all 192 WHO Member States in collecting data on youth and adult tobacco use. The flexible GTSS system includes common data items but allows countries to include important unique information at their discretion. It uses a common survey methodology, similar field procedures for data collection, and similar data management and processing techniques. The GTSS includes collection of data through three surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for youth, and the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) and the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS) for adults. GTSS data potentially can be applied in four ways. First, countries and research partners can disseminate data through publications, presentations, and an active GTSS web site. Second, countries can use GTSS data to inform politicians about the tobacco problem in their country, leading to new policy decisions to prevent and control tobacco use. Third, GTSS can provide countries with valuable feedback to evaluate and improve Country National Action Plans or develop new plans. Fourth, in response to the WHO FCTC call for countries to use consistent methods and procedures in their surveillance efforts, GTSS offers such consistency in sampling procedures, core questionnaire items, training infield procedures, and analysis of data across all survey sites. The GTSS represents the most comprehensive tobacco surveillance system ever developed and implemented. As an example, this paper describes development of the GYTS and discusses potential uses of the data. Sample data were drawn from 38 sites in 24 countries in the African Region, 82 sites in 35 countries in the Americas Region, 20 sites in 17 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank region in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 25 sites in 22 countries in the European

  14. Border security and surveillance system with smart cameras and motes in a Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, Sadiye; Cole, Timothy; Silverstein, Jay; Pushee, Ian; Fairgrieve, Scott

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe a prototype surveillance system that leverages smart sensor motes, intelligent video, and Sensor Web technologies to aid in large area monitoring operations and to enhance the security of borders and critical infrastructures. Intelligent video has emerged as a promising tool amid growing concern about border security and vulnerable entry points. However, numerous barriers exist that limit the effectiveness of surveillance video in large area protection; such as the number of cameras needed to provide coverage, large volumes of data to be processed and disseminated, lack of smart sensors to detect potential threats and limited bandwidth to capture and distribute video data. We present a concept prototype that addresses these obstacles by employing a Smart Video Node in a Sensor Web framework. Smart Video Node (SVN) is an IP video camera with automated event detection capability. SVNs are cued by inexpensive sensor motes to detect the existence of humans or vehicles. Based on sensor motes' observations cameras are slewed in to observe the activity and automated video analysis detects potential threats to be disseminated as "alerts". Sensor Web framework enables quick and efficient identification of available sensors, collects data from disparate sensors, automatically tasks various sensors based on observations or events received from other sensors, and receives and disseminates alerts from multiple sensors. The prototype system is implemented by leveraging intuVision's intelligent video, Northrop Grumman's sensor motes and SensorWeb technologies. Implementation of a deployable system with Smart Video Nodes and sensor motes within the SensorWeb platform is currently underway. The final product will have many applications in commercial, government and military systems.

  15. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  16. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  17. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  18. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  19. Evaluation and Reform of Mexican National Epidemiological Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; González-Urbán, Luis; Sarti, Elsa

    2001-01-01

    To generate timely and reliable information for decision making in local health centers, Mexico's National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINAVE) was evaluated and reformed. The reform was achieved by consensus through national meetings of epidemiologists, using a conceptual model of requirements, leadership, participation, and motivation. The new SINAVE is run by committees that use data from 16 468 local health centers that generate homogeneous information from all health institutions. Indicators, flowcharts, and standardized instruments were created. The reforms modernized SINAVE and strengthened epidemiologists' leadership, consolidated local decision making, and assessed control actions needed to improve the health of the Mexican population. PMID:11684594

  20. Requirements and applications for robotic servicing of military space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledford, Otto C., Jr.; Bennett, Rodney G.

    1992-01-01

    The utility of on-orbit servicing of spacecraft has been demonstrated by NASA several times using shuttle-based astronaut EVA. There has been interest in utilizing on-orbit servicing for military space systems as well. This interest has been driven by the increasing reliance of all branches of the military upon space-based assets, the growing numbers, complexity, and cost of those assets, and a desire to normalize support policies for space-based operations. Many military satellites are placed in orbits which are unduly hostile for astronaut operations and/or cannot be reached by the shuttle. In addition, some of the projected tasks may involve hazardous operations. This has led to a focus on robotic systems, instead of astronauts, for the basis of projected servicing systems. This paper describes studies and activities which will hopefully lead to on-orbit servicing being one of the tools available to military space systems designers and operators. The utility of various forms of servicing has been evaluated for present and projected systems, critical technologies have been identified, and strategies for the development and insertion of this technology into operational systems have been developed. Many of the projected plans have been adversely affected by budgetary restrictions and evolving architectures, but the fundamental benefits and requirements are well understood. A method of introducing servicing capabilities in a manner which has a low impact on the system designer and does not require the prior development of an expensive infrastructure is discussed. This can potentially lead to an evolutionary implementation of the full technology.

  1. Update: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection surveillance among active duty military personnel at Fort Benning GA, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Leamer, Nicole K; Clemmons, Nakia S; Jordan, Nikki N; Pacha, Laura A

    2013-08-01

    Increasing numbers of Staphylococcus aureus infections demonstrate antibiotic resistance. Military populations experiencing crowding are at increased risk of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infection. High prevalence of CA-MRSA infection among Army personnel was previously documented at Fort Benning, GA from 2002 to 2007. To ascertain recent CA-MRSA trends at Fort Benning regarding antibiotic susceptibility, infection rates, and treatment regimens among Army personnel. Incident CA-MRSA cases among active duty members/trainees from January 2008 to December 2010 were identified using active surveillance and laboratory data. In total, 2,171 infections were identified, representing 5,794 CA-MRSA-related clinic visits. Annual rates decreased from 33 to 27 infections per 1,000 soldiers from 2008 to 2010. Approximately 78% of isolates were from training units. Approximately 4% of infections required hospitalization. Most infections (97%) were treated with antibiotics (36% received antibiotics and wound drainage). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns remained comparable to previous assessments. The observed decline in CA-MRSA rates and associated hospitalizations, coupled with stable antibiotic susceptibility patterns, is encouraging. Passive surveillance using laboratory records proved useful in identifying infection and could enhance detection across training sites. Given the continued high CA-MRSA prevalence among trainees, providers/public health personnel should remain vigilant to bolster prevention, detection, and treatment efforts. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Establishing a cost-effective national surveillance system for Bluetongue using scenario tree modelling

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, Daniela C.; Racloz, Vanessa; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Stärk, Katharina D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases pose a special challenge to veterinary authorities due to complex and time-consuming surveillance programs taking into account vector habitat. Using stochastic scenario tree modelling, each possible surveillance activity of a future surveillance system can be evaluated with regard to its sensitivity and the expected cost. The overall sensitivity of various potential surveillance systems, composed of different combinations of surveillance activities, is calculated and the proposed surveillance system is optimized with respect to the considered surveillance activities, the sensitivity and the cost. The objective of this project was to use stochastic scenario tree modelling in combination with a simple cost analysis in order to develop the national surveillance system for Bluetongue in Switzerland. This surveillance system was established due to the emerging outbreak of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Northern Europe in 2006. Based on the modelling results, it was decided to implement an improved passive clinical surveillance in cattle and sheep through campaigns in order to increase disease awareness alongside a targeted bulk milk testing strategy in 200 dairy cattle herds located in high-risk areas. The estimated median probability of detection of cases (i.e. sensitivity) of the surveillance system in this combined approach was 96.4%. The evaluation of the prospective national surveillance system predicted that passive clinical surveillance in cattle would provide the highest probability to detect BTV-8 infected animals, followed by passive clinical surveillance in sheep and bulk milk testing of 200 dairy cattle farms in high-risk areas. This approach is also applicable in other countries and to other epidemic diseases. PMID:19607784

  3. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Integration of micro-fabricated atomic magnetometers on military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Mhaskar, Rahul; Prouty, Mark; Miller, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    A new generation of ultra-high sensitivity magnetic sensors based on innovative micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are being developed and incorporated into military systems. Specifically, we are currently working to fully integrate the latest generation of MicroFabricated Atomic Magnetometers (MFAMs) developed by Geometrics on defense mobility systems such as unmanned systems, military vehicles and handheld units. Recent reductions in size, weight, and power of these sensors has enabled new deployment opportunities for improved sensitivity to targets of interest, but has also introduced new challenges associated with noise mitigation, mission configuration planning, and data processing. Our work is focused on overcoming the practical aspects of integrating these sensors with various military platforms. Implications associated with utilizing these combined sensor systems in working environments are addressed in order to optimize signal-to-noise ratios, detection probabilities, and false alarm mitigation. Specifically, we present collaborative work that bridges the gap between commercial specialists and operation platform integration organizations including magnetic signature characterization and mitigation as well as the development of simulation tools that consider a wide array of sensor, environmental, platform, and mission-level parameters. We discuss unique deployment concepts for explosive hazard target geolocation, and data processing. Applications include configurations for undersea and underground threat detection - particularly those associated with stationary or mobile explosives and compact metallic targets such as munitions, subsea threats, and other hazardous objects. We show the potential of current and future features of miniaturized magnetic sensors including very high magnetic field sensitivities, bandwidth selectivity, and array processing.

  5. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    PubMed

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  6. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  7. Toward Development of a Face Recognition System for Watchlist Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2011-10-01

    The interest in face recognition is moving toward real-world applications and uncontrolled sensing environments. An important application of interest is automated surveillance, where the objective is to recognize and track people who are on a watchlist. For this open world application, a large number of cameras that are increasingly being installed at many locations in shopping malls, metro systems, airports, etc., will be utilized. While a very large number of people will approach or pass by these surveillance cameras, only a small set of individuals must be recognized. That is, the system must reject every subject unless the subject happens to be on the watchlist. While humans routinely reject previously unseen faces as strangers, rejection of previously unseen faces has remained a difficult aspect of automated face recognition. In this paper, we propose an approach motivated by human perceptual ability of face recognition which can handle previously unseen faces. Our approach is based on identifying the decision region(s) in the face space which belong to the target person(s). This is done by generating two large sets of borderline images, projecting just inside and outside of the decision region. For each person on the watchlist, a dedicated classifier is trained. Results of extensive experiments support the effectiveness of our approach. In addition to extensive experiments using our algorithm and prerecorded images, we have conducted considerable live system experiments with people in realistic environments.

  8. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  9. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Woo, Hyekyung

    2016-12-08

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual's internet activity. Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification needed, web-based surveillance systems have evolved to complement

  10. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  11. The Soviet Military Education System for Commissioning and Training Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Organization; Instructor Complement; Curriculum; Manpower Levels; Military Academies; Other Advanced Officer Training; The Military Academy of the General Staff; Post Graduate Programs ; Central Hierarchy; Overall Manpower Estimates.

  12. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Status of state electronic disease surveillance systems--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-07-31

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based system that uses standard health information technology (IT) codes to integrate disease surveillance systems, enabling them to transfer public health, laboratory, and clinical data securely from health-care providers to public health departments. Each jurisdictions' system consists of a base system and modules that can be used for specific surveillance purposes. States also use NEDSS-like or other electronic systems to conduct surveillance on specific diseases or conditions. Until recently, no assessment had been done to describe the status and characteristics of state electronic disease surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted such an assessment in August 2007 in all 50 states. This report presents the results of that assessment, which indicated that, in 2007, state electronic disease surveillance systems varied widely and were in various stages of implementation. Each state had either custom-built systems or purchased systems that were customizable, with associated disease modules to meet its own surveillance needs. As interoperability becomes the standard for electronic data sharing, more states will face customization costs and the need to hire more technical specialists who can manage health information and exchange. Further collaboration and support from surveillance and health-care IT stakeholders with public health will be needed to improve the efficacy and quality of electronic disease surveillance systems.

  14. Integrating Systems Engineering Simulations for Military Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    The VSIL system uses “ lego -like” soft building blocks that can be dragged from a component model library to easily configure a complex system for...designs easily. They do not use “soft” modular lego -like components, so that a complete system or sub-system can be quickly and easily “assembled...Physics from the University of Michigan. CHARLES COHEN has been working in the fields of modeling and simulation, image processing, robotics , human

  15. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  16. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  17. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  18. Dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H. L.; Li, X.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, J. T.; Xie, W. H.; Zhao, Z. J.

    2017-08-01

    The dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system is studied in this paper. The acoustic magnetic properties investigations were performed on amorphous ribbon Fe24Co11.82Ni47.3Si1.47B15 with a size of 38.5 mm  ×  6 mm  ×  0.03 mm at room temperature. The results showed that the dependence of resonance amplitude and frequency on the external magnetic field varied with the number of ribbons. To understand the mechanism, hysteresis loops in arrays of N ribbons with and without a bias magnet have been performed. A theoretical model was used to calculate the dipolar fields among the ribbons and the magnet. The ribbons without a bias magnet exhibited a higher anisotropy field as the number of ribbons increased, which arises from the dipole-dipole interaction between them. The plateau and kink in hysteresis loops with bias magnets also change with the number of ribbons because of the dipole-dipole interactions among the ribbons themselves, and the interaction between the ribbons and the bias magnet also. The superimposed dipolar field affects the acoustic magnetic properties of the ribbons in electronic article surveillance system.

  19. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  20. Transforming Change in the Military: A Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    IN THE MILITARY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH by James G. Alden Amber L. Hopeman Jodi A. Neff June 2007 Thesis Advisor: Erik Jansen Thesis Co...Approved by: Dr. Erik Jansen Thesis Advisor George Lober Co-Advisor Dr. Gordon McCormick Second Reader Dr. Gordon McCormick Chairman...help you answer it. We also would like to thank our other two advisors, Erik Jansen and George Lober. Erik, we couldn’t have done this without your

  1. National Healthcare Reform: Implications for the Military Healthcare System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-16

    healthcare for certain non-active duty reservists and extended chiropractic care to active duty members placing yet additional pressures on defense health...coalition of lobbyists and elected representatives to implement reforms. The recent passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA... Care Act (PPACA), Capitation, Health Savings Accounts (HAS), AHLTA, VistA, TRICARE, Military Healthcare System (MHS). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  2. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  3. An Augmented Reality System for Military Operations in Urban Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-05

    24061 ABSTRACT Many future military operations are expected to occur in urban environments. These complex, 3D battlefields intro- duce many...from ISIM, France, and an M.S. in computer science in 1999 from the University of Central Florida. His research interests are in computer graphics, 3D ...information needed and reduce it to a minimum during high-stress situations. The Shared Information Database The system contains a detailed 3D

  4. Accelerating the Use of Commercial Integrated Circuits in Military Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    most pop - ular commercial products are bought." We should "expect the importance of applying technology to national security prob- lems to...during soldering can cause " popcorning ", the tendency for a package to crack or explode when moisture in the package expands. While evidence...using com- mercial parts in a military microwave landing system. B.4 Design and Supportability Workshop The following summary and conclusions are

  5. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  6. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  7. Alternative methods for computing the sensitivity of complex surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Hood, G M; Barry, S C; Martin, P A J

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic scenario trees are a new and popular method by which surveillance systems can be analyzed to demonstrate freedom from pests and disease. For multiple component systems-such as a combination of a serological survey and systematically collected observations-it can be difficult to represent the complete system in a tree because many branches are required to represent complex conditional relationships. Here we show that many of the branches of some scenario trees have identical outcomes and are therefore redundant. We demonstrate how to prune branches and derive compact representations of scenario trees using matrix algebra and Bayesian belief networks. The Bayesian network representation is particularly useful for calculation and exposition. It therefore provides a firm basis for arguing disease freedom in international forums.

