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Sample records for milk samples consumed

  1. Chocolate milk and the Hispanic consumer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Hispanic population is increasing, and purchasing power of this group is also increasing. Little is known about the attitudes and preferences of Hispanic adults or children toward chocolate milk. The objective of this study was to understand Hispanic consumer attitudes and preferences for chocolate milk. Focus groups with Hispanic adults (> 18 y, 3 groups, n= 31) and children (10 to 14 y, 6 groups, n= 29) were conducted to gain qualitative insight into perceptions and consumption trends. Using focus group results and descriptive analysis profiles of chocolate milks, 5 representative chocolate milks were selected for quantitative consumer testing. Milks were evaluated for overall liking and other attributes by Hispanic adults (n= 79), Caucasian adults (n= 91), and Hispanic children (n= 45). Analysis of variance and internal and external preference mapping were conducted to characterize differences among treatments and ethnic groups. Chocolate milks were differentiated by descriptive analysis (P < 0.001) in visual, flavor, and mouthfeel attributes. Hispanic children (n= 45) rated all chocolate milks higher in liking than Hispanic or Caucasian adults, and documented significant differences in liking for milks evaluated (P < 0.05). Caucasians adults were generally more discriminatory in liking of chocolate milks than Hispanic adults, but consistent ethnic differences were observed only for chocolate flavor liking where Hispanics assigned higher chocolate flavor liking scores to milks compared to Caucasians. Three consumer clusters were identified and the drivers for these clusters were largely consistent with previous chocolate milk consumer studies in that many of the same key drivers of liking for chocolate milk were identified. The results indicated that these consumer clusters were not defined exclusively by ethnicity.

  2. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process.

  3. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk.

  4. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  5. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk.

  6. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  7. Creating Public Awareness of How Goats Are Reared and Milk Produced May Affect Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Musto, Mauro; Cardinale, Daniele; Lucia, Pietro; Faraone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether showing a video of the different ways of raising goats for milk affected consumer acceptability. Four combinations, 2 Videos (intensive [INT] and semiextensive [SEM] system) × 2 Milk Types (semiskimmed [S] and whole [W] milk), were evaluated by 70 habitual consumers of goat milk, who scored their liking and purchase intention during blind (B), expected (E), and informed (I) acceptability sessions. In the B session, consumers tasted both milk types without information. S samples were preferred over W samples. In the E session, SEM video created high expectations in terms of milk liking and purchase intent, whereas the opposite happened when showing INT video. In the I session, consumers showed a clear preference for combinations created using SEM video, regardless of milk type. W-SEM and S-INT were worse (negative disconfirmation) and better (positive disconfirmation) than expected, respectively. A complete assimilation toward expectations occurred only for S-INT. INT video adversely affected the acceptability of S samples. Concerning purchase intent, W-SEM and S-SEM were worse than expected, but the assimilation was complete only for S-SEM: SEM video increased purchase intent for S samples.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gramaglia, Monica; Loria, Andrea; Nucera, Daniele; Gallina, Silvia; Gili, Marilena; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012–2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt (ng/kg) and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy. PMID:26927175

  9. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal.

  10. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Alyssa J.; Shehan, Catherine V.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference. PMID:26752811

  11. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  12. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  13. Japanese consumer preferences for milk certified with the good agricultural practice(GAP) label.

    PubMed

    Aizaki, Hideo; Nanseki, Teruaki; Zhou, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Japanese consumers' valuation of a good agricultural practice (GAP) label on packaged milk and investigated the effect of detailed GAP information on valuation. A total of 624 Japanese consumers were asked to select their most preferred milk through an online survey. The milk was assumed to have three attributes: the GAP label, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points certification, and price. The results showed that consumers' valuation of GAP was significantly positive. Although providing additional GAP information to a respondent who was aware of GAP and what it means had a positive effect on the consumers' valuation of GAP, provision of this information had no effect if the respondent knew about GAP either moderately or slightly, and had a negative effect if the respondent did not know about GAP at all. To increase broad consumer awareness and valuation of GAP, it is important to provide GAP information according to the requirements of consumers.

  14. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  15. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk.

  16. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes.

  17. Oral processing of two milk chocolate samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-da-Silva, Ana Margarida; Van Damme, Isabella; Taylor, Will; Hort, Joanne; Wolf, Bettina

    2013-02-26

    Oral processing of two milk chocolates, identical in composition and viscosity, was investigated to understand the textural behaviour. Previous studies had shown differences in mouthcoating and related attributes such as time of clearance from the oral cavity to be most discriminating between the samples. Properties of panellists' saliva, with regard to protein concentration and profile before and after eating the two chocolates, were included in the analysis but did not reveal any correlation with texture perception. The microstructure of the chocolate samples following oral processing, which resembled an emulsion as the chocolate phase inverts in-mouth, was clearly different and the sample that was found to be more mouthcoating appeared less flocculated after 20 chews. The differences in flocculation behaviour were mirrored in the volume based particle size distributions acquired with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The less mouthcoating and more flocculated sample showed a clear bimodal size distribution with peaks at around 40 and 500 μm, for 10 and 20 chews, compared to a smaller and then diminishing second peak for the other sample following 10 and 20 chews, respectively. The corresponding mean particle diameters after 20 chews were 184 ± 23 and 141 ± 10 μm for the less and more mouthcoating samples, respectively. Also, more of the mouthcoating sample had melted after both 10 and 20 chews (80 ± 8% compared to 72 ± 10% for 20 chews). Finally, the friction behaviour between a soft and hard surface (elastopolymer/steel) and at in-mouth temperature was investigated using a commercial tribology attachment on a rotational rheometer. Complex material behaviour was revealed. Observations included an unusual increase in friction coefficient at very low sliding speeds, initially overlapping for both samples, to a threefold higher value for the more mouthcoating sample. This was followed by a commonly observed decrease in friction coefficient with

  18. Consumer perception, health information, and instrumental parameters of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) goat milk yogurts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marion P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Vitor L M; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Chiappini, Claudete C J; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Although the demand for goat milk products has been growing, they have lower consumer acceptability than products derived from cow milk. However, the addition of cupuassu pulp can be used to improve the formulation of these products. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of new goat milk yogurt manufactured with cupuassu pulp on physicochemical properties, consumers' perceptions, and overall consumer acceptance. In addition, the effect of antioxidant health information on consumer acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts was evaluated. The results demonstrated a positive expectation regarding linking and familiarity to goat milk products and products with cupuassu pulp. The pH, total phenolic content, lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity were potentially affected by the addition of cupuassu, with the highest concentration of cupuassu (10%) exhibiting the greatest changes in parameters. Based on principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, and just-about-right and penalty analysis, the addition of cupuassu pulp improved some sensory attributes of goat milk yogurt, such as cupuassu aroma, cupuassu flavor, yellow color, consistency, and viscosity, which positively influenced product acceptance. In addition, antioxidant health information increased the acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Taking into account the parameters investigated in this study, the best scoring formulation was goat milk yogurt with 10% cupuassu pulp. Our results suggest that cupuassu pulp can be considered a potential ingredient to improve the sensory and texture properties of goat milk yogurt. Furthermore, the antioxidant health information could be a sensory strategy to increase the acceptance of cupuassu goat milk yogurts.

  19. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  20. Laboratory and Consumer Evaluations of Alternative Formulations of Recombined Milk.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    received the highest ratng; however, it will not be used because of health concerns. The milk filled with sunflower oil typically received the highest...testing of alternative formulations for filled milk were required due to health concerns about the use of saturated fats in the most common currently...and diglycerides, sodium casinate, soy protein , carrageenin, and sodium citrate. Actoloid D22B Mono- and diglycerides, soy protein , whey protein

  1. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  2. Identification of gram-negative bacteria from critical control points of raw and pasteurized cow milk consumed at Gondar town and its suburbs, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Milk is highly prone to contamination and can serve as an efficient vehicle for human transmission of foodborne pathogens, especially gram-negative bacteria, as these are widely distributed in the environment. Methods This cross-sectional study of gram-negative staining bacterial contamination of milk meant for human consumption was carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Milk samples were collected from critical control points, from production to consumption, that were hypothesized to be a source of potential contamination. Milk sampling points included smallholder’s milk producers, dairy co-operatives, a milk processing plant, and supermarkets. The hygienic procedures applied during milking, milk collection, transportation, pasteurization, and postpasteurization storage conditions at these specified critical control points were evaluated. Standard bacteriological cultivation and biochemical assays were used to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in the milk samples. Results The results of the current study showed that conditions for contamination of raw milk at different critical points were due to less hygienic practices in pre-milking udder preparation, sub-optimal hygiene of milk handlers, and poor sanitation practices associated with milking and storage equipments. Among all critical control points considered, transportation containers at milk collection centers and at processing plants were found to be the most heavily contaminated with gram-negative staining bacterial species. Overall, 54 different bacterial species were indentified, and Escherichia coli (29.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%), were the most commonly identified gram-negative staining bacterial pathogens. Of particular interest was that no gram-negative staining bacteria were isolated from pasteurized milk samples with varying shelf life. Conclusion This study showed the presence of diverse pathogenic gram

  3. Consumers' attitudes about milk quality and fertilization methods in dairy cows in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Doherr, M G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    Major advances in assisted reproductive technologies have improved reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. However, these developments occurred regardless of the perception of consumers, who often distrust biotechnology in food production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate consumers' attitudes toward reproductive management practices in dairy cattle. In November 2012, 1,646 participants were interviewed by a commercial market research institute. Participants were selected from all regions and demographic categories to represent the general public in Germany. Seven questions regarding milk-drinking preferences and reproductive technologies were asked in face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used. The majority of people drank milk at least weekly (63%) and found the taste of milk important (60%). Most people perceived advanced reproductive technologies negatively [e.g., the use of sexed semen (53%), embryo transfer (58%), cloning (81%), and hormone treatments to increase fertility (65%)]. Many people lacked basic knowledge about milk production (22% did not know that cows only give milk after calving; 51% did not know that milk naturally contains hormones); however, participants with a high school education, older participants, and those who had concerned themselves with dairy farming were more knowledgeable. Education and providing information might help to inform the public about reproductive management practices in dairy cows.

  4. DDT residues in human milk samples from Delhi, India

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, S.S.A.; Bhatnagar, V.K.; Banerjee, B.D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Shah, M.P.

    1989-03-01

    The widespread use of DDT in India has resulted in increased levels of the insecticide in the ecosystem and, therefore, the potential possible health hazards has been voiced. DDT-residues excreted in milk have been reported from different parts of the world; however, very few reports did appear from India. In fact, there is no report on DDT-content in human milk from Delhi area where higher levels of DDT and BHC in human adipose tissues and blood have already been reported. Higher bioaccumulation of DDT might reflect the higher excretion of residues in milk. The authors have, therefore, attempted a systematic study to monitor DDT-residues in human milk samples collected from various hospitals of Delhi (India).

  5. Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (≤32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

  6. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  7. Gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetric assay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Song, F; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Hu, P; Liu, Z S; Zhang, J H

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Kjeldahl method, used for quality evaluation of bovine milk, has intrinsic defects of time-consuming sample preparation and two analyses to determine the difference between non-protein nitrogen content and total protein nitrogen content. Herein, based upon antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we described a colorimetric method for β-casein (β-CN) detection in bovine milk samples. The linear dynamic range and the LOD were 0.08-250 μg mL(-1), and 0.03 μg mL(-1) respectively. In addition, the real content of β-CN in bovine milk was measured by using the developed assay. The results are closely correlated with those from Kjeldahl method. The advantages of β-CN triggered AuNP aggregation-based colorimetric assay are simple signal generation, the high sensitivity and specificity as well as no need of complicated sample preparation, which make it for on-site detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples.

  8. A pregnancy detection assay using milk samples: evaluation and considerations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Bradley C; Shahzad, Abid Hussain; Dolecheck, Karmella A; Martel, Edmond L; Velek, Katherine A; Ray, Denise L; Lawrence, John C; Silvia, William J

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a pregnancy-detection assay based on the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) in milk samples. In experiment 1, milk samples were collected on the day of first pregnancy check (33-52 d postinsemination; n=119) or second check (60-74 d postinsemination; n=60). The accuracy in identification of pregnant and nonpregnant cows was 99% at first check. Only 6% of samples were found to be within an intermediate range of PAG concentrations and classified as requiring recheck by the assay. At second check, the accuracy of the assay was 98%. Fifteen percent of these samples were classified as requiring recheck. In experiments 2a (n=17 cows) and 2b (n=16 cows), milk and plasma samples were collected from cows at weekly intervals beginning 2 (experiment 2a) or 4 d (experiment 2b) after insemination. The earliest time point at which pregnant cows were accurately classified as pregnant by the assay was on d 30 postinsemination. A transient decline in PAG levels into the intermediate range was observed on d 46 to 72 postinsemination. This coincides with the time of recheck in experiment 1. Results obtained with the plasma samples were essentially the same. The accuracy of pregnancy identification based on milk samples from nonpregnant and pregnant cows was 99%. Levels of PAG in milk were useful in identifying 6 incidences of embryonic mortality. No consistent relationship was noted between the timing of the decline in PAG levels and the timing of luteal regression in this small number of cows.

  9. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Guk; Kim, Eun Hee; Lafferty, Caroline J; Dubovi, Edward

    2005-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a primary reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever. However, no recent nationwide studies have assessed the prevalence and risks of Q fever in dairy cattle. We report >or=94% prevalence in samples of bulk tank milk from U.S. dairy herds tested during the past 3 years.

  10. Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Caroline J.; Dubovi, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Dairy cattle are a primary reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever. However, no recent nationwide studies have assessed the prevalence and risks of Q fever in dairy cattle. We report ≥94% prevalence in samples of bulk tank milk from U.S. dairy herds tested during the past 3 years. PMID:15829205

  11. Traceability of plant diet contents in raw cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-02-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  12. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique.

  13. [Detection of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle bulk tank milk and single tank milk samples by confirmatory testing].

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Angela; Andres, Tatjana; Werner, Ralf; Wehr, Roswitha; Fröhlich, Andreas; Conraths, Franz J; Henning, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by the pathogen Coxiella (C.) burnetii. A wide range of animal species is susceptible to this intracellular bacterium with great importance in ruminants. Human infections occur mainly by airborne transmission. C burnetii was detected in animal products such as raw milk, raw-milk cheese and butter prepared from raw milk as well as in the meat of infected animals. In cattle milk, the pathogen was detected up to 13 months after calving. The risk of human foodborne C. Burnetii infection is still considered to be low, but cannot be completely ruled out and remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to compare different laboratory diagnostic methods for C. burnetii in milk sample. The bulk tank and individual milk samples were sent and studied at the National Reference Laboratory for Q-fever in the context of confirmatory laboratory testing after clinical suspicion or retesting of previously antibody detection was in the analysis of 888 individual milk samples a match of 93.3% (Cohen-kappa). A total of 173 bulk milk samples and 2,807 individual milk samples from bovine herds for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies were tested against the pathogen. The pathogen was detected in 62.5% of the bulk milk samples and up to 60% in individual milk samples. The highest proportion of positive bulk milks was determined as 68.3% in 2012. In individual milk samples, the highest proportion of seropositive samples was 62.2%.

  14. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2).

  15. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  16. Determination of nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate anions in meat, milk and their products consumed in Hatay region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Atan, Muhammet Meriç

    2013-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites added to food can cause formation of cancerous N-nitroso compounds, whereas exposure to perchlorate is especially emphasised as an important risk factor for newborns' health. In this study, nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate concentrations in meat and milk products consumed in the Hatay region of Turkey were determined. Nitrate and nitrite were analysed with a spectrophotometric method, and perchlorate analysed via ion chromatography. The detected sodium nitrate and nitrite amounts in meat consumed in the Hatay region are less than the maximum levels as declared in the Turkish Food Codex. The amount of perchlorate was considered not to pose a threat as well. However, in 50% of the cheese samples, sodium nitrate amounts were found to be more than the maximum acceptable level in the Turkish Food Codex.

  17. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers.

  18. Transfer of Nicotine, Cotinine and Caffeine Into Breast Milk in a Smoker Mother Consuming Caffeinated Drinks.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Valeria; Escuder, Diana; Minutillo, Adele; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Although the habits of cigarette smoking and associated coffee drinking are generally ceased during pregnancy, they are often reinitiated after delivery when the breastfeeding period starts. This is a case report of a 32-year-old lactating smoker mother who consumed caffeinated drinks and who agreed to donate breast milk after smoking one cigarette (containing 0.6 mg of nicotine) and drinking one cup of espresso (containing 80 mg of caffeine) for an investigation of the excretion of nicotine, its major metabolite cotinine and caffeine into the breast milk and subsequent transfer to the infant. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine peaked in the breast milk at 0.5 h after the cigarette smoking, and caffeine peaked 2 h after drinking coffee. Moreover, the nicotine disappeared from the milk by 3 h, the caffeine required 24 h and the cotinine required 72 h. The relative infant doses of caffeine, nicotine and cotinine were found to be 8.9, 12.8 and 77.6%, respectively. In the light of these results obtained after the mother smoked only one cigarette and consumed one cup of espresso, if a lactating mother cannot refrain from smoking cigarettes, she should extend the time between the last smoked cigarette and breastfeeding to at least 3 h when the nicotine has been completely eliminated from the milk. Similarly, nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately after nursing and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant's exposure to caffeine.

  19. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  20. Double-antibody based immunoassay for the detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Song, F; Li, Y S; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of casein (CN) is one of the most important parameters for measuring the quality of bovine milk. Traditional approach to CN concentration determination is Kjeldahl, which is an indirect method for determination of total nitrogen content. Here, we described a double-antibody based direct immunoassay for the detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples. Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was used as capture antibody and polyclonal antibody (PcAb) labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as detection antibody. With the direct immunoassay format, the linear range of the detection was 0.1-10.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.04 μg mL(-1). In addition, the concentration of β-CN in real bovine milk samples has been detected by the developed immunoassay. There was a good correlation between the results obtained by the developed technique and Kjeldahl method from commercial samples. Compared to the traditional approach, the advantage of the assay is no need of time-consuming sample pretreatment.

  1. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-01-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the “Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes” (2010) and the “Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data” (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities. PMID:27047756

  2. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-03-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the "Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes" (2010) and the "Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data" (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities.

  3. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly.

  5. Turbidity and color spectronephelometric measurements in consumable fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luis; Clemente, M. P.

    2003-10-01

    Spectronephelometric measurement techniques are in the order of the day. We can apply these techniques to monitor the production of consumable fluids and to verify their quality. Products like Wine, Beer and Olive Oil for instance, are widely consumed over the world. These products do have a major role in people"s dietary habits and their quality is of greater concern from day to day. If we can make use of a monitoring system that is able to perform measurements in situ, on line and in real time, then we will obviously have the capacity to improve quality. Particles that are suspended in consumable fluid samples interact with radiation by scattering it in almost all directions. If we can detect this scattered radiation, then we have information on the suspended particles. Making use on some Physical relations, we can transpose this information to physical parameters like Color and Turbidity.

  6. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  7. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Cordea, D. V.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ18O and δ2H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ18O and δ2H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  8. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  9. Rapid screening of 90Sr activity in water and milk samples using Cherenkov radiation.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, K C; Ioannides, K G; Karamanis, D T; Patiris, D C

    2007-01-01

    A method for screening 90Sr in milk samples is proposed. This method is based on a liquid scintillation technique taking advantage of Cherenkov radiation, which is produced in a liquid medium and then detected by the photomultipliers of a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). Twenty millilitres of water and milk samples spiked with various concentrations of 90Sr/90Y in equilibrium were added in plastic vials and then were measured with an LSC (TriCarb 3170 TR/SL). The derived efficiencies were 49% for water samples and 14% for milk samples. The detection limit was 470 mBq L(-1)(90)Sr for water, without any pretreatment. Milk contains potassium, which also produces Cherenkov radiation due to the presence of 40K. For this reason, the interference of 40K in the measurements of 90Sr in milk samples was also investigated. The detection limit for milk was 1.7 Bq L(-1)90Sr.

  10. Hollow fiber membrane-coated functionalized polymeric ionic liquid capsules for direct analysis of estrogens in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-02-01

    Protein removal process is always time-consuming for the analysis of milk samples. In this work, hollow fiber membrane-coated functionalized polymeric ionic liquid (HF-PIL) capsules were synthesized and used as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent for direct analysis of estrogens in milk samples. The functionalized PIL monolith sorbent was obtained by copolymerization between 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium 4-styrenesulfonate IL monomer and 1,6-di(3-vinylimidazolium) hexane bishexafluorophosphate IL-crosslinking agent. A group of four capsules were installed as SPME device, to determine four kinds of estrogens (estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol) in milk samples, coupled to high performance liquid chromatography. Extraction and desorption conditions were optimized to get satisfactory extraction efficiency. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 5-200 μg L(-1). The limits of detection were 1 μg L(-1) for diethylstilbestrol and 2 μg L(-1) for 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, and hexestrol. The present method was applied to analyze the model analytes in different milk samples. Relative recoveries were in the range of 85.5-112%. The HF-PIL SPME capsules showed satisfactory extraction efficiency and high resistance to sample matrix interference.

  11. Qualitative analysis of human milk produced by women consuming a maize-predominant diet typical of rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; Butte, N F; Flores-Huerta, S; Thotathuchery, M

    1998-01-01

    The milk composition of women on a typical rural Mexican diet was compared with that secreted by American women, consuming a diet typical of affluent countries. Milk concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, total amino acids, and selected key minerals were analyzed at 4 or 6 months postpartum. The total milk fat concentration was lower in the Otomi (22.7 +/- 6.7 mg/g milk) than in the American women (31.3 +/- 5.4 mg/g milk, p = 0.001). Although the absolute concentration did not differ, cholesterol, expressed in terms of total lipid, was higher in the Otomi milk (3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.7 mg/g fat, p = 0.005). Saturated medium-chain (C10:0-C14:0) and unsaturated intermediate-chain fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:2) were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.03). The concentrations of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 were significantly lower in Otomi than in American milk. The milk concentrations of protein and nonprotein nitrogen were comparable between the two groups. The concentrations of serine, proline, cystine, methionine, and tryptophan were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.05-0.001). The concentrations of valine and isoleucine were significantly lower in the Otomi milk (p = 0.05). Expressed per gram of milk protein, the cystine, methionine, lysine, and tryptophan concentrations were higher, and the glutamine/glutamate, valine, isoleucine, and arginine levels were lower in the Otomi milk. The concentrations of phosphorus and copper were lower in the Otomi than in the American milk at 4 months postpartum (p = 0.05). These differences in milk fatty acid and amino acid patterns and mineral content are unlikely to affect infant growth, but may have other biological consequences yet to be ascertained.

  12. The effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water of livestock on its total levels in milk samples of different cattle: Risk assessment in children.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Talpur, Farah Naz; Akhtar, Asma

    2016-12-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the arsenic (As) levels in milk samples of different milch animals, sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes and camels in Tharparkar, Pakistan. The concentration of As in the milk samples of cows, buffalos, sheep, goats and camels were observed in the range of 15.1-18.4, 2.6-7.7, 25.7-33.2, 10.5-37.3 and 6.6-13.7 μg/L, respectively. The levels of As in livestock drinking water of each farms/flocks was found in the range of 238-2000 μg L(-1). A positive correlation with Pearson correlation coefficients, ranged as, 0.926-0.974 (p = 0.001-0.011) was observed between the As concentration in milk samples of cattle and in corresponding drinking water of farms/flocks. The high bio-transfer factor of As was occurred in the milk samples of sheep. The content of As in scalp hair of children was observed to be elevated, who consumed milk of lower cattle (sheep and goat) than cow and camel. The As content in scalp hair directly proportional to the age of children. The hazardous quotient value of As due to consumption of milk was observed in decreasing order as, sheep > goats > camels > cows. The total hazardous quotient or noncarcinogenic risk values for children consuming the milk of sheep, goat, cow and camels were found >1 of reference dose for As, creates adverse effects on health in childhood stage. The children of all three age group have higher carcinogenic risk factor who are consuming milk of goat and sheep than larger cattle.

  13. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Lewis blood group-type epitopes, matching the maternal pattern. Previously, based on the Secretor and Lewis blood group system, four milk groups have been defined, i.e. Lewis-positive Secretors, Lewis-positive non-Secretors, Lewis-negative Secretors and Lewis-negative non-Secretors. Here, a rapid one-dimensional (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis method is presented that identifies the presence/absence of (α1-2)-, (α1-3)- and (α1-4)-linked fucose residues in HMO samples, affording the essential information to attribute different HMO samples to a specific milk group. The developed method is based on the NMR structural-reporter-group concept earlier established for glycoprotein glycans. Further evaluation of the data obtained from the analysis of 36 HMO samples shows that within each of the four milk groups the relative levels of the different fucosylation epitopes can greatly vary. The data also allow a separation of the Lewis-positive Secretor milk group into two sub-groups.

  14. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood.

  15. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Allmyr, Mats; Mueller, Jochen F; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; McLachlan, Michael; Murby, John; Harden, Fiona A

    2011-12-01

    Triclosan is a chlorinated phenol ether that has been in widespread use as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for four decades. When compared to the limited international data available on human body burden of triclosan, results from a pooled blood study suggested that triclosan concentrations in Australia were a factor two higher than observed in Sweden. This study determined triclosan levels in individual human milk samples (n=151) collected between 2002 and 2005 from primiparous Australian mothers. It provided the first report of population triclosan levels and individual variation in Australia and gave a measure of infant exposure via breast feeding. The distribution of triclosan concentration was positively skewed, with 7.2% of the samples below the LOQ, 66% with a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 ng g(-1)fresh weight and the remaining samples above 1 ng g(-1) reaching a maximum concentration of 19 ng g(-1)fresh weight. The mean and median triclosan concentrations were 1.3±2.7 ng g(-1)f.w. and 0.26 ng g(-1)f.w., respectively. The results of this study showed high variability in triclosan concentrations between individuals and no correlations with maternal age (p=0.094), maternal weight (p=0.971) or infant age at the time of sample collection (p=0.621). A large number of samples contained low or non-quantifiable concentrations of triclosan and so, in Australia, ubiquitous background exposure due to environmental sources is low. This means that body burden can be influenced by an individual's use of triclosan containing product. Given that triclosan containing product use is continuing, it is important that monitoring in both humans and the environment is continued and that triclosan containing products are adequately labeled so that an individual can choose to avoid exposure.

  16. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ilahi, Houcine; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2004-01-01

    Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene) and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively). The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25). Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking) is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle. PMID:15339633

  17. Aflatoxin binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Duarte E; Hagler, Winston M; Blackwelder, John T; Eve, Julie A; Hopkins, Brinton A; Anderson, Kevin L; Jones, Frank T; Whitlow, Lon W

    2004-02-01

    Sequestering agents bind dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and reduce absorption from an animal's gastrointestinal tract. As a result, they protect an animal from the toxic effects of AFB1 and reduce transfer of the metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), into milk. Three experiments, using late-lactation Holstein cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed, were conducted to evaluate several potential sequestering agents for their abilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of AFM1 into milk. Six agents previously tested in our laboratory for AFB1 binding in vitro were evaluated in these experiments. These were: SA-20, an activated carbon (AC-A); Astra-Ben-20, a sodium bentonite (AB-20); MTB-100, an esterified glucomannan (MTB-100); Red Crown, a calcium bentonite (RC); Flow Guard, a sodium bentonite (FG); and Mycrosorb, a sodium bentonite (MS). Five of the six sequestering agents significantly (P < 0.01) reduced AFM1 contamination of milk (AB-20, 61%; FG, 65%; MS, 50%; MTB-100, 59%; and RC, 31%); whereas, AC-A, activated carbon, had no effect on AFM1 transmission at 0.25% of feed. By the first milking (1 day after cows consumed contaminated feed), AFM1 appeared in milk, then reached maximum levels after three days, and was absent from milk within four days after AFB1 was removed from the feed. Sodium bentonites at 1.2% of feed showed good potential as AFB1 binders; MTB-100, a yeast cell wall product, was equally effective at 0.05% in feed. Potential AFB1 binding agents should be evaluated experimentally to demonstrate efficacy. Our data show that sequestering agents can reduce AFM1 in milk of cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed.

  18. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  19. Occurrence of flunixin residues in bovine milk samples from the USA.