  8. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  9. Challenges Faced by Undergraduate Military Students at American Public University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machuca, Ana; Torres, Karin; Morris, Pamela; Whitley, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper will summarize some of challenges faced by military students enrolled in an associate and bachelors online program at American Public University System (APUS). The survey results on which the study is based exposed the following problems faced by military personnel: 48.7% had difficulties working around military obligations, 33.3%…

  10. Challenges Faced by Undergraduate Military Students at American Public University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machuca, Ana; Torres, Karin; Morris, Pamela; Whitley, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper will summarize some of challenges faced by military students enrolled in an associate and bachelors online program at American Public University System (APUS). The survey results on which the study is based exposed the following problems faced by military personnel: 48.7% had difficulties working around military obligations, 33.3%…

  11. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  12. Official Military Personnel Files, Micrographics System Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-27

    use of ammonia for duplication is reltively safe, ammonia leaks can result and can be dangerous. Ammonia fumes were detected in some installations...the sophis - tication of the system. Manual systems will utilize optical projection systems to enable users at a particular work station to view the...C. Turner , Supervisor, Special Actions Unit, OPRB, MSD Ms. M. Hill, Chief, Micrographics, OPRB, MSD Ms. C. Howard, Pre/Post Inspection Clerk, OPRB

  13. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  14. Evaluation of active mortality surveillance system data for monitoring hurricane-related deaths-Texas, 2008.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M

    2012-08-01

    The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS' active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Using CDC's Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Texas's active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health interventions to reduce future hurricane-related mortality rates.

  15. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  16. Systems approaches to animal disease surveillance and resource allocation: methodological frameworks for behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karl M; Denwood, Matthew J; Stott, Alistair W; Mellor, Dominic J; Reid, Stuart W J; Gunn, George J

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions.

  17. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  18. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

  19. Commercial/Military Communications Satellite Systems Interoperability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings Brandon, William T. and Strohl , Mary Jane. " A General Purpose Mili- tary Satellite Communications System Concept." Proceedings, International...SATELLITE SYSTEMS INTEROPERABILITY I by - David Martin Skiver B.S., United States Air Force Academy, 1977 Ioi t A thesis submitted to the Faculty of...Telecommunications 1DTIC -JUL 1 5 1985 C.. G. ( ,.-.. DISTRIBUTION STAThMEN A Approved for public ieleasel Distribution Unlimited 85 06 24 098 t-i . .; .... /i

  20. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). Aim This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). Methods The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables “organizational unit” and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall’s correlation coefficient test. Results The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Conclusion Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death. PMID:28894555

  2. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  3. Military Affective Picture System (MAPS): A new emotion-based stimuli set for assessing emotional processing in military populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Adam M; Katz, Jeffrey S; Dretsch, Michael N

    2016-03-01

    Emotionally relevant pictorial stimuli utilized in studies to characterize both normal and pathological emotional responses do not include military scenarios. Failures to replicate consistent findings for military populations have led to speculation that these image sets do not capture personally relevant experiences. The Military Affective Picture System (MAPS) was developed consisting of 240 images depicting scenes common among military populations. A Self-Assessment Manikin was administered to a 1) U.S. Army soldiers and a 2) non-military population. Findings revealed gender differences in valence and dominance dimensions, but not arousal, for both samples. Valence scores were higher for the military. Arousal ratings decrease as a product of combat exposure. Civilian females demonstrated stronger correlations of valence and arousal when viewing positive or negative images. Given the limited power achieved in the current studies' gender comparisons; it would be difficult to draw major conclusions regarding the interaction of combat exposure or military status with gender for each of the categories. Without having included the IAPS ratings for comparison it is difficult to conclude whether effects only pertain to viewing MAPS images, or if there was unintentional selection bias. Additional ratings would provide better assessments for these effects in both males and females. The MAPS has potential as a screening instrument and clinical evaluation tool for assessing treatment outcomes for individuals with combat-related psychopathology. The MAPS is freely available for research to non-profit groups upon request at http://www.cla.auburn.edu/psychology/military-affective-picture-system/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: A Review of Methods and Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite to the development and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. This review aimed to identify ongoing sports injury surveillance systems and determine whether there are gaps in our understanding of injuries in certain sport settings. A secondary aim was to determine which of the included surveillance systems have evaluated the quality of their data, a key factor in determining their usefulness. A systematic search was carried out to identify (1) publications presenting methodological details of sports injury surveillance systems within clubs and organisations; and (2) publications describing quality evaluations and the quality of data from these systems. Data extracted included methodological details of the surveillance systems, methods used to evaluate data quality, and results of these evaluations. Following literature search and review, a total of 15 sports injury surveillance systems were identified. Data relevant to each aim were summarised descriptively. Most systems were found to exist within professional and elite sports. Publications concerning data quality were identified for seven (47%) systems. Validation of system data through comparison with alternate sources has been undertaken for only four systems (27%). This review identified a shortage of ongoing injury surveillance data from amateur and community sport settings and limited information about the quality of data in professional and elite settings. More surveillance systems are needed across a range of sport settings, as are standards for data quality reporting. These efforts will enable better monitoring of sports injury trends and the development of sports safety strategies.

  5. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  6. The Missile Defense Agency's space tracking and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Zondervan, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is a layered system incorporating elements in space. In addition to missile warning systems at geosynchronous altitudes, an operational BMDS will include a low Earth orbit (LEO) system-the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). It will use infrared sensing technologies synergistically with the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) and will provide a seamless adjunct to radars and sensors on the ground and in airborne platforms. STSS is being designed for a future operational capability to defend against evolving threats. STSS development is divided into phases, commencing with a two-satellite demonstration constellation scheduled for launch in 2008. The demonstration satellites will conduct a menu of tests and experiments to prove the system concept, including the ground segment. They will have limited operational capability within the integrated BMDS. Data from the demonstration satellites will be received and processed by the Missile Defense Space Experiment Center (MDSEC), a part of the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center (MDIOC). MDA launched in 2007 into LEO a satellite (NFIRE) designed to make near-field multispectral measurements of boosting targets and to demonstrate laser communication, the latter in conjunction with the German satellite TerraSAR-X. The gimbaled, lightweight laser terminal has demonstrated on orbit a 5.5 gbps rate in both directions. The filter passbands of NFIRE are similar to the STSS demonstrator track sensor. While providing useful phenomenology during its time on orbit, NFIRE will also serve as a pathfinder in the development of STSS operations procedures.

  7. Degradation Mechanisms of Military Coating Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    system). The poly(ester-urethane) binder is formed at the time of application and is generated via reaction between a hydroxide group carried by a...or biuret form of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) (Figure 3). Coatings “A” and “C” employ organic solvents, and coatings “B” and “D” have sharply...two part coatings. (Potential side reactions not included for simplicity.) Figure 3: HDI based polyurethanes. A) HDI isocyanurate. B) HDI

  8. Military Planning Systems and Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...ONA and SoSA to be pseudoscience . He further argues that SoSA relies on formal systems analysis and that it should be recognized as the same analyti...show its successes, the Army likely was attracted to SOD by the ability of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) to engage the Israeli political leadership

  9. Military Emergency Medical Service System Assessment: Application of the National Park Service Needs Assessment and Program Audit to Objectively Evaluate the Military EMS System of Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliot M; Harper, Stephen A; Cunningham, Cord; Walrath, Benjamin D; DeMers, Gerard; Kharod, Chetan U

    2017-03-01

    As part of a Military Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system process improvement initiative, the authors sought to objectively evaluate the U.S. military EMS system for the island of Okinawa. They applied a program evaluation tool currently utilized by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted to evaluate the current Military EMS system in Okinawa, Japan. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used to get an overall "score" of our assessment. After all the data had been collected, a joint committee of Military EMS physicians reviewed the findings and made formal recommendations. From 2011 to 2014, U.S. military EMS on Okinawa averaged 1,345 ± 137 patient transports annually. An advanced life support (ALS) provider would have been dispatched on 558 EMS runs (38%) based on chief complaint in 2014 had they been available. Over 36,000 man-hours were expended during this period to provide National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-accredited instruction to certify 141 Navy Corpsman as EMT Basics. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used and the program scored a total of 31, suggesting the program is well planned and operating within standards. This evaluation of the Military EMS system on Okinawa using the NPS program assessment and audit worksheet demonstrates the NPS evaluation instruments may offer a useful assessment tool for the evaluation of Military EMS systems. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. A Systems Approach to Military Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    facilities and awarding construction contracts, and >’i AIJM~ 0 ~e~tOsI@SL UNCLASSIFIED SECUIT~Y CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Moon Dale Entered) UNCLASS I FI...ED iCUMTY CL IASSIFICATION OF THIS PA@9(Whm Duae Ehtawu* 0 BLOCK 20. (CONT’d). construction administration. The information provided in this report say...APPROXIMATE TIME SCALE IMONTHSI 0 DCSLDG.DA Directive OCE DesignOCE DIVISION A/E Determine Systems Use Engr. Division Feasibility A/E itar

  11. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  12. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of a proposed new system of records; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Animal and Plant...

  13. Voice interactive electronic warning system (Views). [onboard military helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhees, J. W.; Bucher, N. M.; Huff, E. M.; Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of military helicopters to penetrate the Forward Line of Troops (FLOT) has increased in connection with the utilization of low-level 'Nap-of-the-Earth' (NOE) flying procedures. However, the workload of the pilot engaged in the implementation of the required maneuvers is very high. Possibilities for reducing this workload are being investigated. The present study is concerned with the introduction of an integrated warning system in the cockpit. An integrated warning system simulation study is discussed, taking into account aspects of methodology, and results. Three voice types were evaluated, including male digitized, female digitized, and digitized.

  14. Updates to SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Brunck, Al

    2008-10-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control since 1998. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION data can be visualized in the Common sensor Status (CStat) graphical user interface that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This user friendly visualization enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used as actionable intelligence by a minimum number of analysts.

  15. Preliminary results from the new HIV surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Lot, F; Semaille, C; Cazein, F; Barin, F; Pinget, R; Pillonel, J; Desenclos, J C

    2004-10-01

    In addition to AIDS surveillance, data on HIV infection are necessary to better follow the dynamics of the epidemic. We report the first results of France's mandatory anonymous HIV notification system, which is linked to a virological surveillance of recent HIV infections and of circulating HIV types, groups and subtypes. HIV notifications are initiated by microbiologists who create an anonymous code of patient's identity. Clinicians complete the notification form with epidemiological and clinical data. Notifications are sent to the local health authorities and passed to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS). Laboratories voluntarily send sera from newly diagnosed HIV infected persons on dried blood spots to the national HIV reference laboratory where an immunoassay for recent infection (< or = 6 months) and a serotyping assay for the determination of group and subtype are done. The virological results are then merged at the InVS with the information from the mandatory reporting. Of the first 1301 new HIV diagnoses reported in 2003, 43% were in women, and overall, 53% were in heterosexuals, of whom 47% were of sub-Saharan African origin. MSM accounted for 36% of male notifications. A dried blood spot was available for 64% of new HIV diagnoses. Evidence of recent infection was found for 38%, ranging from 22% in IDUs to 58% in MSM. Twenty-six percent of infections in sub-Saharan migrants were recent infections. HIV-1 accounted for 98% of all notifications: 48% of these were non-B subtypes. The first results of the HIV notification system indicate that heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of transmission and that persons originating from sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Over half of infections shown to be recently acquired were in MSM; this may indicate an increased HIV incidence in this population.

  16. Physicochemical characterization and failure analysis of military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, Lionel Thomas

    Modern military coating systems, as fielded by all branches of the U.S. military, generally consist of a diverse array of organic and inorganic components that can complicate their physicochemical analysis. These coating systems consist of VOC-solvent/waterborne automotive grade polyurethane matrix containing a variety of inorganic pigments and flattening agents. The research presented here was designed to overcome the practical difficulties regarding the study of such systems through the combined application of several cross-disciplinary techniques, including vibrational spectroscopy, electron microscopy, microtomy, ultra-fast laser ablation and optical interferometry. The goal of this research has been to determine the degree and spatial progression of weathering-induced alteration of military coating systems as a whole, as well as to determine the failure modes involved, and characterizing the impact of these failures on the physical barrier performance of the coatings. Transmission-mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been applied to cross-sections of both baseline and artificially weathered samples to elucidate weathering-induced spatial gradients to the baseline chemistry of the coatings. A large discrepancy in physical durability (as indicated by the spatial progression of these gradients) has been found between older and newer generation coatings. Data will be shown implicating silica fillers (previously considered inert) as the probable cause for this behavioral divergence. A case study is presented wherein the application of the aforementioned FTIR technique fails to predict the durability of the coating system as a whole. The exploitation of the ultra-fast optical phenomenon of femtosecond (10-15S) laser ablation is studied as a potential tool to facilitate spectroscopic depth profiling of composite materials. Finally, the interferometric technique of Phase Shifting was evaluated as a potential high-sensitivity technique applied to the

  17. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  18. Vector surveillance to determine species composition and occurrence of trypanosoma cruzi at three military installations in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    McPhatter, Lee; Roachell, Walter; Mahmood, Farida; Hoffman, Lauren; Lockwood, Neal; Osuna, Angel; Lopez, Jorge; Debboun, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the hemoflagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by blood-sucking triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae; Triatominae). The disease is endemic to south Texas, but exists almost exclusively as a zoonosis. Chagas disease has proven to be a serious public health threat to military working dogs. In 2007, seroprevalence of Chagas disease in military working dogs in San Antonio, Texas, reached 8%. A faunal survey was conducted at 3 San Antonio area military installations (Camp Bullis, Fort Sam Houston, and Lackland Air Force Base). A total of 140 triatomines representing 4 species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, T. sanguisuga, T. lectularia, and T. indictiva) were collected. Trypanosoma cruzi infected bugs were only collected at Lackland Air Force Base, where the overall infection rate was 16%. The wood excavation technique developed during this study collected all life stages. Only 2 life stages (adult and 5th instar) were positive for T. cruzi.

  19. Direct cost associated with the development and implementation of a local syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Amy; Guenther, Eric; Fleischauer, Aaron T; Gunn, Julia; Hutwagner, Lori; Barry, M Anita

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing public health surveillance to include electronic syndromic surveillance systems has received increased attention in recent years. Although cost continually serves as a critical factor in public health decision making, few studies have evaluated direct costs associated with syndromic surveillance systems. In this study, we calculated the direct costs associated with developing and implementing a syndromic surveillance system in Boston, Massachusetts, from the perspective of local, state, and federal governments. Between December 2003 and July 2005, the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health developed a syndromic surveillance system in which limited demographic and chief complaint data are collected from all Boston acute care emergency departments every 24 hours. Costs were divided into three categories: development, operation, and upgrade. Within these categories, all fixed and variable costs incurred by both BPHC and CDC were assessed, including those associated with development of syndromic surveillance-related city regulations and system enhancements. The total estimated direct cost of system development and implementation during the study period was $422,899 ($396,716 invested by BPHC and $26,183 invested by CDC). Syndromic system enhancements to improve situational awareness accounted for $74,389. Development, implementation, and operation of a syndromic surveillance system accounted for a relatively small proportion of surveillance costs in a large urban health department. Funding made available for a future cost-benefit analysis, and an assessment of local epidemiologic capacity will help to guide decisions for local health departments. Although not a replacement for traditional surveillance, syndromic surveillance in Boston is an important and relatively inexpensive component of a comprehensive local public health

  20. A location-specific spreadsheet for estimating Zika risk and timing for Zika vector surveillance, using US military facilities as an example.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Local Zika virus transmission in the United States involving one or both of the known vector species, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is of major concern. To assist efforts to anticipate the risks of transmission, we developed an Excel spreadsheet tool that uses vector and virus temperature thresholds, remotely sensed maximum temperature, and habitat suitability models to answer the questions: "is Zika transmission likely here?" and "when should we conduct vector surveillance?" An example spreadsheet, updated regularly and freely available, uses near real-time and forecast temperature data to generate guidance, based on a novel four level Zika risk code, for 733 US military facilities in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories of Guam and Puerto Rico.