    PubMed

    Kissell, L W; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Smith, G W

    2013-01-01

    5-Hydroxy-flunixin concentrations in milk samples were quantified by two commercially available screening assays--CHARM® and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)--to determine whether any concentrations could be detected above the tolerance limit of 2 ng g⁻¹ from different regions in the United States. Milk samples came from large tanker trucks hauling milk to processing plants, and had already been screened for antibiotics. Positive results for flunixin residues based on a screening assay were confirmed by ultra-HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. Of the 500 milk samples analysed in this study, one sample was found to have a 5-hydroxy-flunixin concentration greater than the tolerance limit. The results of this study indicate that flunixin residues in milk are possible. Regulatory agencies should be aware that such residues can occur, and should consider incorporating or expanding flunixin screening tests as part of routine drug monitoring in milk. Larger studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of flunixin residues in milk from other regions in the United States as well as different countries.

  20. Determination of fluorine in milk samples via calcium-monofluoride by electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2013-05-01

    The determination of fluorine in milk samples via the molecular absorption of calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) was performed using a HR-CS-ETAAS. For this purpose, calcium was pipetted to graphite furnace together with samples. The amount of Ca and the graphite furnace program were optimised. Fluorine was determined in pyrolytically coated platforms at 606.440 nm applying a pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C and a molecule forming temperature of 2250 °C. Finally, applying standard addition technique, F contents of several milk samples were determined. The results obtained by linear calibration and standard addition techniques were significantly different which can be attributed to non-spectral interferences in milk due to matrix concomitants. Therefore, in order to tolerate the errors, the F contents of several milk samples were determined applying standard addition technique. However, since the ingredients of milk samples change for different kinds, the F in each sample was determined from its own standard addition curve. The range of F content for the milk samples were 0.027-0.543 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection and characteristic mass of the method were 0.26 and 0.13 ng of F, respectively.

  1. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  2. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups.

  3. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  4. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  5. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  6. Complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses reveal regulatory mechanisms of milk protein production in dairy cows consuming different forages

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenting; Chen, Qiong; Wang, Quanjuan; White, Robin R.; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-01-01

    Forage plays a critical role in the milk production of dairy cows; however, the mechanisms regulating bovine milk synthesis in dairy cows fed high forage rations with different basal forage types are not well-understood. In the study, rice straw (RS, low-quality) and alfalfa hay (AH, high-quality) diets were fed to lactating cows to explore how forage quality affected the molecular mechanisms regulating milk production using RNA-seq transcriptomic method with iTRAQ proteomic technique. A total of 554 transcripts (423 increased and 131 decreased) and 517 proteins (231 up-regulated and 286 down-regulated) were differentially expressed in the mammary glands of the two groups. The correlation analysis demonstrated seven proteins (six up-regulated and one down-regulated) had consistent mRNA expression. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts/proteins suggested that enhanced capacity for energy and fatty acid metabolism, increased protein degradation, reduced protein synthesis, decreased amino acid metabolism and depressed cell growth were related to RS consumption. The results indicated cows consuming RS diets may have had depressed milk protein synthesis because these animals had decreased capacity for protein synthesis, enhanced proteolysis, inefficient energy generation and reduced cell growth. Additional work evaluating RS- and AH-based rations may help better isolate molecular adaptations to low nutrient availability during lactation. PMID:28290485

  7. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are

  8. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition (mm) and acceptable minimum inhibitory concentration were observed with azithromycin, and thus it could be the first choice of a treatment. Overall, the presence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes strains in the raw milk of Rajasthan region is an indicator of public health hazard and highlighting the need of consumer awareness in place and implementation of stricter food safety regulations at all levels of milk production.

  9. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  10. Assessment of AflatoxinM1 Contamination in UHT Flavored Milk Samples in Karaj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mashak, Zohreh; Jafari Sohi, Hadi; Heshmati, Ali; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 30 UHT flavored milk samples in Karaj, Alborz province, Iran. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to analyze AFM1 in the samples. The results showed that aflatoxin M1 was detected in all the UHT flavored milk samples, the AFM1 concentration ranged from 0.015 to 0.14 µg/L. Also, 10 samples (33.3%) were contaminated with more than 0.05 µg/L of European Union regulations for aflatoxin M1. Wherease, according to the proposed Iranian national standard and FDA (0.5 µg/L), none of the samples has not been contaminated more than the maximum AFM1 concentrations threshold. This is the first report discovering the fact that UHT flavored milk is an important contributor to the dietary intake of AFM1 in Iran. PMID:27980575

  11. Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-09-01

    Milk and dairy products have been recognized all over the world for their beneficial influence on human health. The levels of toxic metals (TMs) are an important component of safety and quality of milk. A simple and efficient microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for the determination of TMs (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb), in raw and processed milk samples. A Plackett-Burman experimental design and 2(3)+star central composite design, were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for MAE. Concentrations of TMs were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by standard addition method and conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM), for comparative purpose. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05), when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE method and CDM (paired t-test). The average relative standard deviation of the MAE method varied between 4.3% and 7.6% based on analyte (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of understudy TMs in milk samples. The results of raw and processed milk indicated that environmental conditions and manufacturing processes play a key role in the distribution of toxic metals in raw and processed milk.

  12. Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; Minim, Luis Antônio; de Souza Barcellos, Edilton; da Silva Júnior, Willer Ferreira; Detmann, Edenio; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the detection and quantification of the adulteration of milk powder by the addition of whey was assessed by measuring glycomacropeptide protein using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). Fluid milk samples were dried and then spiked with different concentrations of GMP and whey. Calibration models were developed using multivariate techniques, from spectral data. For the principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, excellent percentages of correct classification were achieved in accordance with the increase in the proportion of whey samples. For partial least squares regression analysis, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the best model were 0.9885 and 1.17, respectively. The rapid analysis, low cost monitoring and high throughput number of samples tested per unit time indicate that MIR spectroscopy may hold potential as a rapid and reliable method for detecting milk powder frauds using cheese whey.

  13. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge.

  14. The Chocolate Milk Crisis: A Consumer Economics Simulation Unit for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrico, Patricia; Karsotis, A. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)

  15. Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in a sample of 28 nations.

    PubMed

    Lassek, William Day; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2015-10-01

    Convergent evidence from neuronal biology and hominin brain hypertrophy suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a limiting resource for neural and cognitive development in Homo sapiens, and therefore that children from populations with higher omega-3 availability should display superior cognitive performance. Using multiple regression, we tested this prediction in a sample of 28 countries, with Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) math scores in 2009 as an index of cognitive performance, and country-specific breast milk levels of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as an index of omega-3 availability. Breast milk DHA makes a highly significant contribution to math scores (β = 0.462, P = 0.006), greater in magnitude than the control variables of per capita Gross Domestic Product (PCGDP) and educational expenditures per pupil. Together, dietary fish (positively) and total fat (negatively) explain 61% of the variance in maternal milk DHA in a larger sample of 39 countries.

  16. Determination of naturally occurring oestrogens and androgens in retail samples of milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    Courant, F; Antignac, J P; Maume, D; Monteau, F; Andre, F; Le Bizec, B

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of the main steroid hormones (oestrone, 17alpha-oestradiol, 17beta-oestradiol, 17alpha-testosterone, 17beta-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 4-androstenedione), especially in milk and eggs, was investigated. An analytical method based on GC-MS/MS was developed for steroid measurement at an ultra-trace level in food products. The limits of detection for oestrogens were about 5 and 30 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. For androgens, the limits of detection were around 10 and 50 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. The method was applied to milk and egg samples collected in a French supermarket. In milk, oestrone was found at levels between 100 and 300 ng l(-1), while 17beta-oestradiol levels were estimated to be near 20 ng l(-1). 17alpha-testosterone was found to be from 50 ng l(-1) in skimmed milk to 85 ng l(-1) in whole milk. In egg samples, oestrone and 17beta-oestradiol were found at 1.5 and 0.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, while 17alpha-oestradiol was found to be in lower concentrations (i.e. around 0.55 microg kg(-1)). Regarding androgens, 17alpha- and 17beta-testosterone were estimated at 1.9 and 1.3 microg kg(-1), respectively. These results represent a first attempt to estimate the food exposure to steroid hormones. In the future, the collection of additional data should permit the comparison between this exogenous dietary intake and the daily endogenous production in pre-pubertal children as a basis of risk assessment regarding endocrine disruption linked to these molecules for this critical population.

  17. A method for estimation of urea using ammonia electrode and its applicability to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Kaur, Sumandeep; Tomar, Sudhir K

    2008-11-01

    A method for the estimation of urea in milk using ammonia electrode is described. Urea is first degraded by urease enzyme into ammonium ion and carbon dioxide at neutral pH. The ammonium ion is then converted into ammonia at alkaline pH. A linear inverse relationship was observed between logarithmic concentration of ammonia or urea and electrode response. Repeatability, expressed as a coefficient of variation, was 1.77% at a level of 8.92 mm-urea in milk. The method was validated in milk samples spiked with between 2 x 10-3 and 10 x 10-3 m-urea and recovery of added urea was quantitative. Whereas, preservative sodium azide at 0.5 g/l or 2 g/l level did not affect results, lower values of urea concentration in presence of Bronopol at 0.5 g/l were observed. Urea levels in milk samples estimated by this method were comparable to standard enzymatic method. The method is simple, fast and is not prone to interference from other milk constituents.

  18. Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Lisa M; Roper, Catherine E; Hamilton, Bridget E; Tellez, Juan José; McSherry, Bernadette M

    2016-03-03

    Objective This paper examines the perspectives of consumers and their supporters regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Methods Five focus groups for consumers and five focus groups for supporters were conducted in four Australian cities and in one rural location. The 66 participants were asked about strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Results All participants supported the reduction of the use of seclusion and restraint. Barriers to reducing these practices related to the environment, the effects of drug and alcohol issues, lack of a human rights focus and poor recognition of trauma, stigma and discrimination. Strategies for reducing or eliminating seclusion and restraint included workforce development, environmental and cultural changes.Conclusions Participants clearly identified that the status quo needs to change and conveyed urgency for action. Participants suggested that the involvement of supporters and a range of consumer roles are integral to reducing the use of seclusion and restraint. The findings support the current policy emphasis of working towards the elimination of these practices.What is known about the topic? Mental health policies across many jurisdictions support the reduction and elimination of restraint and seclusion. Evidence suggests those subjected to restraint and seclusion largely experience a range of harmful consequences. No studies focus on the views of supporters of consumers regarding the reduction and elimination of seclusion and restraint, whereas the views of consumers appear in a minority of international studies.What does this paper add? The research enabled an opportunity to hear from people who have been personally affected by and/or have lived experience of these coercive practices. Participants identified local reforms that can uphold the human rights of consumers. They suggested practices to increase accountability, peer support and

  19. Evaluation of the Delvo-X-Press assay for detecting antibiotic residues in milk samples from individual cows.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, A S; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S

    1999-10-01

    Performance of the Delvo-X-Press beta-lactam antibiotic assay was examined using bulk-tank milk samples and milk samples from individual cows. Bulk-tank milk samples fortified with bovine lactoferrin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml or more consistently tested positive. False-positive results were also obtained from bulk-tank milk samples fortified with bovine plasma at concentrations of 20 and 40%. The assay yielded positive results for milk with antibiotic concentrations as low as 2 ppb. Individual milk samples were collected from 144 healthy lactating cows and from 34 cows with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Specificity estimates for samples from healthy and mastitic cows were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82, 0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.86, 1.00), respectively. Individual milk samples were collected from three cows with experimentally induced mastitis for 21 consecutive days. False-positive results occurred as late as 12 days postchallenge. A moderate but significant (P < 0.01) positive linear correlation (r = 0.61) was observed between test result and somatic cell count (SCC) values in milk samples with SCCs of >10(6)/ml.

  20. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  1. An effective self-control strategy for the reduction of aflatoxin M1 content in milk and to decrease the exposure of consumers.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Kata; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Piva, Silvia; Zambrini, Vittorio; Canever, Alessandra; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-12-01

    The study reports the results of testing the sensitivity of an early warning sampling plan for detecting milk batches with high aflatoxin AFM1 concentration. The effectiveness of the method was investigated by the analysis of 9017 milk samples collected in Italian milk processing plants that applied control plans with different action limits (AL). For those milk processing plants where 30 ng kg(-1) AL has been applied, the AFM1 contamination was significantly lower at or above the 95th percentile of the milk samples when compared with plants that used 40 ng kg(-1) AL. The results show that the control plan can be used effectively for early warning of occurrence of high AFM1 contamination of milk and to carry out pro-active measures to limit the level of contamination. Estimation of dietary exposure was also carried out, based on the aflatoxin M1 content of the milk samples and on Italian food consumption data. Estimated Daily Intakes (EDI) and Hazard Indices (HI) were calculated for different age groups of the population. HIs show that no adverse effects are expected for the adult population, but in the case of children under age three, the approximate HI values were considerably higher. This underlines the importance of the careful monitoring and control of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

  2. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples

    PubMed Central

    SAISHU, Nobukazu; MORIMOTO, Kazutaka; YAMASATO, Hiroshi; OZAKI, Hiroichi; MURASE, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good’s buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  3. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Morimoto, Kazutaka; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good's buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis.

  4. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Simon, Alan E.; Herrick, Kirsten A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow’s milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow’s milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow’s milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow’s milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  5. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels.

  6. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  7. Consumers' behavior in quantitative microbial risk assessment for pathogens in raw milk: Incorporation of the likelihood of consumption as a function of storage time and temperature.

    PubMed

    Crotta, Matteo; Paterlini, Franco; Rizzi, Rita; Guitian, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne disease as a result of raw milk consumption is an increasing concern in Western countries. Quantitative microbial risk assessment models have been used to estimate the risk of illness due to different pathogens in raw milk. In these models, the duration and temperature of storage before consumption have a critical influence in the final outcome of the simulations and are usually described and modeled as independent distributions in the consumer phase module. We hypothesize that this assumption can result in the computation, during simulations, of extreme scenarios that ultimately lead to an overestimation of the risk. In this study, a sensorial analysis was conducted to replicate consumers' behavior. The results of the analysis were used to establish, by means of a logistic model, the relationship between time-temperature combinations and the probability that a serving of raw milk is actually consumed. To assess our hypothesis, 2 recently published quantitative microbial risk assessment models quantifying the risks of listeriosis and salmonellosis related to the consumption of raw milk were implemented. First, the default settings described in the publications were kept; second, the likelihood of consumption as a function of the length and temperature of storage was included. When results were compared, the density of computed extreme scenarios decreased significantly in the modified model; consequently, the probability of illness and the expected number of cases per year also decreased. Reductions of 11.6 and 12.7% in the proportion of computed scenarios in which a contaminated milk serving was consumed were observed for the first and the second study, respectively. Our results confirm that overlooking the time-temperature dependency may yield to an important overestimation of the risk. Furthermore, we provide estimates of this dependency that could easily be implemented in future quantitative microbial risk assessment models of raw milk pathogens.

  8. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Kuroda, Naotaka; Akiyama, Syuzo; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2003-06-15

    This paper describes a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in milk samples. The method involves a liquid-liquid extraction procedure after saponification of milk samples with sodium hydroxide. Reproducible determination with highly sensitive detection was attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection using 1,2-bis(9-anthryl)ethane as an internal standard. The detection limits of 12 kinds of PAHs ranged from 1.3 to 76 ng/kg milk at a signal/noise ratio of 3. By the proposed method, the presence of 12 and 11 kinds of PAHs could be confirmed in commercial milk and human milk samples, respectively. The average concentrations of total PAHs (mean+/-SD, micro g/kg) were found to be 0.99+/-0.37 for commercial milk (n=14), 2.01+/-0.30 for infant formula (n=3) and 0.75+/-0.47 for human milk (n=51). High correlation coefficients between the concentrations of total PAHs and triglyceride were observed for commercial milk (r=0.659) and human milk (r=0.645).

  10. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  11. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  12. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  13. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  14. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective

  15. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in milk samples by saponification-solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Llompart, M; Pazos, M; Landin, P; Cela, R

    2001-12-15

    A saponification-HSSPME procedure has been developed for the extraction of PCBs from milk samples. Saponification of the samples improves the PCB extraction efficiency and allows attaining lower background. A mixed-level fractional design has been used to optimize the sample preparation process. Five variables have been considered: extraction time, agitation, kind of microextraction fiber, concentration, and volume of NaOH aqueous solution. Also the kinetic of the process has been studied with the two fibers (100-microm PDMS and 65-microm PDMS-DVB) included in this study. Analyses were performed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector working in MS-MS mode. The proposed method is simple and rapid, and yields high sensitivity, with detection limits below 1 ng/mL, good linearity, and reproducibility. The method has been applied to liquid milk samples with different fat content covering the whole commercial range, and it has been validated with powdered milk certified reference material.

  16. The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.

  17. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Hearn, Laurence; Kennedy, Karen; Harden, Fiona; Bartkow, Michael; Temme, Christian; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples of human milk, indoor air and dust collected in 2007-2008 in Brisbane, Australia. In addition, temporal analysis was investigated comparing the results of the current study with PBDE concentrations in human milk collected in 2002-2003 from the same region. PBDEs were detected in all matrices and the median concentrations of BDEs -47 and -209 in human milk, air and dust were: 4.2 and 0.3 ng/g lipid; 25 and 7.8 pg/m(3); and 56 and 291 ng/g dust, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of BDE-99 in air and human milk (r=0.661, p=0.038) and BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in human milk (r=0.697, p=0.025). These correlations do not suggest causal relationships - there is no hypothesis that can be offered to explain why BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in milk are correlated. The fact that so few correlations were found in the data could be a function of the small sample size, or because additional factors, such as sources of exposure not considered or measured in the study, might be important in explaining exposure to PBDEs. There was a slight decrease in PBDE concentrations from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 but this may be due to sampling and analytical differences. Overall, average PBDE concentrations from these individual samples were similar to results from pooled human milk collected in Brisbane in 2002-2003 indicating that pooling may be an efficient, cost-effective strategy of assessing PBDE concentrations on a population basis. The results of this study were used to estimate an infant's daily PBDE intake via inhalation, dust ingestion and human milk consumption. Differences in PBDE intake of individual

  18. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  19. Advanced sample preparation for the molecular quantification of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially and naturally contaminated milk.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Walcher, Georg; Schelin, Jenny; Hein, Ingeborg; Norling, Börje; Rådström, Peter; Nicolau, Anca; Wagner, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Sample treatment is an essential element when using real-time PCR for quantification of pathogens directly on food samples. This study comparatively evaluated three different principles of sample treatment, i.e. immunomagnetic separation based on phage-derived cell wall binding molecules, matrix solubilization and flotation, in order to establish their suitability for quantifying low numbers of Staphylococcus aureus in milk. All three procedures succeeded to remove S. aureus from the milk matrix, either raw or pasteurized, and, as a result of the concentration of the target cells, minimized the effect of milk associated PCR inhibitors. Sample preparation based on immunomagnetic separation albeit of being user friendly, specific and rapid, failed to allow quantification of low and medium numbers (<10(4)CFU) of S. aureus. In a mastitic milk model cell wall binding domain (CBD)-based target cell extraction revealed results most closely matching those derived from culture-based quantification. Both matrix lysis and flotation allowed quantification of S. aureus at a level of 1-10 cells per ml. Both methods resulted in higher numbers of bacterial cell equivalents (bce) than plating could reveal. Since both methods harvest cells that have been subjected to either mechanical and chemical stresses before quantification, we concluded that the higher bce numbers resulted from a disaggregation of S. aureus clusters initially present in the inoculum. Conclusively, since likely each S. aureus cell of a toxigenic strain contributes to enterotoxin production, molecular quantification could provide an even more realistic impact assessment in outbreak investigations than plating does.

  20. Preparation and characterization of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the extraction of hexamethylenetetramine in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-15

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were synthesized as the sorbents for extracting hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) from milk samples. Molecular simulations were used to calculate the interaction energies of the template monomers. The physical properties of M-MIPs were characterized. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the amount of HMT residue in milk samples. In the optimized method, a linear calibration curve was obtained using a matrix-matched standard in the range of 1.0-50.0μgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.3μgkg(-1) and 1.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day assay ranged from 2.6% to 5.2%, while that of the inter-day assay ranged from 3.6% to 11.5%. The recovery of HMT in milk samples ranged from 88.7% to 111.4%.

  1. Serosurveillance of Schmallenberg virus in Switzerland using bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Sandra; Vögtlin, Andrea; Thür, Barbara; Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Houmard, Matthias; Danuser, Jürg; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-10-15

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus transmitted by biting midges, can cause abortions and malformations of newborns and severe symptoms in adults of domestic and wild ruminants. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the virus in a certain territory is important for the control and prevention of the disease. In this study, seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV and the spatial spread of the virus was investigated in Swiss dairy cattle applying a milk serology technique on bulk milk samples. The seroprevalence in cattle herds was significantly higher in December 2012 (99.5%) compared to July 2012 (19.7%). This high between-herd seroprevalence in cattle herds was observed shortly after the first detection of viral infections. Milk samples originating from farms with seropositive animals taken in December 2012 (n=209; mean 160%) revealed significantly higher S/P% ratios than samples collected in July 2012 (n=48; mean 103.6%). This finding suggests a high within-herd seroprevalence in infected herds which makes testing of bulk tank milk samples for the identification farms with past exposures to SBV a sensitive method. It suggests also that within-herd transmission followed by seroconversion still occurred between July and December. In July 2012, positive bulk tank milk samples were mainly restricted to the western part of Switzerland whereas in December 2012, all samples except one were positive. A spatial analysis revealed a separation of regions with and without positive farms in July 2012 and no spatial clustering within the regions with positive farms. In contrast to the spatial dispersion of bluetongue virus, a virus that is also transmitted by Culicoides midges, in 2008 in Switzerland, the spread of SBV occurred from the western to the eastern part of the country. The dispersed incursion of SBV took place in the western part of Switzerland and the virus spread rapidly to the remaining territory. This spatial

  2. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  3. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  4. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  5. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95...

  6. Evaluation of Petrifilm for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples.

    PubMed

    Silva, B O; Caraviello, D Z; Rodrigues, A C; Ruegg, P L

    2005-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate (3M, Minneapolis, MN) for diagnosis of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine the sensitivity of Petrifilm compared with results of standard and augmented microbiological techniques, and the objective of experiment 2 was to compare microbiological results of composite and quarter milk samples processed using Petrifilm. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine the specificity of the Petrifilm method based on different interpretation parameters, and the objective of experiment 4 was to determine the repeatability of reading Petrifilm Staph Express plates. Results of standard microbiological techniques used for experiments 1 and 2 were compared with results of samples preprocessed using centrifugation or preincubation. The prevalence of recovery of Staph. aureus from milk samples processed using Petrifilm was significantly greater than the prevalence of milk samples processed using standard microbiological techniques. The sensitivity of isolation of Staph. aureus was 65.6, 75.0, 84.4, and 87.5% for standard, centrifugation, incubation, and Petrifilm methods, respectively. The occurrence of a distinct pink zone surrounding a colony was highly specific for Staph. aureus, and the specificity was 98.5 and 96.0% for experiments 3 and 4, respectively. The use of a weak pink zone to diagnose Staph. aureus resulted in a high rate of false-positive results. The interpretation of results of Petrifilm Staph Express was associated with the person that read the plates. Results from all 4 experiments indicate potential for the Petrifilm products as a diagnostic tool in some herd situations when Staph. aureus is the pathogen of interest. Results also indicate the need for standardization of interpretive criteria for personnel working with the products.

  7. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Alysia M.; House, John K.; Hazelton, Mark S.; Bosward, Katrina L.; Sheehy, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required. PMID:28264012

  8. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  9. Evaluation of Three Bacterial Identification Systems for Species Identification of Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Bulk Tank Milk Samples.

    PubMed

    Savage, Emily; Chothe, Shubhada; Lintner, Valerie; Pierre, Traci; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Miller, Dawn; Tewari, Deepanker; Jayarao, Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Sensititre(®) Automated Reading and Incubation System 2x System (ARIS), API(®) (API), and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI) bacterial species identification systems using 132 diverse bacterial isolates from bovine milk samples and bulk tank milk received at the Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. The results were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which served as the reference method for species identification. The ARIS, API, and MALDI identified 0%, 40%, and 33.4% of species classified as Gram-positive rod isolates belonging to genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium, respectively. It was observed that 76.5%, 93.9%, and 96.9% of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n = 33; Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus) were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively, while 33.4%, 84.5%, and 97.7% of catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci (n = 45; Kocuria, Staphylococcus) were correctly identified to their species by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. A total of 48 isolates (Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pasteurella, Providencia, Pseduomonas, Serratia) of Gram-negative bacteria were examined, of which 85.4%, 93.7%, and 95.8% of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. In our laboratory, the MALDI had the least costs associated with consumables and reagents compared to ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification methods. Identification of bacterial species was accomplished in <2 h using MALDI and 24 h for ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification systems.

  10. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  11. Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Donachie, Willie; Macaldowie, Colin; Keefe, Greg

    2004-07-01

    Milk samples from 50 sheep on a single Scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. Samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (SCC) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. A total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. Statistical analysis on complete SCC and culture data showed no association between SCC and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were present. Only 3.6% of the samples were simultaneously positive for high count (> 10 colonies from 0.01 mL of milk) of any one bacterial species and high SCC (> 1 x 10(6)/mL). The bacteria recovered were: Staphylococcus equorum (19 times), S. xylosus (7 times), S. simulans (6 times), Streptococcus uberis (3 times) and other streptococci (4 times), Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (2 times), Staphylococcus aureus (1 time), S. capitis (1 time), and Enterococcus faecium (1 time). There was an association between the test day and SCC, with higher SCC values in the first 2 wk. In addition, significantly higher SCC values were found in the oldest animals compared to the other age groups.

  12. Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from bulk tank milk and cull dairy cow fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Ivey, S J; Gillespie, B E; Almeida, R A; Draughon, F A; Oliver, S P

    2002-07-01

    The consumption of meat from cull dairy cows and of raw milk has been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. This survey was conducted to establish the prevalence of Salmonella in cull dairy cow fecal samples and bulk tank milk and to determine the proportion of Salmonella-positive dairy farms (n = 30) in east Tennessee. Food and Drug Administration bacteriological analytical protocols were generally used for Salmonella isolation. Primary enrichment was performed with lactose broth, and secondary enrichment was conducted with tetrathionate broth. Eosin methylene blue, hektoen enteric, xylose lysine desoxycholate, bismuth sulfite, and brilliant green (BG) were used as isolation agars. BG agars supplemented with individual antibiotics and/or sulfur compounds were also evaluated. Six of 268 (2.24%) bulk tank milk samples and 9 of 415 (2.17%) fecal samples from 7 of 30 (25.3%) dairy farms were Salmonella-positive. Most isolates (11 of 15) were obtained between September and December. Salmonella isolates were further characterized using polyvalent somatic O Salmonella antiserum, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG), and Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E strips for Enterobacteriaceae. Serological evaluation of presumptive positive Salmonella isolates resulted in substantial numbers of false positives (41.2%). ONPG and API 20E tests enabled further biochemical distinction of the majority of Salmonella spp. from Salmonella Arizonae and closely related members of Enterobacteriaceae like Citrobacter youngae. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-digested Salmonella DNA was used to subtype isolates. The isolates grouped into four clusters. The baseline information generated in this survey is being used to develop preharvest pathogen reduction programs on selected farms.

  13. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  14. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  15. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  16. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Helena; Barchesi, Luciana; Filho, Antonio Nader; Ferreira, Luciano Menezes; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3%) milk samples: 14 (6.7%) from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8%) from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3%) and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested. PMID:24031507

  17. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  18. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  19. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimation of average daily intake by babies.

    PubMed

    Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M

    2017-01-02

    The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.

  1. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  2. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk for dairy metabolomics: a comparison of two sampling techniques and effect of homogenization.