  1. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  2. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  3. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  4. Robust fusion-based processing for military polarimetric imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Hyun-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Polarisation information within a scene can be exploited in military systems to give enhanced automatic target detection and recognition (ATD/R) performance. However, the performance gain achieved is highly dependent on factors such as the geometry, viewing conditions, and the surface finish of the target. Such performance sensitivities are highly undesirable in many tactical military systems where operational conditions can vary significantly and rapidly during a mission. Within this paper, a range of processing architectures and fusion methods is considered in terms of their practical viability and operational robustness for systems requiring ATD/R. It is shown that polarisation information can give useful performance gains but, to retained system robustness, the introduction of polarimetric processing should be done in such a way as to not compromise other discriminatory scene information in the spectral and spatial domains. The analysis concludes that polarimetric data can be effectively integrated with conventional intensity-based ATD/R by either adapting the ATD/R processing function based on the scene polarisation or else by detection-level fusion. Both of these approaches avoid the introduction of processing bottlenecks and limit the impact of processing on system latency.

  5. Estimating HCV Prevalence at the State Level: A Call to Increase and Strengthen Current Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Alvaro; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Flanigan, Colleen; McClamroch, Kristi; Smith, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which case surveillance captures persons ever infected with HCV is unknown. We determined the discrepancy between HCV seroprevalence, estimated from national survey data, among adults in New York State in 2008 (n = 286 262, or 1.95%) and the number of infected persons reported to the state’s surveillance hepatitis registries (n = 144 015). Findings suggest the need to strengthen the existing surveillance system. PMID:23763407

  6. Sexual Orientation Differences in Satisfaction with Healthcare: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R

    2017-06-01

    In the United States, the Affordable Care Act and marriage equality may have eased sexual orientation-based differences in access to healthcare coverage, but limited research has investigated sexual orientation-based differences in healthcare satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine whether satisfaction with healthcare varied by sexual orientation in a large population-based sample of adults. Data are from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, including items about sexual orientation and healthcare (n = 113,317). Healthcare coverage included employer-based insurance; individually purchased insurance; Medicare; Medicaid; or TRICARE, VA, or military care. Respondents indicated whether they were "very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, or not at all satisfied" with healthcare. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, lesbian, gay, and bisexual status was associated with lower satisfaction with healthcare with individually purchased insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-1.80). Efforts are needed to examine and reduce sexual orientation differences in satisfaction with healthcare.

  7. Multisensor/multimission surveillance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobe, John T.

    1994-10-01

    The realignment of international powers, and the formation of new nations has resulted in increasing worldwide concern over border security, an expanding refugee problem, protection of fishery and mineral areas, and smuggling of all types. The focus on military services, to protect or defend against these threats of vital, national interest, is shifting to other government agencies and even commercial contractors to apply innovative and cost effective solutions. Previously, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms have been large, mission dedicated military aircraft. The time has arrived for a smaller, more efficient, and more effective airborne capability. This paper briefly outlines a system of systems approach that smaller nations can afford to incorporate in their budgets, while greatly expanding their surveillance capability. The characteristics of specific cameras and sensors are purposely not addressed, so the emphasis can be placed on the integration of multiple sensors and capabilities.

  8. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  9. Overview of infectious disease surveillance system in Japan, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Izumida, Michiko; Ohta, Akiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Nagai, Masaki

    2007-12-01

    In 1999 the Communicable Disease Prevention Law of Japan was completely revised into the "New" Infectious Disease Control Law, which reiterated the importance of surveillance and information dissemination and re-organized the surveillance system. This paper is an attempt to illustrate the potential impact of the new surveillance system through a description of the existing surveillance system and data before and after the revision. After a historical review of surveillance system in Japan, the current surveillance system is described. Data sets of actual case numbers reported and incidence rate per 1,000,000 population are compared before and after the revision. Comparison of the data between the 2 periods revealed that most of the diseases have had declining trends after the new law was enacted with several exceptions. However, although no major break in continuity is observed in seriously perceived disease, in milder diseases there are striking gaps between the numbers reported in the mandatory and sentinel reporting framework. Sentinel reporting framework maintained the continuity of data without major gaps. From this perspective, the new surveillance system with two different frameworks of mandatory reporting for severe diseases and sentinel reporting for milder diseases seems to be working well. But continuous efforts should be made for evaluation and improvement of surveillance system and risk communication through the research on data analysis and effective communication method.

  10. How a visual surveillance system hypothesizes how you behave.

    PubMed

    Micheloni, C; Piciarelli, C; Foresti, G L

    2006-08-01

    In the last few years, the installation of a large number of cameras has led to a need for increased capabilities in video surveillance systems. It has, indeed, been more and more necessary for human operators to be helped in the understanding of ongoing activities in real environments. Nowadays, the technology and the research in the machine vision and artificial intelligence fields allow one to expect a new generation of completely autonomous systems able to reckon the behaviors of entities such as pedestrians, vehicles, and so forth. Hence, whereas the sensing aspect of these systems has been the issue considered the most so far, research is now focused mainly on more newsworthy problems concerning understanding. In this article, we present a novel method for hypothesizing the evolution of behavior. For such purposes, the system is required to extract useful information by means of low-level techniques for detecting and maintaining track of moving objects. The further estimation of performed trajectories, together with objects classification, enables one to compute the probability distribution of the normal activities (e.g., trajectories). Such a distribution is defined by means of a novel clustering technique. The resulting clusters are used to estimate the evolution of objects' behaviors and to speculate about any intention to act dangerously. The provided solution for hypothesizing behaviors occurring in real environments was tested in the context of an outdoor parking lot

  11. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in Egypt Reveals Lack of Reassortment of Re -Introduction of New Viruses into the Region. Options for the Control...Collaborating Center for Emerging and Re - emerging Infectious Diseases in 2001 US NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT NO. 6 (NAMRU-6), LIMA, PERU...Electronic Disease Surveillance Initiative guided by the International Health Regulations (2005) Emerging and re - emerging diseases are a well-defined

  12. Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-03-20

    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.

  13. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, WonGyu Lewis; AnneDucharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a “network of networks” surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and “component-oriented” development approaches. PMID:23569607

  15. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches.

  16. Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-04-01

    Disease surveillance programmes ought to be evaluated regularly to ensure they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. Evaluation of human and animal health surveillance programmes around the world is currently not standardized and therefore inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to review surveillance system attributes and the methods used for their assessment, together with the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks for evaluating surveillance in animal health, public health and allied disciplines. Information from 99 articles describing the evaluation of 101 surveillance systems was examined. A wide range of approaches for assessing 23 different system attributes was identified although most evaluations addressed only one or two attributes and comprehensive evaluations were uncommon. Surveillance objectives were often not stated in the articles reviewed and so the reasons for choosing certain attributes for assessment were not always apparent. This has the potential to introduce misleading results in surveillance evaluation. Due to the wide range of system attributes that may be assessed, methods should be explored which collapse these down into a small number of grouped characteristics by focusing on the relationships between attributes and their links to the objectives of the surveillance system and the evaluation. A generic and comprehensive evaluation framework could then be developed consisting of a limited number of common attributes together with several sets of secondary attributes which could be selected depending on the disease or range of diseases under surveillance and the purpose of the surveillance. Economic evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance evaluation process. This would provide a significant benefit to decision-makers who often need to make choices based on limited or diminishing resources.

  17. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  18. An Application of Social Network Analysis on Military Strategy, System Networks and the Phases of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    AN APPLICATION OF SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS ON MILITARY STRATEGY, SYSTEM NETWORKS AND THE PHASES OF...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-117 AN APPLICATION OF SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS ON MILITARY STRATEGY...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-117 AN APPLICATION OF SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS ON MILITARY STRATEGY, SYSTEM NETWORKS AND THE PHASES

  19. Web-LCCA: decision support system for military display acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Michael L.; Calvo, Alberto B.; Gibson, Gregory J.

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a Decision Support System for military display acquisition being developed under U.S. Display Consortium (USDC) sponsorship. The core of the system is a standard Life-Cycle Cost model. The system will use World Wide Web technology to make it widely accessible to Industry and Government Program Offices for use in the Display Acquisition Decision Process. Web-LCCA (Life-Cycle Cost Analyzer), a derivative of TASC's LCCATM, has been designed to aid in the evaluation of different Display System acquisition options. The target users of Web-LCCA are display vendors (Industry) and buyers (Government Program Offices). Web-LCCA will be USDC's standard tool for supporting cost tradeoffs and acquisition decisions among current operational displays and new flat panel display products.

  20. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an inventory of currently existing surveillance systems assessing diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Europe as a tool to assist in the identification of gaps and needs and to contribute to the roadmap for an integrated pan-European surveillance system. An inventory questionnaire was completed by representatives of eleven European countries. Eligible surveillance systems were required to meet specific inclusion criteria. First, pre-screening of available surveillance systems in each country was conducted. Second, an in-depth appraisal of the retained surveillance systems complying with the pre-defined requirements was performed. Fifty surveillance systems met the inclusion criteria: six multinational European surveys and forty-four national surveys. Dietary intake and physical activity are the domains predominantly assessed and adults are the most frequently studied age group. Many on-going activities were identified at the national level focussing on adults, but fewer surveillance systems involving vulnerable groups such as infants and pre-school children. Assessment of sedentary and dietary behaviours should be more frequently considered. There is a need for harmonization of surveillance methodologies, indicators and target populations for between-country and over time comparisons. This inventory will serve to feed future discussions within the DEDIPAC-JPI major framework on how to optimize design and identify priorities within surveillance.

  1. Profile: the Mbita health and demographic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Wanyua, Sheru; Ndemwa, Morris; Goto, Kensuke; Tanaka, Junichi; K'opiyo, James; Okumu, Silas; Diela, Paul; Kaneko, Satoshi; Karama, Mohamed; Ichinose, Yoshio; Shimada, Masaaki

    2013-12-01

    The Mbita Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Mbita HDSS), located on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, was established in 2006. The main objective of the HDSS is to provide a platform for population-based research on relationships between diseases and socio-economic and environmental factors, and for the evaluation of disease control interventions. The Mbita HDSS had a population of approximately 54 014 inhabitants from 11 576 households in June 2013. Regular data are collected using personal digital assistants (PDAs) every 3 months, which includes births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths. Coordinates are taken using geographical positioning system (GPS) units to map all dwelling units during data collection. Cause of death is inferred from verbal autopsy questionnaires. In addition, other health-related data such as vaccination status, socio-economic status, water sources, acute illness and bed net distribution are collected. The HDSS has also provided a platform for conducting various other research activities such as entomology studies, research on neglected tropical diseases, and environmental health projects which have benefited the organization as well as the HDSS community residents. Data collected are shared with the community members, health officials, local administration and other relevant organizations. Opportunities for collaboration and data sharing with the wider research community are available and those interested should contact shimadam@nagasaki-u.ac.jp or mhmdkarama@yahoo.com.

  2. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  3. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data. PMID:22505808

  4. The conundrum of harmonizing resistance surveillance systems on a global level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveillance systems, particularly those involving complex data over time, provide unique challenges. They are as varied in design, intent, funding and function as the countries in which they exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define surveillance as ‘the ongoing systematic colle...

  5. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  6. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  7. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  8. Support Systems for Military Families: The Military Takes Care of Its Own -- Sometimes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-20

    military pro- vide fulltime child care for personnel’s children (Brende, 1977; Nida , 1980). Wheatland (1977) discovered problems in offering child...according to Nida (1980). Specific areas of concern in military child care include the following: Overseas Schooling. In Europe, 130,000 American children...NICHOLS, R. The support of Army families during the absence of their-sponsors. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, 1g76. NIDA , P.D. What you

  9. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-12-16

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring.

  10. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  11. Surveillance of occupational skin disease using the Supplementary Data System.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, M; Thun, M; Morrison, J; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W E

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Supplementary Data System (SDS) compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in conducting surveillance of occupational skin disease was evaluated by examining 14,703 workers' compensation cases reported to the SDS for the year 1981. Combined with state employment denominators obtained from the BLS Employment and Earnings Program, rates of illness (cases of dermatitis/10,000 employed) calculated for eight major industrial divisions varied significantly according to the criteria used for reporting cases. Despite quantitative variations in the rate of skin disease that depended on specific reporting criteria, the relative ranking of the major industrial divisions remained unchanged, with highest rates of skin disease consistently found in three major industry divisions: agriculture, manufacturing, and construction. This ranking of major industry divisions by rate of dermatitis corresponded extremely well with rankings generated from the 1981 Annual Survey (Spearman rank correlation = .98, p less than .01). At the two-digit level of the Standard Industrial Classification, the rankings based on the SDS had a 77% rank correlation with those from the Annual Survey. Two-digit SIC codes identified from the top 10 in both sets of rankings included crop and livestock production from the agricultural division and leather products, food products, rubber and plastic products from the manufacturing division.

  12. Electromagnetic field strength levels surrounding electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Boivin, W; Boyd, S; Coletta, J; Kerr, L; Kempa, K; Aronow, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) is used in many applications throughout the world to prevent theft. EAS systems produce electromagnetic (EM) energy around exits to create an EM interrogation zone through which protected items must pass before leaving the establishment. Specially designed EAS tags are attached to these items and must either be deactivated or removed prior to passing through the EAS EM interrogation zone to prevent the alarm from sounding. Recent reports in the scientific literature have noted the possibility that EM energy transmitted by EAS systems may interfere with the proper operation of sensitive electronic medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration has the regulatory responsibility to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Because of the possibility of electromagnetic interference (EMI) between EAS systems and electronic medical devices, in situ measurements of the electric and magnetic fields were made around various types of EAS systems. Field strength levels were measured around four types of EAS systems: audio frequency magnetic, pulsed magnetic resonant, radio frequency, and microwave. Field strengths from these EAS systems varied with magnetic fields as high as 1073.6 Am(-1) (in close proximity to the audio frequency magnetic EAS system towers), and electric fields up to 23.8 Vm(-1) (in close proximity to the microwave EAS system towers). Medical devices are only required to withstand 3 Vm(-1) by the International Electrotechnical Commission's current medical device standards. The modulation scheme of the signal transmitted by some types of EAS systems (especially the pulsed magnetic resonant) has been shown to be more likely to cause EMI with electronic medical devices. This study complements other work in the field by attaching specific characteristics to EAS transmitted EM energy. The quantitative data could be used to relate medical device EMI with specific field strength levels and signal waveforms

  13. PERSYM: A Generalized Entity - Simulation Model of a Military Personnel System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Robert O.

    The document covers an operational entity-simulation system designed to permit observation and selective control of a military personnel system under a variety of policy alternatives. PERSYM is modularized to facilitate conversion to different military forces and the programing and inclusion of alternative policy logic modules. The system…

  14. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Fadaei Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb; Arab, Mohammad; Rahimi Fouroshani, Abbas; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-09-01

    Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases' reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until  arrive to data saturation. Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing, improving, monitoring and continuous

  15. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  16. Perceived Insufficient Rest or Sleep among Veterans: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2009

    PubMed Central

    Faestel, Paul M.; Littell, Christopher T.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Forsberg, Christopher W.; Littman, Alyson J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep problems are of particular concern among the active duty military population as factors such as inconsistent work hours and deployment may compromise adequate sleep and adversely impact performance. However, few prior studies have investigated whether the prevalence of sleep problems differ between Veterans and demographically similar non-Veterans. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-reported insufficient rest or sleep varies in relation to Veteran status and to identify high-risk groups of Veterans. Methods: This study used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (analyzed in 2011), a state based national telephone survey of non-institutionalized US adults. Insufficient rest was assessed in 411,313 adults aged 21 and older, of whom 55,361 were Veterans. Sleep duration was assessed in 6 states (n = 4,936 Veterans and 30,983 non-Veterans). Model-based direct rate adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence of insufficient rest or sleep while controlling for confounding. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of insufficient sleep or rest in subgroups of Veterans. Results: After multivariable adjustment, insufficient rest or sleep (22.7% vs. 21.1%, p < 0.001) and short sleep duration (< 7 h/night, 34.9% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.026) were more common among Veterans than non-Veterans. When the Veteran group was further divided among newly transitioned (≤ 12 months) and longer-term Veterans (> 12 months), the overall test for a difference was not statistically significant between groups, mainly because there was little difference in sleep between the two groups of Veterans. High-risk Veteran subgroups included those who were 21-44 years of age (vs. 65-74), women, non-whites, current smokers, obese, unable to work, and those in poor health. Conclusions: This study suggests that Veterans have a high burden of sleep problems and identifies subgroups that should be targeted to

  17. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  18. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  19. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  20. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R; Zuber, Patrick L F; Top, Karina A

    2016-08-02

    Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies.

  1. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011. Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000–1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001–2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  2. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  3. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-08-28

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children<15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children<15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  4. Military Bankers: Fact or Fiction? The Role of the Military in Reestablishing a Banking System during a Military Stability Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Framework,‖ New Partnership for Africa’s Development, June 2005, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/ lib.nsf/db900sid/ PANA -794D7A/$file/nepad-jun2005.pdf...out that because the military used US Dollars on a large scale , the Afghan population was reluctant to trade in Afghan currency. Spending by the...NEPAD Secretariat. ―African Post-Conflict Reconstruction Policy Framework.‖ June 2005. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/ PANA -794D7A/$file

  5. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  6. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  7. Overhauling the Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems Procurement Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    Democratic Senator Edwin C. Johnson of Colorado proposed a bill for a single Department of Military Security. In his bill he recommended six...Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc, 1957), 27. 12 Elke C. Weal, Combat Aircraft of World War Two (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc

  8. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Systems review/surveillance guide

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) are applied to a contract in accordance with DOE 2250.1B, the contractor's management control systems are reviewed by DOE to determine their initial and continuing compliance with the CSCSC. This document provides guidance to DOE personnel responsible for applying the CSCSC requirements on contracts, reviewing contractor implementation of the requirements, and surveillance to assure continuing compliance with the CSCSC.

  9. Multifaceted syndromic surveillance in a public health department using the early aberration reporting system.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Hall, Stephanie P; Franklin, Chad; Hutwagner, Lori C; Seeman, G Matthew; Craig, Allen S

    2005-01-01

    Local health departments concerned with early detection of potential terrorist threats are beginning to explore novel approaches to syndromic surveillance. Using the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a metropolitan health department in Tennessee and five community partners have agreed to exchange data in order to implement a multifaceted syndromic surveillance system for early detection of a biological attack. This article describes how we used EARS as the foundation for implementing a surveillance system that encompasses a rich variety of data sources. We address technical requirements for operating EARS, recommend staffing and training prerequisites, describe the involvement of our data partners, and provide details related to data transfer and analysis, review, and response protocol. Other health departments may find this information useful as a general model for implementing EARS-based syndromic surveillance systems in their own jurisdictions.

  10. Today`s thermal imaging systems: Background and applications for civilian law enforcement and military force protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bisbee, T.L.; Pritchard, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    Thermal (infrared) imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, or commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. In the past, thermal imagers required cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost and maintenance requirements restricted their use. However, recent developments in reliable, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater accessibility and practicality for military as well as civilian security and force protection applications. This paper discusses recent advances in thermal imaging technology including uncooled and cryo-cooled. Applications of Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) systems are also discussed, including integration with a high-speed pan/tilt mount and remote control, video frame storage and recall, low-cost vehicle-mounted systems, and hand-held devices. Other facility installation topics will be discussed, such as site layout, assessment ranges, imager positioning, fields-of-view, sensor and alarm reporting systems, and communications links.

  11. Military Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Awareness Training for Health Care Providers Within the Military Health System.

    PubMed

    Shrader, Angela; Casero, Kellie; Casper, Bethany; Kelley, Mary; Lewis, Laura; Calohan, Jess

    2017-05-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals serving within the U.S. military and their beneficiaries have unique health care requirements. Department of Defense Directive 1304.26 "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" created a barrier for service members to speak candidly with their health care providers, which left specific health care needs unaddressed. There are no standardized cultural education programs to assist Military Health System (MHS) health care providers in delivering care to LGBT patients and their beneficiaries. The purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of an LGBT educational program for health care providers within the MHS to increase cultural awareness in caring for this special population. This multisite educational program was conducted at Travis Air Force Base and Joint Base Lewis-McChord from November 15, 2014, to January 30, 2015. A 15-question multiple-choice questionnaire was developed based on the education program and was administered before and after the education program. A total of 51 individuals completed the program. Overall posttest scores improved compared to pretest scores. This program was designed to begin the process of educating health care providers about the unique health care issues of military LGBT Service Members and their beneficiaries. This program was the first to address the disparities in LGBT health care needs within the Department of Defense. It also provided a platform for facilitating open communication among providers regarding LGBT population health needs in the military.

  12. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  13. Restraint system design and evaluation for military specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwaczynski, Sebastian

    This research focuses on designing an optimal restraint system for usage in a military vehicle applications. The designed restraint system must accommodate a wide range of DHM's and ATD's with and without PPE such as: helmet, boots, and body armor. The evaluation of the restraint systems were conducted in a simulated vehicle environment, which was utilized to downselect the ideal restraint system for this program. In December of 2011 the OCP TECD program was formulated to increase occupant protection. To do this, 3D computer models were created to accommodate the entire Soldier population in the Army. These models included the entire PPE, which were later utilized for space claim activities and for designing new seats and restraints, which would accommodate them. Additionally, guidelines to increase protection levels while providing optimal comfort to the Soldier were created. The current and emerging threats were evaluated and focused on at the time of the program inception. Throughout this program various activities were conducted for restraint downselection including Soldier evaluations of various restraint system configurations. The Soldiers were given an opportunity to evaluate each system in a representative seat, which allowed them to position themselves in a manner consistent with the mission requirements. Systems ranged from fully automated to manual adjustment type systems. An evaluation of each particular system was conducted and analyzed against the other systems. It was discovered that the restraint systems, which utilize retractors allowed for automatic webbing stowage and allowed for easier access and repeatability when donning and doffing the restraint. It was also found that when an aid was introduced to help the Soldier don the restraint, it was more likely that such system would be utilized. Restraints were evaluated in drop tower experiments in addition to actual blast tests. An evaluation with this amount of detail had not been attempted

  14. Does the Military Child Care System Serve Its Purpose? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This research brief summarizes research suggesting that the U.S. Department of Defense may wish to consider expanding its child care benefits to cover more military families and a broader set of child care needs. [For "Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper Summary", see ED502782. For the full paper, see ED502783.

  15. Does the Military Child Care System Serve Its Purpose? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This research brief summarizes research suggesting that the U.S. Department of Defense may wish to consider expanding its child care benefits to cover more military families and a broader set of child care needs. [For "Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper Summary", see ED502782. For the full paper, see ED502783.

  16. Information Technologies in the System of Military Engineer Training of Cadets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khizhnaya, Anna V.; Kutepov, Maksim M.; Gladkova, Marina N.; Gladkov, Alexey V.; Dvornikova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of enhancement of the information component in the military engineer training is determined by the result of a comparative analysis of global and national engineering education standards. The purpose is to substantiate the effectiveness and relevance of applying information technology in the system of military engineer training of…

  17. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Niels; Gonzales, José L.; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Velthuis, Annet G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood), sampling location (farm or packing station) and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station). It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393) a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards. PMID:22523543

  18. The Stevens Integrated Maritime Surveillance and Forecast System: Expansion and Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Stevens Integrated Maritime Surveillance and Forecast System: Expansion and Enhancement Michael S. Bruno and Alan F. Blumberg Center for...system of oceanographic, meteorological, and vessel surveillance sensors and littoral ocean forecasting models to allow for the real-time assessment...of ocean, weather, environmental, and vessel traffic conditions throughout the New York Harbor region, and forecast of conditions in the near and

  19. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry.

  20. An international survey of cerebral palsy registers and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Shona; McIntyre, Sarah; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Blair, Eve; Cans, Christine; Watson, Linda; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance programmes and identify similarities and differences in governance and funding, aims and scope, definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ascertainment and data collection, to enhance the potential for research collaboration. METHOD Representatives from 38 CP surveillance programmes were invited to participate in an online survey and submit their data collection forms. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize information submitted. RESULTS Twenty-seven surveillance programmes participated (25 functioning registers, two closed owing to lack of funding). Their aims spanned five domains: resource for CP research, surveillance, aetiology/prevention, service planning, and information provision (in descending order of frequency). Published definitions guided decision making for the definition of CP and case eligibility for most programmes. Consent, case identification, and data collection methods varied widely. Ten key data items were collected by all programmes and a further seven by at least 80% of programmes. All programmes reported an interest in research collaboration. INTERPRETATION Despite variability in methodologies, similarities exist across programmes in terms of their aims, definitions, and data collected. These findings will facilitate harmonization of data and collaborative research efforts, which are so necessary on account of the heterogeneity and relatively low prevalence of CP. PMID:26781543

  1. Real-time unmanned aircraft systems surveillance video mosaicking using GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Aldo; Anderson, Kyle; Wang, Yi; Schultz, Richard R.; Fevig, Ronald A.

    2010-04-01

    Digital video mosaicking from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is being used for many military and civilian applications, including surveillance, target recognition, border protection, forest fire monitoring, traffic control on highways, monitoring of transmission lines, among others. Additionally, NASA is using digital video mosaicking to explore the moon and planets such as Mars. In order to compute a "good" mosaic from video captured by a UAS, the algorithm must deal with motion blur, frame-to-frame jitter associated with an imperfectly stabilized platform, perspective changes as the camera tilts in flight, as well as a number of other factors. The most suitable algorithms use SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) to detect the features consistent between video frames. Utilizing these features, the next step is to estimate the homography between two consecutives video frames, perform warping to properly register the image data, and finally blend the video frames resulting in a seamless video mosaick. All this processing takes a great deal of resources of resources from the CPU, so it is almost impossible to compute a real time video mosaic on a single processor. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) offer computational performance that far exceeds current CPU technology, allowing for real-time operation. This paper presents the development of a GPU-accelerated digital video mosaicking implementation and compares it with CPU performance. Our tests are based on two sets of real video captured by a small UAS aircraft; one video comes from Infrared (IR) and Electro-Optical (EO) cameras. Our results show that we can obtain a speed-up of more than 50 times using GPU technology, so real-time operation at a video capture of 30 frames per second is feasible.

  2. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  3. A surveillance model for human avian influenza with a comprehensive surveillance system for local-priority communicable diseases in South sulawesi, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-12-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008-2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases.

  4. Life Support: A System of Care for Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the issue of separation and its impact on military families, including on infants and toddlers. Deployments and unaccompanied tours of duty (temporary assignments and 12-24 month assignments, both without family members, respectively) take military personnel away from their loved ones for extended periods of time. …

  5. Life Support: A System of Care for Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the issue of separation and its impact on military families, including on infants and toddlers. Deployments and unaccompanied tours of duty (temporary assignments and 12-24 month assignments, both without family members, respectively) take military personnel away from their loved ones for extended periods of time. …

  6. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 744 - Military End-Use Examples for § 744.17

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... microprocessors in the “use”, “development”, “production”, or deployment of: (1) Cruise missiles; (2) Electronic suites of military aircraft and helicopters; (3) Radar for searching, targeting, or tracking systems; (4... military reconnaissance, surveillance, or combat support; (6) Rocket or missile systems; (7) Electronic...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 744 - Military End-Use Examples for § 744.17

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... microprocessors in the “use”, “development”, “production”, or deployment of: (1) Cruise missiles; (2) Electronic suites of military aircraft and helicopters; (3) Radar for searching, targeting, or tracking systems; (4... military reconnaissance, surveillance, or combat support; (6) Rocket or missile systems; (7) Electronic...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 744 - Military End-Use Examples for § 744.17

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... microprocessors in the “use”, “development”, “production”, or deployment of: (1) Cruise missiles; (2) Electronic suites of military aircraft and helicopters; (3) Radar for searching, targeting, or tracking systems; (4... military reconnaissance, surveillance, or combat support; (6) Rocket or missile systems; (7) Electronic...

  10. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  11. Dental utilization of active duty/previous active duty US military: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand dental utilization of 1) individuals serving/having served in active duty in the U.S. military as compared with the general public and 2) individuals who are currently serving as compared with individuals who are no longer active duty, but have been in active duty within the previous year. Methods The Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey, 2010, was used in cross-sectional analyses to determine the comparisons. Chi square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results 70.7% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental visit within the previous 12 months; 69.9% of the general public reported a dental visit (p = 0.0265). 69.8% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental hygiene visit within the previous 12 months and 68.1% of the general public reported a dental hygiene visit (p <0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for participants who had served/currently serving vs. the general public was 1.10 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05, 1.16; p<0.0001) for dental visits and 1.11 (95%CI 1.05, 1.17; p<0.0001) for dental hygiene visits. Conclusion Participants who are serving or have served were more likely to have any dental visit and dental hygiene visit than the general public; but the results were not substantively important. PMID:26086028

  12. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region.

    PubMed

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response)--17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region.

  13. A System for Surveillance Directly from the EMR

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Richard F.; Morin, Jason; Bhatia, Ramanjot S.; de Bruijn, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infections directly from multiple EMR data streams in a large multi-location Canadian health care facility. The system developed automatically triggers bed-day-level-location-aware reports and detects and tracks the incidents of nosocomial infections in hospital by ward. Introduction Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and increased resource utilization. CDC estimates that in the US alone, over 2 million patients are affected by nosocomial infections costing approximately $34.7 billion to $45 billion annually (1). The existing process of detection and reporting relies on time consuming manual processing of records and generation of alerts based on disparate definitions that are not comparable across institutions or even physicians. Methods A multi-stakeholder team consisting of experts from medicine, infection control, epidemiology, privacy, computing, artificial intelligence, data fusion and public health conducted a proof of concept from four complete years of admission records of all patients at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. Figure 1 lists the data elements investigated. Our system uses an open source enterprise bus ‘Mirth Connect’ to receive and store data in HL7 format. The processing of information is handled by individual components and alerts are pushed back to respective locations. The free text components were classified using natural language processing. Negation detection was performed using NegEx (2). Data-fusion algorithms were used to merge information to make it meaningful and allow complex syndrome definitions to be mapped onto the data. Results The system monitors: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), Central Line Infections (CLI), Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) and Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE). 21452 hospital admissions occurred in 17670 unique patients over four years. There

  14. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  15. High-fidelity injection detectability experiments: a tool for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Wallstrom, Garrick L; Wagner, M; Hogan, W

    2005-08-26

    When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org).