    PubMed

    Aernouts, Ben; Polshin, Evgeny; Saeys, Wouter; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-10-31

    Milk production is a dominant factor in the metabolism of dairy cows involving a very intensive interaction with the blood circulation. As a result, the extracted milk contains valuable information on the metabolic status of the cow. On-line measurement of milk components during milking two or more times a day would promote early detection of systemic and local alterations, thus providing a great input for strategic and management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy to measure the milk composition using two different measurement modes: micro attenuated total reflection (μATR) and high throughput transmission (HTT). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of fat, crude protein, lactose and urea after preprocessing IR data and selecting the most informative wavenumber variables. The prediction accuracies were determined separately for raw and homogenized copies of a wide range of milk samples in order to estimate the possibility for on-line analysis of the milk. In case of fat content both measurement modes resulted in an excellent prediction for homogenized samples (R(2)>0.92) but in poor results for raw samples (R(2)<0.70). Homogenization was however not mandatory to achieve good predictions for crude protein and lactose with both μATR and HTT, and urea with μATR spectroscopy. Excellent results were obtained for prediction of crude protein, lactose and urea content (R(2)>0.99, 0.98 and 0.86 respectively) in raw and homogenized milk using μATR IR spectroscopy. These results were significantly better than those obtained by HTT IR spectroscopy. However, the prediction performance of HTT was still good for crude protein and lactose content (R(2)>0.86 and 0.78 respectively) in raw and homogenized samples. However, the detection of urea in milk with HTT spectroscopy was significantly better (R(2)=0.69 versus 0.16) after homogenization of the milk samples. Based on these

  3. A comparison of six methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for PCR-based genotyping applications using ovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Banos, Georgios

    2010-04-01

    Isolation of amplifiable genomic DNA is a prerequisite for the genetic assessment of diseases and disease susceptibility in farm animals. Milk somatic cells are a practical, animal friendly and cost-effective source of genomic DNA in milking ruminants. In this study, six different DNA extraction methods were optimized, evaluated and compared for the isolation of DNA from ovine milk samples. Methods 1 and 2 were direct applications of two commercial kits, Nucleospin((R)) Blood and Nucleospin((R)) Tissue, respectively. Methods 3 and 4 were based on modified protocols of methods 1 and 2, respectively, aiming at increasing DNA recovery and integrity, and eliminating PCR inhibitors. Method 5 was a standard Phenol-Chloroform protocol application and method 6 was based on an in-house developed protocol using silica as the affinity matrix. Spectrophotometer, gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR measurements were used as criteria for evaluating quantity and quality of the extracted DNA. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results suggested that methods 1-4 were considered suitable for molecular downstream applications and performed better than methods 5 and 6. Modifications of protocols 3 and 4 increased the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA from ovine milk samples. Method 3 was proved to be highly efficient and robust for large scale use as demonstrated by its successful application to 1000 individual ovine milk and 50 bulk milk samples.

  4. MALDI Q-TOF CID MS for Diagnostic Ion Screening of Human Milk Oligosaccharide Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marko; Tyldesley-Worster, Richard; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) represent the bioactive components of human milk, influencing the infant’s gastrointestinal microflora and immune system. Structurally, they represent a highly complex class of analyte, where the main core oligosaccharide structures are built from galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, linked by 1–3 or 1–4 glycosidic linkages and potentially modified with fucose and sialic acid residues. The core structures can be linear or branched. Additional structural complexity in samples can be induced by endogenous exoglycosidase activity or chemical procedures during the sample preparation. Here, we show that using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) collision-induced dissociation (CID) as a fast screening method, diagnostic structural information about single oligosaccharide components present in a complex mixture can be obtained. According to sequencing data on 14 out of 22 parent ions detected in a single high molecular weight oligosaccharide chromatographic fraction, 20 different oligosaccharide structure types, corresponding to over 30 isomeric oligosaccharide structures and over 100 possible HMO isomers when biosynthetic linkage variations were taken into account, were postulated. For MS/MS data analysis, we used the de novo sequencing approach using diagnostic ion analysis on reduced oligosaccharides by following known biosynthetic rules. Using this approach, de novo characterization has been achieved also for the structures, which could not have been predicted. PMID:24743894

  5. Quantitative separation of oxytocin, norfloxacin and diclofenac sodium in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Solangi, Amber R; Memon, Saima Q; Mallah, Arfana; Khuhawar, M Y; Bhanger, M I

    2009-09-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid method has been developed for simultaneous separation and quantification of three different drugs: oxytocin (OT), norfloxacin (NOR) and diclofenac (DIC) sodium in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV detection at 220 nm. Factors affecting the separation were pH, concentration of buffer and applied voltage. Separation was obtained in less than 9 min with sodium tetraborate buffer of pH 10.0 and applied voltage 30 kV. The separation was carried out from uncoated fused silica capillary with effective length of 50 cm with 75 microm i.d. The carrier electrolyte gave reproducible separation with calibration plots linear over 0.15-4.0 microg/mL for OT, 5-1000 microg/mL for NOR and 3-125 microg/mL for DIC. The lower limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 50 ng/mL for OT, and 1 microg/mL for NOR and DIC. The method was validated for the analysis of drugs in milk samples and pharmaceutical preparations with recovery of drugs within the range 96-100% with RSD 0.9-2.8%.

  6. Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; Sabia, Serena; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Anastasio, Aniello; Ragosta, Maria; Paino, Salvatore

    2005-09-01

    We measured Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb levels in samples of fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues collected from 12 ovine farms in the regions of Campania and Calabria (Southern Italy). The areas in which the farms are located show different levels of anthropogenic pressure. The main purpose of this study is the identification and the analysis of relationships among metal concentrations observed in samples representative of different links in the food chain. Particularly, we apply univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques to identify the correlation structure of our data set and to evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activity. We discuss the results, focusing the analysis on the spatial and the temporal patterns of metal concentrations.

  7. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  8. Selective extraction and determination of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk samples with montmorillonite magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Yanqing; Wei, Shoulian; Yao, Su; Zhang, Jiali; Huang, Huichang

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method for separating fluoroquinolones (FQs) from bovine milk samples was successfully developed using montmorillonite magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMMIPs) as adsorbents. MMMIPs were prepared using montmorillonite as carrier, fleroxacin (FLE) as template molecule, and Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component. MMMIPs possessed high adsorption capacity of 46.3 mg g(-1) for FLE. A rapid and convenient magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with capillary electrophoresis was established with MMMIPs as adsorbents for simultaneous and selective extraction of four FQs in bovine milk samples. Limits of detection ranged between 12.9 and 18.8 μg L(-1), and the RSDs were between 1.8% and 8.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied to spike bovine milk samples with recoveries of 92.7%-108.6%.

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis-infected dairy herds using PCR in bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, Martín José; Soutullo, Adriana; García, María Inés; Marini, Rocío; Abdala, Alejandro; Tarabla, Héctor; Echaide, Susana; López, Marcela; Zervini, Elsa; Canal, Ana; Cataldi, Angel Adrián

    2012-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic and zoonotic disease due to Mycobacterium bovis. The tuberculosis eradication campaign carried out in Argentina has considerably improved the health situation of the herds. Here we evaluated a strategy to detect M. bovis-infected herds by Touch-Down IS6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bulk tank raw milk from dairy farms. We evaluated 177 samples from herds with the official tuberculosis free certificate (TFC) and 80 from herds without the certificate, non-tuberculosis-free certificate (NTFC), from 10 departments of Santa Fe province, Argentina. To avoid the effect of Taq polymerase inhibitors, a dilution of DNA template was performed. Positive PCR results were obtained in 102 (40%) of the samples, whereas negative ones were obtained in 155 (60%) of the samples. Importantly, 44% of NTFC and 38% of TFC samples were positive. All samples were subjected to culture in Löwenstein Jensen and Stonebrink media with no positive isolation. The negative predictive value (NPV) of PCR in the TFC group was 95%, while the positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR in the NTFC group was 51%. Based on these results, this work proposes a method that should be applied regularly to detect M. bovis--infected dairy herds, complementary to the official test of tuberculin, or purifed protein derivative (PPD), to control dairy herds, especially those free of tuberculosis.

  10. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed.

  11. Determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples by polymer inclusion membrane separation coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Silva, Irma; Rodríguez, José A; Ramírez-Silva, Ma Teresa; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2012-03-09

    The determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples using a polymer inclusion membrane concept with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was studied. The membranes developed are composed by cellulose acetate as polymer base, Cyanex 923 as carrier and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer. In the optimal conditions, the method exhibits good linearity in the range 0.03-0.20 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection and quantification of 8.2 and 27.3 μg L(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of milk samples with high selectivity.

  12. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in cow's milk samples from tropical regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. Their residues accumulate in lipid-rich tissues due to their chemical stability and persistence. In the body they circulate throughout all compartments, deposit themselves in adipose fat and can be excreted during lactation. These pesticides are applied in tropical zones and drift to areas where cattle graze. Therefore, analyses of cow's milk samples can serve as an indicator of environmental and cows' exposure to them. One hundred and fifty milk samples were taken each year in 1998 and 2001 and analysed to determine concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH, pp"-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT. Results obtained indicate that beta-HCH is one of the main contaminants (0.106 and 0.087 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.078 and 0.037 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) and pp'-DDE (0.051 and 0.033 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). The HCB and op'-DDT were detected in lower quantities respectively (0.008 and 0.006 mg x kg(-1), and 0.031 and 0.010 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). When comparing the results obtained with those from the previous study, it was noted that DDT levels decreased significantly in 2001 as a result of the substitution of the organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids sprayed by the Mexican Ministry of Health to combat malaria since 1999.

  13. Mammary candidiasis: molecular-based detection of Candida species in human milk samples.

    PubMed

    Mutschlechner, W; Karall, D; Hartmann, C; Streiter, B; Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective and monocentric study, we investigated the performance of a commercialized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test system for the specific detection of DNA from Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis in human milk samples of patients suspicious of mammary candidiasis. For this purpose, 43 breast-feeding women with characteristic symptoms of mammary candidiasis and 40 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. By culture, Candida spp. were detected in 8.8 % (4/46) and 9.3 % (4/43) of patient and control samples, respectively. Candida albicans (2/46), C. parapsilosis (1/46), and C. guilliermondii (1/46) were present in patient samples, and C. lusitaniae (3/43) and C. guilliermondii (1/43) were present in the controls. After RT-PCR was applied, Candida spp. were found to be present in 67.4 % (31/46) and 79.1 % (34/43) of patient and control samples investigated, respectively. PCR detection of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis revealed only a low sensitivity and specificity of 67.4 % and 41.9 %, respectively. Our data do not support the use of Candida RT-PCR for sensitive and specific diagnosis of mammary candidiasis.

  14. Associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in bulk tank milk, season of sampling and protocols for managing infected cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify associations between the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in bulk milk and potential risk factors in herd management and herd characteristics, explaining high MAP antibody titers in milk. An extensive questionnaire was administered to 292 organic and conventional dairy farms from New York, Wisconsin and Oregon. Bulk milk samples were taken from each farm for MAP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A general linear model was constructed with MAP ELISA value as the outcome variable and the management factors and herd characteristics as independent variables, while at the same time controlling for the study design variables of state, herd size, and production system (organic or conventional). High bulk tank MAP ELISA value may be due to either a high prevalence of MAP in a herd with many cows contributing to the antibody titer or due to a few infected cows that produce large quantities of antibodies. Results Results of the regression models indicated that bulk milk ELISA value was associated with season of sampling and the presence or absence of protocols for managing MAP-positive cows. The concentration of MAP antibodies in bulk milk varied seasonally with a peak in the summer and low concentrations in the winter months. When compared to farms that had never observed clinical Johne’s disease, keeping MAP-positive cows or only culling them after a period of delay was associated with an increase in optical density. Conclusions The seasonal variation in MAP antibody titers, with a peak in the summer, may be due to a seasonal increase in MAP-bacterial load. Additionally, seasonal calving practices may contribute to seasonal fluctuations in MAP antibody titers in bulk tank milk. Keeping MAP-positive cows increases the antibody titer in bulk milk, likely due to direct antibody production in the infected cow and indirect triggering of antibody production in herdmates

  15. Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥30): −36% and −62% in men and −42% and −48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Conclusions Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers. PMID:24204721

  16. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  17. [Quantitative determination of the protein content of milk by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 3. Determination of proteins in preserved milk samples].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, W; Schüler, E; Sieber, L; Schüler, E

    1987-01-01

    It is reported upon the results of the quantitative estimation of protein content from preserved milk by means of ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In addition to the preservation by boric acid, bronopol, copper sulphate, potassium dichromate and ammonium peroxodisulphate storage at temperatures below 0 degrees C and freeze drying were tested. Besides bronopol and copper sulphate especially physical preservation methods proves fit for the protein estimation by measurements of absorbance at 210 nm, 235 and 280 nm or 210 and 220 nm. It is recommended to use solutions and filters of quartz with evaluated absorbance in daily calibrating of the spectrophotometer.

  18. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  19. Variation in the composition of selected milk fraction samples from healthy and mastitic quarters, and its significance for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Baljinder K; Hamann, Joern; Grabowskit, Nils Th; Singh, Krishan B

    2005-05-01

    Seven variables--electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactose, protein, fat and pH--were compared in four quarter milk fractions (MF1: strict foremilk; MF2: first 12-15 ml foremilk; MF3: subsequent 40-45 ml milk; MF4: strippings) and in one cow composite milk sample (CC) per cow. The study used 142 quarters from 37 lactating cows of the German Black Pied breed. To rule out any possible effect due to management, animal physiology and analytical procedures, the collection and processing of milk samples from each cow was repeated for three consecutive days, and the means of 3-d values were used. All variables were affected significantly by milk fraction and udder health. Compared with foremilk, EC, lactose and protein levels in strippings decreased, while SCC, NAGase and fat increased. The pH of foremilk and strippings did not differ significantly in healthy or in mastitic quarters. The difference between MF1 and MF2 was significant for EC in mastitic quarters, and for SCC in healthy quarters only. In general, mastitis resulted in a significant increase in EC, SCC, NAGase and protein but in a decrease in lactose and fat contents of milk in one or more of the milk fractions studied. Comparison of cow composite milk samples from healthy and mastitic cows revealed the significance (P < 0.01) of udder health for EC, SCC and lactose. Of the different parameters that can distinguish between healthy and mastitic quarters or cows, EC could be used to classify 76% of quarters and 73% of cows correctly, while the lactose content permitted correct identification of 81% of quarters and 76% of cows. NAGase and pH could be used to determine the status of 73% and 61% of quarters, respectively. In general, the correlation observed in strippings was higher than in foremilk for almost all the variables studied. Surprisingly, EC, SCC, NAGase and lactose in milk from healthy quarters of mastitic cows (with at least one mastitic

  20. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (<0.008-0.032 µg/L) in 27% (34 out of 126) of the buffalo milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  1. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  2. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications.

  3. Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes of Listeria monocytogenes by PCR in artificially contaminated milk samples.

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, K J; Nishibori, T; Xiong, H; Matsuyama, T; Fujita, M; Mitsuyama, M

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of milk in the PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes could be overcome by washing the contaminated milk sample with phosphate-buffered saline and concentrating the bacteria to 1/10 of the original volume. In order to avoid a possible failure in the detection of virulent L. monocytogenes, a one-step procedure which enabled demonstration of three virulence-associated genes, prfA, hlyA, and plcB, simultaneously in a single PCR mixture was developed. Images PMID:8085838

  4. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers.

  5. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in relation to the somatic cell count in quarter, cow composite and bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Maria; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2007-05-01

    Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is the gold standard in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, and is also an important parameter in quality programmes of dairy cooperatives. As routine SCC analysis is usually restricted to central laboratories, much effort has been invested in the search for alternative biomarkers of mastitis and milk quality, including the presence in the milk of the acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between Hp, SAA and SCC in quarter, cow composite, and bulk tank milk samples. Cows (n=165), without any clinical signs of disease or abnormalities in the milk or udder, from three different dairy farms, were used. Cow composite milk samples from all cows delivering milk at the sampling occasion were taken once in each herd. In one of the farms, representative quarter milk samples (n=103) from 26 cows were also collected. In addition, bulk tank milk samples from 96 dairy farms were included in the study. Samples were analysed for Hp, SAA and SCC, and relationships between the parameters were evaluated at quarter, cow and tank milk levels using Chi-square analysis. Milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, and the presence, or no presence, of SAA and Hp, based on the detection limits of the screening methods (0.3 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l for SAA and Hp, respectively). Hp and SAA were found in milk at quarter, cow composite and bulk tank levels. A large proportion (53%) of the animals had detectable milk concentrations of APP, and SAA was detected more frequently, and at higher concentrations than Hp, regardless of sample type. SAA was detected in as many as 82% of the bulk tank milk samples. Significant relationships were found between Hp, SAA and SCC at quarter and cow composite milk levels, but only between SAA and SCC at bulk tank milk level. Detectable levels of APP were more common at high SCC.

  6. Technical note: Identification of Prototheca species from bovine milk samples by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Ricchi, M; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M; Chessa, S

    2012-12-01

    We report the development of a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method to identify Prototheca spp. responsible for bovine mastitis: P. zopfii and P. blaschkeae. The method was set up using reference strains belonging to P. zopfii genotype 1, P. zopfii genotype 2, and P. blaschkeae as target species and P. stagnora, and P. ulmea as negative controls. The assay was applied on 50 isolates of Prototheca spp. isolated from bovine mastitic milk or bulk-tank milk samples, and all isolates were identified as P. zopfii genotype 2. We conclude that the described PCR-SSCP approach is accurate, inexpensive, and highly suitable for the identification of P. zopfii genotype 2 on field isolates but also directly on milk, if preceded by a specific DNA extraction method.

  7. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both

  8. Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was significantly increased in the presence of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. In milk, the solubility of EOCs was lower than in water, with lower solubility in higher-fat milk. EOCs applied to milk as stock solutions (in 95% aqueous ethanol) enabled quicker dissolution and higher solubility in milk serum than other methods of mixing, such as end to end, and greater reductions of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after 0 and 24 h. When the EOC concentration detected in milk serum was above the minimum bactericidal concentration, complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth resulted. Therefore, the antilisterial properties in milk could be correlated with the solubility by comparison to the minimum inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations of EOCs. While the EOCs applied using ethanol generally had solubility and activity characteristics superior to those of other mixing methods, ethanol is not used to a great extent in nonfermented foods. Therefore, mixing methods without an organic solvent may be more readily adaptable to enhancing the distribution of EOCs in complex food systems. PMID:24271170

  9. The lactoferrin receptor may mediate the reduction of eosinophils in the duodenum of pigs consuming milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin; Nonnecke, Eric; Lönnerdal, Bo; Murray, James

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin is part of the immune system and multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung contain receptors for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has many functions, including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and iron binding. Additionally, lactoferrin inhibits the migration of eosinophils, which are constitutively present in the GI tract, and increase during inflammation. Lactoferrin suppresses eosinophil infiltration into the lungs and eosinophil migration in -vitro. Healthy pigs have a large population of eosinophils in their small intestine and like humans, pigs have small intestinal lactoferrin receptors (LFR); thus, pigs were chosen to investigate the effects of consumption of milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk) on small intestinal eosinophils and expression of eosinophilic cytokines. In addition, LFR localization was analyzed in duodenum and circulating eosinophils to determine if the LFR could play a role in lactoferrin's ability to inhibit eosinophil migration. In the duodenum there were significantly fewer eosinophils/unit area in pigs fed rhLF-milk compared to pigs fed control milk (p = 0.025); this was not seen in the ileum (p = 0.669). In the duodenum, no differences were observed in expression of the LFR, or any eosinophil migratory cytokines, and the amount of LFR protein was not different (p = 0.386). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that within the duodenum the LFR localized on the brush border of villi, crypts, and within the lamina propria. Circulating eosinophils also contained LFRs, which may be a mechanism allowing lactoferrin to directly inhibit eosinophil migration.

  10. Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

    PubMed

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Kato, Masaru; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-07-18

    Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR analysis and bacteriological culture of milk samples for identification of intramammary infections in dairy cows using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Emanuelson, U; Frössling, J

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR analysis of milk samples is a fast method to identify intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows, and has the potential to be used for routine analysis of test milking composite milk samples. However, the results of the PCR analysis can be difficult to interpret. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of PCR analysis of composite milk samples, and conventional bacteriological culturing (BC) of quarter milk samples, when used to identify cows with IMI. The comparisons were performed for IMI with four common udder pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Str dysgalactiae), Str uberis and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). The Se and Sp of real-time PCR (SePCR; SpPCR) and BC (SeBC; SpBC) was simultaneously estimated using latent class analysis (LCA), studying one pathogen at the time. Milk samples from 970 dairy cows from 25 herds were included. Aseptically collected quarter milk samples taken at the day before test milking (TM), at the day of TM, and at the day after TM, were analyzed using BC. Non-aseptically collected composite milk samples taken at the day of TM were analyzed using PCR. Moreover, the composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) was recorded and summarized by diagnostic test and bacterial finding. LCA was first performed using only test results from samples taken at the day of TM, but in a second analysis BC results from the three consecutive samplings, interpreted in parallel, were included. The SePCR was significantly higher than the SeBC for S aureus, Str dysgalactiae and CoNS in the first analysis, but only for CoNS in the second analysis. The SpPCR was significantly lower than the SpBC for Str dysgalactiae and CoNS. In conclusion, using PCR analysis of composite milk samples, as a diagnostic tool for identifying cows with IMI increased the Se for all the pathogens investigated (although not always significantly), while Sp in general remained on a

  12. Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite for highly sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in food samples milk, honey and powdered milk.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Umamaheswari, Rajaji; Joseph Santhanaraj, K; Sathiyan, Anandaraj

    2017-01-01

    We have described a hybrid material that consists of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (MoS2) coated on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for sensitive and selective determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a hydrothermal process and its structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite holds excellent electrochemical properties and it displays excellent electrocatalytic ability to CAP. Under optimized working conditions, the nanocomposite film modified electrode responds linearly to CAP in the concentration range of 0.08-1392μM. The detection limit was obtained as 0.015μM (±0.003). The electrode has high level of selectivity in presence of large excess concentrations of interfering species. In addition, the modified electrode offers satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility and stability. The practical applicability of the electrode was demonstrated in food samples such as, milk, powdered milk and honey samples and the recoveries are agreeable which clearly revealed its practical feasibility in food analysis.

  13. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.

  14. Facile synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and its application in magnetic solid phase extraction for fluoroquinolones in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Mo, Jie-Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Ding, Jun; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we proposed a simple co-mixing method to fabricate magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs). MIPs were commercial products while magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical oxidation and solvothermal methods. When MNPs and MIPs (with mass ratio 1:1) were co-mixed and vortexed evenly in methanol, they could assemble into magnetic composites spontaneously and thus be magnetically separable. To testify the feasibility of the magnetic composites in sample preparation, the resultant magnetic MIPs were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in milk samples. Under optimized conditions, a rapid, convenient, and efficient method for the determination of three FQs in milk samples was established by magnetic MIPs based MSPE coupling with high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The limits of detection (LODs) for three FQs were found to be 1.8-3.2ng/g. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 9.5% and 12.5%, respectively. The recoveries of FQs for two spiked milk samples were in the range from 94.0% to 124.4% with the RSDs less than 11.6%.

  15. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  16. Comparison of C18-Carboxypropylbetaine and Glass Bead DNA Extraction Methods for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Bovine Milk Samples and Analysis of Samples by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Brandon J.; Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Thornton, Charles G.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L. Garry

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare two different milk preparation methods to assay for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis by PCR. Detection by a C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18)-based sample processing method was compared to extraction of DNA from milk with glass beads. Samples from 17 skin test-positive cattle were analyzed. Following CB-18 processing and glass bead extraction, the sensitivity of IS6110-based PCR was 94.1 and 58.8%, respectively (P < 0.025). Because CB-18 processing will permit the proficient use of PCR for diagnosis and surveillance of bovine tuberculosis, it will contribute to the more efficient detection and control of tuberculosis. PMID:9687483

  17. Chronic Infection With Camelid Hepatitis E Virus in a Liver Transplant Recipient Who Regularly Consumes Camel Meat and Milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Huei; Tan, Boon-Huan; Teo, Esmeralda Chi-Yuan; Lim, Seng-Gee; Dan, Yock-Young; Wee, Aileen; Aw, Pauline Poh Kim; Zhu, Yuan; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Tan, Chee-Kiat; Purdy, Michael A; Teo, Chong-Gee

    2016-02-01

    There have been increasing reports of food-borne zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, which causes chronic infections in immunosuppressed patients. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the HEV sequence (partial and full-length) from 1 patient from the Middle East who underwent liver transplantation, and compared it with other orthohepevirus A sequences. We found the patient to be infected by camelid HEV. This patient regularly consumed camel meat and milk, therefore camelid HEV, which is genotype 7, might infect human beings. Our finding links consumption of camel-derived food products to post-transplantation hepatitis E, which, if detected at early stages, can be cured with antiviral therapy and reduced administration of immunosuppressive agents.

  18. Bacteria detection based on the evolution of enzyme-generated volatile organic compounds: determination of Listeria monocytogenes in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Tait, Emma; Perry, John D; Stanforth, Stephen P; Dean, John R

    2014-10-27

    The rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in food is essential to prevent food-borne illness in humans. The aim of this study was to differentiate non-contaminated milk from milk contaminated with L. monocytogenes using enzyme substrates coupled with the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The method is based on the activity of β-glucosidase and hippuricase enzymes and the detection of a specific VOC i.e. 2-nitrophenol and 3-fluoroaniline, respectively. VOCs were extracted, separated and detected by headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS). This approach required the inclusion of the selective agent's cycloheximide, nalidixic acid and acriflavine HCl in the growth medium to inhibit interfering bacteria. The VOCs were liberated by L. monocytogenes provided that samples contained at least 1-1.5×10(2) CFU ml(-1) of milk prior to overnight incubation. This approach shows potential for future development as a rapid method for the detection of L. monocytogenes contaminated milk.

  19. Sample preparation followed by HPLC under harmless 100% aqueous conditions for determination of oxytetracycline in milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2004-05-01

    A simple and hazardous chemical-free method for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in milk and eggs has been developed. Sample preparation consists in homogenization with an aqueous solution by means of a handheld ultrasonic homogenizer followed by centrifugal ultrafiltration. HPLC is performed with an isocratic aqueous mobile phase and a photodiode array detector. Average recoveries of OTC (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg mL(-1) for milk; 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg mL(-1) for eggs) were > or =84% with relative standard deviations of < or =2.3%. The total time required for the analysis of one sample and LOQs were <30 min and <0.1 microg mL(-1), respectively. In all the processes, no organic solvents or hazardous reagents were used.

  20. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  1. Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in The Netherlands. 2. Tea, wine, fruit juices, and chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Arts, I C; van De Putte, B; Hollman, P C

    2000-05-01

    Catechins, compounds that belong to the flavonoid class, are potentially beneficial to human health. To enable an epidemiological evaluation of catechins, data on their contents in foods are required. HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection was used to determine the levels of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in 8 types of black tea, 18 types of red and white wines, apple juice, grape juice, iced tea, beer, chocolate milk, and coffee. Tea infusions contained high levels of catechins (102-418 mg of total catechins/L), and tea was the only beverage that contained GC, EGC, ECg, and EGCg in addition to (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Catechin concentrations were still substantial in red wine (27-96 mg/L), but low to negligible amounts were found in white wine, commercially available fruit juices, iced tea, and chocolate milk. Catechins were absent from beer and coffee. The data reported here provide a base for the epidemiological evaluation of the effect of catechins on the risk for chronic diseases.

  2. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  3. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  4. Determination of flavor enhancers in milk powder by one-step sample preparation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; Hou, Xiaofang; He, Langchong

    2014-04-01

    Maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin are important food additives as flavor enhancers. To quantify the four additives in milk powder, a novel 2D liquid chromatographic (2DLC) method was developed in this article. In such a 2DLC system, the target fractions eluted from the first dimensional column (C4) are stored onto the trapping column (C8) for subsequent analysis; after that, they were switched into the second dimensional column (C18) by a two-position six-port switching valve. A one-step sample preparation method was used prior to 2DLC chromatographic analysis, which was easy and convenient. After optimization of all experimental parameters, the new method was validated in terms of linearity, LODs, and LOQs, intra- and interday precision, and accuracy. A conventional single-dimensional liquid chromatographic method was also proposed in this work for comparison. In order to evaluate the applicability of the new 2DLC method, five brands of commercial milk powder samples (n = 8) were analyzed. Vanillin and ethyl vanillin were detected in two samples, respectively. It is showed that the 2DLC method is effective in quality control programs of milk powder products.

  5. Enzyme-antibody dual labeled gold nanoparticles probe for ultrasensitive detection of κ-casein in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, J Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, N N; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S

    2014-11-15

    A dual labeled probe was synthesized by coating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with anti-κ-CN monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme on their surface. The McAb was used as detector and HRP was used as label for signal amplification catalytically oxidize the substrate. AuNPs were used as bridges between the McAb and HRP. Based on the probe, an immunoassay was developed for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk samples. The assay has a linear response range within 4.2-560 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.2 ng mL(-1) which was 10 times lower than that of traditional McAb-HRP based ELISA. The recoveries of κ-CN from three brand bovine milk samples were from 95.8% to 111.0% that had a good correlation (R(2)=0.998) with those obtained by official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity and as simple as the traditional ELISA, the developed immunoassay could provide an alternative approach for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk sample.

  6. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration.

  7. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  8. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration.