  16. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments: a Tool for Evaluating Syndromic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, Garrick L.; Wagner, M.; Hogan, W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. Objective The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. Methods HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. Results An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. Conclusion HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org). PMID:16177698

  17. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE FOR PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA: NEW CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Haser, Grace C; Tuttle, R Michael; Su, Henry K; Alon, Eran E; Bergman, Donald; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise; Cobin, Rhoda; Dewey, Eliza H; Doherty, Gerard; Dos Reis, Laura L; Harris, Jeffrey; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Levine, Robert A; Lepore, Stephen J; Likhterov, Ilya; Lupo, Mark A; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Mehra, Saral; Milas, Mira; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory; Revenson, Tracey A; Roberts, Katherine J; Ross, Douglas S; Rowe, Meghan E; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David; Tufano, Ralph P; Urken, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    The dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is primarily a result of early diagnosis of small cancers. Active surveillance is a promising management strategy for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, as this management strategy gains traction in the U.S., it is imperative that patients and clinicians be properly educated, patients be followed for life, and appropriate tools be identified to implement the strategy. We review previous active surveillance studies and the parameters used to identify patients who are good candidates for active surveillance. We also review some of the challenges to implementing active surveillance protocols in the U.S. and discuss how these might be addressed. Trials of active surveillance support nonsurgical management as a viable and safe management strategy. However, numerous challenges exist, including the need for adherence to protocols, education of patients and physicians, and awareness of the impact of this strategy on patient psychology and quality of life. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a portable record keeping system that can manage a mobile patient population undergoing active surveillance. With proper patient selection, organization, and patient support, active surveillance has the potential to be a long-term management strategy for select patients with PTMC. In order to address the challenges and opportunities for this approach to be successfully implemented in the U.S., it will be necessary to consider psychological and quality of life, cultural differences, and the patient's clinical status.

  18. [Approaches to development and implementation of the medical information system for military-medical commission of the multidisciplinary military-medical organisation].

    PubMed

    Kuvshinov, K E; Klipak, V M; Chaplyuk, A L; Moskovko, V M; Belyshev, D V; Zherebko, O A

    2015-06-01

    The current task of the implementation of medical information systems in the military and medical organizations is an automation of the military-medical expertise as one of the most important activities. In this regard, noteworthy experience of the 9th Medical Diagnostic Centre (9th MDC), where on the basis of medical information system "Interi PROMIS" for the first time was implemented the automation of the work of military medical commission. The given paper presents an algorithm for constructing of the information system for the military-medical examination; detailed description of its elements is given. According to military servicemen the implementation of the Military Medical Commission (MMC) subsystem of the medical information system implemented into the 9th MDC has reduced the time required for the MMC and paperwork, greatly facilitate the work of physicians and medical specialists on military servicemen examination. This software can be widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice, especially in case of mass military-medical examinations.

  19. Development concerns for satellite-based air traffic control surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation directed toward the configuration of a practical system design which can form the baseline for assessing the applications and value of a satellite based air traffic surveillance system for future use in the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. This work initially studied the characteristics and capabilities of a satellite configuration which would operate compatibly with the signal structure and avionics of the next generation air traffic control secondary surveillance radar system, the Mode S system. A compatible satellite surveillance system concept is described and an analysis is presented of the link budgets for the various transmission paths. From this, the satellite characteristics are established involving a large multiple feed L band antenna of approximately 50 meter aperture dimension. Trade offs involved in several of the alternative large aperture antennas considered are presented as well as the influence of various antenna configurations on the performance capabilities of the surveillance system. The features and limitations of the use of large aperture antenna systems for air traffic surveillance are discussed. Tentative results of this continuing effort are summarized with a brief description of follow on investigations involving other space based antenna systems concepts.

  20. Military Postal Service Task Group. Recommendations Regarding the Military Postal System of the Department of Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    unify the processes, technology, training, procedures and funding for military mail. Such an approach would allow DoD to achieve economies of scale...business model that capitalizes on economies of scale and organizational efficiencies • Require compatibility with current supply chain management...0 8 8 0 0 0 210 2016 2226 0 0 0 210 2024 2234 Government Service (GS) 29 48 290 2 352 Contractors 36 63 199 65 363 Totals 630 793 3243 532 5198 US

  1. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2017-09-28

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  2. An infrared/video fusion system for military robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Roberts, R.S.

    1997-08-05

    Sensory information is critical to the telerobotic operation of mobile robots. In particular, visual sensors are a key component of the sensor package on a robot engaged in urban military operations. Visual sensors provide the robot operator with a wealth of information including robot navigation and threat assessment. However, simple countermeasures such as darkness, smoke, or blinding by a laser, can easily neutralize visual sensors. In order to provide a robust visual sensing system, an infrared sensor is required to augment the primary visual sensor. An infrared sensor can acquire useful imagery in conditions that incapacitate a visual sensor. A simple approach to incorporating an infrared sensor into the visual sensing system is to display two images to the operator: side-by-side visual and infrared images. However, dual images might overwhelm the operator with information, and result in degraded robot performance. A better solution is to combine the visual and infrared images into a single image that maximizes scene information. Fusing visual and infrared images into a single image demands balancing the mixture of visual and infrared information. Humans are accustom to viewing and interpreting visual images. They are not accustom to viewing or interpreting infrared images. Hence, the infrared image must be used to enhance the visual image, not obfuscate it.

  3. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  4. Electronic tuberculosis surveillance systems: a tool for managing today's TB programs.

    PubMed

    Nadol, P; Stinson, K W; Coggin, W; Naicker, M; Wells, C D; Miller, B; Nelson, L J

    2008-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the Stop TB Strategy in 2006, along with a revised version of the tuberculosis (TB) recording and reporting forms and register. These publications illustrate the need for an enhanced TB surveillance system that will include such key elements as rapid assessment of the quality of DOTS services; integration and response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic; TB control challenges, such as increased smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); increased engagement of all care providers, such as private health care services and the community; and promotion of research to support program improvement. Electronic surveillance systems utilize computer technology to facilitate the capture, transfer and reporting of the WHO-recommended TB data elements. Electronic surveillance offers several potential advantages over the traditional paper-based systems used in many low-resource settings, such as improved data quality and completeness, more feasible links to other health care programs, quality-enhanced data entry and analysis features and increased data security. These advantages must, however, be weighed against the requirements and costs of electronic surveillance, including implementation and support of a quality paper-based surveillance system and the additional costs associated with infrastructure, training and human resources for the implementation and continuing support of an electronic system. Using examples from three different electronic TB surveillance systems that are being implemented in various resource-limited settings, this article demonstrates the feasibility, requirements and value of such systems to support the WHO-recommended enhancement of TB surveillance.

  5. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  6. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring.

  7. Rebuilding Public Trust in the Taiwan Military: A Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    changing its posting strategies on the Taiwanese Ministry of Defense Facebook page. By enhancing public trust through social media, the military would be...Defense Facebook page. By enhancing public trust through social media, the military would be better positioned to increase recruitment, funding, and...stimulation stops but will be recalled from the memory if the same stimulation occurs again. Comparing the image with knowledge, there are some differences

  8. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.

    PubMed

    Meyer, William G; Pavlin, Julie A; Hospenthal, Duane; Murray, Clinton K; Jerke, Kurt; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Myers, Todd; Walsh, Douglas; Wu, Max; Ergas, Rosa; Chukwuma, Uzo; Tobias, Steven; Klena, John; Nakhla, Isabelle; Talaat, Maha; Maves, Ryan; Ellis, Michael; Wortmann, Glenn; Blazes, David L; Lindler, Luther

    2011-03-04

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009. PMID:21388568

  10. Access control within military C4ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) tactical battlefield systems must provide the right information and resources to the right individuals at the right time. At the same time, the C4ISR system must enforce access controls to prevent the wrong individuals from obtaining sensitive information, or consuming scarce resources. Because lives, missions and property depend upon them, these access control mechanisms must be effective, reliable, efficient and flexible. The mechanisms employed must suit the nature of the items that are to be protected, as well as the varieties of access policies that must be enforced, and the types of access that will be made to these items. Some access control technologies are inherently centralized, while others are suitable for distributed implementation. The C4ISR architect must select from among the available technologies a combination of mechanisms that eases the burden of policy administration, but is inherently survivable, accurate, resource efficient, and which provides low latency. This paper explores various alternative access enforcement mechanisms, and assesses their effectiveness in managing policy-driven access control within the battlespace.

  11. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  12. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national, and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on gram-negative bacteria. The WHO and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and other multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a 'one health' approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping.

  13. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  14. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  15. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  16. A weapon-related injury surveillance system in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wilt, S A; Gabrel, C S

    1998-10-01

    Assault injuries and deaths are a major public health problem in New York City but they are poorly understood because there is a dearth of information concerning them. Develop and implement a low-cost, efficient, permanent weapon-related injury surveillance system (WRISS) for the city. WRISS was established, using a hierarchical exclusionary model, to capture all weapon-related (gunshot, stab, blunt instrument trauma) mortality and morbidity. The five boroughs of New York City: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. NYC Vital Statistics Office, New York State hospital discharge database, Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative Systems (SPARCS), hospital emergency departments, and the police department. Surveillance system simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, cost. NYC WRISS is a simple surveillance system depending on both existing data sources and active data collection, and is therefore acceptable to providers. It is flexible and has allowed assault injuries without weapons to be added to better reflect domestic assaults. The cost is low, less than $60,000 per year. NYC WRISS is an efficient, cost-effective surveillance system, particularly suited to big cities with many assault injuries. Its low cost and obvious importance as a public health tool have allowed for its institutionalization, reflected by a permanent health department position, and annual reports alongside the more traditional public health surveillance systems. Analyses of data from 1990 to 1996 have lent new understanding to the decrease in homicides and assaults in New York City during that period.

  17. Evaluation of a statewide foodborne illness complaint surveillance system in Minnesota, 2000 through 2006.

    PubMed

    Li, John; Smith, Kirk; Kaehler, Dawn; Everstine, Karen; Rounds, Josh; Hedberg, Craig

    2010-11-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are detected by recognition of similar illnesses among persons with a common exposure or by identification of case clusters through pathogen-specific surveillance. PulseNet USA has created a national framework for pathogen-specific surveillance, but no comparable effort has been made to improve surveillance of consumer complaints of suspected foodborne illness. The purpose of this study was to characterize the complaint surveillance system in Minnesota and to evaluate its use for detecting outbreaks. Minnesota Department of Health foodborne illness surveillance data from 2000 through 2006 were analyzed for this study. During this period, consumer complaint surveillance led to detection of 79% of confirmed foodborne outbreaks. Most norovirus infection outbreaks were detected through complaints. Complaint surveillance also directly led or contributed to detection of 25% of salmonellosis outbreaks. Eighty-one percent of complainants did not seek medical attention. The number of ill persons in a complainant's party was significantly associated with a complaint ultimately resulting in identification of a foodborne outbreak. Outbreak confirmation was related to a complainant's ability to identify a common exposure and was likely related to the process by which the Minnesota Department of Health chooses complaints to investigate. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found in incubation periods between complaints that were outbreak associated (median, 27 h) and those that were not outbreak associated (median, 6 h). Complaint systems can be used to detect outbreaks caused by a variety of pathogens. Case detection for foodborne disease surveillance in Minnesota happens through a multitude of mechanisms. The ability to integrate these mechanisms and carry out rapid investigations leads to improved outbreak detection.

  18. Life and times: The development of a digital video surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Over the past few years Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group has been working to develop an image-based digital surveillance system designed to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear materials in storage or process. The goal of such a system is to provide automated technologies that will ensure the security of the nuclear materials and ultimately reduce the frequency of required physical inventories. This paper discusses the highlights and low-lights we have encountered while designing, developing, and field-testing a digital video surveillance system.

  19. Real Options in Military System Acquisition: The Case Study of Technology Development for the Javelin Anti-Tank Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    systems engineering from the University of Florida in 1996. She was commissioned an officer in the United States Air Force in 1984...píìÇó= Real Options in Military System Acquisition: The Case Study of Technology Development for the Javelin Anti-Tank Weapon System 22 August 2013...Real Options in Military System Acquisition: The Case Study of Technology Development for the Javelin Anti-Tank Weapon System 5a.

  20. Secure Embedded System Design Methodologies for Military Cryptographic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Laboratories High Integrity Software Systems PO Box 5800 Mail Stop 0860 Albuquerque, NM 87185 Abstract: Cryptographic embedded systems are used to...calculations exist, there is an increasing need for this level of assurance for software -based processor systems in the absence of equivalent failure type...and rate calculations for software . This paper presents a method to guarantee to a quantifiable level of confidence that external components are

  1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Patients With Cirrhosis in a Population-based Integrated Health Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Tiro, Jasmin; Li, Xilong; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Chubak, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. Consistent surveillance was defined as an ultrasound every 6 months, and inconsistent surveillance was defined as ≥1 ultrasound during the 2-year follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify correlates of HCC surveillance receipt. Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. Correlates of HCC surveillance receipt in multivariate analysis included Gastroenterology/Hepatology subspecialty care [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.46], Child Pugh B/C cirrhosis (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.35), and etiology of liver disease. Compared with hepatitis C-infected patients, patients with hepatitis B infection were more likely to undergo surveillance (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.28-5.81), whereas patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.56) were less likely to undergo surveillance. Although one third of patients undergo inconsistent HCC surveillance, <2% of patients receive guideline-concordant biannual HCC surveillance.

  2. Evaluating Usefulness of Maine’s Syndromic Surveillance System for Hospitals, 2012

    PubMed Central

    DeVita, Stefanie; Robbins, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the usefulness and acceptability of Maine’s syndromic surveillance system among hospitals who currently participate. Introduction Maine has been conducting syndromic surveillance since 2007 using the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS). An evaluation of the syndromic surveillance system was conducted to determine if system objectives are being met, assess the system’s usefulness, and identify areas for improvement. According to CDC’s Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems, a surveillance system is useful if it contributes to the timely prevention and control of adverse health events. Acceptability includes the willingness of participants to report surveillance data; participation or reporting rate; and completeness of data. Methods A survey was created in 2012 to measure usefulness and acceptability among hospital partners who submit emergency department data to Maine CDC for syndromic surveillance. Currently, 24 of Maine’s 37 emergency departments collect syndromic surveillance data and 20 of those receive a weekly syndromic surveillance report from Maine CDC. The survey was included with the report on August 14, 2012, and hospitals were given two weeks for completion. The survey included questions about how useful hospitals find syndromic surveillance and how data is shared back with the hospitals; which syndromes are most and least useful; and chief complaint data collection at individual hospitals. Results The survey was completed by 13 out of 22 emergency departments (59% participation rate), and six out of 13 respondents (46%) completed the entire survey. The factors reported as having an influence on a hospital’s decision to submit data for syndromic surveillance were: public health importance of events (6 respondents) and assurance of privacy/confidentiality (5 respondents). The majority of respondents (5 respondents) reported that there are no factors that limit their ability to send emergency

  3. Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    FINAL REPORT Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions SERDP Project MR-1661 JUNE...SUBTITLE Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...platform. • For limited platform movement, such as might be expected in an underwater capsule, use of global feedback field cancellation coil may

  4. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  5. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  6. Determining Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) System Effectiveness, and Integration as Part of Force Protection and System Survivability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    NIIA NATO Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance Intelligence Architecture NOLH Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercube OMOE Overall Measures Of...Of Effectiveness ( OMOE ) assessments, concluded that a materiel approach with improved detection systems (equipped with STARlite or GEN III FLIR

  7. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  8. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data–based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved. PMID:26196165

  9. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. Objective The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. Design We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Results In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension (n=622, 41%) and diabetes (n=460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% (n=13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority (n=63, 50%) submitting 1–10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants (n=104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. Conclusions The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation

  10. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension (n=622, 41%) and diabetes (n=460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% (n=13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority (n=63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants (n=104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross-practices among

  11. Methodological quality of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Incidence and prevalence data obtained from injury surveillance studies could be biased by the response rate as well as by the completeness and quality of the reports. It therefore appears crucial to analyse the quality of the injury surveillance system itself and thereby validate the quality of the data. This study aimed to analyse the quality of and compliance with the injury surveillance system implemented during international athletics championships. Prospective, epidemiological study. The national medical teams and the local organising committee physicians daily reported all injuries on a standardised injury report form during 14 international athletics championships from 2007 to 2015. The quality of the injury surveillance system was analysed following the guidelines laid down by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. On average 41.7±17.4% (mean±standard deviation) of all registered countries participated in the injury surveillance project, accounting for a coverage of athletes of 79.5±10.2% of all registered athletes. Their medical staff returned 89.2±8.4% of the expected injury report forms (information is missing for one championship). The completeness of injury data provided by medical teams and local organising committee physicians averaged 95.8±6.5%. National medical teams reported 60.6±16.6% of all injuries, and local organising committee physicians 28.7±15.0% whereas 10.6±6.5% of injuries were reported by both. The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided good national medical team participation, coverage of athletes, response rate, and completeness of reports. These parameters should be systematically reported for injury surveillance studies to show the quality of the study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance System Evaluation, Greater-Accra Region, Ghana, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Perdita Hilary; Akweongo, Patricia; Wurapa, Fred; Afari, Edwin; Sackey, Samuel; Ocansey, Dennis; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, zoonotic, multi-species disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In developed countries, effective surveillance and enforcement of regulations on bTB control resulted in significant reduction of infections in cattle and hence, humans. However, in developing countries, weak surveillance systems affect accurate and timely reporting of bTB in humans and cattle. In Ghana, transhumance movement of cattle increases the risk of bTB importation and spread, however, the extent to which surveillance detects bTB is unknown. We therefore evaluated the bTB surveillance system in the Greater-Accra Region to determine its performance and assessed its attributes. We interviewed stakeholders, and reviewed bTB surveillance data for all ten districts in the region from 2006-2011 using the CDC Guidelines for Evaluation of public health surveillance systems. From 2006-2011, bTB was suspected in 284/244,576 (0.12%) cattle slaughtered, of which 7/284 (2.5%) were submitted for laboratory confirmation and all tested positive. Predictive value positive was 100%. There is no standard case definition which guides bTB detection. Fifty percent of carcasses slip through inspection, and confirmed cases are not traced back. There were 99/284 (34.9%) condemnations from suspected carcasses and 57/97 (58.8%) from positive reactors from screening. Ninety percent (9/10) of districts submitted reports late to the region whereas representativeness was 30%. Regional and district data were manually stored with no electronic backups. The region's cattle population is unknown. Although the bTB surveillance system is sensitive, it is under performing, and the possibility of bTB transmission from cattle to humans is high.

  13. Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance System Evaluation, Greater-Accra Region, Ghana, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Perdita Hilary; Akweongo, Patricia; Wurapa, Fred; Afari, Edwin; Sackey, Samuel; Ocansey, Dennis; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, zoonotic, multi-species disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In developed countries, effective surveillance and enforcement of regulations on bTB control resulted in significant reduction of infections in cattle and hence, humans. However, in developing countries, weak surveillance systems affect accurate and timely reporting of bTB in humans and cattle. In Ghana, transhumance movement of cattle increases the risk of bTB importation and spread, however, the extent to which surveillance detects bTB is unknown. We therefore evaluated the bTB surveillance system in the Greater-Accra Region to determine its performance and assessed its attributes. Methods We interviewed stakeholders, and reviewed bTB surveillance data for all ten districts in the region from 2006-2011 using the CDC Guidelines for Evaluation of public health surveillance systems. Results From 2006-2011, bTB was suspected in 284/244,576 (0.12%) cattle slaughtered, of which 7/284 (2.5%) were submitted for laboratory confirmation and all tested positive. Predictive value positive was 100%. There is no standard case definition which guides bTB detection. Fifty percent of carcasses slip through inspection, and confirmed cases are not traced back. There were 99/284 (34.9%) condemnations from suspected carcasses and 57/97 (58.8%) from positive reactors from screening. Ninety percent (9/10) of districts submitted reports late to the region whereas representativeness was 30%. Regional and district data were manually stored with no electronic backups. The region's cattle population is unknown. Conclusion Although the bTB surveillance system is sensitive, it is under performing, and the possibility of bTB transmission from cattle to humans is high. PMID:28149435

  14. Evaluation of a veterinary-based syndromic surveillance system implemented for swine

    PubMed Central

    del Rocio Amezcua, Maria; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.; McNab, W. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Practicing veterinarians play an important role in detecting the initial outbreak of disease in animal populations. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a veterinary-based surveillance system for the Ontario swine industry. A total of 7 practitioners from 5 clinics agreed to submit information from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. The surveillance program was evaluated in terms of timeliness, compliance, geographic coverage, and data quality. Our study showed that the veterinary-based surveillance system was acceptable to practitioners and produced useful data. The program obtained information from 25% of pig farms in Ontario during this time period. However, better communication with practitioners, more user-friendly recording systems that can be adapted to each clinic’s management system, active involvement of the clinics’ technical personnel, and the use of financial incentives may help to improve compliance and timeliness. PMID:21197223

  15. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  16. Military Global Positioning System (GPS) Augmentation System (MGAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    provides forward-deployed forces, i.e. Special Forces Operational Detachment Team Alphas, Seal Teams and Long Range Reconnaissance Detachment teams ...System • Army/Marine Corps Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) • Army’s Grenadier BRAT (GB) Blue Force Tracking Device Tactical...providing greater signal power in theater through the use of the MGAS spot beam. 6 Existing GPS Wartime Values Proposed Low-Risk MGAS Technology

  17. Surveillance system sensitivities and probability of freedom from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Swedish cattle.

    PubMed

    Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Agren, Estelle Carina Constance; Cameron, Angus; Lindberg, Ann; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Swedish cattle is low and all recent cases have been linked to imported animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surveillance system for MAP infection in Swedish cattle and to estimate the probability that the Swedish cattle population is free from this infection. Calculations of surveillance sensitivities and probability of freedom were made using stochastic scenario-tree modelling, which allows inclusion of information from several different sources, of complex surveillance data including results from non-representative sampling, as well as of documentations of differences in risk of being infected. The surveillance components included in the model were: (1) clinical surveillance, (2) fallen stock investigations, (3) the national surveillance programme (mainly beef herds), (4) a survey involving dairy herds and (5) a risk-based survey targeting herds with imported cattle. Previous or current presence of imported animals and participation in the on-going control programme was specified for each tested herd, in order to adjust for differences in risk. Calculations were made for each year from the start of 2005 to the end of 2008, and this formed the basis for a final estimate covering the whole study period and predictions of future probabilities of freedom from MAP. Results show that when applying a design prevalence of one animal in 0.1% of the herds, the probability of freedom at the end of 2008 was 0.63. At the design prevalence of one animal in 0.5% of herds, the estimated probability is >95% and it is demonstrated that the prevalence of MAP in Swedish cattle is below this level or absent. In order to increase the annual surveillance sensitivity in the future and thereby improve the probability of freedom, new surveillance activities or an intensification of current ones are needed.

  18. Integrated biological-behavioural surveillance in pandemic-threat warning systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maureen; Hagan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Economically and politically disruptive disease outbreaks are a hallmark of the 21st century. Although pandemics are driven by human behaviours, current surveillance systems for identifying pandemic threats are largely reliant on the monitoring of disease outcomes in clinical settings. Standardized integrated biological-behavioural surveillance could, and should, be used in community settings to complement such clinical monitoring. The usefulness of such an approach has already been demonstrated in studies on human immunodeficiency virus, where integrated surveillance contributed to a biologically based and quantifiable understanding of the behavioural risk factors associated with the transmission dynamics of the virus. When designed according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria, integrated surveillance requires that both behavioural risk factors - i.e. exposure variables - and disease-indicator outcome variables be measured in behavioural surveys. In the field of pandemic threats, biological outcome data could address the weaknesses of self-reported data collected in behavioural surveys. Data from serosurveys of viruses with pandemic potential, collected under non-outbreak conditions, indicate that serosurveillance could be used to predict future outbreaks. When conducted together, behavioural surveys and serosurveys could warn of future pandemics, potentially before the disease appears in clinical settings. Traditional disease-outcome surveillance must be frequent and ongoing to remain useful but behavioural surveillance remains informative even if conducted much less often, since behaviour change occurs slowly over time. Only through knowledge of specific behavioural risk factors can interventions and policies that can prevent the next pandemic be developed.

  19. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Smit, Sandra; Williams, Seymour; Reddy, Carl; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. Evaluate the attributes of Eden District's TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District's ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District's ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well

  20. A life-course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, C R; Baum, F E; Taylor, A W; Hiller, J E

    2006-11-01

    Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health over time. Life-course measures are an innovative way to supplement other SEP indicators in surveillance systems. A literature review examined the indicators of early-life SEP that could potentially be used in population health surveillance systems. The criteria of validity, relevance, reliability and deconstruction were used to determine the value of potential indicators. Early-life SEP indicators used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies included education level, income, occupation, living conditions, family structure and residential mobility. Indicators of early-life SEP should be used in routine population health surveillance to monitor trends in the health and SEP of populations over time, and to analyse long-term effects of policies on the changing health of populations. However, these indicators need to be feasible to measure retrospectively, and relevant to the historical, geographical and sociocultural context in which the surveillance system is operating.

  1. [Marketing in the system of military-medical facilities].

    PubMed

    Kostiuchenko, O M; Sviridova, T B

    2014-02-01

    Military medical facilities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian, have received the right to provide additional services and have been involved in the sphere of market relations. The strong influence of market relations - an objective reality that must be used for the development of military medical institutions and improving quality of care.Effective commercial activity can improve capabilities of the military medical institutions. This requires constant study of market mechanisms to implement and develop their competitive advantage. The paper substantiates the need for the participation of military medical institutions in the provision of health services to the public on the terms of compensation incurred by financial institutions costs (paid medical services, medical assistance program of compulsory and voluntary health insurance). Taking into account the specifics of military medical institutions set out basic principles and recommendations have been implementing marketing approach in their management, the practical application of which will not only increase efficiency, but also create conditions to improve the financial and economic indicators. This knowledge will help the mechanism of functioning health care market and the rules of interaction of market counterparties.

  2. Military Trauma System in Afghanistan: Lessons for Civil Systems?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    of special interest && of outstanding interest 1. Bailey J, Spott MA, Costanzo G, et al. Joint trauma system: development, conceptual framework and...optimal elements [e manual]. US Department of Defense. US Army Institute for Surgical Research; 2012. 2. Eastridge BJ, Costanzo G, Jenkins D, et al

  3. Evaluation of a Multivariate Syndromic Surveillance System for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Faverjon, Céline; Andersson, M Gunnar; Decors, Anouk; Tapprest, Jackie; Tritz, Pierre; Sandoz, Alain; Kutasi, Orsolya; Sala, Carole; Leblond, Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Various methods are currently used for the early detection of West Nile virus (WNV) but their outputs are not quantitative and/or do not take into account all available information. Our study aimed to test a multivariate syndromic surveillance system to evaluate if the sensitivity and the specificity of detection of WNV could be improved. Weekly time series data on nervous syndromes in horses and mortality in both horses and wild birds were used. Baselines were fitted to the three time series and used to simulate 100 years of surveillance data. WNV outbreaks were simulated and inserted into the baselines based on historical data and expert opinion. Univariate and multivariate syndromic surveillance systems were tested to gauge how well they detected the outbreaks; detection was based on an empirical Bayesian approach. The systems' performances were compared using measures of sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). When data sources were considered separately (i.e., univariate systems), the best detection performance was obtained using the data set of nervous symptoms in horses compared to those of bird and horse mortality (AUCs equal to 0.80, 0.75, and 0.50, respectively). A multivariate outbreak detection system that used nervous symptoms in horses and bird mortality generated the best performance (AUC = 0.87). The proposed approach is suitable for performing multivariate syndromic surveillance of WNV outbreaks. This is particularly relevant, given that a multivariate surveillance system performed better than a univariate approach. Such a surveillance system could be especially useful in serving as an alert for the possibility of human viral infections. This approach can be also used for other diseases for which multiple sources of evidence are available.

  4. Reporting race and ethnicity data--National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    1999-04-23

    Reporting accurate and complete race and ethnicity data in public health surveillance systems provides critical information to target and evaluate public health interventions, particularly for minority populations. A national health objective for 2000 is to improve data collection on race and ethnicity in public health surveillance and data systems. To determine progress toward meeting this goal in CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), the percentage of case reports of selected nationally notifiable diseases reported through NETSS with information regarding a patient's race and ethnicity was calculated for 1994-1997. The findings of this study indicate these data were received for approximately half of the cases, and the completeness of reporting of race and ethnicity data to NETSS had not improved.

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 23, Number 5, May 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    snapshot: Zika virus infection among Military Health System beneficiaries following introduction of the virus into the Western Hemisphere, 20 May 2016...to the change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 cod- ing within the Military Health System on 1 October 2015, subjects with incident RS procedures from 1...Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) were reviewed to identify those associated with diagnoses of urinary stones. For this analysis, a case

  6. Surveillance of Legionella species in hospital water systems: the significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Farzaneh Baghal; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring of hospital water systems to prevent and control nosocomial legionellosis is important from a public health perspective. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of Legionella contamination of hospital waters. A total of 44 water samples from the hot-water system of 11 hospitals were tested for Legionella by a culture method and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Legionella-specific primers to identify the more sensitive method. Some physicochemical parameters and heterotrophic plate counts of water samples for possible association with Legionella contamination were also determined. The contamination rate of hospitals in our study varied between 64% (eight of 11)-100% based on culture method and nested PCR, respectively. Of the 44 water samples examined, 23% were positive for Legionella spp. by the culture method, while the nested PCR assay using the primers LEG448-JRP revealed 66% of the water samples being positive. Given the importance of monitoring hospital water systems for the presence of Legionella spp., the present PCR assay proved highly applicable for practical and sensitive surveillance of Legionella in such water systems. In addition, rapid monitoring of Legionella contamination could eliminate the potential exposure of high-risk patients through effective control measures.

  7. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  8. The Bremerton enrollment capacity model: an enrollment capacity model supporting the military health system optimization plan.

    PubMed

    Helmers, S

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Defense has launched several initiatives to improve efficiency and quality of care in the military health system. The goal of empaneling 1,300 to 1,500 patients per primary care manager did not correlate well with Naval Hospital Bremerton's experience and did not accurately account for military-specific requirements. The Bremerton Model Task Force was chartered to assess current business practices, identify areas for improvement, and develop a capacity model reflecting military readiness and residency training requirements. Methods included a 12-month review of patient visits and staff surveys of how providers spent their day, with time-and-motion analysis to verify assumptions. Our capacity results (average, 791 enrollees per primary care manager) demonstrated that objective measures at the local level do not support enrollment to Department of Defense-specified levels. Significant changes in "corporate culture" are necessary to accomplish the military health system goals.