  9. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  10. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of phytoestrogens as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: Identification in soy milk and wastewater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification of eight plant phytoestrogens (biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, glycitein, genistein and prunetin) in soy products and wastewater samples was developed using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). The phytoestrogens were derivatized as their trimethylsilyl ethers with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The phytoestrogens were isolated from all samples with liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Daidzein-d4 and genistein-d4 labeled standards were used as internal standards before extraction and derivatization. The fragmentation patterns of the phytoestrogens were investigated by isolating and fragmenting the precursor ions in the ion-trap and a typical fragmentation involved the loss of a methyl and a carbonyl group. Two characteristic fragment ions for each analyte were chosen for identification and confirmation. The developed methodology was applied to the identification and confirmation of phytoestrogens in soy milk, in wastewater effluent from a soy-milk processing plant, and in wastewater (influent and effluent) from a treatment plant. Detected concentrations of genistein ranged from 50,000 ??g/L and 2000 ??g/L in soy milk and in wastewater from a soy-plant, respectively, to 20 ??g/L and <1 ??g/L for influent and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disruptors. 2. Determination of steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat samples.

    PubMed

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Laille, Julie; Monteau, Fabrice; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2008-05-14

    In the present study, the occurrence of the main sex steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat was evaluated on the basis of a highly specific gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement method. Globally, the results indicated that targeted estrogens and androgens occurred at similar levels (concentration levels in the 10-100 ng kg (-1) range) in the analyzed muscle and milk samples. The same compounds occurred at about 10-fold higher concentrations (i.e., in the 100-1000 ng kg (-1) range) in eggs and kidney samples. More precisely, egg and milk appeared as a non-negligible sources of estradiol (i.e., 2.2 +/- 0.8 and 3.1 +/- 2.0 ng day (-1), respectively), whereas testosterone exposure is caused by ingestion of meat and/or egg (i.e., 12.2 +/- 48.2 and 5.2 +/- 2.3 ng day (-1), respectively). The provided exposure data will be further exploited in the scope of a risk assessment study regarding endocrine disruption associated with these molecules.

  12. Effective determination of ampicillin in cow milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent for sample preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Soledad-Rodríguez, B; Fernández-Hernando, P; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with ampicillin (AMP) and to evaluate the feasibility of these materials for being used as solid phase extraction sorbent for the selective preconcentration and determination of AMP in cow milk samples. MIPs were synthesized by bulk polymerization using methacrylic acid or methyl methacrylate as monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker at different ratios. Characterization of the MIPs were carried out by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The variables affecting the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure were optimized. AMP recoveries were higher than 98%, and RSD less than 7%. A preconcentration factor of 20 was reached, which was sufficient to determine AMP at levels allowed by the EU (4μgkg(-1)) in cow milk. The selectivity of the AMP-MIP was evaluated in presence of other structurally related β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G).

  13. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, N; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2008-06-01

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 degrees C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L(-1) were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies.

  14. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples.

    PubMed

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K

    2015-03-20

    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDs<2.8%), limits of detection and quantification (7 and 23mg/L milk), repeatability of sample work-up (RSDs≤2.6%) and method recovery (103%). In total, 71 commercial liquid milk samples produced using different preservation techniques (e.g., thermal or mechanical treatment), hence featuring different applied heat loads, were profiled for their intrinsic undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin levels. As expected, pasteurized milk showed the highest concentrations clearly above 3000mg/L due to pasteurization being the mildest thermal treatment, while in contrast, ultra-high temperature heated milk featured the lowest amounts (<200mg/L). For extended shelf life (ESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU.

  15. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis.

  16. Detection of sheep and goat milk adulterations by direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of milk tryptic digests.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; De Ceglie, Cristina; Monopoli, Antonio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    In dairy field, one of the most common frauds is the adulteration of higher value types of milk (sheep's and goat's) with milk of lower value (cow's milk). This illegal practice has an economic advantage for milk producers and poses a threat for consumers' health because of the presence of hidden allergens as, for example, cow milk proteins, in particular, α(s1)-casein and β-lactoglobulin. The urgent need of sensitive techniques to detect this kind of fraud brought to the development of chromatographic, immunoenzymatic, electrophoretic and mass spectrometric assays. In the current work, we present a fast, reproducible and sensitive method based on the direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of milk tryptic digests for the detection of milk adulteration by evaluating specie-specific markers in the peptide profiles. Several pure raw and commercial milk samples and binary mixtures containing cows' and goats', cows' and sheep's and goats' and sheep's milk (concentrations of each milk varied from 0% to 100%) were prepared, and tryptic digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The use of the new MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid allowed to detect cow and goat milk peptide markers up to 5% level of adulteration. Finally, from preliminary data, it seems that the strategy could be successfully applied also to detect similar adulterations in cheese samples.

  17. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

  18. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  19. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl(-1), respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl(-1).

  20. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    PubMed

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  1. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  2. Luminescent determination of quinolones in milk samples by liquid chromatography/post-column derivatization with terbium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yánez-Jácome, G S; Aguilar-Caballos, M P; Gómez-Hens, A

    2015-07-31

    The usefulness of terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb4O7NPs) as post-column derivatizing reagent for the liquid chromatographic determination of residues of quinolone antibiotics in milk samples has been studied. Seven quinolones of veterinary use have been chosen as model analytes to develop this method. The derivatization step is based on the formation of luminescent chelates of quinolones with Tb4O7NPs, which are monitored at λex=340nm and λem=545nm. Another relevant feature of the method is that the use of a 10-cm column and a ternary mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and acetic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution mode allow the chromatographic separation of the quinolones in about 13min, whereas previously described chromatographic methods require about 20min. The dynamic ranges of the calibration graphs and limits of detection are, respectively: 65-900ngmL(-1) and 35ngmL(-1) for marbofloxacin, 7.2-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 6-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for danofloxacin, 50-900ngmL(-1) and 20ngmL(-1) for enrofloxacin, 35-900ngmL(-1) and 12ngmL(-1) for sarafloxacin, 5-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for oxolinic acid, and 7-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for flumequine. The precision, established at two concentration levels of each analyte and expressed as the percentage of the relative standard deviation is in the range of 1.9-8.1% using standards, and of 3.4-10.7% in the presence of milk samples. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk samples, with recoveries ranging from 89.0 to 106.5%.

  3. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    2001-07-14

    The consumption of flavoured milk increased by 50% between 1992 and 1999 and dental health educators need to know if these and other sugar and fruit juice sweetened milk products, such as fruit yoghurts, are acceptable as snack items. Available evidence suggests that their cariogenicity is negligible to low and consumed in moderation they are a preferable alternative to similarly sweetened soft drinks.

  4. Outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 infection associated with raw milk consumption, Finland, spring 2014.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Hallanvuo, Saija; Salmenlinna, Saara; Pihlajasaari, Annika; Heikkinen, Seija; Telkki-Nykänen, Hanna; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Ollgren, Jukka; Huusko, Sari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YP) outbreak was detected by a municipal authority in southern Finland. We conducted epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. We defined a case as a person with YP infection notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry between February and April 2014, or their household member, with abdominal pain and fever≥38 °C or erythema nodosum. Healthy household members were used as household-matched controls. We identified 43 cases and 50 controls. The illness was strongly associated with the consumption of raw milk from a single producer. The odds ratio of illness increased with the amount of raw milk consumed. Also previously healthy adults became infected by consuming raw milk. Identical YP strains were identified from cases' stool samples, raw milk sampled from a case's refrigerator and from the milk filter at the producer's farm. The producer fulfilled the legal requirements for raw milk production and voluntarily recalled the raw milk and stopped its production. We advised consumers to heat the raw milk to 72 °C for 15 s. Current legislation for raw milk producers should be reviewed and public awareness of health risks linked to raw milk consumption should be increased.

  5. Magnetic spherical carbon as an efficient adsorbent for the magnetic extraction of phthalate esters from lake water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juanjuan; Wang, Chenhuan; Liang, Xinyu; Yang, Xiumin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2017-03-29

    Magnetic spherical carbon was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal carbonization procedure with biomass glucose as the carbon precursor and nanoclusters iron colloid as magnetic precursor. The textures of the as-prepared magnetic spherical carbon were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Results indicated that the magnetic spherical carbon possessed high surface area as well as strong magnetism, which endows the material with good adsorption capability and easy separation property. To assess its absorption performance, the magnetic spherical carbon was employed as adsorbent for the extraction and preconcentration of phthalate esters from lake water and milk samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Some key parameters that could influence the enrichment efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was achieved with the linear correlation coefficients higher than 0.9973. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.05-0.08 ng mL(-1) for lake water and 0.1-0.2 ng mL(-1) for milk samples. The recoveries of the analytes for the method were in the range 80.1-112.6%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Quinolones control in milk and eggs samples by liquid chromatography using a surfactant-mediated mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Rambla-Alegre, M; Collado-Sánchez, M A; Esteve-Romero, J; Carda-Broch, S

    2011-05-01

    Four quinolones (danofloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and marbofloxacin) were determined in milk and egg samples by a simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure using a micellar mobile phase. No extraction was needed to precipitate the proteins from the matrices since they were solubilised in micelles. The only pretreatment steps required were homogenisation, dilution and filtration before injecting the sample into the chromatographic system. An adequate resolution of the quinolones was achieved by a chemometrics approach where retention was modelled as a first step using the retention factors in only five mobile phases. Afterwards, an optimisation criterion was applied to consider the position and shape of the chromatographic peaks. Analytical separation involved a C18 reversed-phase column, a hybrid micellar mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 10% (v/v) butanol and 0.5% (v/v) triethylamine buffered at pH 3 and fluorimetric detection. Quinolones were eluted in less than 15 min without the protein band or other endogenous compounds from the food matrices interfering. The calculated relevant validation parameters, e.g., decision limit (CC(α)), detection capability (CC(β)), repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility, recoveries and robustness, were acceptable and complied with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed in quantifying the four quinolones in spiked egg and milk samples.

  7. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  8. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  9. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  10. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 1: a baseline for the development of a tool to assist the milk industry in designing sampling plans for controlling aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, Marcello; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Serraino, Andrea; Zambrini, Angelo Vittorio; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Giacometti, Federica; Ámbrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk was assessed in Italy in the framework of designing a monitoring plan actuated by the milk industry in the period 2005-10. Overall, 21,969 samples were taken from tankers collecting milk from 690 dairy farms. The milk samples were representative of the consignments of co-mingled milk received from multiple (two to six) farms. Systematic, biweekly sampling of consignments involved each of the 121 districts (70 in the North, 17 in the Central and 34 in the South regions of Italy). AFM1 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method (validated within the range of 5-100 ng kg(-1)) whereas an HPLC method was used for the quantification of levels in the samples that had concentrations higher than 100 ng kg(-1). Process control charts using data collected in three processing plants illustrate, as an example, the seasonal variation of the contamination. The mean concentration of AFM1 was in the range between 11 and 19 ng kg(-1). The 90th and 99th percentile values were 19-34 and 41-91 ng kg(-1), respectively, and values as high as 280 ng kg(-1) were reached in 2008. The number of non-compliant consignments (those with an AFM1 concentration above the statutory limit of 50 ng kg(-1)) varied between 0.3% and 3.1% per year, with peaks in September, after the maize harvest season. The variability between different regions was not significant. The results show that controlling the aflatoxins in feed at farm level was inadequate, consequently screening of raw milk prior to processing was needed. The evaluation of the AFM1 contamination level observed during a long-term period can provide useful data for defining the frequency of sampling.

  11. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Gurakan, G Candan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21 h) compared to the traditional culture method (90 h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I--The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II--The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III--The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves.

  12. Four-year monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Peli, Angelo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Fustini, Mattia; Mion, Renzo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Rosmini, Roberto; Rugna, Gianluca; Tamba, Marco; Tonucci, Franco; Bolzoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culture-based method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Raw Milk Consumption--Utah, 2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth R; Dunn, Angela C; Burnett, Cindy; McCullough, Laine; Dimond, Melissa; Wagner, Jenni; Smith, Lori; Carter, Amy; Willardson, Sarah; Nakashima, Allyn K

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) notified the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) of specimens from three patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni yielding indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All three patients had consumed raw (unpasteurized and nonhomogenized) milk from dairy A. In Utah, raw milk sales are legal from farm to consumer with a sales permit from the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF). Raw milk dairies are required to submit monthly milk samples to UDAF for somatic cell and coliform counts, both of which are indicators of raw milk contamination. Before this cluster's identification, dairy A's routine test results were within acceptable levels (<400,000 somatic cells/mL and <10 coliform colony forming units/mL). Subsequent enhanced testing procedures recovered C. jejuni, a fastidious organism, in dairy A raw milk; the isolate matched the cluster pattern. UDAF suspended dairy A's raw milk permit during August 4-October 1, and reinstated the permit when follow-up cultures were negative. Additional cases of C. jejuni infection were identified in October, and UDAF permanently revoked dairy A's permit to sell raw milk on December 1. During May 9-November 6, 2014, a total of 99 cases of C. jejuni infection were identified. Routine somatic cell and coliform counts of raw milk do not ensure its safety. Consumers should be educated that raw milk might be unsafe even if it meets routine testing standards.

  14. ASSAYS FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK: COMPARISON OF FRESH AND FROZEN SAMPLES AND CORRESPONDING ANALYTES IN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collect...

  15. Rapid preparation of expanded graphite by microwave irradiation for the extraction of triazine herbicides in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengshuang; Zhao, Qi; Yan, Xu; Li, Huiyu; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Long; Zhou, Tianyu; Li, Yi; Ding, Lan

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we proposed a rapid and efficient method for the preparation of the expanded graphite (EG). The exfoliation process was accelerated by microwave irradiation, and the preparation time was greatly shortened. The obtained EG was worm-like in shape and exhibits well exfoliated structure. It was successfully applied as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent to extract and clean up the triazine herbicides in milk, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the performance of extraction and LC-MS analysis were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of triazines are in the range of 0.03-0.12 ng mL(-1). At the spiked level (0.4 ng mL(-1)), the recoveries of triazines are in the range of 82.5±2.5% to 97.5±7.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine six triazines in six milk samples.

  16. Recent advances on determination of milk adulterants.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carina F; Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2017-04-15

    Milk adulteration is a current fraudulent practice to mask the quality parameters (e.g. protein and fat content) and increase the product shelf life. Milk adulteration includes addition of toxic substances, such as formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, dichromate, salicylic acid, melamine, and urea. In order to assure the food safety and avoid health risks to consumers, novel analytical procedures have been proposed for detection of these adulterants. The innovations encompass sample pretreatment and improved detection and data processing, including chemometric tools. This review focuses on critical evaluation of analytical approaches for assay of milk adulteration, with emphasis on applications published after 2010. Alternatives for fast, environmentally friendly and in-situ detection of milk adulterants are highlighted.

  17. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  18. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human and animal milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in animal milk. In addition, exposure of infants to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and lactating mothers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined using AFM1 in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure to AFB1. In total, 100 samples of fresh animal milk and fermented milk (buttermilk) and 80 samples of human breast milk were collected during the period 2011-2012. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. AFM1 was detected in all animal fresh and fermented milk samples. The concentrations of AFM1 in 70 samples of fresh and fermented milk were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 50 ng/kg. In human milk samples the average concentration of AFM1 was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 25 ng/kg. Logistic regression analysis failed to show a correlation between AFM1 and type and amount of dairy consumption, vegetables, fruits, and meat. However, an association between AFM1 and cereal consumption was detected. This study is the first to report on the occurrence of AFM1 in milk consumed by the Jordanian population.

  19. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  20. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  1. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  2. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  3. From milk to diet: feed recognition for milk authenticity.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, E; Gianì, S; Mastromauro, F; Breviario, D

    2009-11-01

    The presence of plastidial DNA fragments of plant origin in animal milk samples has been confirmed. An experimental plan was arranged with 4 groups of goats, each provided with a different monophytic diet: 3 fresh forages (oats, ryegrass, and X-triticosecale) and one 2-wk-old silage (X-triticosecale). Feed-derived rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, rbcL) DNA fragments were detected in 100% of the analyzed goat milk samples, and the nucleotide sequence of the PCR-amplified fragments was found to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments amplified from the plant species consumed in the diet. Two additional chloroplast-based molecular markers were used to set up an assay for distinctiveness, conveniently based on a simple PCR. In one case, differences in single nucleotides occurring within the gene encoding for plant maturase K (matK) were exploited. In the other, plant species recognition was based on the difference in the length of the intron present within the transfer RNA leucine (trnL) gene. The presence of plastidial plant DNA, ascertained by the PCR-based amplification of the rbcL fragment, was also assessed in raw cow milk samples collected directly from stock farms or taken from milk sold on the commercial market. In this case, the nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragments reflected the multiple forages present in the diet fed to the animals.

  4. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water.

  5. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001).

  6. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  7. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  8. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  9. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  10. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing.

    PubMed

    Taponen, S; Salmikivi, L; Simojoki, H; Koskinen, M T; Pyörälä, S

    2009-06-01

    In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time PCR-based commercial reagent kit. The assay targets the DNA of the 11 most common bacterial species or groups in mastitis and the staphylococcal blaZ gene (responsible for penicillin resistance) and can identify and quantify bacterial cells even if dead or growth-inhibited. A study was made of 79 mastitic milk samples with no-growth bacteria in conventional culture, originating from cows with clinical mastitis. Of the 79 samples, 34 (43%) were positive for 1 (32 samples) or 2 (2 samples) of the target bacteria. The positive findings included 11 Staphylococcus spp. (staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus), 10 Streptococcus uberis, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 6 Corynebacterium bovis, 3 Staph. aureus, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterococcus, and 1 Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The positive samples contained as many as 10(3) to 10(7) bacterial genome copies per milliliter of milk. This study demonstrates that in nearly half of the clinical mastitis cases in which conventional culture failed to detect bacteria, mastitis pathogens were still present, often in substantial quantities. The clearly elevated N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity values of the milk samples, together with clinical signs of the infected cows and quarters, confirmed the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and indicated that real-time, PCR-based bacterial findings are able to reveal bacteriological etiology. We conclude that all common mastitis bacteria can occur in large quantities in clinical mastitis samples that exhibit no growth in conventional culture, and that the real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for bacteriological diagnosis of such

  11. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  12. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  13. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  14. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.

  15. New School Meal Regulations and Consumption of Flavored Milk in Ten US Elementary Schools, 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2015-10-01

    Milk is a source of shortfall nutrients in children's diets, but most children do not consume recommended amounts. We measured consumption of milk by elementary-schoolchildren (grades 3-5) in a diverse sample of schools before and after implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's updated meal regulations requiring flavored milk to be fat-free. Flavored milk consumption did not change from 2010 to 2013; 52.2% of students in 2010 and 49.7% in 2013 consumed 7 ounces or more of an 8-ounce container. Updated regulations succeeded in lowering the amount of fat, added sugars, and calories in school milk but did not change overall milk consumption, thus improving children's diet quality.

  16. Selective solid-phase extraction of artificial chemicals from milk samples using multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yan-li; Wang, Ling-ling; Ma, Jin-qin; Zhang, Zhi-qi

    2015-08-01

    A novel multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MTMIP) was synthesized using ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol as templates and modified monodispersed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA ) beads as the support material. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer templates and their structural analogs. The maximum binding capacities of ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol on the MTMIP were 9.0 and 6.6 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the corresponding nonimprinted polymer, the MTMIP exhibited a much higher adsorption performance and selectivity toward three quinolones and three estrogens, which are common drug residues in food. The MTMIP served as a simple and effective pretreatment method and could be successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of multiple target components in complex samples. Furthermore, the MTMIP may find useful applications as a solid-phase absorbent in the simultaneous determination of trace quinolones and estrogens in milk samples, as the recoveries were in the range 77.6-98.0%.

  17. Manipulating dietary anions and cations for prepartum dairy cows to reduce incidence of milk fever.

    PubMed

    Block, E

    1984-12-01

    Twenty preparturient dairy cows were in a 2-yr switchover design to test effects of dietary ions on incidence of milk fever. In yr 1, cows were blocked and assigned randomly 45 days prepartum to one of two diets; one diet contained an excess of anions, and the second diet contained an excess of cations. In yr 2, cows were changed to the opposite diet. Both diets were equivalent for crude protein (11%), calcium (.65%), phosphorus (.25%), and energy on a dry basis but differed for quantities of chlorine, sulfur, and sodium. Both diets were chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, high moisture corn, and vitamin-mineral mix. Diets were available ad libitum as complete rations. There were no differences in dry matter intake of the diets. Cows consuming the anionic diet had no milk fever, but cows consuming the canionic diet had 47.4% incidence. Samples of blood plasma showed that cows consuming the anionic diet maintained calcium and phosphorus through parturition, whereas cows consuming the cationic diet decreased in these minerals around calving. Hydroxyproline was higher for cows consuming the anionic diet during the peripartal period compared to cows consuming the cationic diet. Milk produced in the lactation subsequent to prepartum treatment was 6.8% less for cows offered the cationic diet. When milk production of paretic and nonparetic cows offered the cationic diet was compared, milk was reduced 14% with milk fever.

  18. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to further validate a SYBR PCR protocol for Mycoplasma spp. by comparing it with standard microbial culture in the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Additionally, we identified Mycoplasma spp. present by analysis of PCR-generated amplicons [dissociation (melt) temperature (T(m)), length, and DNA sequence]. The research presented herein tests the hypothesis that the SYBR PCR protocol is as sensitive as conventional culture for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Mycoplasmas cause several important disease syndromes in cattle, including mastitis in dairy cows. The standard diagnostic method at the herd level has been microbial isolation of mycoplasmas on 1 of several specialized media and speciation through biochemical or immunological techniques; repeated sampling schemes are recommended. The development of a real-time SYBR PCR protocol offers advantages in decrease of time to detection, cost, and complexity. The T(m) of the double-stranded DNA generated from the PCR reaction was used to detect the presence of and tentatively identify the species of mycoplasmas other than Mycoplasma bovis. In the SYBR PCR protocol, the presence of multiple species of mycoplasmas is indicated by an atypical dissociation curve. Gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the amplicons was used to confirm the mycoplasma species present when a non-M. bovis organism was detected (T(m) not equal to M. bovis) and used to identify all the mycoplasma species present for the samples with atypical dissociation curves. Mycoplasma bovis was identified in 83% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank samples. Another mycoplasma was identified either alone or in addition to M. bovis in 25% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank milk samples. Four species of mycoplasma other than M. bovis (Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Mycoplasma gateae) were identified in bulk tank milk samples

  19. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm-management practices.

    PubMed

    Vicini, John; Etherton, Terry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Ballam, Joan; Denham, Steven; Staub, Robin; Goldstein, Daniel; Cady, Roger; McGrath, Michael; Lucy, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    A trend in food labeling is to make claims related to agricultural management, and this is occurring with dairy labels. A survey study was conducted to compare retail milk for quality (antibiotics and bacterial counts), nutritional value (fat, protein, and solids-not-fat), and hormonal composition (somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], estradiol, and progesterone) as affected by three label claims related to dairy-cow management: conventional, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)-free (processor-certified not from cows supplemented with rbST), or organic (follows US Department of Agriculture organic practices). Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states were collected. Based on a statistical analysis that reflected the sampling schema and distributions appropriate to the various response variables, minor differences were observed for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk labels. Conventionally labeled milk had the lowest (P<0.05) bacterial counts compared to either milk labeled rbST-free or organic; however, these differences were not biologically meaningful. In addition, conventionally labeled milk had significantly less (P<0.05) estradiol and progesterone than organic milk (4.97 vs 6.40 pg/mL and 12.0 vs 13.9 ng/mL, respectively). Milk labeled rbST-free had similar concentrations of progesterone vs conventional milk and similar concentrations of estradiol vs organic milk. Concentrations of IGF-1 in milk were similar between conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free. Organic milk had less (P<0.05) IGF-1 than either conventional or rbST-free milk (2.73 ng/mL vs 3.12 and 3.04 ng/mL, respectively). The macronutrient profiles of the different milks were similar, except for a slight increase in protein in organic milk (about 0.1% greater for organic compared to other milks). Label claims were not related to any meaningful differences in the milk compositional variables measured. It is important for food and nutrition professionals to know that

  20. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  1. Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1.8 (sd 0.1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment, eleven subjects consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150 % of their sweat loss. Urine samples were collected before and for 5 h after exercise to assess fluid balance. Urine excretion over the recovery period did not change during the milk trials whereas there was a marked increase in output between 1 and 2 h after drinking water and the sports drink. Cumulative urine output was less after the milk drinks were consumed (611 (sd 207) and 550 (sd 141) ml for milk and milk with added sodium, respectively, compared to 1184 (sd 321) and 1205 (sd 142) ml for the water and sports drink; P < 0.001). Subjects remained in net positive fluid balance or euhydrated throughout the recovery period after drinking the milk drinks but returned to net negative fluid balance 1 h after drinking the other drinks. The results of the present study suggest that milk can be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink and can be considered for use after exercise by everyone except those individuals who have lactose intolerance.

  2. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder.

  3. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  4. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  5. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  6. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  7. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  8. β-Cyclodextrin decorated nanocellulose: a smart approach towards the selective fluorimetric determination of danofloxacin in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-05-21

    An innovative and versatile strategy of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) is shown by using a new type of β-cyclodextrin-modified nanocellulose (CD-NC) as a sorbent material. β-cyclodextrin (used as an inclusion-type selector) was covalently bonded to amine-modified nanocellulose by an amidation reaction. Such novel nanocavities were successfully applied to the selective recognition of danofloxacin (DAN), an antibiotic used to treat animal diseases, via supramolecular host-guest interactions. The SPME methodology, using a platform based on β-cyclodextrin-"decorated" nanocellulose as a sorbent material, showed a wide linear fluorimetric response against DAN from 8 to 800 μg L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.5 μg L(-1). The specific recognition of DAN has been proven to be highly selective and efficient against this metabolite and other fluoroquinolones. The reusability and the high efficiency in the extraction and preconcentration of DAN in milk samples allow recoveries of 94%.

  9. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  10. Characterization of chocolate milk spoilage patterns.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S A; Gray, M J; Crandall, A D; Boor, K J

    2000-04-01

    Standard plate counts (SPC) and psychrotrophic plate counts (PPC) from chocolate milk samples were compared with those of unflavored milk samples plated within 24 h of processing and at 7, 10, and 14 days of storage at 6 degrees C using matched samples collected over four time periods from four milk-processing plants. Bacterial numbers within 24 h of processing were not significantly different in unflavored and in chocolate milk samples (P > 0.001), with SPC less than 1,000 CFU/ml and PPC below 10 CFU/ml for both types of products. SPC and PPC were higher in chocolate milk samples than in unflavored milk samples collected from all four plants after 14 days of storage (P < 0.001). To examine the effects of chocolate milk components on bacterial numbers, SPC for days 0, 7, 14, and 21 were monitored in samples of experimentally prepared unflavored milk, milk with chocolate powder and sucrose (chocolate milk), milk with sucrose only, and milk containing chocolate powder only. At days 14 and 21, SPC were higher in both chocolate milk and in milk with chocolate powder only, than in either the unflavored milk or milk with sucrose only (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the addition of chocolate powder to milk can contribute to a greater relative increase in bacterial numbers in pasteurized chocolate milk than in identically processed unflavored milk at 14 days postprocessing.

  11. Biocompatible phosphatidylcholine bilayer coated on magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengxiao; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junshen; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Xiaole; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-05-18

    In this work, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was coated on magnetic nanoparticles to form lipid bilayer as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water and milk samples. The lipid bilayer was coated on Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles using a modified dry lipid film hydration method. The resulted Fe(3)O(4)/PC could be readily isolated from solution with a magnet, and exhibited excellent adsorption performance to organic pollutants. Only 0.1g of sorbents was enough to extract PAHs from 500 mL aqueous solution, and 6 mL of acetonitrile was required to desorb them. The method was fast and relied on 10 min extraction time and 5 min magnetic separation. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine PAHs in some environmental water and milk samples. The detection limit was in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the spiked water samples ranged from 89% to 115% with relative standard deviations (RSD) varying from 1% to 8%. For spiked milk samples, RSD was satisfactory (1-9%), but the recoveries were relatively low (42-62%). We show the potentials of Fe(3)O(4)/PC sorbents in environmental water and biological sample analyses.

  12. Herd-level prevalence of Map infection in dairy herds of southern Chile determined by culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR.