  9. Surveillance systems for STIs in the European Union: facing a changing epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, C; Fenton, K

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Cross sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. Results: Case reporting from clinicians and/or laboratories is the mainstay of EU surveillance systems for bacterial STIs. Coverage of case reporting varies from less than 10% to over 75%, and lack of and/or heterogeneity in case definitions affect the relative specificity and sensitivity of reporting systems. Considerable variations also exist in STI care sites; the populations who use these services; and in partner notification practices, STI screening practices, and STI laboratory diagnostic tests employed, affecting the representativeness of reported data and the sensitivity of surveillance systems for detecting the true number of STI cases. Conclusions: The heterogeneity of current surveillance systems complicates direct comparison of STI incidence rates across Europe. Introduction of standardised case definitions for reporting, and increased coverage of mandatory reporting systems where necessary, are needed. Definition of standardised minimum datasets and use of sentinel and enhanced surveillance systems to supplement universal case/laboratory notification data, could improve our understanding of the distribution and determinants of STIs across Europe, and aid in the design of effective public health responses. In the context of the changing epidemiology of STIs, systems for detection and monitoring of localised outbreaks of acute bacterial STIs (syphilis and antimicrobial resistant gonorrhoea), as well as prevalence monitoring systems for frequently asymptomatic STIs (chlamydial infection and viral STIs), are also necessary. PMID:15295122

  10. Factors Associated with Incomplete Reporting of HIV and AIDS by Uganda's Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akankunda, Denis B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, Uganda has piloted and implemented various management information systems (MIS) for better surveillance of HIV/AIDS. With support from the United States Government, Uganda introduced the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) in 2012. However, districts have yet to fully adapt to this system given a…

  11. The Military Spouse Education and Career Opportunities Program: Recommendations for an Internal Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    education full time or not immediately after graduating from high school; and have family and work responsibilities, as well as other life...some military spouses who receive the scholarship may not be entering higher education immediately out of high school, they may have dependents, they...The Military Spouse Education and Career Opportunities Program Recommendations for an Internal Monitoring System Gabriella C. Gonzalez, Laura L

  12. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  13. Comparison of military and civilian reporting rates for smallpox vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    McMahon, A W; Zinderman, C; Ball, R; Gupta, G; Braun, M M

    2007-06-01

    US smallpox vaccination (SMA) started most recently in December 2002. Military and civilian personnel report adverse events (AEs) to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a surveillance system that relies on spontaneous reports. Although reported rates of probable myo/pericarditis after SMA in the literature are similar between military personnel and civilian healthcare workers, some civilian AE reporting rates after SMA appeared higher than those in the military. Determine if SMA-associated reporting rates are different in civilians than in the military, considering age, sex, seriousness, and expectedness of the AE, as well as self-reporting. Numerators were SMA reports in VAERS from 12/12/02 to 3/1/04. Limitations of VAERS include underreporting and lack of diagnostic confirmation. Denominators were number of military and civilian vaccinees. Reporting rates stratified by age and sex of serious and non-serious AEs were significantly higher in civilian than military personnel ages <55 years (rate ratios 4-27). These rate ratios decreased with increasing age. Reporting rates in VAERS differed significantly and substantially in civilians compared to military personnel <55 years of age. Differences in stimulated passive surveillance systems, and AE reporting practices, including the 'threshold' for reporting most likely explain these findings. These results suggest that in the case of smallpox vaccine AEs, there may be systematic differences in reporting completeness between the civilian and military sectors, and that passive surveillance data should be interpreted with caution. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Family systems and ecological perspectives on the impact of deployment on military families.

    PubMed

    Paley, Blair; Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The scope of sustained military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan has placed great demands on the Armed Forces of the United States, and accordingly, military families have been faced with deployments in more rapid succession than ever before. When military parents fulfill occupational duties during wartime, military children and families face multiple challenges, including extended separations, disruptions in family routines, and potentially compromised parenting related to traumatic exposure and subsequent mental health problems. Such challenges can begin to exert a significant toll on the well-being of both individuals and relationships (e.g., marital, parent-child) within military families. In order to respond more effectively to the needs of military families, it is essential that mental health clinicians and researchers have a better understanding of the challenges faced by military families throughout the entire deployment experience and the ways in which these challenges may have a cumulative impact over multiple deployments. Moreover, the mental health field must become better prepared to support service members and families across a rapidly evolving landscape of military operations around the world, including those who are making the transition from active duty to Veteran status and navigating a return to civilian life and those families in which parents will continue to actively serve and deploy in combat zones. In this article, we utilize family systems and ecological perspectives to advance our understanding of how military families negotiate repeated deployment experiences and how such experiences impact the well-being and adjustment of families at the individual, dyadic, and whole family level.

  15. Biotypes of Candida albicans isolated from cardiovascular system and skin surveillance cultures of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Vazić-Babić, Verica; Mlinarić-Missoni, Emilija; Kalenić, Smilja

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to biotype 59 isolates of Candida (C.) albicans from cardiovascular system samples (blood and intravenous catheter) and 123 isolates of the same species from skin surveillance cultures (swabs of the armpit, groins and intravenous catheter insertion sites) of hospitalized patients using the Odds and Abbott biotyping method. Biotyping of 59 isolates of C. albicans taken from the cardiovascular system samples revealed the presence of 16 biotypes. Biotype 355 was the most common biotype, accounting for 35.6% of all biotype isolates from this system. Biotyping of 123 C. albicans isolates from skin surveillance cultures detected 21 biotypes. Biotype 355 was most common, accounting for 17.9% of all biotype isolates from these samples. The two systems had 10 biotypes in common: 355, 155, 257, 305, 105, 315, 300, 015, 157, and 345. These biotypes accounted for 88.3% and 81.4% of all C. albicans biotypes isolated from the cardiovascular system and skin surveillance cultures, respectively. Biotypes 355, 155, and 257 were the biotypes most frequently shared in isolates from the two systems. These biotypes accounted for 57.7% and 43.1% of all C. albicans biotypes isolated from the cardiovascular system and skin surveillance cultures, respectively.

  16. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    PubMed

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  17. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  18. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  19. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  20. Integrated Multi-Sensor System for Enhanced Space Surveillance - Design, Engineering, Integration and Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Markov, V.; Ewart, R.; Craig, D.

    Space surveillance requires capabilities for detection, tracking, imaging and characterization of specific objects in space environment. In general, most current space surveillance systems are single-sensor based and are not capable of generating the desired tracking accuracy, and providing required object characterization. A suite of various types of the sensors that are spatially or temporarily separated may thus be used collectively to synthesize a composite, improved surveillance picture through fusion and post processing of retrieved data. However, this approach will not yield the highest possible data accuracy due to the errors introduced in correlation of location, orientation and detection time from different sensors. Furthermore, it may not provide timely surveillance data to the user and hence may degrade the utility of these data. In this paper, we present the architecture, operational concept and preliminary design of an advanced integrated multi-sensor system (AIMS) for enhanced space surveillance capability to alleviate these shortfalls. AIMS employs an active laser tracking and multiple spectral domain (visible and multi-band IR) sensing to provide high-resolution tracking, three-dimensional imaging and reliable characterization of space objects with down range resolution of 1 cm and velocity measurement accuracy of 1-10 cm/sec in near real-time. The engineering and integration of a scale-down prototype of AIMS together with results of initial field tests are reported in this paper. Issues, lessons learned, future development plan and potential application of AIMS to space missions will be discussed.

  1. Canadian Influenza Surveillance First Report: Methods of the National Recording System

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Because of the possibility of an influenza pandemic during the 1976-77 season or at least of a major new epidemic, a national surveillance project for influenza in Canada was established in the autumn of 1976 under the auspices of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and the Fédération des médecins omnipraticiens du Québec. The project augmented surveillance activities of the federal and provincial governments, explicitly avoiding duplication of effort and methods. An extensive network of sentinel physicians was recruited from among family doctors in all provinces, forming the National Recording System (NaReS). The emphasis of the plan was to generate the kind of information which family physicians are in a uniquely advantageous position to provide. The influenza surveillance project was the first one for the National Recording System.

  2. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 1.0 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: (3)2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 0.6 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: (3)2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by

  3. [National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (NAMRSS) external quality assessment studies: 2011-2016].

    PubMed

    Süzük Yıldız, Serap; Şimşek, Hüsniye; Çöplü, Nilay; Gülay, Zeynep

    2017-07-01

    Establishment of sustainable and evidence-based surveillance systems are recommended for prevention of microbial resistance by the World Health Organization (WHO). As a necessity of these surveillance systems, participants are recommended to implement an external quality assessment (EQA) program. In this scope, National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (NARSS) has been established within the Public Health Institute of Turkey (PHIT) in our country since 2011. In the scope of this surveillance, NARSS EQA program has been implemented in a cycle per year and four isolates were sent to participants per cycle every year since 2011. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the six years results of the EQA programs being implemented on NARSS participants between 2011 and 2016. The surveillance system consisted of 118 laboratories. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium/faecalis and Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria included in scope of the surveillance were sent to participants. Identification of bacteria to the species level, verification of the antibiotic susceptibility test results and existence of specified resistance of the isolates performed with valid test methods required from the participants. Identified isolates were cultured with routine microbiological methods and sent to participants in ambient temperature in triple carrying pouches inside suitable carrying media via PTT Cargo. The results were entered by means of passwords prepared by PHIT and sent to the web based system. The analysis of results were made with SPSS program. A total of twenty-three isolates were sent to participants between 2011 and 2016. It was determined that participants commonly preferred automated systems for bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity test results. The use of MALDI TOF MS system was determined to be raised up to 15.65% in 2016. It has been determined that

  4. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B.; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Olayinka, Adebola T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. Introduction In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. Methods We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 – 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. Results According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 – 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 – 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 – 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 1.0 (target: 32) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: 32) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 0.6 (target: 32) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: 32) in 2012. Case

  5. Comparative evaluation of three surveillance systems for infectious equine diseases in France and implications for future synergies.

    PubMed

    Amat, J P; Hendrikx, P; Tapprest, J; Leblond, A; Dufour, B

    2015-10-01

    It is necessary to assess surveillance systems for infectious animal diseases to ensure they meet their objectives and provide high-quality health information. Each system is generally dedicated to one disease and often comprises various components. In many animal industries, several surveillance systems are implemented separately even if they are based on similar components. This lack of synergy may prevent optimal surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess several surveillance systems within the same industry using the semi-quantitative OASIS method and to compare the results of the assessments in order to propose improvements, including future synergies. We have focused on the surveillance of three major equine diseases in France. We have identified the mutual and specific strengths and weaknesses of each surveillance system. Furthermore, the comparative assessment has highlighted many possible synergies that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance as a whole, including the implementation of new joint tools or the pooling of existing teams, tools or skills. Our approach is an original application of the OASIS method, which requires minimal financial resources and is not very time-consuming. Such a comparative evaluation could conceivably be applied to other surveillance systems, other industries and other countries. This approach would be especially relevant to enhance the efficiency of surveillance activities when resources are limited.

  6. Military/Civilian Mixed-Mode Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver (MMGR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) 5a...2003. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Space Vehicles, MMGR, AFRL, JPO, Mixed-Mode Global Positioning System Receiver, GPS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...239.18 1 Military/Civilian Mixed-Mode Global Positioning System ( GPS ) Receiver (MMGR) Andy Peczalski, Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems

  7. [Stewardship of public health surveillance in the health system in Colombia: a case study].

    PubMed

    López, Yolanda Lucía; González, Claudia; Gallego, Berta Natalia; Moreno, Ana Lida

    2009-12-01

    With the reform of the Colombian health system in 1993, public health surveillance continued to be a governmental responsibility under the stewardship of the Ministry of Social Protection along with state and local health authorities. The effectiveness of the development and organization of state and municipality public health surveillance programs will be studied as they have evolved under the general social security system in Colombia. Qualitative study and case-study method are applied to several institutions as they function in 5 states and 11 counties, ten years after the health system reforms. Public health authorities have reduced resources for providing advice, technical assistance, supervision and control of the process of the public health surveillance. Weaknesses in administrative control are common. Quantity and quality of human resources, as well as, staffing and financial resources are inadequate to meet the responsibilities that have been assigned to each state and county. The public health surveillance has prioritized the notification and registration of cases, and the strength of development of particular areas occasionally has been subject to the particular interests of officials in charge, particularly in the public hospitals. Little commitment or interest is shown by mayors, insurance companies, and institutions providing health services that are supposed to be involved with monitoring. A lack of cross-institutional collaboration is apparent in the development of health services surveillance. The implementation of public health surveillance at state and local levels is weak due to problems with the governmental stewardship. These weaknesses are manifested in the lack of regulation, financing and control of the health system.

  8. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective. PMID:24351740

  9. Integrated human surveillance systems of West Nile virus infections in Italy: the 2012 experience.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-12-13

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June-30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008-2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a "one health" perspective.

  10. Significance of the development of a cardiovascular disease surveillance and reporting system in India.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of global morbidity and mortality and is the leading cause of death in the Indian subcontinent projected to contribute to deaths expected to double by 2015. The social and economic impact of these staggering projections highlight the need for a centralized effort to monitor and evaluate behavioral and physiological risk factors for CVD. Limited evidence on existing surveillance systems suggest that the key to an effective monitoring and evaluation (M and E) program for CVD surveillance in India relies upon the World Health Organization's STEP-wise model. Key recommendations for the Ministry of Health include the development of a national CVD surveillance program with expertise and a quality-improvement mechanism to receive continuous input from similar surveillance programs in likeminded countries. Structure of the surveillance system would include; (1) the development of process measures for CVD risk factor' based surveillance M and E systems for early detection of CVD at the local-level, (2) the development of trigger based data reporting responsibilities to State-based monitoring teams including incentives for accuracy in data reporting and the use of data-driven evidence to target risk specific intervention and prevention on Central Government monitoring teams with reporting feedback to the State and local-levels and (3) the creation of health policy to require the use of data to target risk specific prevention for intervention and developing local technical capacity. Such a system would provide significant cost and social benefits, presenting an evidence based data driven cost-effective business case for scale-up and potential use in areas comprising similar demographics. Future research should focus on the inclusion of a systematic critique of the reported data for the challenges to surveillance systems in India and the examination of the effect of an incentivized reporting system on the states. Further

  11. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  12. Collaborative Systems Biology Projects for the Military Medical Community.

    PubMed

    Zalatoris, Jeffrey J; Scheerer, Julia B; Lebeda, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    from 18 extramural organizations and three other USAMRMC laboratories. Collaborators from six USAMRMC laboratories and 58 extramural organizations were identified who provided additional research expertise to these systems biology studies. At the end of fiscal year 2016, USAMRMC laboratories self-reported 66 systems biology/computational biology studies (62 of which were unique) with 25 intramural and 81 extramural collaborators. Nearly two-thirds were led by or in collaboration with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center/Department of Defense Biotechnology High-Performance Computing Software Applications Institute and U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research. The most common study objective addressed biological mechanisms of disease. The most common types of Research Task Areas addressed infectious diseases (viral and bacterial) and chemical agents (environmental toxicant exposures, and traditional and emerging chemical threats). More than 40% of the studies (27/62) involved collaborations between the reporting USAMRMC laboratory and one other organization. Nearly half of the studies (30/62) involved collaborations between the reporting USAMRMC laboratory and at least two other organizations. These survey results indicate that USAMRMC laboratories are compliant with data-centric policy and guidance documents whose goals are to prevent redundancy and promote collaborations by sharing data and leveraging capabilities. These results also serve as a foundation to make recommendations for future systems biology research efforts. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. An assessment of national surveillance systems for malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Ekapirat, Nattwut; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J

    2017-03-21

    Heads of Government from Asia and the Pacific have committed to a malaria-free region by 2030. In 2015, the total number of confirmed cases reported to the World Health Organization by 22 Asia Pacific countries was 2,461,025. However, this was likely a gross underestimate due in part to incidence data not being available from the wide variety of known sources. There is a recognized need for an accurate picture of malaria over time and space to support the goal of elimination. A survey was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the collection of malaria incidence data for surveillance by National Malaria Control Programmes in 22 countries identified by the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance. In 2015-2016, a short questionnaire on malaria surveillance was distributed to 22 country National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) in the Asia Pacific. It collected country-specific information about the extent of inclusion of the range of possible sources of malaria incidence data and the role of the private sector in malaria treatment. The findings were used to produce recommendations for the regional heads of government on improving malaria surveillance to inform regional efforts towards malaria elimination. A survey response was received from all 22 target countries. Most of the malaria incidence data collected by NMCPs originated from government health facilities, while many did not collect comprehensive data from mobile and migrant populations, the private sector or the military. All data from village health workers were included by 10/20 countries and some by 5/20. Other sources of data included by some countries were plantations, police and other security forces, sentinel surveillance sites, research or academic institutions, private laboratories and other government ministries. Malaria was treated in private health facilities in 19/21 countries, while anti-malarials were available in private pharmacies in 16/21 and private shops in 6/21. Most countries use

  14. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  15. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  16. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Leal, Priscila Leite; Cerroni, Matheus de Paula; Simplicio, Ana Cristina Rocha; Siqueira, João Bosco

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3-51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems.