    PubMed

    Kruze, J; Monti, G; Schulze, F; Mella, A; Leiva, S

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, an infectious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is an economically important disease in dairy herds worldwide. In Chile the disease has been reported in domestic and wildlife animals. However, accurate and updated estimations of the herd-prevalence in cattle at national or regional level are not available. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd-level prevalence of dairy herds with Map infected animals of Southern Chile, based on two diagnostic tests: culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR. Two composite environmental fecal samples and one bulk-tank milk sample were collected during September 2010 and September 2011 from 150 dairy farms in Southern Chile. Isolation of Map from environmental fecal samples was done by culture of decontaminated samples on a commercial Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) with and without mycobactin J. Suspicious colonies were confirmed to be Map by conventional IS900 PCR. Map detection in bulk-tank milk samples was done by real time IS900 PCR assay. PCR-confirmed Map was isolated from 58 (19.3%) of 300 environmental fecal samples. Holding pens and manure storage lagoons were the two more frequent sites found positive for Map, representing 35% and 33% of total positive samples, respectively. However, parlor exits and cow alleyways were the two sites with the highest proportion of positive samples (40% and 32%, respectively). Herd prevalence based on environmental fecal culture was 27% (true prevalence 44%) compared to 49% (true prevalence 87%) based on bulk-tank milk real time IS900 PC. In both cases herd prevalence was higher in large herds (>200 cows). These results confirm that Map infection is wide spread in dairy herds in Southern Chile with a rough herd-level prevalence of 28-100% depending on the herd size, and that IS900 PCR on bulk-tank milk samples is more sensitive than environmental fecal culture to detect

  13. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Glycaemic Properties of Commercial Plant-Based Milk Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Stephanie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-03-01

    The market for plant-based dairy-type products is growing as consumers replace bovine milk in their diet, for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. A screening of 17 different commercial plant-based milk substitutes based on different cereals, nuts and legumes was performed, including the evaluation of physicochemical and glycaemic properties. Half of the analysed samples had low or no protein contents (<0.5 %). Only samples based on soya showed considerable high protein contents, matching the value of cow's milk (3.7 %). An in-vitro method was used to predict the glycaemic index. In general, the glycaemic index values ranged from 47 for bovine milk to 64 (almond-based) and up to 100 for rice-based samples. Most of the plant-based milk substitutes were highly unstable with separation rates up to 54.39 %/h. This study demonstrated that nutritional and physicochemical properties of plant-based milk substitutes are strongly dependent on the plant source, processing and fortification. Most products showed low nutritional qualities. Therefore, consumer awareness is important when plant-based milk substitutes are used as an alternative to cow's milk in the diet.

  14. Quantitation of tetrabromobisphenol-A from dust sampled on consumer electronics by dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli-Davis, Gina; Owens, Janel E

    2013-09-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant used worldwide. Despite its widespread use, there are few data concerning environmental concentrations of TBBPA. Thus, the objective of this work was to optimize an ultrasound-assisted dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method to analyze swabbed surfaces of consumer electronics to determine TBBPA concentrations. Upon sample preparation with DLLME, TBBPA was derivatized with acetic anhydride and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using a (13)C12-TBBPA internal standard to improve precision and quantitation, a recovery study was performed. At concentrations of 250-1000 ng/mL, recoveries were 104-106%. Sample preparation with solid phase extraction had comparable recoveries, although overall, improved analyte recovery and precision were achieved with DLLME. In a small survey study, TBBPA concentrations in dust collected from 100 cm(2) areas on electronic surfaces (monitor, microwave, refrigerator, and TV) were determined to range from less than the LOQ to 523 ng/mL.

  15. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  16. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy.

  17. Determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water and milk samples treated with stir cake sorptive extraction based on a boron-rich monolith.

    PubMed

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction using a boron-rich monolith as the adsorbent was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene. The effect of preparation parameters, including the ratio of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene, monomer mixture, and porogen solvent, on extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, a convenient and sensitive method for the determination of trace fluoroquinolones residues in water and milk samples was established by coupling stir cake sorptive extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The limits of detection for the target compounds were 0.10-0.26 and 0.11-0.22 μg/L for water and milk samples, respectively. In addition, the developed method showed good linearity, repeatability, and precision. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of trace fluoroquinolones residues in environmental water and milk samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for the determination of fluoroquinolones in spiking samples that ranged from 68.8 to 120%, with relative standard deviations below 10% in all cases.

  18. Diagnosing intramammary infections: comparison of multiple versus single quarter milk samples for the identification of intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, I; Andersen, S; Dingwell, R; Hand, K; Kelton, D; Leslie, K; Schukken, Y; Godden, S

    2011-11-01

    The objective was to examine the potential benefits of using different combinations of multiple quarter milk samples compared with a single sample for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle. Data used in the analyses were derived from 7,076 samples from 667 quarters in 176 cows in 8 herds in 4 locations (Minnesota/Wisconsin, n=4; Prince Edward Island, n=2; Ontario, n=1; New York, n=1). Duplicate quarter milk samples were collected at morning milking for 5 consecutive days. Cows were evenly distributed between early postparturient and mid- to late-lactation cows. All samples were frozen for shipping and storage, thawed once, and cultured in university laboratories using standardized procedures consistent with National Mastitis Council guidelines. The presence of specific pathogens was confirmed and identified using the API identification system (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) in each laboratory. A previously developed gold standard was applied to the first sample from d 1, 3, and 5 to classify infected quarters. The data were analyzed separately for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus spp. Various combinations of test results from d 2 and 4 were used in the test evaluation. These consisted of single samples (n=4), 2 sets of duplicate samples (2 samples collected on the same day), 2 sets of consecutive samples (2 samples collected 2 d apart), and 2 sets of triplicate samples (2 samples on the same day and a third sample 2 d apart). Series interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=same pathogen isolated from both samples) resulted in the highest specificity (Sp; CNS Sp=92.1-98.1%; Streptococcus spp. Sp=98.7-99.6%), but lowest sensitivity (Se; CNS Se=41.9-53.3%; Streptococcus spp. Se=7.7-22.2%). Parallel interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=pathogen isolated from either) resulted in the highest Se (CNS Se=70.8-80.6%; Streptococcus spp. Se=31.6-48.1%), but lowest Sp (CNS

  19. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption.

  20. New methodology for the determination of phthalate esters, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and nonylphenol in commercial whole milk samples.

    PubMed

    Casajuana, Neus; Lacorte, Sílvia

    2004-06-16

    This paper reports a new methodology aimed at determining dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in commercial whole milk. These compounds are used as plastic additives, lacquers, resins, or surfactants and can be found in milk due to contact with plastic materials during food processing and storage. They are all suspected endocrine disrupters or mutagens. A multiresidue method based in solid-phase extraction with C-18 cartridges followed by a cleanup step using disposable cartridges was developed. Detection and quantification were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection using an appropriate surrogate (4-n-nonylphenol) and internal standard [deuterated bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate]. Limits of detection were from 0.06 to 0.36 microg/kg and intraday variation from 3 and 27%, with recoveries between 73 and 119%. Five brands of commercial whole milk processed and packed in different ways were analyzed. All samples contained target compounds at concentrations between 0.28 and 85.3 microg/kg, and the total concentration ranged between 79.3 and 187.4 microg/kg, the levels being higher in sterilized milks. Nonylphenol, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were the major contributors.

  1. Simultaneous enantioselective quantification of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk by direct sample injection using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvim-Jr, Joel; Lopes, Bianca Rebelo; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-06-17

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (2D LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneously quantification of fluoxetine (FLX) and norfluoxetine (NFLX) enantiomers in human milk by direct injection of samples. A restricted access media of bovine serum albumin octadecyl column (RAM-BSAC18) was used in the first dimension for the milk proteins depletion, while an antibiotic-based chiral column was used in the second dimension. The results herein described show good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with limits of quantification in the order of 7.5ngmL(-1)for the FLX enantiomers and 10.0ngmL(-1) for NFLX enantiomers. Furthermore, it represents a practical tool in terms of sustainability for the sample preparation of such a difficult matrix.

  2. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  3. [Study on quality detection of milk powder based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Zhu; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Chao; Xu, Yun

    2007-09-01

    The traditional NIR model was usually built according to various parameters of an individual type of milk powder so that it's really time-consuming. To simplify the application of NIR in real-time quality detection of milk powder, it was proposed in the present paper to build NIR models for a sample set composed of different types of milk powder. With 70 samples provided by one manufacturer, 6 NIR models including acidity, fat, lactose, sucrose, protein and ash, were built by optimizing algorithms. The results indicated that these NIR models except the acidity model have good stability and high prediction ability (RSD<10%, RPD>3).

  4. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  5. Facile synthesis of magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulfonamides from water and milk samples before their HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Furletov, Aleksei A; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Zolotov, Yury A

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HCP/Fe3O4), was prepared and used for preconcentration of four sulfonamides (sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine) from natural water and milk samples. This material was prepared by sorption of pre-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) onto HCP. A number of sorbents with varying Fe3O4NPs content were prepared, and their structural, magnetic and sorption properties were studied. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the amount of the magnetic nanocomposite, extraction time, pH of the sample solution and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, a convenient and efficient method for the determination of sulfonamides in water and milk samples was developed by combining MSPE and high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. The results showed that the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 84-105% with the relative standard deviations ranging between 3% and 10%; the limit of detection were in the range of 0.21-0.33 ng mL(-1) for water and 2.0-2.5 ng mL(-1) for milk.

  6. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted surfactant-improved dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of aminoglycosides in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Zhuang; Zhao, Xin; Su, Rui; Zhang, Yupu; Shi, Jiayuan; Zhao, Yajing; Wu, Lijie; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2013-02-01

    A green and simple method, ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted surfactant-improved dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization was developed for the determination of aminoglycosides in milk samples. Nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were used as the disperser and extraction solvent, respectively. Extraction, preconcentration, and derivatization of aminoglycosides were carried out in a single step. Several experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of surfactant, microwave power and irradiation time, concentration of derivatization reagent, and pH value and volume of buffer were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearities for determining the analytes were in the range 0.4-10.0 ng/mL for tobramycin, 1.0-25.0 ng/mL for neomycin, and 2.0-50.0 ng/mL for gentamicin, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. The LODs for the analytes were between 0.11 and 0.50 ng/mL. The present method was applied to the analysis of different milk samples, and the recoveries of aminoglycosides obtained were in the range 96.4-105.4% with the RSDs lower than 5.5%. The results showed that the present method was a rapid, convenient, and environmentally friendly method for the determination of aminoglycosides in milk samples.

  7. Estrone and estrone sulfate concentrations in milk and milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Macrina, Ann L; Ott, Troy L; Roberts, Robert F; Kensinger, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Dairy products naturally contain estrogens, and some consumer groups contend these estrogens cause adverse health effects. The objectives of this research were to characterize estrone (E(1)) and estrone sulfate (E(1)S) concentrations in milk from a large number of individual cows, in skim and fat fractions of milk, and in retail milk to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate potential consumption. Milk was from Holstein cows. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in E(1) and E(1)S content of whole milk and its skim and fat fractions. Mean E(1) and E(1)S concentrations (n=173 cows) were 7.0±12.7 and 46.7±62.1 pg/mL (25.89±46.96 and 172.74±229.71 pmol/L), respectively. Analysis of milk fractions (n=50 samples) demonstrated that 55% of E(1) and 14% of E(1)S were associated with the fat fraction with the remainder associated with the skim fraction. Concentrations of E(1) and E(1)S in pasteurized-homogenized whole milk (n=8) averaged 10.3±0.6 and 85.9±7.3 pg/mL (38.09±2.22 and 317.74±27.00 pmol/L), respectively. Production rates of E(1) plus estradiol in human beings range from 54,000 to 630,000 ng/day. US Food and Drug administration guidelines state that no physiologic effects occur when consumption is ≤1% of the endogenous quantities produced by the segment of the population with the lowest daily production. This threshold value for intake would be 540 ng/day. Estimated total E(1) intake from three servings of whole milk was 68 ng/day, which represents 0.01% to 0.1% of daily production rates in human beings. These findings support levels below the current guidelines for safe consumption.

  8. Contribution to the study of staphylococcus contamination of cows' milk on a number of farms in Algiers: its impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Hamiroune, M; Berber, A; Boubekeur, S

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe a survey and screening programme for staphylococcus. The study covers 14 dairy farms in the Algiers region, from which 203 samples of cows' milk were taken for bacteriological testing. The survey results show that poor husbandry conditions are the main cause of staphylococcus in cows' milk. Staphylococcus was found in the milk of 30% of the cows sampled. These results were influenced by a variety of factors, in that: the contamination rate rose with the number of pregnancies, age, and volume of milk output of the cow, as well as the bedding thickness; the milk contamination rate was greater when milking occurred outside a milking parlour and when it was performed by machine; higher rates of staphylococcus infection were found in the milk of cows at the end of lactation, in red and white breeds, and in those with cylindricalteats. Identification of the bacteria found (staphylococcus) showed that coagulase- negative staphylococci were present in 67.21% of samples, whereas coagulase- positive staphylococci were present in only 32.79%. The average count for the latter was equal to 0.54 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Seventy percent of the milk analysed was free from staphylococci and most of the bacteria identified were not pathogenic to consumers (coagulase- negative staphylococci); nevertheless, consuming fresh milk still presents a degree of risk.

  9. Estimation of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their effect on the essential elemental status in the biological samples of Irish smoker rheumatoid arthritis consumers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland, is investigated. The trace {zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se)} and toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, who are smokers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmoker controls. The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter, and ash) consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The concentrations of trace and TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.8% in certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 9.55-12.4 ng, 0.432-0.727 μg, 1.70-2.12 μg, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compare to healthy controls, while Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se concentrations were found to be lower in rheumatoid arthritis patients, the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p<0.001). The levels of four toxic elements were 2-3-folds higher in scalp hair and

  10. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and milk fat, respectively. PCB congeners -153, -138, -180 and -170 dominated in the PCB profiles, while p,ṕ-DDE was the most abundant OCP. PCB-126 was the most abundant non-ortho PCB, while among mono-ortho PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted.

  12. Determination of phospholipids in milk samples by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Cichello, Filomena; Russo, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-09-16

    The combined use of the state-of-the-art hybrid mass spectrometers together with high efficient liquid chromatography could surely be a useful tool for such a challenging task, as phospholipids (PLs) analysis. In this research, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (150 mm×2.1 mm I.D., 2.7 μm d.p. partially porous column) to achieve the separation of major PLs classes in cow's and donkey's milk samples. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed in order to pre-concentrate minor PLs from non polar lipids (triacylglycerols) and the recovery for the extraction method was assayed on a milk sample, fortified with 5 μg/mL of SM pure standard, and analyzed in triplicate. A value of 89.99% was calculated, with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 1.93. A 70-min long stepwise gradient of water/acetonitrile afforded baseline separation of PLs classes, at 50 μL/min flow rate. Accurate detection by an ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometer (in both positive and negative ionization mode) allowed to fully characterize the distinctive phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition of cow's and donkey's milk, the latter being analyzed for the first time. Evaporative light scattering detection was further employed to attain the quantitative evaluation of major PLs classes identified, by the external calibration method using reference material solutions in the 5-200 μg/mL concentration range. Major difference between the two analyzed samples consisted in the total PLs amount, which in cow's milk was determined as over 20-fold higher than the donkey's.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  14. Tobacco Metabolites and Caffeine in Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Rogers, Lynette; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Augustine, Molly; Keim, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. Materials and Methods: We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols. Results: No sellers indicated smoking in their advertisement. Many of the milk samples (58%) had detectable nicotine or cotinine; four (4%) of the samples had nicotine or cotinine levels high enough to indicate active smoking. Twelve (12%) sellers said in their advertisements that they specifically limit (4%) or avoid (8%) caffeine entirely. Five (5%) of the samples had caffeine levels consistent with consuming at least 1 cup of coffee 2 hours prior to milk expression. Detectable amounts of caffeine were found in almost all of the samples (97%). Conclusions: In 102 milk samples, we detected evidence of active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, and almost ubiquitous caffeine consumption. Buyers of human milk on the Internet should be aware that advertisements do not always include accurate information as to what substances may be present. Sellers may misrepresent their health behaviors or be unaware of lifestyle factors that can lead to exposure to nicotine and caffeine. PMID:26394021

  15. Composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota in consumers and non-consumers of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Elise; Andrieux, Claude; Rochet, Violaine; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Lepercq, Pascale; Sutren, Malène; Galan, Pilar; Duval, Yvonne; Juste, Catherine; Doré, Joël

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a regular consumption of yogurt on the composition and metabolism of the human intestinal microbiota. Adult subjects were selected on the basis of daily food records and divided into two groups: yogurt consumers (at least 200 g yogurt consumed per d, n 30); non-consumers (no yogurt, n 21). Their faecal microbiota was analysed using molecular methods (in situ hybridisation and PCR amplification combined with separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis) and its metabolic characteristics were assessed by measuring glycosidase, P-glucuronidase and reductase activities and profiling SCFA, neutral sterols and bile acids. The yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (identity confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing) was detected in 73% of faecal samples from fermented milk consumers v. 28% from non-consumers (P=0.003). In yogurt consumers, the level of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower (P=0.006) and 13-galactosidase activity was significantly increased (P=0.048). In addition, within this group, 3-galactosidase activity and the Bifidobacterium population were both positively correlated with the amount of fermented milk ingested (r 0.66, P<0.0001 and r 0.43, P=0.018, respectively). Apart from these effects, which can be considered beneficial to the host, no other major differences could be detected regarding the composition and metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota.

  16. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    PubMed

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer as in-line concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of quinolones in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Lara, Francisco J; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2014-09-19

    In this work molecularly imprinted polymers have been evaluated as sorbent for the construction of an in-line solid phase extraction analyte concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of the eight regulated veterinary quinolones in bovine milk samples. Different parameters affecting the analyte concentrator performance, such as sample pH, volume and composition of the elution plug and injection time, were studied. Sample volumes of 22μL (2bar for 15min) were loaded on the MISPE microcartridge and the retained analytes were eluted by injecting a plug of MeOH/H2O/NH3 (60/37/3 by volume) for 125s at 50mbar (60nL). The proposed method is simple for the monitoring of these antibiotic residues in milk samples, allowing the direct injection of the samples with minimum sample pretreatment, achieving limits of detection between 3.8 and 4.7μgkg(-1) and unequivocal identification of the compounds working in tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries ranging from 70.0 to 102.3% were obtained and satisfactory intra-day and inter-day RSDs were achieved (≤12% and 15% respectively). Reproducibility among different constructed analyte concentrators showed RSD≤11%.

  19. Comparison of the epidemiological behavior of mastitis pathogens by applying time-series analysis in results of milk samples submitted for microbiological examination.

    PubMed

    Fernández, G; Barreal, M L; Pombo, M B; Ginzo-Villamayor, M J; González-Manteiga, W; Prieto, A; Lago, N; González-Palencia, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and compare the trends of mastitis pathogens in quarter milk samples (n = 240,232) submitted for microbiological examination at the Milk Analysis Laboratory (L.I.G.A.L.) at Galicia, Spain from June 2005 to September 2011. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and multivariate statistical techniques such as Cluster Analysis were used in order to detect seasonal trends and similarities between the series trends and to classify mastitis pathogens into relatively homogeneous groups. The decrease of bulk milk somatic cell counts achieved by the mastitis control program, developed in recent years in this region, is the result of the decrease in IMI caused by a limited number of mastitis pathogens. The obtained results reflect a greater complexity in the behavior of mastitis pathogens, unlike the traditional classification into contagious or environmental. Staphylococcus aureus showed a trend similar to Streptococcus dysgalactiae, a mastitis pathogen can behave in both a contagious and an environmental manner. Among the traditionally considered environmental mastitis pathogens, Strep. uberis showed a different behavior to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species and Streptococcus other than Strep. agalactiae showed differences in the trend model. Time-series analysis and multivariate statistical techniques, such as Cluster Analysis, could be powerful tools to assess the isolation trend of mastitis pathogens because of their ability to cope with stochastic dependence of consecutive data. Furthermore, they could be used to identify the epidemiological behavior of mastitis pathogens using the results of milk samples submitted for routine microbiological examination, by classifying them into relatively homogeneous groups.

  20. The association between Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in bulk tank milk samples and parameters linked to cattle reproduction and mortality.

    PubMed

    Delafosse, Arnaud

    2013-10-18

    In Western Europe, gastrointestinal nematodes are widespread in dairy cattle. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between optical density ratio (ODR) measured on bulk tank milk with an indirect Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA and reproduction/mortality parameters. Data were collected between 2008 and 2010 from monitoring carried out on 1643 dairy herds (Normandy, Western France). ODR values of 3 samples from each farm taken from November 2008 to 2010 were averaged and then transformed into a categorical variable. Reproductive and mortality data were obtained from 1444 herds using cow records from government databases. Statistical analysis was carried out using ordinary logistic regression (OLR). The outcome variables were the case-control status of a herd for reproductive factors, age at first calving and inter-calving intervals, and mortality ratios of various age classes. The effect of the categorical ODR variable was studied and several potential confounder herd factors were used to improve the model fit. A significant relationship was found between high Ostertagia ODR levels and a late age at the first calving (>34.5 months) (odds ratio (OR)=1.94, p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed with OLR for inter-calving intervals although bivariate analysis showed that herds with high ODR levels had longer inter-calving intervals than herds with low ODR level (first inter-calving interval in herds with low vs. high ODR levels=412 days vs. 422 days, p<0.001; other inter-calving intervals=408 days vs. 413 days, p<0.01). A high ODR level was also associated with high mortality of calves between 0 and 30 days of life (mortality ratio>6%) (OR=1.43, p<0.05) and between 91 and 365 days (ratio>3%) (OR=1.72, p<0.01). No significant relationship was observed with multivariate approach for mortalities in other classes by age, but bivariate analysis showed that herds with high ODR level had higher mortalities than herds with low ODR levels (mortality

  1. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  2. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the usual cause, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo and other mammals also can cause a ... react to cow's milk will react to sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk. Less commonly, people allergic to ...

  3. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  4. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products.

  5. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P < 0.0001); at site 2, 40% of the variance in intention was explained by expectancy beliefs. The TPB variables of expectancy beliefs predicted intention to consume soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake.

  6. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2014-08-20

    In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE-AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE-AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE-AMIIDB-HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N=3) for target compounds were 0.020-0.072 μg L(-1), 0.035-0.10 μg L(-1) and 0.026-0.076 μg L(-1) in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII-SCSE-HPLC/DAD method was successfully applied for the determination of benzimidazoles residues in milk, honey and environmental water samples. Recoveries obtained for the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiking samples ranged from 70.2% to 117.6%, with RSD below 12% in all cases.

  7. Label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in milk without any sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Rau, Sabrina; Hilbig, Urs; Gauglitz, Günter

    2014-05-01

    A label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of diclofenac in bovine milk has been developed. This was achieved by using reflectometric interference spectroscopy as detection method. In a first step, the immunosensor was developed and optimised in buffer concerning sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. By comparing recovery rates—not only the good intra- but also the good inter-chip—reproducibility could be proven. Consequently, the assay was transferred in the more complex matrix milk. By utilising an optimised surface modification and evaluation method, matrix effects could successfully be prevented or circumvented. As a result, the developed immunosensor does not need sample pretreatment at all. By obtaining a limit of detection of 0.112 μg L(−1) (0.108 μg kg(−1)), the capability of the developed biosensor is comparable or better than those of standard detection methods. Moreover, the presented biosensor reaches the range of the maximum residue limit (0.1 μg kg(−1)) set by the European Union. Thus, for the first time, diclofenac was successfully quantified at relevant levels in milk by using an optical biosensor.

  8. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  9. Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns and insights from a sample of international studies.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.

  10. Raw milk from vending machines: Effects of boiling, microwave treatment, and refrigeration on microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Falasca, Luisa; Capilongo, Valeria; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the sale of raw milk from vending machines has been allowed since 2004. Boiling treatment before its use is mandatory for the consumer, because the raw milk could be an important source of foodborne pathogens. This study fits into this context with the aim to evaluate the microbiological quality of 30 raw milk samples periodically collected (March 2013 to July 2013) from 3 vending machines located in Molise, a region of southern Italy. Milk samples were stored for 72 h at 4 °C and then subjected to different treatments, such as boiling and microwaving, to simulate domestic handling. The results show that all the raw milk samples examined immediately after their collection were affected by high microbial loads, with values very close to or even greater than those acceptable by Italian law. The microbial populations increased during refrigeration, reaching after 72 h values of about 8.0 log cfu/mL for Pseudomonas spp., 6.5 log cfu/mL for yeasts, and up to 4.0 log cfu/mL for Enterobacteriaceae. Boiling treatment, applied after 72 h to refrigerated milk samples, caused complete decontamination, but negatively affected the nutritional quality of the milk, as demonstrated by a drastic reduction of whey proteins. The microwave treatment at 900 W for 75 s produced microbiological decontamination similar to that of boiling, preserving the content in whey proteins of milk. The microbiological characteristics of raw milk observed in this study fully justify the obligation to boil the raw milk from vending machines before consumption. However, this study also showed that domestic boiling causes a drastic reduction in the nutritional value of milk. Microwave treatment could represent a good alternative to boiling, on the condition that the process variables are standardized for safe domestic application.

  11. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  12. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  13. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  14. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  15. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  16. Stir-membrane solid-liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human breast milk samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Rocío; Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2014-08-08

    In this article, stir-membrane solid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SM-SLLME) is tailored for the analysis of solid matrices and it has been evaluated for the determination of parabens in l breast milk samples. A three-phase microextraction mode was used for the extraction of the target compounds taking advantage of their acid-base properties. The unit allows the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds from the solid sample to an organic media and the subsequent transference of the analytes to an aqueous acceptor phase. The method includes the identification and quantification of the analytes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). All the variables involved in the extraction procedure have been accurately studied and optimized. The analytes were detected and quantified using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ). The selection of two specific fragmentation transitions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification. The method has been analytically characterized on the basis of its linearity, sensitivity and precision. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.2ngmL(-1) with precision better than 8%, (expressed as relative standard deviation). Relative recoveries were in the range from 91 to 106% which demonstrated the applicability of the stir-membrane solid-liquid-liquid microextraction for the proposed analytical problem. Moreover, the method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of parabens in lyophilized breast milk samples from 10 randomly selected individuals.

  17. One-pot synthesis of mesoporous structured ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor for highly sensitive detection of melamine from milk samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoufang; Lu, Hongzhi

    2015-11-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare mesoporous structured ratiometric fluorescence molecularly imprinted sensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of melamine using CdTe QDs as target sensitive dye and hematoporphyrin as reference dyes. One-pot synthesis method was employed because it could simplify the imprinting process and shorten the experimental period. The as-prepared fluorescence MIPs sensor, which combined ratiometric fluorescence technique with mesoporous silica materials into one system, exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity. Under optimum conditions, these mesoporous structured ratiometric fluorescence MIP@QDs sensors showed detection limit as low as 38 nM, which was much lower than those non-mesoporous one. The recycling process was sustainable at least 10 times without obvious efficiency decrease. The feasibility of the developed method in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of melamine in raw milk and milk powder samples with satisfactory recoveries of 92-101%. The developed method proposed in this work proved to be a convenient, rapid, reliable and practical way to prepared high sensitive and selective fluorescence sensors with potentially applicable for trace pollutants analysis in complicated samples.

  18. Electro membrane extraction of sodium diclofenac as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk, and plasma samples and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Pourahadi, Ahmad; Nojavan, Saeed; Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Nasiri-Aghdam, Mahnaz

    2012-04-13

    Electro membrane extraction (EME) as a new microextraction method was applied for extraction of sodium diclofenac (SDF) as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk and plasma samples. Under applied potential of 20 V during the extraction, SDF migrated from a 2.1 mL of sample solution (1mM NaOH), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), into a 30 μL acceptor solution (10 mM NaOH), exist inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The negative electrode was placed in the donor solution, and the positive electrode was placed in the acceptor solution. 1-octanol was immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene as SLM. Then the extract was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-detection for quantification of SDF. Best results were obtained using a phosphate running electrolyte (10 mM, pH 2.5). The ranges of quantitation for different samples were 8-500 ngmL(-1). Intra- and inter-day RSDs were less than 14.5%. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration factors were between 31 and 66 and also the limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 2.7 ng mL(-1) to 5 ng mL(-1) in different samples. This procedure was applied to determine SDF in wastewater, bovine milk, urine and plasma samples (spiked and real samples). Extraction recoveries for different samples were between 44-95% after 5 min of extraction.

  19. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  20. Biofilm in milking equipment on a dairy farm as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and safety of raw milk are important attributes for consumers of milk and dairy products. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of a L. monocytogenes biofilm in milking equipment as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination on a dairy farm. Weekly tests to monit...

  1. Evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Turbes, Gregory; Linscott, Tyler D; Tomasino, Elizabeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy; Lim, Juyun; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    The concept of local food is rapidly gaining importance within the United States. The foundation of local food is terroir, which links a food to its production environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese flavor. Specifically, the study was designed to assess if consumers could differentiate between Cheddar cheeses made with milk from different dairy farms. Milk from 5 locations, including single dairy farms and commingled sites, was collected from around the state of Oregon. Using raw and pasteurized counterparts of the milk, Cheddar cheese was made and aged. At 5 and 9mo into aging, Cheddar cheese consumers were asked to group the samples based on perceived similarity/dissimilarity of cheese flavor. Grouping data were subjected to multidimensional scaling and subsequent cluster analysis. Results at 5mo into aging revealed that cheeses made by milk originating from different farms (80km apart) within the same region were perceived as different, whereas cheeses made with milk from neighboring farms (5km apart) were grouped together, irrespective of heat treatment (i.e., raw vs. pasteurized). Cheeses made with commingled milk from different regions grouped together. At 9mo of aging, in contrast, a clear separation of perceived flavor was present between the pasteurized and raw cheese samples, whereas the effect of milk sourcing was less pronounced. These data suggest that the geographical location of the milk source has an effect on the flavor of Cheddar cheese, but that the practices of milk commingling and heat treatment likely reduce the effect of geographical location, particularly as cheese ages.

  2. Highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk by field-enhanced sample injection-based CE in bubble cell capillary.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Gasilova, Natalia; Qiao, Liang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics with a broad activity spectrum against mycoplasma, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria. Due to the extensive use of fluoroquinolones in farming and veterinary science, there is a constant need in the analytical methods able to efficiently monitor their residues in food products of animal origin, regulated by Commission Regulation (European Union) no. 37/2010. Herein, field-enhanced sample injection for sample stacking prior the CZE separation was developed inside a bubble cell capillary for highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in bovine milk. Ethylenediamine was proposed as the main component of BGE for the antibiotics separation. The effect of BGE composition, injection parameters, and water plug length on the field-enhanced sample injection-based CE with UV detection was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, described field-enhanced sample injection-based CE-UV analysis of fluoroquinolones provides LODs varying from 0.4 to 1.3 ng/mL. These LOD values are much lower (from 460 to 1500 times) than those obtained by a conventional CE in a standard capillary without bubble cell. The developed method was finally applied for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk from a Swiss supermarket. Sample recovery values from 93.6 to 106.0% for different fluoroquinolones, and LODs from 0.7 to 2.5 μg/kg, were achieved. Moreover, the proposed ethylenediamine-based BGE as volatile and compatible with MS system, enabled the coupling of the field-enhanced sample injection-based CE with a recently introduced electrostatic spray ionization MS via an iontophoretic fraction collection interface for qualitative fluoroquinolones identification.

  3. Ecological assessment of a region with PCB emissions using samples of soil, vegetation and breast milk: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bobovnikova, T; Dibtseva, A; Mitroshkov, A; Pleskachevskaya, G

    1993-11-01

    An ecological assessment is performed by using a data bank of air, soil, vegetation and biology data from the area of a capacitor plant in Serpukhov, Russia. Over a number of years the use of PCBs for filling capacitors has brought about environmental contamination beyond the plant's sanitary zone, in particular along a stream where vegetables and berries are grown commercially. A correlation has been found between abnormally high concentrations of PCBs in breast milk of women living in the proximity of the plant and the occurrence of diathesis in babies. A number of remedial measures have been developed in conjunction with the city's sanitary service.

  4. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  5. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  6. Simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector method for simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides in soya milk samples.

    PubMed

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2016-11-18

    In this study authors propose a simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides (oxasulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron, chlorsulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, amidosulfuron and bensulfuron-methyl) in soya milk samples. QuEChERS-based extraction procedure presents good performance for all of the analytes with recoveries in the range of 61-108% and relative standard deviations (RSD%) less than 15%. No significant matrix effect was observed thanks to application of effective zirconium-dioxide based sorbent (Z-Sep). Method LOQs for all investigated analytes were set at satisfactory low value of 10ngmL(-1) of food product. The procedure was evaluated in terms of natural samples analysis. Chlorsulfuron was determined at concentration of 14.2ngmL(-1) of soya milk product, which was qualitatively confirmed via LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most important steps of procedure optimization are presented.

  7. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-04

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk.

  8. Use of human lysozyme transgenic goat milk in cheese making: effects on lactic acid bacteria performance.

    PubMed

    Scharfen, E C; Mills, D A; Maga, E A

    2007-09-01

    Genetically engineered goats expressing elevated levels of the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme in their milk were developed to improve udder health, product shelf life, and consumer well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lysozyme on the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the cheese-making process. Raw and pasteurized milk from 7 lysozyme transgenic goats and 7 breed-, age-, and parity-matched nontransgenic controls was transformed into cheeses by using industry methods, and their microbiological load was evaluated. The numbers of colony-forming units of LAB were determined for raw and pasteurized goat milk, whey, and curd at d 2 and at d 6 or 7 of production. Selective plating media were used to enumerate lactococcal species separately from total LAB. Although differences in the mean number of colony-forming units between transgenic and control samples in raw milk, whey, and cheese curd were non-significant for both total LAB and lactococcal species from d 2 of production, a significant decrease was observed in both types of LAB among d 6 transgenic raw milk cheese samples. In pasteurized milk trials, a significant decrease in LAB was observed only in the raw milk of transgenic animals. These results indicate that lysozyme transgenic goat milk is not detrimental to LAB growth during the cheese-making process.

  9. Determination of transfer rate and nature of the residue(s) in milk from {sup 14}C-atrazine cows

    SciTech Connect

    Thalacker, F.W.; Ash, S.G.; Simoneaux, B.J.

    1996-10-01

    In order to determine the rate of transfer and the nature of the atrazine residues present in milk, lactating dairy cattle were treated with atrazine at three concentrations, 0.764 ppm, 0.0747 ppm and 0.0085 ppm (dry weight of food consumed). The concentrations were selected to bridge the gap between the concentration used for EPA metabolism studies (10 ppm) and the potential exposure level of dairy cattle to atrazine and its chlorotriazine metabolites through feed. The cattle were dosed following the morning milking for nine consecutive days with a single capsule bolus of {sup 14}C-atrazine. Milk was collected twice daily and aliquots of each milking and the individual cow`s daily pool of milk were analyzed by liquid scinitllation counting (LSC). The concentrations of {sup 14}C-residues in the milk plateaued on approximately day 3 and the mean {sup 14}C-atrazine levels in milk were 11.2 ppb, 1.13 ppb and 0.152 ppb for the high, middle and low dosed animals, respectively. The transfer of radioactive level of exposure to {sup 14}C-atrazine. The nature of the residues in milk were determined by extracting milk samples and analysis by HPLC, TLC or Aminex chromatography. Diaminchlorotriazine was the only chlorinated metabolite in the milk, constituting approximately 65% to 75% of the total radioactive residues (TRR).

  10. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa.

  11. Chain Sampling as Used in Armor Acceptance Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    excessive (attribute), or he may measure the time in milk before the cereal becomes soggy (variable). Sampling by attributes is a dichotomous situation...introduces a new pre-sweetened breakfast cereal , they spend millions of dollars in advertisement costs with the hope that the consumer will sample it. Here...the consumer con- siders the entire supply of this new cereal as a single manufactured lot, to be accepted or rejected. Product acceptance, in this

  12. Determination of estrogenic compounds in milk and yogurt samples by hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio Vicente; Fanali, Salvatore; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    An environmentally friendly method based on hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the extraction of selected estrogenic compounds (i.e. four natural sexual hormones: estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol and estriol; two exoestrogens: 17α-ethynylestradiol and 2-methoxyestradiol; two synthetic stilbenes: dienestrol and hexestrol; and five resorcylic acid lactones: zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), from whole cow and semi-skimmed goat milk and whole natural yogurt. After the optimization of the sample preparation procedure, spiked extracts were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl products using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide reagent and then analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Once optimum extraction conditions were established (protein precipitation with acetonitrile, extraction and the back-extraction in acetonitrile following the HF-LPME procedure), the method was validated and the calibration range, precision and accuracy were studied. The RSD values for the intra- and inter-day precision of the peak areas were in the range 0.65-9.69 and 1.00-11.47 %, respectively. The determination coefficients were higher than 0.991 for method calibration curves while LOD and LOQ values were between 0.06-2.55 and 0.16-6.11 μg/L for whole cow milk, 0.04-1.70 and 0.11-4.86 μg/L for semi-skimmed goat milk and 0.07-3.73 and 0.23-9.81 μg/L for natural yogurt, respectively. Finally, the accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated, obtaining a value in the range 84 81-119 % and RSD values lower than 20 % in all cases.

  13. Donkey Milk for Manufacture of Novel Functional Fermented Beverages.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P < 0.05). During storage of both yogurt types, the antioxidant activity increased, but YP showed a higher antioxidant activity than YC. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of yogurt samples was affected by cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We conclude that the fermented donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance.

  14. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  15. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Liu, Dong-hong; Ye, Xing-qian; Yang, Kai

    2005-11-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values. The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples.

  16. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Liu, Dong-hong; Ye, Xing-qian; Yang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values. The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples. PMID:16252345

  17. Vitamin D content and variability in fluid milk from a USDA nationwide sampling to update values in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin D3 content and variability of retail milk in the United States, having a declared fortification level of 400 IU (10 µg) per quart (25% DV per 8 fl oz serving), was determined. In 2007, vitamin D3 fortified milk (skim, 1% fat, 2% fat, whole, and 1% fat chocolate milk) was collected from ...

  18. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  19. The effect of milk protein on the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; McInerney, J; Clifton, P M

    2007-04-01

    In order to determine whether milk proteins interact with cocoa polyphenols to modulate the uptake and concentration of polyphenols in plasma, 24 middle-aged men and women consumed 2 g of chocolate polyphenols, plus sugar and cocoa butter in 200 mL water, on 2 occasions. On 1 occasion, the chocolate mix contained 2.45 g of milk proteins. Blood samples were taken fasting and at regular intervals for 8 h. Catechin and epicatechins levels were measured in these samples and no differences were seen in average concentrations between the 2 treatments. Milk protein caused a slight increase in concentration at the early time points and a decrease at the later time points. In conclusion, milk powder did not influence the average concentration of polyphenols. While it slightly accelerated absorption, this is of no physiological significance.

  20. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  1. Determination of fluoride concentration in powdered milk in Iran 2010.

    PubMed

    Hossein Mahvi, Amir; Ghanbarian, Maryam; Ghanbarian, Marjan; Khosravi, Ahmad; Ghanbarian, Masoud

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of fluoride (F) in powdered milk (formula milk) can have adverse health effects on the body. The F concentration in powdered milk was analysed in Iran in 2010. A total of twelve commercial brands of highly consumed powdered milk were selected to analyse the F content through the standard F ion-selective electrode method. From each brand, three samples with different production dates were selected. The means and standard deviation for F concentration in all the samples was 1·73 (sd 0·3) μg F/g. The minimum and maximum F content in powdered milk brands Humana2 and Humana3 was 1·32 (sd 0·1) and 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g, respectively. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in F concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. Humana3 had a high F concentration (with an average of 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g), which can be a risk factor for increased dental fluorosis, especially when being prepared using water with a high content of F.

  2. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL(-1) levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%).

  3. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  4. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Vidya S; Jodalli, Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the acidogenic potential of plain milk, milk with sugar, milk with cornflakes, and milk cornflakes with sugar by assessing the salivary pH. Materials and methods The study was carried out on 40 school children of 8 to 12 years; 20 boys and 20 girls were randomly selected. The salivary pH was assessed before and after the consumption of milk; milk and sugar; milk and cornflakes; and milk, sugar, and cornflakes. Baseline unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile plastic tube and the pH was recorded. The change in the salivary pH from the respective groups after consuming the test meal was recorded as follows: (1) after 5 minutes; (2) after 10 minutes; (3) after 15 minutes; (4) after 30 minutes; (5) 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0 (SPSS). Results The average baseline salivary pH among all the groups was 7.26. A fall in pH at 5 minutes was seen in all the four groups. However, at different time intervals 5, 10, 15, 30, and 120 minutes, the pH values between the groups showed a significant difference at p < 00.7, 0.005, 0.001, 0.010, and 0.028 respectively. Conclusion The fall in pH in all the groups was not significant to a limit of critical pH. Milk when added with sugar and/or cornflakes as a meal did not pose a threat as there was not significant decrease in pH. How to cite this article Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Bhat VS, Ramya KM, Jodalli PS. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes, and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):218-221. PMID:27843253

  5. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  6. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    SciTech Connect

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  7. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant's milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant's powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities. The obtained mean activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  8. Heavy metals contamination in water and three species of most consumed fish sampled from Caspian Sea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2013-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the heavy metal contamination in the marine environment of the Caspian Sea of Iran. The concentrations of zinc, chromium, cadmium, and lead were measured in water and dorsal muscle of fish sampled from 10 selected stations along Gorgan coast using atomic absorption spectrophotometry during summer of 2011. The average concentrations of lead in water and fish samples (115.29 ± 14.78 and 113.23 ± 27.01 μg/L) were significantly higher than that of cadmium and chromium (P < 0.05). The highest heavy metals content was observed in Cyprinus carpio samples. The heavy metals concentrations in the samples were within the acceptable recommended standards. But, elevating levels of heavy metals in water and fish made a serious concern about ecosystem and food chain contamination. It is recommended that protective authorities should carry out a continual assessment on the levels of pollutants in the sea.

  9. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  10. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.

  11. A multianalyte ELISA for immunochemical screening of sulfonamide, fluoroquinolone and ss-lactam antibiotics in milk samples using class-selective bioreceptors.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Javier; Pinacho, Daniel G; Granier, Benoit; Diserens, Jean-Marc; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

    2008-07-01

    A multianalyte ELISA has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used antibiotic families in the veterinary field following the typical planar microarray configuration, where the identity of the target analyte is encoded by its location in the detection platform (Master et al. in Drug Discovery Today 11:1007-1011, 2006). To accomplish this aim, two individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics and an enzyme-linked receptor assay for ss-lactam antibiotics have been combined. The strategy uses microplates coated with the corresponding haptenized proteins in specific sections of the microplate. The samples are mixed with a cocktail containing the bioreagents, and distributed in the wells of the microplate. Identification of the antibiotic present in a particular sample is consequently accomplished by detecting a positive response on the corresponding microplate section. Since the bioreceptors used show a wide recognition of the congeners of each antibiotic family, the multianalyte method is able to detect more than 25 different antibiotics from the three most important antibiotic families. The detectability reached in full-fat milk samples is below the European maximum residue limits. The accuracy and reliability of this multiplexed bioanalytical method have been demonstrated by analyzing blind spiked samples.

  12. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  13. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants.

    PubMed

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity dip versus barrier dip, and application method (dip vs. spray) to ensure safe iodine levels in dairy milk when these products are used. The iodine exposure study was performed during a 2-wk period. The trial farm was purged of all iodine-based disinfection products for 21 d during a prestudy "washout period," which resulted in baseline milk iodide range of 145 to 182 ppb. During the experiment, iodine-based teat dips were used as post-milking teat disinfectants and compared to a non-iodine control disinfectant. Milk iodide residue levels for each treatment was evaluated from composited group samples. Introduction of different iodine-based teat disinfectants increased iodide residue content in milk relative to the control by between 8 and 29 μg/L when averaged across the full trial period. However, residues levels for any treatment remained well below the consumable limit of 500 μg/L. The 0.5% iodine disinfectant increased milk iodide levels by 20 μg/L more compared to the 0.25% iodine. Compared to dip-cup application, spray application significantly increased milk iodide residue by 21 μg/L and utilized approximately 23% more teat dip. This carefully controlled study demonstrated an increase in milk iodide concentrations from iodine disinfectants, but increases were small and within acceptable limits.

  14. Antibodies to major pasture borne helminth infections in bulk-tank milk samples from organic and nearby conventional dairy herds in south-central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Johan; Dahlström, Frida; Engström, Annie; Hessle, Anna; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina; Sollenberg, Sofia

    2010-08-04

    The objective of this randomised pairwise survey was to compare the regional distribution of antibody levels against the three most important helminth infections in organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. Bulk-tank milk from 105 organic farms and 105 neighbouring conventional dairy farms with access to pasture in south-central Sweden were collected in September 2008. Samples were also collected from 8 organic and 8 conventional herds located in a much more restricted area, on the same as well as 3 additional occasions during the grazing season, to reveal evidence for seasonal patterns against cattle stomach worm (Ostertagia ostertagi). Antibody levels to the stomach worm (O. ostertagi), liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus) were then determined by detection of specific antibodies using three different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). According to the Svanovir Ostertagia ELISA, the mean optical density ratio (ODR) was significantly higher in the milk from organic compared to conventional herds, i.e. 0.82 (95% CL=0.78-0.86) versus 0.66 (0.61-0.71). However, no significant differences were observed in the samples collected at different time points from the same 16 herds (F(3,39)=1.18, P=0.32). Antibodies to D. viviparus infection were diagnosed with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein (MSP), and seropositivity was found in 21 (18%) of the 113 organic herds and 11 (9%) of the 113 conventional herds. The seroprevalence of D. viviparus was somewhat higher in the organic herds (Chi-square=3.65, P=0.056), but with the positive conventional herds were located in the vicinity of infected organic herds. Of the 16 herds that were sampled on repeated occasions, as many as 10 (63%), were seropositive on at least one sampling occasion. Many of these turned positive towards the end of the grazing season. Only one herd was positive in all 4 samples and 3 were positive only at turn-out. Considering F. hepatica there

  15. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  16. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with

  17. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  18. Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation.

  19. Comparison of milk oxidation by exposure to LED and fluorescent light.

    PubMed

    Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J; Legako, J; Martini, S

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced oxidation of milk has been well studied. Exposure of milk to UV light facilitates the oxidation of fats to aldehydes, and the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids, both of which contribute to off-flavors. In addition, vitamin A and riboflavin are easily degraded by UV light. These reactions occur rapidly and are exacerbated by bright fluorescent lights in retail dairy cases. The invention of white light-emitting diodes (LED) may provide a solution to this oxidation problem. In this study, fresh milk containing 1% fat and fortified with vitamin A and riboflavin was exposed to LED at 4,000 lx, or fluorescent light at 2,200 lx for 24 h. Milk samples exposed to LED or fluorescent light, as well as milk protected from light, were analyzed by a consumer acceptance panel, and a trained flavor panel. In addition, vitamin A, riboflavin, and the production of volatile compounds were quantified. Exposure to light resulted in a reduction of cooked/sweet, milkfat, and sweet flavors and increased the intensity of butterscotch, cardboard, and astringency. In general, exposure to fluorescent light resulted in greater changes in the milk than exposure to LED even though the LED was at higher intensity. Consumers were able detect off-flavors in milk exposed to fluorescent light after 12 h and LED after 24 h of exposure. The riboflavin and vitamin A content was reduced by exposure to fluorescent light, whereas there was no significant reduction caused by LED compared with the non-light-exposed control. Production of hexanal, heptanal, 2-heptanal, octanal, 2-octanal nonanal, dimethyl sulfide, and caproic acid vinyl ester from the light-induced degradation of fats was significantly higher with fluorescent than LED. Production of these compounds was significantly higher with both light treatments than in the control milk. This study indicates that LED is less destructive to milk than fluorescent light.

  20. Vortex-assisted hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for the determination of oestrogens in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peijin; Xiao, Yu; Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Juan; Yang, Yaling

    2015-04-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly method has been developed for the determination of three oestrogens (17β-estradiol (17β-E2), estrone (E1), and diethylstilbestrol (DES)) in milk samples by using vortex-assisted hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (VA-HF-LPME) and high performance liquid chromatography. Method is based on the microextraction of oestrogens from sample solution into 15 μL of nonanoic acid as extracting agent, which is placed inside the hollow fibre followed by vortex-mixing. Vortex provided effective and mild mixing of sample solution and increased the contact between analytes and boundary layers of the hollow fibre, thereby enhancing mass transfer rate and leading to high recovery of target analytes. The extraction equilibrium is achieved within 2 min. Parameters influencing the recovery were investigated and optimized. The proposed technique provided good linearity (>0.9984), repeatability (RSD = 2.56-4.38), low limits of detection (0.06-0.17 ng mL(-1)), and high enrichment factor (330).

  1. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h.

  2. Research Advances: Perchlorate in Dairy and Breast Milk Samples; NO Glow on Mars; Physical Chemistry to the Rescue: Differentiating Nicotinic and Cholinergic Agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-07-01

    Perchlorate levels in milk suggest widespread presence of the chemical. NO emissions indicate circulation in Martian atmosphere. Modeling reveals subtle differences in drug membrane receptor interactions.

  3. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  4. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  5. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAST MILK AND COW'S MILK - II

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, C.P.; Giri, Janabai

    1990-01-01

    This comparative study depicts the levels of immunoglobulins such as IgA and IgG in human breast milk samples with those of cow's milk samples. Immunoglobulins A and G were estimated by the method of Radial Immunodiffusion (RID). Experimental analysis showed that the level of Immunoglobulin A in breast milk samples were found to contain no traces of this antibody. IgG content in cow's milk (16.6 mg/dl) was higher than that of human milk (6.0mg/dl). It is clear that human milk is rich source of IgA, Early exposure through breast feeding is therefore obviously desirable. PMID:22557700

  7. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  8. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-09

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of <8% in 95% of all cases. This included the error of the method (measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk.

  9. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers.

  10. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2016-12-19

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources.

  11. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  12. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5–10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962

  13. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  14. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  15. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  16. Establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Brucella spp. and application to milk and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Liuyan; Li, Juntao; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Xunde; Chen, Shouyi

    2012-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. In this study, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was used to detect the Brucella-specific gene omp25. Reaction conditions were optimized as temperature 65°C, reaction time 60 min, Mg(2+) concentration 8.0 mmol/L, polymerase content Bst DNA, 0.5 μL, deoxyribonucleotide concentration 1.6 mmol/L, and inner/outer primer ratio 1:8. The LAMP method was evaluated with 4 Brucella species and 29 non-Brucella bacteria species. Positive reactions were observed on all the 4 Brucella species but not on any non-Brucella species. The limit of detection of the LAMP method was 3.81 CFU Brucella spp. Using the LAMP method, 7 of 110 raw milk samples and 5 of 59 sheep blood samples were detected positive of Brucella spp. Results indicated that LAMP is a fast, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, and suitable method for diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection.

  17. Comparing the rehydration potential of different milk-based drinks to a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Jansen, Sarah; Barrett, Abby; Leveritt, Michael D; Irwin, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rehydration potential of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage with several varieties of milk following exercise-induced fluid losses. Fifteen male participants (age 24.9 ± 5.5 years, height 179.3 ± 4.9 cm, body mass 75.8 ± 6.6 kg (mean ± SD)) lost 2.0% ± 0.2% body mass through intermittent cycling before consuming a different beverage on 4 separate occasions. Drinks included cow's milk (286 kJ·100 mL(-1)), soy milk (273 kJ·100 mL(-1)), a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport (Nestle); 417 kJ·100 mL(-1)), and a sports drink (Powerade (Coca Cola Ltd); 129 kJ·100 mL(-1)). Beverages were consumed over 1 h in volumes equivalent to 150% of body mass loss. Body mass, blood and urine samples, and measures of gastrointestinal tolerance were obtained before and hourly for 4 h after beverage consumption. Net body mass at the conclusion of each trial was significantly less with Powerade (-1.37 ± 0.3 kg) than with cow's milk (-0.92 ± 0.48 kg), soy milk (-0.78 ± 0.37 kg), and Sustagen Sport (-0.48 ± 0.39 kg). Net body mass was also significantly greater for Sustagen Sport compared with cow's milk trials, but not soy milk. Upon completion of trials, the percentage of beverage retained was Sustagen Sport 65.1% ± 14.7%, soy milk 46.9% ± 19.9%, cow's milk 40.0% ± 24.9%, and Powerade 16.6% ± 16.5%. Changes in plasma volume and electrolytes were unaffected by drink treatment. Subjective ratings of bloating and fullness were higher during all milk trials compared with Powerade whereas ratings of overall thirst were not different between beverages. Milk-based drinks are more effective rehydration options compared with traditional sports drinks. The additional energy, protein, and sodium in a milk-based liquid meal supplement facilitate superior fluid recovery following exercise.

  18. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  19. Aluminum based metal-organic framework-polymer monolith in solid-phase microextraction of penicillins in river water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Lirio, Stephen; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chen-Lan; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-01-08

    gL(-1). Finally, the MIL-53-polymer was applied for the extraction of penicillin in river water and milk by spiking trace-level penicillin for as low as 50μgL(-1) and 100μgL(-1) with recoveries ranging from 80.8% to 90.9% (<6.7% RSDs) in river water and 81.1% to 100.7% (<7.1% RSDs) in milk sample, respectively.

  20. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety. PMID:27929386

  1. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.

  2. Detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria from water buffalo raw milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jordão Junior, C M; Lopes, F C M; David, S; Farache Filho, A; Leite, C Q F

    2009-09-01

    Milk is an important nutritional source to man and water buffalo raw milk is used to produce mozzarella cheese. Products from unpasteurized milk have been associated with certain infectious diseases and can carry pathogenic mycobacteria. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of mycobacteria in water buffaloes' milk and to determine their role as possible sources of NTM infections. In this study, raw milk samples from dairy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) (N = 23) were decontaminated by Petroff method and inoculated on to Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink medium. After confirming positive colonies for acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl-Neelsen technique, the isolated mycobacteria were identified by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) and mycolic acids analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Mycobacterium simiae (2 isolates), Mycobacterium kansasii (2 isolates), Mycobacterium flavescens (2 isolates), Mycobacterium gordonae (3 isolates) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (1 isolate) were identified by these techniques. The isolation of opportunistic pathogens such as M. kansasii, M. simiae and M. lentiflavum from raw milk represent a risk for the consumers of mozzarella cheese made by this milk.

  3. The Nickel Concentration in Breast Milk during the First Month of Lactation in Yazd, Center of Iran.

    PubMed

    Salmani, Mohammad Hossein; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Rezaei, Zeynab

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding plays an important role in the growth and development of breastfed infants, especially in the first 6 months of their lives. The present study was conducted to determine the nickel concentrations in breast milk of lactating women in Yazd, Iran. One hundred fifty volunteers were selected among nursing mothers referring to health centers in Yazd. In the first month of lactation, milk samples were collected three times, on days 3 to 5 (first), 16 (Second), and 30 (third) after delivery. Nickel concentration of the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Demographic variables were collected through a questionnaire which was completed by mothers. The mean age of the study group was 27.40 ± 4.66 years. The mean nickel concentrations in breast milk at the first, second, and third samples were 47.3 ± 7.40, 49.9 ± 8.05, and 54.8 ± 7.38 μg/l, respectively. The concentration of nickel in the breast milk of more than 86 % of mothers was higher than the permissible range for it. There was no significant relationship between the mean value of nickel in breast milk and education, age, and job of mothers. High level of nickel in breast milk may be attributed to consumed food and drinking water containing nickel. Monitoring the nickel level in breast milk regularly is recommended.

  4. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  5. Proliferative effect of whey from cows' milk obtained at two different stages of pregnancy measured in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Andersen, Charlotte; Sejrsen, Kris; Purup, Stig

    2012-02-01

    Dietary estrogens may play a role in the etiology of hormone-dependent cancers like breast cancer. Cow's milk contains various endogenous estrogens and feed derived phytoestrogens that potentially contribute to an estrogenic effect of milk in consumers, and therefore we evaluated the effect of milk (whey) in a proliferation assay with estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Milk samples were obtained from 22 cows representing different stages of pregnancy (first and second half) and whey was produced from the milk. 0·1, 0·25 or 0·5% whey was included in the cell culture medium and after 6 days of treatment cell proliferation was assessed by a colorimetric method with a fluorometer. Whey induced significant (P<0·05) proliferative effects compared with control cells with no added whey at all concentrations tested. There was no difference in the proliferative effect of whey depending on the stage of pregnancy from which the milk was obtained. We did not observe anti-proliferative effects when whey was tested in the presence of 10 pm estradiol in the medium. In conclusion, these results indicate that whey, irrespective of the pregnancy stage from which the milk was obtained induced a significant proliferative response in MCF-7 cells and no anti-proliferative effect, which may be caused, at least in part, by estrogens present in milk. The implications of our findings in relation to for example breast cancer will have to be studied further in other model systems preferentially in vivo.

  6. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  7. Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: Spectrophotometric determination and optimization study.

    PubMed

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UA-DSPME-UV-vis) was designed for extraction and preconcentration of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) by HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). This new material was characterized by FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The preliminary Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and subsequently the central composite design justifies significant terms and possible construction of mathematical equation which give the individual and cooperative contribution of variables like HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. Accordingly the optimum condition was set as: 2.0mg HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP, 200μL eluent and 5.0min sonication time in center points other variables were determined as the best conditions to reach the maximum recovery of the analyte. The UA-DSPME-UV-vis method performances like excellent linearity (LR), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification of 10-5000μgL(-1) with R(2) of 0.99, LOD (1.96ngmL(-1)), LOQ (6.53μgL(-1)), respectively show successful and accurate applicability of the present method for monitoring analytes with within- and between-day precision of 0.96-3.38%. The average absolute recoveries of the nicotinamide extracted from the urine, milk and water samples were 95.85-101.27%.

  8. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  9. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  10. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  11. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  12. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) monolith and its application in sensitive determination of β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Chen, Linli; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-11-15

    In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) (VBADB) monolith was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions of monolith on extraction efficiencies was investigated in detail. Several characteristic techniques, such as elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the monolithic material. The combination of SCSE-VBADB with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) detection was developed for sensitive determination of ultra-trace β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples. In order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE-VBADB for β-agonists, several extractive parameters, including pH values and ionic strength in sample matrix, extraction and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) for the target analytes were 0.007-0.030 μg/L in milk and 0.002-0.011 μg/L in swine urine, respectively. Excellent method reproducibility was achieved in terms of intraday and interday precisions, indicated by the RSDs of both <10.0%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect β-agonists in different milk and swine urines samples. Acceptable recoveries ranged from 50.3% to 113% and 50.1% to 92.2% for milk and swine urine samples, respectively; and the RSDs for reproducibility were less than 8.0% for target analytes in all real samples.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial on probiotic soy milk and soy milk: effects on epigenetics and oxidative stress in patients with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Habibi, Nahal

    2015-11-01

    This clinical trial aimed to discover the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on MLH1 and MSH2 promoter methylation, and oxidative stress among type II diabetic patients. Forty patients with type II diabetes mellitus aged 35-68 years were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus plantarum A7, while those in the control group consumed 200 ml/d of conventional soy milk for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study, respectively. Probiotic soy milk significantly decreased promoter methylation in proximal and distal MLH1 promoter region (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with the baseline values, while plasma concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) decreased significantly compared with soy milk (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed in probiotic soy milk group compared with baseline value (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes from baseline in the promoter methylation of MSH2 within either group (P > 0.05). The consumption of probiotic soy milk improved antioxidant status in type II diabetic patients and may decrease promoter methylation among these patients, indicating that probiotic soy milk is a promising agent for diabetes management.

  14. Sale of raw milk in northern Italy: food safety implications and comparison of different analytical methodologies for detection of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Finazzi, Guido; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Arrigoni, Norma; Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Riu, Raffaela; Zanoni, Renato G

    2012-04-01

    The safety of raw milk sold in Northern Italy was investigated in relation to hygiene quality parameters and presence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, thermotolerant Campylobacter, and Verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The performance of different analytical methods used-official culture method (ISO), modified Bacteriological Analytical Manual cultural method (mBAM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-was evaluated. The presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated only by PCR. All samples met regulations for alkaline phosphatase and inhibitory substance, while 18% and 44.8% of samples collected from vending machines had, respectively, somatic cell count (SCC) >300,000/mL and total bacterial count (TBC) >50,000 CFU/mL. The correlation between hygienic quality parameters in samples collected from bulk tank and vending machines showed a significant increase of TBC in vending machines meaning that raw milk was mishandled during distribution and sale. All pathogens investigated were detected in raw milk sold at vending machines; a total of five samples (5%) had at least one pathogen, of which two were detected by PCR and three by mBAM. None of the samples was positive by cultural ISO methods. Even if the comparison of analytical methods showed that none performs significantly better than the others, testing a higher volume of milk (25 versus 210 mL) affects significantly the detection rate of pathogens. Three samples (3%) were positive for Map, suggesting that raw milk is a significant source of Map exposure for consumers. The observed TBC increase and the detection of several pathogenic bacteria pose questions on the safety of raw milk; the use of ISO seems inefficient in detecting a low contamination level of pathogens in milk and consequently not appropriate as official method for testing. In order to ensure consumer's safety, a new approach for the raw milk chain is required.

  15. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure.

  16. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose, the two major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides in human milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Réka; Jankovics, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs

    2015-11-27

    This study presents a validated, porous graphitic carbon stationary phase-based LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). These compounds are the major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides, however the presence of their unbound form in human milk has not been examined so far. The separation of these highly related structures in their alditol form was accomplished by a gradient LC method and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis after appropriate sample preparation including size-exclusion chromatography and solid-phase extraction. Baseline separation of the components provides the selectivity for the method. Validation was performed according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guidelines and the method was found to be precise and accurate. Using our developed and validated method we were able to identify and quantify both saccharides in human milk for the first time. Based on our results the LacNAc concentration is in the range of 6.7-31μg/mL while LNB concentration decreased from 26μg/mL below the detection limit during the first week of lactation. The presence of LNB and LacNAc in human milk also implies new biological functions which can lead us closer to the understanding of the various functions of this complex biofluid.

  18. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. PMID:27801820

  19. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  20. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  1. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as processed lunchmeats, margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another ... yogurt, milk, pudding, sour cream, and cottage cheese butter, butter flavoring (such as diacetyl), butter fat, butter ...

  2. Presence of Clostridium botulinum and botulinum toxin in milk and udder tissue of dairy cows with suspected botulism.

    PubMed

    Böhnel, H; Gessler, F

    2013-04-13

    Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium prevalent in the environment, and causes botulism in man and animals via toxins. Dairy cattle may be contaminated or infected by feed, water or other environmental factors. Milk may also carry the pathogen. Hence, milk and udder samples need to be tested. The number of clinical cases of bovine botulism in Germany has been increasing since the mid-1990s. Besides routine samples, additional 99 milk samples from 37 farms, and 51 udder samples from 51 farms from sick animals presumably affected by botulism were tested microbiologically by the mouse bioassay. Milk from three farms (8.1 per cent) contained botulinum toxin, and from two (5.4 per cent) bacterial states of C botulinum. Ten udder samples (19.6 per cent) contained toxin, and 7 (13.7 per cent) bacterial forms, including one case where both toxin and bacteria were found. The findings are discussed. Positive milk samples containing botulinum toxin or bacteria raise concern of food safety for the human consumer. Pathological udder samples may show either infection prior to, or contamination after death.

  3. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  4. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X; Peris, S; Sorensen, A; Knight, C H

    2004-05-01

    Fourteen Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used to evaluate udder compartments (cisternal and alveolar) and cisternal recoil after an oxytocin (OT) challenge at different milking intervals (8, 16, and 24 h) during wk 7 of lactation. Goats were milked once (1x; n = 7) or twice (2x; n = 7) daily from wk 2 of lactation. Average milk yields for wk 4 and 8 were 1.76 and 2.24 L/d, for goats milked 1x and 2x, respectively. For each half udder, cisternal area was measured by ultrasonography and cisternal milk was measured by machine milking after i.v. injection of an OT receptor blocking agent. Alveolar milk was then obtained after i.v. injection of OT. Regardless of milking frequency, alveolar milk increased from 8 to 16 h after milking, but did not change thereafter. Cisternal area and cisternal milk increased linearly (R2 = 0.96 to 0.99) up to 24 h, indicating continuous milk storage in the cistern at any alveoli filling degree. Cisternal to alveolar ratio increased with milking interval (from 57:43 to 75:25), but differences between milking intervals were significant at 8 h only, at which time goats milked 2x showed a greater ratio (1x = 51:49; 2x = 62:38). Despite extended milking intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than multiparous goats at all milking intervals. Cisternal recoil was studied in a sample of multiparous goats milked 1x (n = 4) and 2x (n = 4) by scanning cisterns by ultrasonography at 0, 5, 15, and 30 min after an OT challenge for each milking interval. Cisternal area increased after OT injection for the 8- and 16-h milking intervals, but no differences were observed for the 24-h interval. Unlike cows, no changes in cisternal area were observed after OT injection, indicating the absence of

  5. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27853717

  6. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  7. Excretion of bisphenol A into rat milk.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Ken; Watanabe, Toshi

    2010-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. This study analyzed the BPA concentration in rat milk, in order to assess the risk of BPA transfer to the offspring via milk. The rats ingested BPA by oral administration or by drinking the water in a polycarbonate bottle, and the milk samples were collected using an automated experimental milker. The BPA concentration in the samples of milk, drinking water, and food was analyzed by LC/MS. In the case of milk samples obtained from rats injected with BPA at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h prior to milking, the BPA concentrations were 0.462 +/- 0.182 ppm, 0.138 +/- 0.0185 ppm, 0.080 +/- 0.0197 ppm, and 0.0232 +/- 0.0051 ppm, respectively. Also, in the cases of the water sample left in polycarbonate bottle and the milk sample obtained from rats provided it as drinking water, the concentrations of BPA were 0.000332 +/- 0.00015 ppm and 0.0184 +/- 0.0050 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the BPA administered to the dams was transferred to their milk, and that BPA concentration in milk was higher at the early period after the single bolus dose. Additionally, these results reveal that sequential elution of BPA from polycarbonate containers in a much diluted form would undergo bioaccumulation in dams and likely be transferred to pups via milk in a much concentrated form.

  8. [Viewing of horror and violence videos by adolescence. A study of speech samples of video consumers with the Gottschalk-Gleser Speech Content analysis].

    PubMed

    Hopf, H; Weiss, R H

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 pupils of different schools in Württemberg were interviewed about their television and video consumption. It turned out that a high percentage of mainly male pupils of Hauptschulen (upper division of elementary schools) and special schools excessively and regularly consumed films which were on the index (X-rated) or seized depicting horror and violence. Subsequent to the inquiry through questionnaires and different personality tests, speech samples of 51 test persons were recorded on tape. 5 speech samples had to be excluded from further investigation since they contained less than 70 words. The transcribed and anonymized records were examined according to the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of verbal behavior, and two groups of so-called seldom lookers (n = 22) and frequent lookers (n = 24) were compared to each other. The frequent lookers significantly often reported about film contents which presumably means that their imagination is more restricted and less productive than that of the other group. In addition, this group of frequent lookers had significantly higher scores concerning death anxiety and guilt anxiety. With regard to hostility affects, their scores were also significantly raised concerning outward-overt hostility, outward-covert hostility, and ambivalent hostility. Probably the group of frequent lookers comprised more test persons with relationship disorders, with borderline risks, dissocial personality features, and problems to cope with their aggressiveness. So they show on the one hand a raised affinity to watch such films, but simultaneously unconscious and conscious learning processes take place which stimulate further aggressive fantasies (and possibly also actions).

  9. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  10. Arcobacter species and their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes in Finnish raw milk during summer 2011.

    PubMed

    Revez, Joana; Huuskonen, Marianne; Ruusunen, Marjo; Lindström, Miia; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Arcobacter species in raw milk in Finland. A total of 177 raw milk samples, each from a separate farm, were examined from June to August 2011. Arcobacter species were isolated using an enrichment and selective detection procedure. Overall, 26 (15 % ) of the 177 samples yielded Arcobacter spp. Samples from 25 farms were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and from 1 farm for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Moreover, both Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus were recovered from 1 positive sample. To evaluate a possible genetic variability, one strain of A. butzleri from each farm and the A. cryaerophilus sample were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping revealed that Arcobacter spp. populations are heterogeneous, and no dominant clone has spread in the investigated samples. Our study is the first report on the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in raw milk in Finland. Based on our findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health, in particular for consumers who prefer drinking unpasteurized milk.

  11. [Lipid study of different types of maternal milk].

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo Crespo, P; López de Heredia, J; Rodríguez Alarcón, J

    1983-12-01

    Fatty acid composition of different lipidic fractions was studied in 42 samples of human milk corresponding to: colostrum 10, mature milk 10, milk from mothers of preterm infants with adequate weight for gestational age 10, milk from mothers or low-birth-weight infants 6 and milk inducing prolonged jaundice 6. Findings have been compared with previous data of literature. Nutritional and physiologic implications are discussed.

  12. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification.

  13. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  14. High milk lipase activity associated with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L; Schultz, G E; Garg, G

    1980-12-01

    Human milk samples that inhibit bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity in vitro have been associated with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in newborn infants. We measured the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (total and individual fatty acids), total fat and protein, and lipase activities (with and without bile salt stimulation) in milk samples from two groups of women. Women whose infants had prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and whose milk inhibited the activity of UDPGT were in the first group (N = 9). Volunteers with healthy infants acted as controls. Inhibitory milk contained significantly more nonesterified fatty acids (total, palmitic, and oleic) than did controls. Fat and protein concentrations and bile salt-stimulated lipase activities were similar in the two groups. Unstimulated lipase activity was higher in the inhibitory milks (11.9 +/- 0.8 mM x min-1 x ml-1) than in the controls (6.0 +/- 0.1 mM x min-1 x ml-1) (P less than 0.01). The specific activity (mM x min-1 x mg protein) of unstimulated lipase was also significantly higher in the inhibitory milks (P less than 0.0001). The high nonesterified fatty acid levels in inhibitory milks is accounted for by the elevated unstimulated lipase activities. How these circumstances lead to jaundice in the infants remains to be shown.

  15. Maternal Milk Consumption Predicts the Tradeoff between Milk and Soft Drinks in Young Girls’ Diets1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls’ diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters’ milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters’ milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers’ calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters’ intakes. Mothers’ and daughters’ soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers’ beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters’ diets. In particular, mothers’ milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters’ calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. PMID:11160541

  16. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  17. Maximizing the value of milk through separation technologies.

    PubMed

    Huffman, L M; Harper, W J

    1999-10-01

    Milk is the source of a wide range of proteins that deliver nutrition to the most promising new food products today. Isolated milk proteins are natural, trusted food ingredients with excellent functionality. Separation technologies provide the basis for adding value to milk through the production of proteins that provide the food industry with ingredients to meet specific needs, not possible with milk itself or with other ingredients. The major milk proteins, casein and whey protein, can be isolated by manipulating their compositional and physical properties and then by using various separation technologies to recover the proteins. Additionally, they can be processed in various ways to create a wide range of ingredients with diverse functional characteristics. These ingredients include milk protein concentrate, milk protein isolate, casein, caseinate, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysates, and various milk fractions. Within each of these ingredient categories, there is further differentiation according to the functional and nutritional requirements of the finished food. Adding value to milk by expanding from consumer products to ingredients often requires different technologies, marketing structure and distribution channels. The worldwide market for both consumer products and ingredients from milk continues to grow. Technology often precedes market demand. Methods for the commercial production of individual milk components now exist, and in the future as clinical evidence develops, the opportunity for adding value to dairy products as functional foods with health benefits may be achieved. The research and development of today will be the basis of those value-added milk products for tomorrow.

  18. Diversity and Antibiograms of Bacterial Organisms Isolated from Samples of Household Drinking-water Consumed by HIV-positive Individuals in Rural Settings, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mashao, M.B.; Bessong, P.O.; NKgau, T.F.; Momba, M.N.B.; Obi, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4×104 CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9×105/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic infections

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk from a tropical region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Landín, L A; Bautista, R G

    2003-03-01

    A monitoring study was conducted to assess the magnitude of DDT [(1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane)] and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) contamination of bovine milk from the central tropical region of Mexico as the chemicals are extensively used in livestock and public-health programmes. Among pesticide residues analysed, the milk samples collected from Tlalixcoyan showed a mean level of gamma-HCH (0.128 mg x kg(-1)), which was significantly higher than residues in milk samples from Medellin (0.049 mg x kg(-1)) and Paso San Juan (0.022 mg x kg(-1)). The mean level of pp'-DDE in Medellin samples (0.039 mg x kg(-1)) was significantly higher than in Paso San Juan (0.018 mg x kg(-1)) and Tlalixcoyan (0.024 mg x kg(-1)) milk samples. The pp'-DDT mean level from Medellin milk samples (0.089 mg x kg(-1)) was significantly higher than the levels detected in the other two areas. The highest mean Sigma-DDT level detected in Medellin samples (0.146 mg x kg(-1)) was three times the FAO/WHO tolerance level. The highest acceptable daily intakes calculated for Sigma-DDT were 0.017 microg x kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults and 0.530 microg x kg(-1) bw day(-1) for infants; for gamma-HCH residues, they were 0.021 microg x kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults and 0.666 microg x kg(-1) bw day(-1) for infants, indicating that infants are more exposed to pesticide residues. Results indicate that cattle exposure to HCH and DDT results in high levels in dairy milk and a potential health risk for consumers.

  20. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  1. New method for the determination of parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples using ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up with dispersive sorbents prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive and accurate analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben and bisphenol A in human milk samples has been developed and validated. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and a simplified and rapid clean-up technique that uses sorbent materials has been successfully applied for the preparation of samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were extracted from freeze-dried human milk samples using acetonitrile and ultrasonic radiation (three 15-min cycles at 70% amplitude), and further cleaned-up with C18 sorbents. The most influential parameters affecting the UAE method and the clean-up steps were optimized using design of experiments. Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for MS detection. The use of two reactions for each compound allowed simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. The analytes were separated in less than 10min. Deuterium-labeled ethylparaben-d5 (EPB-d5) and deuterium-labeled bisphenol A-d16 (BPA-d16) were used as surrogates. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.4 to 0.7ngmL(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 11.1% in all cases. In the absence of certified reference materials, recovery assays with spiked samples using matrix-matched calibration were used to validate the method. Recovery rates ranged from 93.8% to 112.2%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of four selected parabens and bisphenol A in human milk samples obtained from nursing mothers living in the province of Granada (Spain).

  2. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy alters breast milk composition, but there is little information about the impact of oily fish consumption. We determined whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy alters breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors. Women (n = 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to consume their habitual diet or to consume 2 portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 wk of pregnancy until delivery. The salmon provided 3.45 g long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA/wk. Breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors [soluble CD14, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)1, TGFβ2, and secretory IgA] were analyzed at 1, 5, 14, and 28 d postpartum (PP). Breast milk from the salmon group had higher proportions of EPA (80%), docosapentaenoic acid (30%), and DHA (90%) on d 5 PP compared with controls (P < 0.01). The LC (n-6) PUFA:LC (n-3) PUFA ratio was lower for the salmon group on all days of PP sampling (P ≤ 0.004), although individual (n-6) PUFA proportions, including arachidonic acid, did not differ. All breast milk immune factors decreased between d 1 and 28 PP (P < 0.001). Breast milk secretory IgA (sIgA) was lower in the salmon group (d 1-28 PP; P = 0.006). Salmon consumption during pregnancy, at the current recommended intakes, increases the LC (n-3) PUFA concentration of breast milk in early lactation, thus improving the supply of these important fatty acids to the breast-fed neonate. The consequence of the lower breast milk concentration of sIgA in the salmon group is not clear.

  3. Is Leptospira able to survive in raw milk? Study on the inactivation at different storage times and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Filippo; Turchi, Barbara; Ferrone, Martina; Galiero, Alessia; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of raw milk is currently increasing due to several beneficial aspects, such as nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits. However, some authors highlight the potential risk associated with raw milk consumption. In Italy, while the absence of some pathogen microorganisms is set by the regional regulation DGR 381/2007, for other microorganisms, such as Leptospira, no recommendations are provided. Leptospira is not ascribed among classical milk pathogens; however, it can potentially be present in raw milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in raw milk of six serovars of Leptospira after storage at different temperatures (4 °C ± 2 °C, 20 °C ± 2 °C, and 30 °C ± 2 °C) for different incubation times (20 min, 45 min, 1 h, and 1 h and 30 min), in order to determine the potential risk for consumers. Moreover, the immediate effect of bovine, goat, and donkey raw milk on tested Leptospira serovars was visually evaluated. After incubation, all samples were subcultured in EMJH and incubated aerobically at 30 °C for 3 months. All inoculated media were weekly examined by dark-field microscope in order to assess Leptospira survival. Extemporary observation of strains' behavior in milk allowed to detect an almost immediate motility loss, and no leptospires were detected by microscopic observations carried out weekly during the trial period. According to our results, it could be possible to exclude raw milk as a source of Leptospira infection for consumers.

  4. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries.

  5. Comparison of estrone and 17β-estradiol levels in commercial goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Farlow, D W; Xu, X; Veenstra, T D

    2012-04-01

    Increased levels of estrogen metabolites are believed to be associated with cancers of the reproductive system. One potential dietary source of these metabolites that is commonly consumed worldwide is milk. In North America, dairy cows are the most common source of milk; however, goats are the primary source of milk worldwide. In this study, the absolute concentrations of unconjugated and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) estrone (E(1)) and 17β-estradiol (E(2)) were compared in a variety of commercial cow milks (regular and organic) and goat milk. A lower combined concentration of E(1) and E(2) was found in goat milk than in any of the cow milk products tested. The differences in E(1) and E(2) levels between regular and organic cow milks were not as significant as the differences between goat milk and any of the cow milk products. Goat milk represents a better dietary choice for individuals concerned with limiting their estrogen intake.

  6. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

  7. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Pollak, Michael N; Nakamoto, Erika K; Kleinman, Ken; Tserendolgor, Uush; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2%) milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p < 0.0001), IGF-I/IGFBP-3 (p < 0.0001), and 75th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005). After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production. PMID:17900364

  8. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.

  9. Buying Human Milk via the Internet: Just a Click Away

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly A.; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Joseph S.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: For past centuries, infants have been fed the milk of mothers who are not their own by latching to another woman's breast. Today, the majority of lactating women use electric pumps to extract milk from their breasts; thus, an infant now may be fed another woman's milk via a bottle or cup. The Internet is an emerging avenue to acquire pumped human milk. The purpose of our study was to participate in and describe the process of buying milk via the Internet. Our goal is to help those involved with the clinical care, research, and public health policy of mothers and infants better understand that families may be buying milk in this way. Subjects and Methods: We anonymously bought 102 human milk samples via the Internet. We characterized the outside box, packing materials, milk container, temperature and condition of the milk, and cost. Results: We bought 2,131 ounces of milk at a total cost of $8,306. Eighty-nine percent of the milk arrived above the recommended frozen temperature of −20°C; 45% of it was even above the recommended refrigerator temperature (4°C). The mean surface temperature of the milk samples in each shipment was correlated with the cost of shipping, time in transit, and condition of the milk containers. Conclusions: The prevalence and potential risks of this practice currently are unknown. Research related to milk quality and infant outcomes related to milk buying via the Internet is urgently needed. PMID:23971685

  10. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    PubMed Central

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  11. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake; Birnbaum, Linda; Rosen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human milk from individual U.S. mothers. This article on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other chlorinated organic compounds in human milk in a number of countries. PBDE commercial products are used as flame retardants in flexible polyurethane foam (penta-BDE), in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins (octa-BDE), and in high-impact polystyrene resins (deca-BDE). Their use is permitted in the United States but is banned in some European countries because of presumed toxicity, demonstrated persistence, and bioaccumulation. Different commercial products can be found in various consumer products such as television sets, computers, computer monitors and printers, carpets, and upholstery. Analyses of human levels of these compounds suggest low but rising levels in European human milk, which may have peaked, at least in Sweden, in the late 1990s. Very few data exist on levels of PBDEs in humans in the United States, and none from milk from individual nursing mothers. To address this issue, we analyzed 47 individual milk samples from nursing mothers, 20-41 years of age, from a milk bank in Austin, Texas, and a community women's health clinic in Dallas, Texas. Up to 13 PBDE congeners were measured. The concentrations of the sum of PBDE congeners varied from 6.2 to 419 ng/g (or parts per billion) lipid, with a median of 34 ng/g and a mean of 73.9 ng/g lipid. The PBDE levels in breast milk from Texas were similar to levels found in U.S. blood and adipose tissue lipid from California and Indiana and are 10-100 times greater than human tissue levels in Europe. Their detection in breast milk raises concern for potential toxicity to nursing infants, given the persistence and bioaccumulative nature of some of the PBDE congeners. These results indicate a need for more detailed investigation of the levels of PBDE in

  13. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  14. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  16. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with vortex-assisted hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles based solid-phase extraction for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples by sensitive micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Manafi, Mohammad Hanif

    2015-03-01

    An efficient, simple and fast low-density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) followed by vortex-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (VA-D-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples prior to its micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetic determination. In this LDS-DLLME coupled VA-D-SPE method, milk samples were first treated with methanol/water (80:20, v/v) after removing the fat layer. This solvent was directly used as the dispersing solvent in DLLME along with using 1-heptanol (as a low-density solvent with respect to water) as the extracting solvent. In VA-D-SPE approach, hydrophobic oleic acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. It is considerably that the target of VA-D-SPE was 1-heptanol rather than the aflatoxin M1 directly. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of LDS-DLLME and VA-D-SPE procedures and signal enhancement of aflatoxin M1 were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method was linear in the range from 0.02 to 200 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9989 and detection limit of 13 ng L(-1). The intra-day precision was 2.9 and 4.3% and the inter-day precision was 2.1 and 3.3% for concentration of 2 and 50 µg L(-1) respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction and preconcentration of AFM1 in three commercially available milk samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  17. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo-Enrique; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Castro, Noemi; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-08-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d in milk) were used. During a 5-week period, goats were milked once a day (X1) in weeks 1 and 5, twice a day (X2) in weeks 2 and 4, and three times a day (X3) in week 3. Milk recording and sampling were done on the last day of each experimental week. Milk yield increased by 26% from X1 to X2. No differences were obtained when goats were switched from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2. The goats recovered the production level when they returned to X1. Different patterns of changes in the milk constituents due to the milking frequency effect were observed. Fat percentage increased when switched from X1 to X2, then decreased from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2, whereas it did not show significant differences from X2 to X1. Milking frequency did not affect the protein and lactose percentages. SCC values were unaffected when goats were milked X1, X2 and X3, but then they increased slightly when milking frequency was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.

  18. Simultaneous Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol Determination by A Validated DLLME-HPLC-UV Method in Pasteurized Milk

    PubMed Central

    Karami-Osboo, Rouhollah; Miri, Ramin; Javidnia, Katayoun; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic residues in milk are a well-known serious problem and pose several health hazards to consumers. We have described a simple, rapid, and inexpensive DLLME-HPLC/UV technique for the extraction of chloramphenicol and florfenicol residues in milk samples. Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed over the range 0.02-0.85 µg/L with correlation coefficients > 0.999. The proposed method has been found to have a good limit of detection (signal to noise ratio = 3) for chloramphenicol (12.5 µg/Kg) and florfenicol (12.2 µg/Kg), and precision with relative standard deviation values under 15% (RSD, n = 3). Good recoveries (69.1–79.4%) were obtained for the extraction of the target analytes in milk samples. This simple and economic method has been applied for analyses of 15 real milk samples. Among all samples only one of them was contaminated to florfenicol; 62.4 µg/Kg and contamination to chloramphenicol was not detected. PMID:27980571

  19. Simultaneous Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol Determination by A Validated DLLME-HPLC-UV Method in Pasteurized Milk.

    PubMed

    Karami-Osboo, Rouhollah; Miri, Ramin; Javidnia, Katayoun; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic residues in milk are a well-known serious problem and pose several health hazards to consumers. We have described a simple, rapid, and inexpensive DLLME-HPLC/UV technique for the extraction of chloramphenicol and florfenicol residues in milk samples. Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed over the range 0.02-0.85 µg/L with correlation coefficients > 0.999. The proposed method has been found to have a good limit of detection (signal to noise ratio = 3) for chloramphenicol (12.5 µg/Kg) and florfenicol (12.2 µg/Kg), and precision with relative standard deviation values under 15% (RSD, n = 3). Good recoveries (69.1-79.4%) were obtained for the extraction of the target analytes in milk samples. This simple and economic method has been applied for analyses of 15 real milk samples. Among all samples only one of them was contaminated to florfenicol; 62.4 µg/Kg and contamination to chloramphenicol was not detected.

  20. Effect of heat treatments on aminoglycosides in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2009-06-01

    The presence of antibiotic residues in milk not only is a potential consumer risk but also may cause serious problems in the fermentation processes used in the dairy industry. There is very limited information available on the effect of heat treatments on aminoglycoside activity in milk. For this reason, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different heat treatments (60 degrees C for 30 min, 120 degrees C for 20 min, and 140 degrees C for 10 s) on milk samples spiked with four aminoglycosides (gentamicin, 50, 100, and 200 microg/liter; kanamycin, 300, 600, and 1200 microg/liter, neomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter; and streptomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter). The method used was a bioassay based on the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis BGA. Statistical analysis of the three heat treatments studied showed that the one at 60 degrees C for 30 min did not inactivate the aminoglycosides, the treatment at 140 degrees C for 10 s produced inactivation levels of between 17% for kanamycin and 40% for neomycin, and the classic sterilization (120 degrees C for 20 min) showed a high heat inactivation (>95%) for all the concentrations of aminoglycosides tested with respect to the samples without treatment (control group).

  1. Evaluating the Inter-Respondent (Consumer vs. Staff) Reliability and Construct Validity (SIS vs. Vineland) of the Supports Intensity Scale on a Dutch Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, C.; Van Hove, G.; van Loon, J.; Vandevelde, S.; Schalock, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite various reliability studies on the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), to date there has not been an evaluation of the reliability of client vs. staff judgments. Such determination is important, given the increasing consumer-driven approach to services. Additionally, there has not been an evaluation of the instrument's construct…

  2. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    PubMed

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  3. Consumer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gindele, John; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Consumer education activities for secondary, adult, and special needs students are described in "What Does It Cost to Run a Home?" by John and Joseph Gindele; "Taking the Show on the Road" by Linda Lewis; "Special Home Ec Program" by Marty Nelson; and "Understanding Civil Law" by Michael Weis. (SK)

  4. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how…

  5. Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Amy D., Comp.

    The curriculum guide is intended as a source to help teachers plan consumer education classes in Nevada, from junior high school through the adult level. Developed for a semester's (18 weeks) separate course of study, using individual or group instruction, the guide may be expanded to meet the needs of a full year. Each unit can be taught as an…

  6. Molecular Ecology of Listeria monocytogenes: Evidence for a Reservoir in Milking Equipment on a Dairy Farm▿

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Alejandra A.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Zurakowski, Michael J.; Pradhan, Abani K.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Schukken, Ynte H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study aimed to detect Listeria monocytogenes on a New York State dairy farm was conducted between February 2004 and July 2007. Fecal samples were collected every 6 months from all lactating cows. Approximately 20 environmental samples were obtained every 3 months. Bulk tank milk samples and in-line milk filter samples were obtained weekly. Samples from milking equipment and the milking parlor environment were obtained in May 2007. Fifty-one of 715 fecal samples (7.1%) and 22 of 303 environmental samples (7.3%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. A total of 73 of 108 in-line milk filter samples (67.6%) and 34 of 172 bulk tank milk samples (19.7%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 6 of 40 (15%) sampling sites in the milking parlor and milking equipment. In-line milk filter samples had a greater proportion of L. monocytogenes than did bulk tank milk samples (P < 0.05) and samples from other sources (P < 0.05). The proportion of L. monocytogenes-positive samples was greater among bulk tank milk samples than among fecal or environmental samples (P < 0.05). Analysis of 60 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) yielded 23 PFGE types after digestion with AscI and ApaI endonucleases. Three PFGE types of L. monocytogenes were repeatedly found in longitudinally collected samples from bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters. PMID:19114514

  7. Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater

  8. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of milk usually consumed ( Figure 2 ). Boys and girls did not differ significantly in low-fat milk ... adolescents aged 2–19 years, 77.7% of boys and 67.4% of girls reported daily consumption of milk. Fewer than 10% ...

  9. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... though, they can have symptoms if mom has dairy products in her diet . A milk allergy is not ... milk allergy, it's important for you to avoid dairy products because the milk protein that causes allergic reactions ...

  10. Consumption of pasteurized human lysozyme transgenic goats’ milk alters serum metabolite profile in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Brundige, Dottie R.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Klasing, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition, bacterial composition of the gastrointestinal tract, and general health status can all influence the metabolic profile of an organism. We previously demonstrated that feeding pasteurized transgenic goats’ milk expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) can positively impact intestinal morphology and modulate intestinal microbiota composition in young pigs. The objective of this study was to further examine the effect of consuming hLZ-containing milk on young pigs by profiling serum metabolites. Pigs were placed into two groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (non-transgenic) goats’ milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats for 6 weeks. Serum samples were collected at the end of the feeding period and global metabolite profiling was performed. For a total of 225 metabolites (160 known, 65 unknown) semi-quantitative data was obtained. Levels of 18 known and 4 unknown metabolites differed significantly between the two groups with the direction of change in 13 of the 18 known metabolites being almost entirely congruent with improved health status, particularly in terms of the gastrointestinal tract health and immune response, with the effects of the other five being neutral or unknown. These results further support our hypothesis that consumption of hLZ-containing milk is beneficial to health. PMID:19847666

  11. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and native microflora in human milk by high pressure processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windyga, Bożena; Rutkowska, Małgorzata; Sokołowska, Barbara; Skąpska, Sylwia; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Wilińska, Maria; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Rzoska, Sylwester J.

    2015-04-01

    The storage of unpreserved food, including breast milk, is associated with the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. It is therefore necessary to use suitable processes to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the total microbial count in order to ensure product safety for consumers. In the present study, samples of milk obtained from volunteers donating to the human milk bank were artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. This bacteria was the model microorganism of choice, being relatively resistant to high pressure as well as posing the most serious risk to infant health. The results obtained show that high pressure processing can reduce the count of S. aureus by about 5 log units at 4°C and about 8 log units at 50°C, and totally eliminate Enterobacteriaceae after 5 min of treatment, and result in a total microbial count reduction after 10 min treatment at 500 MPa at 20°C and 50°C. This suggests the possibility of this technology being applied to ensure the adequate safety and quality of human breast milk in human milk banks. This paper was presented at the LIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 52) Meeting in Lyon (France), 7-12 September 2014.

  12. The Prevalence of Antibodies against Wheat and Milk Proteins in Blood Donors and Their Contribution to Neuroimmune Reactivities

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to be involved in neuroimmune disorders, we measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against various neural antigens. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 400 donors to wheat and milk proteins, GAD-65, cerebellar, MBP, and MOG. Statistical analysis showed significant clustering when certain wheat and milk protein antibodies were cross-referenced with neural antibodies. Approximately half of the sera with antibody elevation against gliadin reacted significantly with GAD-65 and cerebellar peptides; about half of the sera with elevated antibodies against α + β-casein and milk butyrophilin also showed antibody elevation against MBP and MOG. Inhibition studies showed that only two out of four of the samples with elevated cerebellar or MOG antibodies could be inhibited by gliadin or α + β-casein, confirming individual variation in epitope recognition. We conclude that a subgroup of blood donors, due to a breakdown in immunological tolerance, may react and produce significant levels of antibodies (p-values less than 0.05) against wheat and milk antigens that cross-react with different neural antigens, which may have broader implications in the induction of neuroimmune reactivities. PMID:24451306

  13. Detection of cow milk in donkey milk by chemometric procedures on triacylglycerol stereospecific analysis results.

    PubMed

    Cossignani, Lina; Blasi, Francesca; Bosi, Ancilla; D'Arco, Gilda; Maurelli, Silvia; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Damiani, Pietro

    2011-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food matrices, and also of milk samples. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic analytical method were elaborated by chemometric procedures such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural network (ANN). According to the total composition and intrapositional fatty acid distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone, the obtained results were able to characterize pure milk samples and milk mixtures with 1, 3, 5% cow milk added to donkey milk. The resulting score was very satisfactory. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of all the considered milk mixtures (donkey-cow) were elaborated by LDA and ANN chemometric procedures.

  14. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  15. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-07

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food.

  16. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  17. Extraction and preconcentration of tylosin from milk samples through functionalized TiO₂ nanoparticles reinforced with a hollow fiber membrane as a novel solid/liquid-phase microextraction technique.

    PubMed

    Sehati, Negar; Dalali, Nasser; Soltanpour, Shahla; Dorraji, Mir Saeed Seyed

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a novel, simple, and highly sensitive preparation method for determination of tylosin in different milk samples. In the so-called functionalized TiO2 hollow fiber solid/liquid-phase microextraction method, the acceptor phase is functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles that are dispersed in the organic solvent and held in the pores and lumen of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. An effective functionalization of TiO2 nanoparticles has been done in the presence of aqueous H2 O2 and a mild acidic ambient under UV irradiation. This novel extraction method showed excellent extraction efficiency and a high enrichment factor (540.2) in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction. All the experiments were monitored at λmax = 284 nm using a simple double beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. A Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design with an OA16 (4(5) ) matrix was employed to optimize the factors affecting the efficiency of hollow fiber solid/liquid-phase microextraction such as pH, stirring rate, salt addition, extraction time, and the volume of donor phase. This developed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of tylosin in milk samples with a linear concentration range of 0.51-7000 μg/L (r(2) = 0.991) and 0.21 μg/L as the limit of detection.

  18. Development and validation of a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sheet, O H; Grabowski, N T; Klein, G; Abdulmawjood, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is one of the most important animal pathogens causing bovine mastitis. Also, it is a major human pathogen that may produce a variety of toxins which cause staphylococcal food poisoning. In the present study a LAMP assay based on gene nuc to identify S. aureus was developed and validated. The specificity of the LAMP assay was confirmed by using 70 S. aureus isolates and 21 non-S. aureus strains. The optimal temperature-time combination to amplify gene nuc successfully was 65 °C and 30 min. The analytical sensitivity of the developed LAMP assay was 0.26 pg of S. aureus DNA per reaction. The limit of detection evaluated with milk spiked with S. aureus was 9 × 10(2) CFU mL(-1). The final results of this assay were available within less than 2 h. The present study showed that the LAMP assay based on gene nuc appeared to be rapid and simple, and could also be used to identify S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk of dairy cows.

  19. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p < 0.05 and a fold change of ≥1.2) between the non-heated and heated milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Nowak, E; Taboada, A; Marin-Iniesta, F

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, and clove against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were studied in semiskimmed milk incubated at 7 degrees C for 14 days and at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The MIC was 500 ppm for cinnamon bark EO and 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon leaf and clove EOs. These effective concentrations increased to 1,000 ppm for cinnamon bark EO, 3,500 ppm for clove EO, and 4,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO when the semiskimmed milk was incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Partial inhibitory concentrations and partial bactericidal concentrations were obtained for all the assayed EOs. The MBC was 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon bark EO, 10,500 ppm for clove EO, and 11,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO. The incubation temperature did not affect the MBC of the EOs but slightly increased the MIC at 35 degrees C. The increased activity at the lower temperature could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane-perturbing action of EOs. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of EOs was tested in whole and skimmed milk. In milk samples with higher fat content, the antimicrobial activity of the EOs was reduced. These results indicate the possibility of using these three EOs in milk beverages as natural antimicrobials, especially because milk beverages flavored with cinnamon and clove are consumed worldwide and have been increasing in popularity in recent years.

  1. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  2. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P < 0.05). The human milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the

  3. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk.

  4. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  5. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Linxi; Zhao, Aihua; Zhang, Yinan; Chen, Tianlu; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the components present in human breast milk (HM), research on the differences of chemical metabolites between HM, bovine milk (BM) and formula milk (FM) is limited. This study was to explore the chemical diversity of HM, BM and FM by metabolomic approaches. GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS were applied to investigate the metabolic compositions in 30 HM samples, 20 FM samples and 20 BM samples. Metabolite profiling identified that most of the non-esterified fatty acids, which reflected the hydrolysis of triglycerides, were much more abundant in HM than those in FM and BM, except for palmitic acid and stearic acid. The levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates were much higher in FM and BM than those in HM. Each type of milk also showed its unique composition of free amino acids and free carbohydrates. In conclusion, higher levels of non-esterified saturated fatty acids with aliphatic tails <16 carbons, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower levels of TCA intermediates are characteristic of HM, as compared with FM and BM. The content of non-esterified fatty acids may reflect the hydrolysis of triglycerides in different milk types. PMID:27999311

  6. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linxi; Zhao, Aihua; Zhang, Yinan; Chen, Tianlu; Zeisel, Steven H; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2016-12-17

    Although many studies have been conducted on the components present in human breast milk (HM), research on the differences of chemical metabolites between HM, bovine milk (BM) and formula milk (FM) is limited. This study was to explore the chemical diversity of HM, BM and FM by metabolomic approaches. GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS were applied to investigate the metabolic compositions in 30 HM samples, 20 FM samples and 20 BM samples. Metabolite profiling identified that most of the non-esterified fatty acids, which reflected the hydrolysis of triglycerides, were much more abundant in HM than those in FM and BM, except for palmitic acid and stearic acid. The levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates were much higher in FM and BM than those in HM. Each type of milk also showed its unique composition of free amino acids and free carbohydrates. In conclusion, higher levels of non-esterified saturated fatty acids with aliphatic tails <16 carbons, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower levels of TCA intermediates are characteristic of HM, as compared with FM and BM. The content of non-esterified fatty acids may reflect the hydrolysis of triglycerides in different milk types.

  7. Synthetic musk fragrances in human milk from the United States.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Wong, Chung M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-06-01

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as additives in many consumer products, including perfumes, deodorants, and detergents. Earlier studies have reported the occurrence of synthetic musks in environmental and wildlife samples collected in the United States. In this study, human breast milk samples collected from Massachusetts, were analyzed for the determination of concentrations of synthetic musks such as musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone), HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran), AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), and HHCB-lactone, the oxidation product of HHCB. In addition, we estimated the daily intake of synthetic musks by infants based on the ingestion rate of breast milk. Synthetic musks were found in most of the samples analyzed, and the concentrations ranged from < 2 to 150 ng musk xylene/g, < 2 to 238 ng musk ketone/ g, < 5 to 917 ng HHCB/g, < 5 to 144 ng AHTN/g, and < 10 to 88.0 ng HHCB-lactone/g, on a lipid weight basis. The concentrations of HHCB were higher than the concentrations of other synthetic musks in breast milk samples. The mean concentration of HHCB (220 ng/g, lipid weight) was 5 times greater than the concentrations reported 10 years ago for breast milk samples collected in Germany and Denmark. Maternal age was not correlated with the concentrations of musk xylene, musk ketone, HHCB, or AHTN. There was a trend of decreasing concentrations of musk xylene, musk ketone, HHCB, and AHTN, with the number of children previously breast-fed, although the correlation was not significant. Based on average daily ingestion rate of breast milk, an infant is estimated to ingest 297 +/- 229 ng musk xylene, 780 +/- 805 ng musk ketone, 1830 +/- 1170 ng HHCB, 565 +/- 614 ng AHTN, and 649 +/- 598 ng HHCB-lactone per day. The ingestion rate of synthetic musks by infants in the United States is

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae.

  9. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  10. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  11. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  12. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  13. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  14. Detection of melamine in milk powders using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Fu, Xiaping; Baek, Insuck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are sensitive but they are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. In this research, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique combined with regression coefficient of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was used to detect melamine particles in milk powders easily and quickly. NIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging data in the spectral range of 990-1700nm were acquired from melamine-milk powder mixture samples prepared at various concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1%. PLSR models were developed to correlate the spectral data (independent variables) with melamine concentration (dependent variables) in melamine-milk powder mixture samples. PLSR models applying various pretreatment methods were used to reconstruct the two-dimensional PLS images. PLS images were converted to the binary images to detect the suspected melamine pixels in milk powder. As the melamine concentration was increased, the numbers of suspected melamine pixels of binary images were also increased. These results suggested that NIR hyperspectral imaging technique and the PLSR model can be regarded as an effective tool to detect melamine particles in milk powders.

  15. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in bulk tank milk in relation to raw milk quality.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships between the presence of the two major bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and raw milk quality parameters in bulk tank milk samples. Hp and SAA have been suggested as specific markers of mastitis but recently also as markers for raw milk quality. Since mastitis has detrimental effects on milk quality, it is important to investigate whether the presence of Hp or SAA indicates such changes in the composition and properties of the milk. Bulk tank milk samples (n=91) were analysed for Hp, SAA, total protein, casein, whey protein, proteolysis, fat, lactose, somatic cell count and coagulating properties. Samples with detectable levels of Hp had lower casein content, casein number and lactose content, but higher proteolysis than samples without Hp. Samples with detectable levels of SAA had lower casein number and lactose content, but higher whey protein content than samples without SAA. The presence of acute phase proteins in bulk tank milk is suggested as an indicator for unfavourable changes in the milk composition, e.g. protein quality, due to udder health disturbances, with economical implications for the dairy industry.

  16. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  17. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  18. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a... by adding thereto cream, concentrated milk, dry whole milk, skim milk, concentrated skim milk,...

  19. A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mecklenburg, Michael; Yang, Dajin; Xie, Bin

    2013-11-15

    Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of β-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of β-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of β-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify β-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use.

  20. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-03-22

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  1. The effect of homogenization of whole milk, skim milk and milk fat on nisin activity against Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Zapico, P; de Paz, M; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1999-02-02

    Whole milk, skim milk and an emulsion of milk fat in water, inoculated with approx. 10(5) cfu/ml of Listeria innocua, were treated at 30 degrees C with 100 IU/ml of nisin, homogenization at 200 bar or both procedures. Nisin activity and survival of L. innocua after treatments were determined. Recovery of nisin activity from non-homogenized whole milk treated with 100 IU/ml of nisin was complete, whereas a loss of 18 to 28% of activity was detected in non-homogenized fat-in-water emulsion. Loss in nisin activity due to homogenization represented up to 64% in whole milk and 62% in fat-in-water emulsion. Nisin addition by itself achieved a reduction in L. innocua counts of 3.7-3.8 log units in whole milk and 3.6 log units in fat-in-water emulsion compared to numbers in untreated samples. When nisin-containing whole milk and fat-in-water emulsion were homogenized, L. innocua counts were only reduced by 2.6-2.9 log units and 2.5 log units, respectively, compared to numbers in untreated samples. Homogenization of nisin-containing skim milk resulted in a loss of nisin activity of 20% but achieved a reduction of 3.0 log units in L. innocua counts.

  2. Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-09-01

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking (liking) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee), milk flavor (milk), sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness). Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.

  3. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R.; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column‐based phenol‐free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2397–2407, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25925799

  4. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area.

  5. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  6. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Nguyen, H V; Garcia-Bravo, R; Fiorotto, M L; Jackson, E M; Lewis, D S; Lee, D R; Reeds, P J

    1994-07-01

    To determine whether the amino acid pattern of human milk is unique, we compared the amino acid pattern of human milk with the amino acid patterns of the milks of great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), lower primates (baboon and rhesus monkey) and nonprimates (cow, goat, sheep, llama, pig, horse, elephant, cat and rat). Amino acid pattern was defined as the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) (in mg) to the total amino acids (in g). Total amino acid concentration was lower in primate milk than in nonprimate milk. There were commonalities in the overall amino acid pattern of the milks of all species sampled; the most abundant amino acids were glutamate (plus glutamine, 20%), proline (10%) and leucine (10%). Essential amino acids were 40%, branched-chain amino acids 20%, and sulfur amino acids 4% of the total amino acids. The amino acid pattern of human milk was more similar to those of great apes than to those of lower primates. For example, cystine was higher and methionine was lower in primate milks than in nonprimate milks, and in great ape and human milks than in lower primate milks. Because the milk amino acid patterns of the human and elephant, both slow-growing species, were dissimilar, the amino acid pattern of human milk seems unrelated to growth rate.

  7. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in bulk tank milk from German dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Odenthal, Sabrina; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald

    2016-12-05

    Although the dairy farm environment is a known source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, surveillance data on ESBL in the milk production chain are still scarce. This study aimed at estimating the dimensions of the problem for public health and animal welfare by surveying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw bulk tank milk in Germany. Samples from 866 dairy farms, comprising about 1% of the total number of dairy farms in Germany, were first screened for presence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria by selective enrichment. Suspect colonies were identified phenotypically and further characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, including analysis of resistance genes and clonal diversity in ESBL-producing isolates. Bulk tank milk from 82 (9.5%) farms yielded Enterobacteriaceae with confirmed ESBL-production. The most frequent ESBL-producing species was Escherichia coli (75.6%), followed by Citrobacter spp. (9.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (6.1%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (3.7%), a few isolates belonged to other species within the genera Hafnia, Raoutella and Serratia. The majority of isolates (95.1%) harbored the β-lactamase blaCTX-M gene, which has gained increased importance among ESBL-producing strains worldwide; the CTX-M group 1 was found to be the dominating (88.4%) phylogenetic group. All ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates were clonally heterogeneous, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results from this survey demonstrate that ESBL-producing bacteria are distributed widely in the dairy farm environment in Germany. Therefore, raw milk is a potential source of exposure for the consumer, which is of increasing importance considering the trend of farmer-to-consumer direct marketing. Furthermore, dairy farm staff have an increased likelihood of exposure to ESBL-producing bacteria. Finally, ESBL-producing bacteria may also be transferred via waste milk to calves, thus further spreading antibiotic resistance in the

  8. An Investigation of Milk Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Dawson, Maureen M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment to identify lactose and estimate the concentration of lactose in a sample of milk. Gives a background of the investigation. Details the experimental method, results and calculations. Discusses the implications of the experiment to students. Suggests further experiments using the same technique used in…

  9. [Identification of adulterated milk based on two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization and BP neural network].

    PubMed

    Miao, Jing; Cao, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Ren-Jie; Liu, Rong; Sun, Hui-Li; Xu, Ke-Xin

    2013-11-01

    Discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were established using BP neural network combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization. Forty pure milk samples, 40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1-20 g x L(-1)) and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-3 g x L(-1)) were prepared respectively. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation near-infrared spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk, 5 apparent statistic parameters were calculated based on the parameterization theory. Using 5 characteristic parameters, discriminant models of urea adulterated milk, melamine adulterated milk and two types of adulterated milk were built by BP neural network The prediction rate of unknown samples were 95%, 100% and 96.7%, respectively. The results show that this method can extract effectively feature information of adulterant, reduce the input dimensions of BP neural network, and better realize qualitative analysis of adulterant in milk.

  10. Determination of parabens in human milk and other food samples by capillary electrophoresis after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with back-extraction.

    PubMed

    Alshana, Usama; Ertaş, Nusret; Göğer, Nilgün G

    2015-08-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with back-extraction was used prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the extraction of four parabens. Optimum extraction conditions were: 200 μL chloroform (extraction solvent), 1.0 mL acetonitrile (disperser solvent) and 1 min extraction time. Back-extraction of parabens from chloroform into a 50mM sodium hydroxide solution within 10s facilitated their direct injection into CE. The analytes were separated at 12°C and 25 kV with a background electrolyte of 25 mM borate buffer containing 5.0% (v/v) acetonitrile. Enrichment factors were in the range of 4.3-10.7 and limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 μg mL(-1). Calibration graphs showed good linearity with coefficients of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.9957 and relative standard deviations (%RSDs) lower than 3.5%. DLLME-CE was demonstrated to be a simple and rapid method for the determination of parabens in human milk and food with relative recoveries in the range of 86.7-103.3%.

  11. Effects of nisin and lysozyme on growth inhibition and biofilm formation capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk and cheese samples.

    PubMed

    Sudagidan, Mert; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2012-09-01

    Effects of nisin and lysozyme on growth inhibition and biofilm formation capacity of 25 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk (13 strains) and cheese (12 strains) were studied. Nisin was tested at concentrations between 0.5 and 25 μg/ml; the growth of all strains was inhibited at 25 μg/ml, but the resistances of strains showed a great variation at lower nisin concentrations. In contrast, lysozyme tested at concentrations up to 5.0 mg/ml showed no inhibition on the growth of strains. Nisin used at the growth inhibitory concentration prevented the biofilm formation of strains, but strains continued biofilm formation at subinhibitory nisin concentrations. Lysozyme did not affect the biofilm formation of 19 of the strains, but it caused a considerable activation in the biofilm formation capacity of six strains. Twelve of the strains contained both biofilm-related protease genes (sspA, sspB, and aur) and active proteases; eight of these strains were nisin resistant. These results suggest a potential risk of S. aureus growth and biofilm formation when lysozyme is used in the biopreservation of dairy products. Nisin can be used to control growth and biofilm formation of foodborne S. aureus, unless resistance against this biopreservative develops.

  12. [THE IMPORTANCE OF "MILK BONES" TO "WISDOM BONES" - COW MILK AND BONE HEALTH - LESSONS FROM MILK ALLERGY PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Nachshon, Liat; Katz, Yitzhak

    2016-03-01

    development of early osteoporosis. Another finding of this study was that normal bone density was found in milk allergic patients who started to consume milk after a successful desensitization program. Interestingly, these patients had consumed milk for a period of only 12-36 months and had only partially achieved the recommended dietary intake for calcium. It appears that dietary milk is essential for optimal peak bone mass. The required amounts of calcium and the preferred form for consumption, however, requires further investigation.

  13. Chemometric studies of several minerals in milks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    1999-04-01

    A statistical study of correlation, factorial, and discriminant analysis on the metal composition (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of different types of milks (human, cow, goat, pasteurized, and powdered infant formula) was carried out to establish the relationships between the metal concentrations and, therefore, differentiate the samples according to the type of milk. A large number of significant intermetallic correlations were found in all samples, which could be due to biological relationships between the metals studied. After the factorial analysis, the dimension space was reduced from eight variables to two factors, accounting for approximately 71.4% of the total variance. After an orthogonal rotation, the first factor was positively correlated with Ca and the second factor with Fe. The representation of the scores makes it possible to separate not only human milk from powdered infant formula but also to separate both of these from the other milks. In the discriminant analysis, four discriminant functions were obtained, which are linear combinations of the quantitative variables that best explain the differences among the different milks analyzed. These functions make it possible to classify 98% of the samples analyzed within each type of milk correctly. Therefore, discriminant functions obtained here can be used to identify the origin of any milk sample.

  14. Mid-infrared prediction of bovine milk fatty acids across multiple breeds, production systems, and countries.

    PubMed

    Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; McParland, S; Wall, E; Berry, D P; Coffey, M; Dardenne, P

    2011-04-01

    Increasing consumer concern exists over the relationship between food composition and human health. Because of the known effects of fatty acids on human health, the development of a quick, inexpensive, and accurate method to directly quantify the fatty acid (FA) composition in milk would be valuable for milk processors to develop a payment system for milk pertinent to their customer requirements and for farmers to adapt their feeding systems and breeding strategies accordingly. The aim of this study was (1) to confirm the ability of mid-infrared spectrometry (MIR) to quantify individual FA content in milk by using an innovative procedure of sampling (i.e., samples were collected from cows belonging to different breeds, different countries, and in different production systems); (2) to compare 6 mathematical methods to develop robust calibration equations for predicting the contents of individual FA in milk; and (3) to test interest in using the FA equations developed in milk as basis to predict FA content in fat without corrections for the slope and the bias of the developed equations. In total, 517 samples selected based on their spectral variability in 3 countries (Belgium, Ireland, and United Kingdom) from various breeds, cows, and production systems were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The samples presenting the largest spectral variability were used to calibrate the prediction of FA by MIR. The remaining samples were used to externally validate the 28 FA equations developed. The 6 methods were (1) partial least squares regression (PLS); (2) PLS+repeatability file (REP); (3) first derivative of spectral data+PLS; (4) first derivative+REP+PLS; (5) second derivative of spectral data+PLS; and (6) second derivative+REP+PLS. Methods were compared on the basis of the cross-validation coefficient of determination (R2cv), the ratio of standard deviation of GC values to the standard error of cross-validation (RPD), and the validation coefficient of determination (R2

  15. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  16. Milk fatty acid profile is modulated by DGAT1 and SCD1 genotypes in dairy cattle on pasture and strategic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Dezamour, J M; Subiabre, I; Kerr, B; Morales, R; Ungerfeld, E M

    2016-05-09

    Milk fat composition is important to consumer health. During the last decade, some fatty acids (FA) have received attention because of their functional and beneficial effects on human health. The milk FA profile is affected by both diet and genetics. Differences in milk fat composition are based on biochemical pathways, and candidate genes have been proposed to explain FA profile variation. Here, the association between DGAT1 K232A, SCD1 A293V, and LEPR T945M markers with milk fat composition in southern Chile was evaluated. We selected five herds of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Frisón Negro, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado cows (pasture-grazed) that received strategic supplementation with concentrates and conserved forages. We genotyped the SNPs and calculated allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Milk fat composition was determined for individual milk samples over a year, and associations between genotypes and milk composition were studied. The most frequent variants for DGAT1, SCD1, and LEPR polymorphisms were GC/GC, C, and C, respectively. The DGAT1 GC/GC allele was associated with lower milk fat and protein content, lower saturated fatty acid levels, and higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 FA, and a linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA ratios, which implied a healthier FA profile. The SCD1 CC genotype was associated with a low cholesterolemic FA content, a high ratio of linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA, and lower conjugated-linolenic acid and PUFA content. These results suggest the possible modulation of milk fat profiles, using specific genotypes, to improve the nutritional quality of dairy products.

  17. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the