  17. The design and implementation of a new surveillance system for venous thromboembolism using combined active and passive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wendelboe, Aaron M.; Campbell, Janis; McCumber, Micah; Bratzler, Dale; Ding, Kai; Beckman, Michele; Reyes, Nimia; Raskob, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence in the United States are limited by lack of a national surveillance system. We implemented a population-based surveillance system in Oklahoma County, OK, for April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014, to estimate the incidences of first-time and recurrent VTE events, VTE-related mortality, and the proportion of case patients with provoked versus unprovoked VTE. The Commissioner of Health made VTE a reportable condition and delegated surveillance-related responsibilities to the University of Oklahoma, College of Public Health. The surveillance system included active and passive methods. Active surveillance involved reviewing imaging studies (such as chest computed tomography and compression ultrasounds) from all inpatient and outpatient facilities. Interrater agreement between surveillance officers collecting data was assessed using κ. Passive surveillance used International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes from hospital discharge data to identify cases. The sensitivity and specificity of various ICD-9–based case definitions will be assessed by comparison with cases identified through active surveillance. As of February 1, 2015, we screened 54,494 (99.5%) of the imaging studies and identified 2,725 case patients, of which 91.6% were from inpatient facilities, and 8.4% were from outpatient facilities. Agreement between surveillance officers was high (κ ≥0.61 for 93.2% of variables). Agreement for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis was κ = 0.92 (95% CI 0.74-1.00) and κ = 0.89 (95% CI 0.71-1.00), respectively. This surveillance system will provide data on the accuracy of ICD-9–based case definitions for surveillance of VTE events and help the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention develop a national VTE surveillance system. PMID:26385027

  18. Battlefield Medical Information System-Tactical (BMIST): the application of mobile computing technologies to support health surveillance in the Department of Defense.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tommy J; Pajak, John; Havlik, Frank; Kenyon, Jessica; Calcagni, Dean

    2006-08-01

    This paper discusses the innovation process of the Battlefield Medical Information System- Tactical (BMIST), a point-of-care mobile computing solution for reducing medical errors and improving the quality of care provided to our military personnel in the field. In such remote environments, medical providers have traditionally had limited access to medical information, a situation quite analogous to that in remote areas of underdeveloped or developing countries. BMIST provides an all-in-one suite of mobile applications that empowers providers via access to critical medical information and powerful clinical decision support tools to accurately create an electronic health record (EHR). This record is synchronized with Department of Defense (DOD) joint health surveillance and medical information systems from the earliest echelons of care through chronic care provided by the Veterans Administration. Specific goals met in the initial phase were: integration of the PDA and wireless interface; development of the local application and user interface; development of a communications infrastructure and development of a data storage and retrieval system. The system had been used extensively in the field to create an EHR far forward that supports a longitudinal medical record across time and across all elements of the Military Healthcare System.

  19. Imported infections: What information should be collected by surveillance systems to inform public health policy?

    PubMed

    Neave, Penny E; Heywood, Anita E; Gibney, Katherine B; Leder, Karin

    2016-01-01

    International travel carries the risk of imported diseases, which are an increasingly significant public health problem. There is little guidance about which variables should be collected by surveillance systems for strategy-based surveillance. Surveillance forms for dengue, malaria, hepatitis A, typhoid and measles were collected from Australia and New Zealand and information on these compared with national surveillance forms from the UK and Canada by travel health experts. Variables were categorised by information relating to recent travel, demographics and disease severity. Travel-related information most commonly requested included country of travel, vaccination status and travel dates. In Australia, ethnicity information requested related to indigenous status, whilst in New Zealand it could be linked to census categories. Severity of disease information most frequently collected were hospitalisation and death. Reviewing the usefulness of variables collected resulted in the recommendation that those included should be: overseas travel, reason for travel, entry and departure dates during the incubation period, vaccination details, traveller's and/or parents' country of birth, country of usual residence, time resident in current country, postcode, hospitalisation and death details. There was no agreement about whether ethnicity details should be collected. The inclusion of these variables on surveillance forms could enable imported infection-related policy to be formulated nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An entomological surveillance system based on open spatial information for participative dengue control.

    PubMed

    Regis, Leda; Souza, Wayner V; Furtado, André F; Fonseca, Cláudio D; Silveira Jr, José C; Ribeiro Jr, Paulo J; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Monteiro, Antonio M V

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti is a very efficient disseminator of human pathogens. This condition is the result of evolutionary adaptations to frequent haematophagy, as well as to the colonization of countless types of habitats associated with environmental and cultural factors that favor the proliferation of this mosquito in urban ecosystems. Studies using sensitive methods of monitoring demonstrate that the methods of surveillance used in the Brazilian program do not show the high degrees of the infestation of cities by this vector. To increase the capacity of the health sector, new tools are needed to the practice of surveillance, which incorporate aspects of the vector, place and human population. We describe here the SMCP-Aedes - Monitoring System and Population Control of Aedes aegypti, aiming to provide an entomological surveillance framework as a basis for epidemiological surveillance of dengue. The SMCP-Aedes is uphold in the space technology information, supported by the intensive use of the web and free software to collect, store, analyze and disseminate information on the spatial-temporal distribution of the estimated density for the population of Aedes, based on data systematically collected with the use of ovitraps. Planned control interventions, intensified where and when indicated by the entomological surveillance, are agreed with the communities, relying on the permanent social mobilization.

  1. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  2. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. Approach In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system’s performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Local setting Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. Relevant changes By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. Lessons learnt The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings. PMID:28479639

  3. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.

  4. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  6. From surveillance to action: early gains from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R; Weis, M A; Millet, L; Powell, V; Hull‐Jilly, D; Hackman, H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Drawing from the experiences of individual state programs that currently participate in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), this article reviews some of the practical benefits that may accrue from the introduction of violent death surveillance systems. Design As a state‐based surveillance system that uses multiple data sources and relies upon multiple stakeholders, the NVDRS program has fostered an array of initiatives within and among individual state programs. State‐based initiatives highlighted in this article were selected on the basis of a purposive sampling strategy intended to illustrate key aspects of program development. Setting The NVDRS state programs are in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Results The NVDRS has helped to build alliances and collaborative efforts between key stakeholders, facilitated the recognition of violent death as a public health problem through outreach and media attention, acted as a catalyst for new projects, enhanced surveillance of special populations and utility for evaluation, and identified key circumstances that will target interventions in state prevention planning. Conclusions The NVDRS has implemented data collection efforts and is beginning to produce and analyze findings. In the process of implementing the data collection system and publicizing findings, state NVDRS programs are realizing other gains that strengthen their surveillance efforts. The use of data for prevention purposes will be the ultimate indicator of program success. PMID:17170175

  7. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  8. Using Surveillance Camera Systems to Monitor Public Domains: Can Abuse Be Prevented

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    of images except for purposes of crime prevention and detection .52 The act required every CCTV surveillance system to be registered with the...of conducting thermal imaging detection in order to ascertain if a homeowner was using powerful lights to facilitate the growth of marijuana.61 The...

  9. Current trends from the USDA influenza a virus in swine surveillance system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A U.S. national surveillance system for influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine was initiated in 2009 with increasing participation to the present day. The objectives are to monitor genetic evolution of IAV in swine, make isolates available for research, diagnostic reagents, and vaccine development throu...

  10. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  11. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  12. Continuously rethinking the definition of influenza for surveillance systems: a Dependent Bayesian Expert System.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Farrokh; Atherton, Martin J; Pattie, David C; Torii, Manabu

    2013-08-01

    In the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE), influenza was originally defined by a list of 29 and later by a list of 12 diagnosis codes. This article describes a dependent Bayesian procedure designed to improve the ESSENCE system and exploit multiple sources of information without being biased by redundancy. We obtained 13,096 cases within the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technological Application electronic medical records that included an influenza laboratory test. A Dependent Bayesian Expert System (D-BESt) was used to predict influenza from diagnoses, symptoms, reason for visit, temperature, month of visit, category of enrollment, and demographics. For each case, D-BESt sequentially selects the most discriminating piece of information, calculates its likelihood ratio conditioned on previously selected information, and updates the case's probability of influenza. When the analysis was limited to definitions based on diagnoses and was applied to a sample of patients for whom laboratory tests had been ordered, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for the previous (29-diagnosis) and current (12-diagnosis) ESSENCE lists and the D-BESt algorithm were, respectively, 0.47, 0.36, and 0.77. Including other sources of information further improved the AUC for D-BESt to 0.79. At the best cutoff point for D-BESt, where the receiver operating characteristic curve for D-BESt is farthest from the diagonal line, the D-BESt algorithm correctly classified 84% of cases (specificity = 88%, sensitivity = 62%). In comparison, the current ESSENCE approach of using a list of 12 diagnoses correctly classified only 31% of this sample of cases (specificity = 29%, sensitivity = 42%). False alarms in ESSENCE surveillance systems can be reduced if a probabilistic dynamic learning system is used.

  13. Health system and law enforcement synergies for injury surveillance, control and prevention: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Sara F; Kollar, Laura M Mercer; Ridgeway, Greg; Sumner, Steven A

    2017-09-29

    Healthcare providers and law enforcement (LE) officers are among the most common first responders to injuring events. Despite frequent interface between the health system (HS) and LE sectors, the published evidence that supports their collaboration in injury surveillance, control and prevention has not been comprehensively reviewed. We conducted a scoping review of literature published from 1990 to 2016 that focused on local and regional HS and LE collaborations in injury surveillance, control and prevention. Our aim was to describe what is known and what remains unexplored about these cross-sector efforts. 128 articles were included in the final review. These were categorised by their focus on either surveillance activities or partnerships in injury control and prevention programmes. The majority of surveillance articles focused on road traffic injuries. Conversely, articles describing partnerships and programme evaluations primarily targeted the prevention of interpersonal violence. This review yielded two major findings: overall, the combination of HS and LE injury data added value to surveillance systems, especially as HS data augmented LE data; and HS and LE partnerships have been developed to improve injury control and prevention. However, there are few studies that have evaluated the impact and sustainability of these partnerships. The current evidence to support HS and LE collaboration in injury surveillance and control and prevention programmes is heterogeneous. Notable gaps suggest ample opportunity for further research and programme evaluation across all types of injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to investigate the impact of extreme cold weather events.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Shannon, T; Carmichael, C; Murray, V; Ibbotson, S; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G; Elliot, A J

    2014-07-01

    This report describes the development of novel syndromic cold weather public health surveillance indicators for use in monitoring the impact of extreme cold weather on attendances at EDs, using data from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 winters. A number of new surveillance indicators were created specifically for the identification and monitoring of cold weather related ED attendances, using the diagnosis codes provided for each attendance in the Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS), the first national syndromic surveillance system of its kind in the UK. Using daily weather data for the local area, a time series analysis to test the sensitivity of each indicator to cold weather was undertaken. Diagnosis codes relating to a health outcome with a potential direct link to cold weather were identified and assigned to a number of 'cold weather surveillance indicators'. The time series analyses indicated strong correlations between low temperatures and cold indicators in nearly every case. The strongest fit with temperature was cold related fractures in females, and that of snowfall was cold related fractures in both sexes. Though currently limited to a small number of sentinel EDs, the EDSSS has the ability to give near real-time detail on the magnitude of the impact of weather events. EDSSS cold weather surveillance fits well with the aims of the Cold Weather Plan for England, providing information on those particularly vulnerable to cold related health outcomes severe enough to require emergency care. This timely information aids those responding to and managing the effects on human health, both within the EDs themselves and in the community as a whole.

  15. Timeliness of national notifiable diseases surveillance system in Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyo-Soon; Park, Ok; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Gyu; Jeong, Eun-Kyeong; Lee, Jong-Koo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of international travels, infectious disease control is gaining a greater importance across regional borders. Adequate surveillance system function is crucial to prevent a global spread of infectious disease at the earliest stage. There have been limited reports on the characteristics of infectious disease surveillance in Asia. The authors studied the timeliness of the Korean National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System with regard to major notifiable diseases from 2001 to 2006. Methods Six notifiable infectious diseases reported relatively frequently were included in this study. Five diseases were selected by the criteria of reported cases > 100 per year: typhoid fever, shigellosis, mumps, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In addition, dengue fever was also included to represent an emerging disease, despite its low number of cases. The diseases were compared for the proportion notified within the recommended time limits, median time lags, and for the cumulative distribution of time lags at each surveillance step between symptom onset and date of notification to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Results The proportion of cases reported in time was lower for disease groups with a recommended time limit of 1 day compared with 7 days (60%–70% vs. > 80%). The median time from disease onset to notification to KCDC ranged between 6 and 20 days. The median time from onset to registration at the local level ranged between 2 and 15 days. Distribution of time lags showed that main delays arose in the time from onset to diagnosis. There were variations in timeliness by disease categories and surveillance steps. Conclusion Time from disease onset to diagnosis generally contributed most to the delay in reporting. It is needed to promote public education and to improve clinical guidelines. Rapid reporting by doctors should be encouraged, and unification of recommended reporting time limit can be

  16. Developing a database management system to support birth defects surveillance in Florida.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Jason L; Hauser, Kimberlea W; Tanner, Jean Paul; Sampat, Diana; Correia, Jane A; Watkins, Sharon M; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-01-01

    The value of any public health surveillance program is derived from the ways in which data are managed and used to improve the public's health. Although birth defects surveillance programs vary in their case volume, budgets, staff, and objectives, the capacity to operate efficiently and maximize resources remains critical to long-term survival. The development of a fully-integrated relational database management system (DBMS) can enrich a surveillance program's data and improve efficiency. To build upon the Florida Birth Defects Registry--a statewide registry relying solely on linkage of administrative datasets and unconfirmed diagnosis codes-the Florida Department of Health provided funding to the University of South Florida to develop and pilot an enhanced surveillance system in targeted areas with a more comprehensive approach to case identification and diagnosis confirmation. To manage operational and administrative complexities, a DBMS was developed, capable of managing transmission of project data from multiple sources, tracking abstractor time during record reviews, offering tools for defect coding and case classification, and providing reports to DBMS users. Since its inception, the DBMS has been used as part of our surveillance projects to guide the receipt of over 200 case lists and review of 12,924 fetuses and infants (with associated maternal records) suspected of having selected birth defects in over 90 birthing and transfer facilities in Florida. The DBMS has provided both anticipated and unexpected benefits. Automation of the processes for managing incoming case lists has reduced clerical workload considerably, while improving accuracy of working lists for field abstraction. Data quality has improved through more effective use of internal edits and comparisons with values for other data elements, while simultaneously increasing abstractor efficiency in completion of case abstraction. We anticipate continual enhancement to the DBMS in the future

  17. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012–2013. Methods: In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed