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Sample records for milk samples consumed

  1. Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seo-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk.

  2. Chocolate milk and the Hispanic consumer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Hispanic population is increasing, and purchasing power of this group is also increasing. Little is known about the attitudes and preferences of Hispanic adults or children toward chocolate milk. The objective of this study was to understand Hispanic consumer attitudes and preferences for chocolate milk. Focus groups with Hispanic adults (> 18 y, 3 groups, n= 31) and children (10 to 14 y, 6 groups, n= 29) were conducted to gain qualitative insight into perceptions and consumption trends. Using focus group results and descriptive analysis profiles of chocolate milks, 5 representative chocolate milks were selected for quantitative consumer testing. Milks were evaluated for overall liking and other attributes by Hispanic adults (n= 79), Caucasian adults (n= 91), and Hispanic children (n= 45). Analysis of variance and internal and external preference mapping were conducted to characterize differences among treatments and ethnic groups. Chocolate milks were differentiated by descriptive analysis (P < 0.001) in visual, flavor, and mouthfeel attributes. Hispanic children (n= 45) rated all chocolate milks higher in liking than Hispanic or Caucasian adults, and documented significant differences in liking for milks evaluated (P < 0.05). Caucasians adults were generally more discriminatory in liking of chocolate milks than Hispanic adults, but consistent ethnic differences were observed only for chocolate flavor liking where Hispanics assigned higher chocolate flavor liking scores to milks compared to Caucasians. Three consumer clusters were identified and the drivers for these clusters were largely consistent with previous chocolate milk consumer studies in that many of the same key drivers of liking for chocolate milk were identified. The results indicated that these consumer clusters were not defined exclusively by ethnicity.

  3. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk.

  5. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  6. Flavored Milk Consumers Drank More Milk and Had a Higher Prevalence of Meeting Calcium Recommendation Than Nonconsumers.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol; Fulgoni, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Some schools are removing flavored milk because of the perception that it negatively impacts children's overall diet. This study assessed the contribution of flavored milk to their diets. Individual usual intakes (IUI) were calculated from 24-hour dietary recalls of children 2-18 years (N = 20,329) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012. IUI of >0.25 cup equivalent of flavored dairy milk defined consumers (N = 3564; 56% boys). Covariate-adjusted regression analyses using appropriate sample weights were calculated. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Adequate Intakes (AI) determined the relation to dietary recommendations. Consumers were compared to nonconsumers (p ≤ .001). Flavored milk consumers consumed more milk. Consumers aged 2-3 years had higher mean added sugars intakes. Consumers aged between 2-3 and 9-13 years had a higher saturated fat (SFA) intake. Consumers aged 14-18 years had higher percent energy from SFA. Consumers had a lower mean percentage of children meeting AI for fiber and a higher percentage meeting the EAR for calcium. Consumers aged 4-8 and 9-13 years had a higher mean percentage of children meeting the EAR for magnesium. Consumption of flavored milk has the potential to increase milk consumption and reduce the percentage of children below the EAR for calcium; the percentage meeting AI for fiber was lower. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  7. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  10. Consumer taste tests and milk preference in low-income, urban supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie; Davis, Erica; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D; Glanz, Karen; Karpyn, Allison

    2015-06-01

    To explore shoppers' responses to the taste of different types of cow's milk in a blind taste test and to examine their willingness to purchase lower-fat milk as part of an in-store marketing intervention. Participants were recruited on-site in the supermarket to participate in a blind taste test of three varieties of cow's milk and asked to guess what type they sampled. The taste testing was conducted as part of the Healthy Retail Solution (HRS) intervention that took place in four large supermarkets in Philadelphia, PA, USA over the course of six months. Adults (n 444) at participating Philadelphia supermarkets. The majority of participants at all stores reported typically purchasing higher-fat milk. Forty per cent of participants reported buying whole milk, 38 % purchased milk with 2 % fat. Very few participants correctly identified all three milk samples during the taste test (6·9 %) and a majority of participants were unable to identify the type of milk they self-reported typically purchased. Most consumers could not accurately distinguish between various types of milk. Taste testing is a promising strategy to introduce lower-fat milks to consumers who have not tried them before. Campaigns to purchase skimmed, 1 % or 2 % milk may result in significant energy reduction over time and can serve as a simple way to combat overweight and obesity.

  11. Creating Public Awareness of How Goats Are Reared and Milk Produced May Affect Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Musto, Mauro; Cardinale, Daniele; Lucia, Pietro; Faraone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether showing a video of the different ways of raising goats for milk affected consumer acceptability. Four combinations, 2 Videos (intensive [INT] and semiextensive [SEM] system) × 2 Milk Types (semiskimmed [S] and whole [W] milk), were evaluated by 70 habitual consumers of goat milk, who scored their liking and purchase intention during blind (B), expected (E), and informed (I) acceptability sessions. In the B session, consumers tasted both milk types without information. S samples were preferred over W samples. In the E session, SEM video created high expectations in terms of milk liking and purchase intent, whereas the opposite happened when showing INT video. In the I session, consumers showed a clear preference for combinations created using SEM video, regardless of milk type. W-SEM and S-INT were worse (negative disconfirmation) and better (positive disconfirmation) than expected, respectively. A complete assimilation toward expectations occurred only for S-INT. INT video adversely affected the acceptability of S samples. Concerning purchase intent, W-SEM and S-SEM were worse than expected, but the assimilation was complete only for S-SEM: SEM video increased purchase intent for S samples.

  12. Consuming Transgenic Goats' Milk Containing the Antimicrobial Protein Lysozyme Helps Resolve Diarrhea in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474

  13. Retail lighting and packaging influence consumer acceptance of fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Potts, H L; Amin, K N; Duncan, S E

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of retail light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on consumer acceptance of milk. The study objective was to determine effects of fluorescent and LED lighting under retail storage conditions on consumer acceptance of milk. Consumer acceptance of milk stored under retail conditions was determined through sensory evaluation (2 studies; n=150+ each) and analytical measures (dissolved oxygen, secondary oxidation products, riboflavin retention). Study 1 evaluated milk stored in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packages for 4h under LED light (960 lx). Commercially available HDPE package treatments included translucent HDPE (most commonly used), white HDPE [low concentration (1.3%) TiO2], and yellow HDPE; in addition, HDPE with a higher TiO2 concentration (high white; 4.9% TiO2) and a foil-wrapped translucent HDPE (control) were tested. Translucent and control packages also were tested under fluorescent light. Study 2 evaluated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packages for 4h under fluorescent and LED light (1,460 lx). The PET packaging included 2 treatments (medium, 4.0% TiO2; high, 6.6% TiO2) as well as translucent HDPE (exposed to fluorescent), clear PET (fluorescent and LED), and light-protected control. Overall mean acceptability of milk ranged from "like slightly" to "like moderately" with significantly lower acceptability for milk exposed to fluorescent light. Milk in HDPE and PET packages had comparable overall acceptability scores when exposed to LED light. Only the fluorescent light condition (both PET and HDPE) diminished overall acceptability. Fluorescent light exposure negatively influenced flavor with significant penalty (2.0-2.5 integers) to overall acceptability of milk in translucent HDPE and clear PET. The LED also diminished aftertaste of milk packaged in translucent HDPE. Changes in dissolved oxygen content, as an indication of oxidation, supported the observed differences in consumer acceptance of milk stored under

  14. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gramaglia, Monica; Loria, Andrea; Nucera, Daniele; Gallina, Silvia; Gili, Marilena; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012–2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt (ng/kg) and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy. PMID:26927175

  15. Drivers of choice for fluid milk versus plant-based alternatives: What are consumer perceptions of fluid milk?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K S; Parker, M; Ameerally, A; Drake, S L; Drake, M A

    2017-08-01

    Fluid milk consumption has declined for decades while consumption of nondairy alternatives has increased. A better understanding of why consumers purchase fluid milk or nondairy alternatives is needed to assist increased sales of milk or maintain sales without further decline. The objective of this study was to determine the extrinsic attributes that drive purchase within each product category. The second objective was to determine the personal values behind the purchase of each beverage type to give further understanding why particular attributes are important. An online conjoint survey was launched with 702 dairy consumers, 172 nondairy consumers, and 125 consumers of both beverages. Individual means-end chain interviews were conducted with fluid milk consumers (n = 75), plant-based alternative consumers (n = 68), and consumers of both beverages (n = 78). Fat content was the most important attribute for dairy milk followed by package size and label claims. Consumers of fluid milk preferred 1 or 2% fat content, gallon, or half-gallon packaging, conventionally pasteurized store-brand milk. Sugar level was the most important attribute for plant-based beverages, followed by plant source and package size. Almond milk was the most desirable plant source, and half-gallon packaging was the most preferred packaging. Means-end chain interviews results suggested that maintaining a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle was important to all consumer groups. Lactose free was an important attribute for plant-based alternative consumers and consumers of both dairy and nondairy. A distinguishing characteristic of those who only drank nondairy plant-based alternatives was that plant-based beverages contributed to a goal to consume less animal products, beliefs about animal mistreatment, and perceived lesser effect on the environment than fluid milk. Unique to fluid milk consumers was that fluid milk was perceived as a staple food item. These results suggest that the dairy industry

  16. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples.

    PubMed

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  17. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal.

  18. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    PubMed

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Assessment of isoflavonoid concentrations in Australian bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    King, R A; Mano, M M; Head, R J

    1998-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the possibility that diet-derived isoflavonoids may help in protection against a number of chronic diseases common in Western society. Based on animal studies, however, concerns have been raised that consumption of isoflavonoids by infants and young children may be undesirable. Clover contains isoflavonoids and therefore may represent, via milk, a source of isoflavonoids in the human diet. In this study the concentrations of daidzein (7, 4'-dihydroxyisoflavone), genistein (5, 7, 4'-trihydroxyisoflavone) and equol (7-hydroxy-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)chroman) were measured using HPLC in cows' milk samples obtained from 76 farms in three Australian states. In addition, concentrations were measured in samples collected from one South Australian factory both before and after pasteurization. Concentrations in all samples were found to be extremely low. The mean daidzein concentration was < 5 ng/ml. Mean genistein concentrations ranged from just detectable (approximately 2 ng/ml) in Victorian samples collected during summer to 20-30 ng/ml in samples from all states collected during spring when isoflavonoid-containing clover is most dominant in pasture. Mean equol concentrations ranged from 45 +/- 10 ng/ml in Victorian farm samples collected during summer to 293 +/- 52 ng/ml in Western Australian samples collected in spring. The mean concentrations of genistein and equol in post-pasteurization samples collected in spring were approximately double those for samples collected in autumn. Pasteurization had no effect on isoflavonoid concentrations. We conclude that the concentrations of isoflavonoids in Australian cows' milk are low and are therefore unlikely to have any pronounced biological effects in human consumers.

  20. Consumer acceptability versus trained sensory panel scores of powdered milk shelf-life defects.

    PubMed

    Hough, G; Sánchez, R H; Garbarini de Pablo, G; Sánchez, R G; Calderón Villaplana, S; Giménez, A M; Gámbaro, A

    2002-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to correlate consumer panel acceptability versus trained sensory panel scores for appearance and flavor defects likely to appear during storage of whole milk powder. Descriptors selected for the study were: acid, caramel, cooked, dark color, lipolysis, and oxidized. For each descriptor a set of nine samples with different intensities were measured for acceptability and likelihood to consume by a 50-member consumer panel and for sensory intensity by a trained panel. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained sensory panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cut-off point for each descriptor, except caramel and cooked, which were not critical from the consumer's point of view. Differences in acceptability were found between Argentine and Uruguayan consumers for oxidized samples, while for lipolysis flavor, Argentine and Costa Rican consumers behaved similarly. For the color descriptor, significant changes in acceptability measured on a hedonic scale did not mean that consumers refused to consume the product. In contrast, for flavor descriptors, as soon as a significant decrease in acceptability occurred approximately 30% of the consumers said they would not consume the product. The sensory failure cut-off points presented in this paper can be used as a guide in future studies on the shelf life of MP and can also be of value in establishing sensory specifications for quality control programs. The methodology of correlating consumer acceptability to sensory panel scores and, thus, defining sensory failure is an improvement over more arbitrary criteria presented in most shelf-life studies.

  1. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  2. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Alyssa J.; Shehan, Catherine V.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference. PMID:26752811

  3. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  4. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  5. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  6. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk.

  7. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral processing of two milk chocolate samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-da-Silva, Ana Margarida; Van Damme, Isabella; Taylor, Will; Hort, Joanne; Wolf, Bettina

    2013-02-26

    Oral processing of two milk chocolates, identical in composition and viscosity, was investigated to understand the textural behaviour. Previous studies had shown differences in mouthcoating and related attributes such as time of clearance from the oral cavity to be most discriminating between the samples. Properties of panellists' saliva, with regard to protein concentration and profile before and after eating the two chocolates, were included in the analysis but did not reveal any correlation with texture perception. The microstructure of the chocolate samples following oral processing, which resembled an emulsion as the chocolate phase inverts in-mouth, was clearly different and the sample that was found to be more mouthcoating appeared less flocculated after 20 chews. The differences in flocculation behaviour were mirrored in the volume based particle size distributions acquired with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The less mouthcoating and more flocculated sample showed a clear bimodal size distribution with peaks at around 40 and 500 μm, for 10 and 20 chews, compared to a smaller and then diminishing second peak for the other sample following 10 and 20 chews, respectively. The corresponding mean particle diameters after 20 chews were 184 ± 23 and 141 ± 10 μm for the less and more mouthcoating samples, respectively. Also, more of the mouthcoating sample had melted after both 10 and 20 chews (80 ± 8% compared to 72 ± 10% for 20 chews). Finally, the friction behaviour between a soft and hard surface (elastopolymer/steel) and at in-mouth temperature was investigated using a commercial tribology attachment on a rotational rheometer. Complex material behaviour was revealed. Observations included an unusual increase in friction coefficient at very low sliding speeds, initially overlapping for both samples, to a threefold higher value for the more mouthcoating sample. This was followed by a commonly observed decrease in friction coefficient with

  9. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  10. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  11. Consumer perception, health information, and instrumental parameters of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) goat milk yogurts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marion P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Vitor L M; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Chiappini, Claudete C J; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Although the demand for goat milk products has been growing, they have lower consumer acceptability than products derived from cow milk. However, the addition of cupuassu pulp can be used to improve the formulation of these products. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of new goat milk yogurt manufactured with cupuassu pulp on physicochemical properties, consumers' perceptions, and overall consumer acceptance. In addition, the effect of antioxidant health information on consumer acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts was evaluated. The results demonstrated a positive expectation regarding linking and familiarity to goat milk products and products with cupuassu pulp. The pH, total phenolic content, lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity were potentially affected by the addition of cupuassu, with the highest concentration of cupuassu (10%) exhibiting the greatest changes in parameters. Based on principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, and just-about-right and penalty analysis, the addition of cupuassu pulp improved some sensory attributes of goat milk yogurt, such as cupuassu aroma, cupuassu flavor, yellow color, consistency, and viscosity, which positively influenced product acceptance. In addition, antioxidant health information increased the acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Taking into account the parameters investigated in this study, the best scoring formulation was goat milk yogurt with 10% cupuassu pulp. Our results suggest that cupuassu pulp can be considered a potential ingredient to improve the sensory and texture properties of goat milk yogurt. Furthermore, the antioxidant health information could be a sensory strategy to increase the acceptance of cupuassu goat milk yogurts.

  12. Laboratory and Consumer Evaluations of Alternative Formulations of Recombined Milk.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    received the highest ratng; however, it will not be used because of health concerns. The milk filled with sunflower oil typically received the highest...testing of alternative formulations for filled milk were required due to health concerns about the use of saturated fats in the most common currently...and diglycerides, sodium casinate, soy protein , carrageenin, and sodium citrate. Actoloid D22B Mono- and diglycerides, soy protein , whey protein

  13. Sampling strategies for total bacterial count of unpasteurized bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Rosa, G J M; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess bulk tank milk sampling strategies for estimating total bacterial count (TBC). Nine large dairies in Wisconsin that produced and shipped at least 1 milk load per day were selected for this study. Total bacteria count was performed for each milk load produced during a 13-mo period. The milk shipment frequency was once (n=3), twice (n=4), or 3 times daily (n=2 farms). A threshold of 8,000 cfu/mL was used to define increased TBC. The proportion of increased TBC (TBCref) during the study period was defined as the reference probability of an increased TBC for each farm. The number of milk loads that would need to be tested to estimate TBCref precisely (TBCref ± 0.05) in selected time periods (month, quarter, 6 mo, or a year) was calculated assuming independence among TBC measurements. Sampling simulations (systematic or simple random sampling) were used to assess the validity of the independence assumption and compare different sampling schedules (every second, every third, or every seventh milk load) used for estimating TBCref in a 13-mo or 30-d TBC series. The number of milk loads tested to estimate TBCref depended on the time period of interest. For farms with daily milk shipments, at least 94% of all milk loads produced would need to be tested to estimate TBCref during a 30-d period. In contrast, when the period of interest was a year, reductions of up to 88% in the number of milk loads tested could be achieved. As the probability of an increased TBC departed from 0.50 toward 1 or 0, fewer samples were needed to estimate TBCref. A sampling schedule based on TBC performed on every second milk load resulted in 100% of 5,000 random samples (taken from the 13-mo TBC series) within the range of TBCref ± 0.05, indicating that sampling half of the milk loads would precisely estimate TBCref. Results of this study suggest that dairy consultants and processors can adjust the frequency of testing of milk loads depending on the goal of

  14. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  15. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is similar after consuming soya milk and miso soup in Japanese-American women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M; Franke, Adrian A

    2008-08-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soya foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soya milk. We recruited twenty-one women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soya portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soya milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soya food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soya food intake. All urine samples were analysed for daidzein, genistein and equol using LC-MS and were expressed as nmol/mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soya foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soya milk was compared to miso soup (P = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (P = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIE after consuming a fermented soya food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soya food (soya milk). Therefore, recommendations favouring fermented soya foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolysing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soya foods.

  16. Identification of gram-negative bacteria from critical control points of raw and pasteurized cow milk consumed at Gondar town and its suburbs, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Milk is highly prone to contamination and can serve as an efficient vehicle for human transmission of foodborne pathogens, especially gram-negative bacteria, as these are widely distributed in the environment. Methods This cross-sectional study of gram-negative staining bacterial contamination of milk meant for human consumption was carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Milk samples were collected from critical control points, from production to consumption, that were hypothesized to be a source of potential contamination. Milk sampling points included smallholder’s milk producers, dairy co-operatives, a milk processing plant, and supermarkets. The hygienic procedures applied during milking, milk collection, transportation, pasteurization, and postpasteurization storage conditions at these specified critical control points were evaluated. Standard bacteriological cultivation and biochemical assays were used to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in the milk samples. Results The results of the current study showed that conditions for contamination of raw milk at different critical points were due to less hygienic practices in pre-milking udder preparation, sub-optimal hygiene of milk handlers, and poor sanitation practices associated with milking and storage equipments. Among all critical control points considered, transportation containers at milk collection centers and at processing plants were found to be the most heavily contaminated with gram-negative staining bacterial species. Overall, 54 different bacterial species were indentified, and Escherichia coli (29.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%), were the most commonly identified gram-negative staining bacterial pathogens. Of particular interest was that no gram-negative staining bacteria were isolated from pasteurized milk samples with varying shelf life. Conclusion This study showed the presence of diverse pathogenic gram

  17. Bioavailability of isoflavone phytoestrogens in postmenopausal women consuming soya milk fermented with probiotic bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsangalis, Dimitri; Wilcox, Gisela; Shah, Nagendra P; Stojanovska, Lily

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the effects of consuming an isoflavone aglycone-enriched soya milk containing viable bifidobacteria on urinary isoflavone excretion and percentage recovery. Sixteen postmenopausal women were randomly divided into two groups to consume either fermented or non-fermented soya milk. Each group participated in a double-blind, crossover study with three 14 d supplementation periods, separated by a 14 d washout. Subjects ingested three daily dosages of isoflavone via the soya milk and collected four 24 h pooled urine specimens per supplementation period. Soya milks were prepared with soya protein isolate and soya germ, followed by fermentation with bifidobacteria. Isoflavone levels were quantified using HPLC. Non-fermented soya milks at 20, 40 and 80 mg isoflavone/200 ml contained 10 %, 9 % and 7 % aglycone, respectively, with their fermented counterparts containing 69 %, 57 % and 36 % aglycone (P<0.001). A trend to a greater percentage urinary recovery of daidzein and glycitein was observed among women consuming fermented soya milk at a dosage of 40 mg isoflavone (P=0.13). A distinct linear dose response for the fermented soya milk group (R2=0.9993) compared with the non-fermented group (R2=0.8865) suggested less interindividual variation in isoflavone absorption. However, total urinary isoflavone excretion was similar for both groups (P>0.05), with urinary isoflavone recovery at approximately 31 %. Increasing the isoflavone dosage correlated positively with its urinary excretion, but urinary percentage recovery of isoflavone was inversely related to dosage level. Hence, a modest dosage ranging from 20 to 30 mg/d may provide the most bioavailable source of isoflavone, regardless of whether it is via an aglycone-rich fermented soya milk or a glucoside-rich soya milk.

  18. Consumers' attitudes about milk quality and fertilization methods in dairy cows in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Doherr, M G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    Major advances in assisted reproductive technologies have improved reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. However, these developments occurred regardless of the perception of consumers, who often distrust biotechnology in food production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate consumers' attitudes toward reproductive management practices in dairy cattle. In November 2012, 1,646 participants were interviewed by a commercial market research institute. Participants were selected from all regions and demographic categories to represent the general public in Germany. Seven questions regarding milk-drinking preferences and reproductive technologies were asked in face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used. The majority of people drank milk at least weekly (63%) and found the taste of milk important (60%). Most people perceived advanced reproductive technologies negatively [e.g., the use of sexed semen (53%), embryo transfer (58%), cloning (81%), and hormone treatments to increase fertility (65%)]. Many people lacked basic knowledge about milk production (22% did not know that cows only give milk after calving; 51% did not know that milk naturally contains hormones); however, participants with a high school education, older participants, and those who had concerned themselves with dairy farming were more knowledgeable. Education and providing information might help to inform the public about reproductive management practices in dairy cows.

  19. Japanese consumer preferences for milk certified with the good agricultural practice(GAP) label.

    PubMed

    Aizaki, Hideo; Nanseki, Teruaki; Zhou, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Japanese consumers' valuation of a good agricultural practice (GAP) label on packaged milk and investigated the effect of detailed GAP information on valuation. A total of 624 Japanese consumers were asked to select their most preferred milk through an online survey. The milk was assumed to have three attributes: the GAP label, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points certification, and price. The results showed that consumers' valuation of GAP was significantly positive. Although providing additional GAP information to a respondent who was aware of GAP and what it means had a positive effect on the consumers' valuation of GAP, provision of this information had no effect if the respondent knew about GAP either moderately or slightly, and had a negative effect if the respondent did not know about GAP at all. To increase broad consumer awareness and valuation of GAP, it is important to provide GAP information according to the requirements of consumers. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. DDT residues in human milk samples from Delhi, India

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, S.S.A.; Bhatnagar, V.K.; Banerjee, B.D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Shah, M.P.

    1989-03-01

    The widespread use of DDT in India has resulted in increased levels of the insecticide in the ecosystem and, therefore, the potential possible health hazards has been voiced. DDT-residues excreted in milk have been reported from different parts of the world; however, very few reports did appear from India. In fact, there is no report on DDT-content in human milk from Delhi area where higher levels of DDT and BHC in human adipose tissues and blood have already been reported. Higher bioaccumulation of DDT might reflect the higher excretion of residues in milk. The authors have, therefore, attempted a systematic study to monitor DDT-residues in human milk samples collected from various hospitals of Delhi (India).

  1. Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (≤32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

  2. DNA carryover in milk samples from routine milk recording used for PCR-based diagnosis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Klaas, Ilka C; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    Real-time PCR techniques are increasingly used to detect udder pathogens from milk samples collected non-aseptically at routine milk recording. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the statistical associations between cycle threshold (Ct) values for Staphylococcus aureus in non-aseptically collected composite samples taken at routine milk recording from cows milked consecutively with the same milking unit and milk meter; and (2) to formulate practical and plausible guidelines for understanding the diagnostic implications of PCR testing for Staph. aureus intramammary infection at routine milk recording. The study included 4 herds with conventional milking parlors and repeatedly low Ct-values for Staph. aureus (representing a high DNA load) in bulk tank milk. Composite milk samples were collected from all cows at all milking units during routine milk recording using the Tru-Test electronic milk meter (Tru-Test Group, Auckland, New Zealand) and analyzed using the PathoProof PCR (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Vantaa, Finland) assay. Milking clock times were retrieved at each milk meter to establish the milking order of the cows at each unit. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between Ct-values from cows milked consecutively with the same milking unit and milk meter. The following groups were selected based on Ct-values: (1) 0-31.3, (2) 31.4-33.9, (3) 34.0-37, (4) 37.1-39.9, and (5) 40 (negative result). The association between groups from cows milked consecutively with the same milking unit and milk meter was statistically significant. Approximately 60% of cows were in Ct group 5 if the antecedent cow was also in Ct group 5, but only 20% of cows were in Ct group 5 if the antecedent cow was in Ct group 1. The probability of cows being in Ct group 1 was not markedly influenced by the group of the antecedent cow. Statistical relationships in the intermediate range gave a plausible indication of a dose-response relationship

  3. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  4. Effect of microbiological testing on subsequent mid-infrared milk component analysis of the same milk sample.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2014-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine if mixing and sampling of a raw milk sample at 4°C for determination of total bacteria count (TBC) and if incubation at 14°C for 18h and sampling for a preliminary incubation (PI) count influenced the accuracy of subsequent fat, protein, or lactose measurement by mid-infrared (IR) analysis of milk from the same sample container due to either nonrepresentative sampling or the presence of microbial metabolites produced by microbial growth in the milk from the incubation. Milks of 4 fat levels (2.2, 3, 4, and 5%) reflected the range of fat levels encountered in producer milks. If the portion of milk removed from a cold sample was not representative, then the effect on a milk component test would likely be larger as fat content increases. Within the milks at each fat level, 3 treatments were used: (1) 20 vials of the same milk sampled for testing TBC using a BactoScan FC and then used for a milk component test; (2) 20 vials for testing TBC plus PI count followed by component test; and (3) 20 vials to run for IR component test without a prior micro sampling and testing. This was repeated in 3 different weeks using a different batch of milk each week. No large effect on the accuracy of component milk testing [IR fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch) and fat A (carbonyl stretch)] due to the cold milk sample handling and mixing procedures used for TBC was detected, confirming the fact that the physical removal of milk from the vial by the BactoScan FC (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) was a representative portion of the milk. However, the representativeness of any other sampling procedure (manual or automated) of a cold milk sample before running milk component testing on the same container of milk should be demonstrated and verified periodically as a matter of routine laboratory quality assurance. Running TBC with a BactoScan FC first and then IR milk analysis after had a minimal effect on milk component tests by IR when milk bacteria counts

  5. [Differentiation of staphylococci from sheep and goat milk samples].

    PubMed

    Deinhofer, M; Pernthaner, A

    1993-06-01

    A total of 447 micrococcaceae strains isolated from 88 ewe and 359 goat milk samples from cases of chronic mastitis were differentiated by means of the ATB 32 STAPH-test. Of these strains 389 (= 87%) could be identified. Fourteen strains were sensitive in the bacitracin-resistance-test and therefore classified as Micrococcus spp. In ewe milk following Staphylococcus spp. were found: S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. lentus, S. xylosus, S. warneri, S. equorum, S. haemolyticus, S. simulans, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus. Staphylococcus spp. identified in goat milk samples were: S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. lentus, S. simulans, S. capitis, S. lugdunensis, S. xylosus, S. chromogenes, S. hominis, S. arlettae, S. warneri, S. sciuri, and S. saprophyticus. Highest cell counts in the milk of both animals species, and the highest incidence of clinical udder alterations were caused by S. aureus. Increases in milk cell counts as well as pathological udder findings were observed in coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections for novobiocin-sensitive Staphylococcus spp. (S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis, and S. chromogenes) and several S. lentus strains.

  6. A pregnancy detection assay using milk samples: evaluation and considerations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Bradley C; Shahzad, Abid Hussain; Dolecheck, Karmella A; Martel, Edmond L; Velek, Katherine A; Ray, Denise L; Lawrence, John C; Silvia, William J

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a pregnancy-detection assay based on the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) in milk samples. In experiment 1, milk samples were collected on the day of first pregnancy check (33-52 d postinsemination; n=119) or second check (60-74 d postinsemination; n=60). The accuracy in identification of pregnant and nonpregnant cows was 99% at first check. Only 6% of samples were found to be within an intermediate range of PAG concentrations and classified as requiring recheck by the assay. At second check, the accuracy of the assay was 98%. Fifteen percent of these samples were classified as requiring recheck. In experiments 2a (n=17 cows) and 2b (n=16 cows), milk and plasma samples were collected from cows at weekly intervals beginning 2 (experiment 2a) or 4 d (experiment 2b) after insemination. The earliest time point at which pregnant cows were accurately classified as pregnant by the assay was on d 30 postinsemination. A transient decline in PAG levels into the intermediate range was observed on d 46 to 72 postinsemination. This coincides with the time of recheck in experiment 1. Results obtained with the plasma samples were essentially the same. The accuracy of pregnancy identification based on milk samples from nonpregnant and pregnant cows was 99%. Levels of PAG in milk were useful in identifying 6 incidences of embryonic mortality. No consistent relationship was noted between the timing of the decline in PAG levels and the timing of luteal regression in this small number of cows.

  7. Gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetric assay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Song, F; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Hu, P; Liu, Z S; Zhang, J H

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Kjeldahl method, used for quality evaluation of bovine milk, has intrinsic defects of time-consuming sample preparation and two analyses to determine the difference between non-protein nitrogen content and total protein nitrogen content. Herein, based upon antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we described a colorimetric method for β-casein (β-CN) detection in bovine milk samples. The linear dynamic range and the LOD were 0.08-250 μg mL(-1), and 0.03 μg mL(-1) respectively. In addition, the real content of β-CN in bovine milk was measured by using the developed assay. The results are closely correlated with those from Kjeldahl method. The advantages of β-CN triggered AuNP aggregation-based colorimetric assay are simple signal generation, the high sensitivity and specificity as well as no need of complicated sample preparation, which make it for on-site detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples.

  8. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Guk; Kim, Eun Hee; Lafferty, Caroline J; Dubovi, Edward

    2005-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a primary reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever. However, no recent nationwide studies have assessed the prevalence and risks of Q fever in dairy cattle. We report >or=94% prevalence in samples of bulk tank milk from U.S. dairy herds tested during the past 3 years.

  9. Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Caroline J.; Dubovi, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Dairy cattle are a primary reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever. However, no recent nationwide studies have assessed the prevalence and risks of Q fever in dairy cattle. We report ≥94% prevalence in samples of bulk tank milk from U.S. dairy herds tested during the past 3 years. PMID:15829205

  10. Traceability of plant diet contents in raw cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-02-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  11. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique.

  12. Detection of aflatoxin M1 concentrations in UHT milk consumed in Turkey markets by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Gündinç, U; Filazi, A

    2009-04-15

    In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) technique was used for detection of aflatoxin M1 in UHT milk sold in Bursa-TURKEY for consumption. A total of 50 samples of commercial UHT (Ultra High Temperature) whole milk were analyzed. Aflatoxin M1 residues were detected in all samples (100%) studied in different levels. The mean value was 101.2 +/- 53.8 ng L(-1). Although, 40 (80%) were below the limit, the remaining 10 (20%) were well above the limit permitted by European Community and Turkish Food Codex. Serious risks for public health exist from milk consumption. Therefore, milk has to be controlled periodically for AFM1 contamination. Also, dairy cow feeds should be stored in such a way that they do not become contaminated.

  13. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability.

  14. [Detection of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle bulk tank milk and single tank milk samples by confirmatory testing].

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Angela; Andres, Tatjana; Werner, Ralf; Wehr, Roswitha; Fröhlich, Andreas; Conraths, Franz J; Henning, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by the pathogen Coxiella (C.) burnetii. A wide range of animal species is susceptible to this intracellular bacterium with great importance in ruminants. Human infections occur mainly by airborne transmission. C burnetii was detected in animal products such as raw milk, raw-milk cheese and butter prepared from raw milk as well as in the meat of infected animals. In cattle milk, the pathogen was detected up to 13 months after calving. The risk of human foodborne C. Burnetii infection is still considered to be low, but cannot be completely ruled out and remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to compare different laboratory diagnostic methods for C. burnetii in milk sample. The bulk tank and individual milk samples were sent and studied at the National Reference Laboratory for Q-fever in the context of confirmatory laboratory testing after clinical suspicion or retesting of previously antibody detection was in the analysis of 888 individual milk samples a match of 93.3% (Cohen-kappa). A total of 173 bulk milk samples and 2,807 individual milk samples from bovine herds for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies were tested against the pathogen. The pathogen was detected in 62.5% of the bulk milk samples and up to 60% in individual milk samples. The highest proportion of positive bulk milks was determined as 68.3% in 2012. In individual milk samples, the highest proportion of seropositive samples was 62.2%.

  15. Enzymatic determination of glucose in milk samples by sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Alberto N; Lima, José L F C; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2009-05-01

    The present work describes a comparative study involving two sequential injection enzymatic procedures for the spectrophotometric determination of glucose in milk samples. The determinations were based on the use of the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase, in solution or immobilized, and 4-aminophenazone and phenol as chromogenic reagents. In the first procedure, 8.4 IU of glucose oxidase and 0.5 IU of peroxidase were consumed in each determination. In the second procedure, 107 IU of glucose oxidase and 105 IU of peroxidase, immobilized in glass beads, were sequentially packed into the same reactor. The reactor allowed us to perform about 600 continuous determinations with no activity loss. The proposed systems allowed the determination of glucose up to 120 mg L(-1) in milk samples with a precision, considering the RSD (%) values, lower than 3.5%. The results obtained for the two systems were comparatively evaluated against a routine enzymatic method, showing a relative deviation of less than 3%.

  16. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  18. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers.

  19. Determination of nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate anions in meat, milk and their products consumed in Hatay region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Atan, Muhammet Meriç

    2013-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites added to food can cause formation of cancerous N-nitroso compounds, whereas exposure to perchlorate is especially emphasised as an important risk factor for newborns' health. In this study, nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate concentrations in meat and milk products consumed in the Hatay region of Turkey were determined. Nitrate and nitrite were analysed with a spectrophotometric method, and perchlorate analysed via ion chromatography. The detected sodium nitrate and nitrite amounts in meat consumed in the Hatay region are less than the maximum levels as declared in the Turkish Food Codex. The amount of perchlorate was considered not to pose a threat as well. However, in 50% of the cheese samples, sodium nitrate amounts were found to be more than the maximum acceptable level in the Turkish Food Codex.

  20. The effect of sampling technique on PCR-based bacteriological results of bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Simojoki, Heli; Kalmus, Piret; Holopainen, Jani; Pyörälä, Satu; Taponen, Suvi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sampling technique on the microbiological results of bovine milk samples using multiplex real-time PCR. Comparison was made between a technique where the milk sample was taken directly from the udder cistern of the udder quarter using a needle and vacuum tube and conventional sampling. The effect of different cycle threshold (Ct) cutoff limits on the results was also tested to estimate the amount of amplified DNA in the samples. A total of 113 quarters from 53 cows were tested pairwise using both techniques, and each sample was studied with real-time PCR. Sampling from the udder cistern reduced the number of species per sample compared with conventional sampling. In conventional samples, the number of positive Staphylococcus spp. results was over twice that of samples taken with the needle technique, indicating that most of the Staphylococcus spp. originated from the teat or environmental sources. The Ct values also showed that Staphylococcus spp. were present in most samples only in low numbers. Routine use of multiplex real-time PCR in mastitis diagnostics could benefit from critical evaluation of positive Staphylococcus spp. results with Ct values between 34.0 and 37.0. Our results emphasize the importance of a careful aseptic milk sampling technique and a microbiologically positive result for a milk sample should not be automatically interpreted as an intramammary infection or mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer of Nicotine, Cotinine and Caffeine Into Breast Milk in a Smoker Mother Consuming Caffeinated Drinks.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Valeria; Escuder, Diana; Minutillo, Adele; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; García-Algar, Oscar; Pallás Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Although the habits of cigarette smoking and associated coffee drinking are generally ceased during pregnancy, they are often reinitiated after delivery when the breastfeeding period starts. This is a case report of a 32-year-old lactating smoker mother who consumed caffeinated drinks and who agreed to donate breast milk after smoking one cigarette (containing 0.6 mg of nicotine) and drinking one cup of espresso (containing 80 mg of caffeine) for an investigation of the excretion of nicotine, its major metabolite cotinine and caffeine into the breast milk and subsequent transfer to the infant. Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine peaked in the breast milk at 0.5 h after the cigarette smoking, and caffeine peaked 2 h after drinking coffee. Moreover, the nicotine disappeared from the milk by 3 h, the caffeine required 24 h and the cotinine required 72 h. The relative infant doses of caffeine, nicotine and cotinine were found to be 8.9, 12.8 and 77.6%, respectively. In the light of these results obtained after the mother smoked only one cigarette and consumed one cup of espresso, if a lactating mother cannot refrain from smoking cigarettes, she should extend the time between the last smoked cigarette and breastfeeding to at least 3 h when the nicotine has been completely eliminated from the milk. Similarly, nursing mothers should also drink coffee sparingly and immediately after nursing and avoid coffee or caffeinated beverages for at least 4 h prior to breastfeeding to minimize the infant's exposure to caffeine.

  2. Aroma-related cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in milk desserts: Influence on consumer perception.

    PubMed

    Alcaire, Florencia; Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-07-01

    Reformulation of industrialized products has been regarded as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce sugar intake. Although non-nutritive sweeteners have been extensively used to reduce the added sugar content of these products, increasing evidence about the existence of compensatory energy intake mechanisms makes it necessary to develop alternative strategies to achieve rapid sugar reductions. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate aroma-related cross modal interactions for sugar reduction in vanilla milk desserts. In particular, the influence of increasing vanilla concentration and the joint increase of vanilla and starch concentration on consumer sensory and hedonic perception was assessed. Two studies with 100 consumers each were conducted, in which a total of 15 samples were evaluated. For each sample, consumers rated their overall liking and answered a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question comprising 12 flavour and texture terms. Sugar reduction caused significant changes in the flavour and texture characteristics of the desserts. An increase in vanilla concentration had a minor effect on their sensory characteristics. However, increasing both vanilla and starch concentration led to an increase in vanilla flavour and sweetness perception and reduced changes in consumer hedonic perception. These results showed the potential of aroma-related cross modal interactions for minimizing the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction. These strategies could contribute to product reformulation without the need to use non-nutritive sweeteners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Half of the children who received oral immunotherapy for a cows' milk allergy consumed milk freely after 2.5 years.

    PubMed

    Kivistö, Juho E; Korppi, Matti; Helminen, Mika; Mäki, Tiina; Paassilta, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Strict milk protein avoidance has been the standard therapy of cows' milk allergy (CMA) in children, but oral immunotherapy (OIT) seems to provide an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of OIT on milk consumption during the first 2.5 years after a start of OIT. This open-label, noncontrolled, real-life OIT study was conducted in 74 children with CMA, who were aged 5-15. It included a 6-month induction phase and a 2-year maintenance phase. Data on the complete 2.5-year trial were available for 57 children. Most of the children (82%) completed the 6-month induction phase and were able to consume at least 200 mL of milk or 6400 mg of milk protein a day. After the 2-year maintenance phase, half were consuming milk daily. Risk factors for OIT failure during the induction phase were asthma and high milk-specific immunoglobulin E, but a history of anaphylaxis before OIT was not. Allergies to eggs or wheat decreased the risk of immediate OIT failure. This study confirmed the efficacy of milk OIT in real life, including the whole spectrum of persistent CMA at school age, and revealed certain risk factors associated with OIT failure. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  5. Double-antibody based immunoassay for the detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Song, F; Li, Y S; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of casein (CN) is one of the most important parameters for measuring the quality of bovine milk. Traditional approach to CN concentration determination is Kjeldahl, which is an indirect method for determination of total nitrogen content. Here, we described a double-antibody based direct immunoassay for the detection of β-CN in bovine milk samples. Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was used as capture antibody and polyclonal antibody (PcAb) labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as detection antibody. With the direct immunoassay format, the linear range of the detection was 0.1-10.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was 0.04 μg mL(-1). In addition, the concentration of β-CN in real bovine milk samples has been detected by the developed immunoassay. There was a good correlation between the results obtained by the developed technique and Kjeldahl method from commercial samples. Compared to the traditional approach, the advantage of the assay is no need of time-consuming sample pretreatment.

  6. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life.

  7. Dietary variety and food group consumption in children consuming a cows' milk exclusion diet.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate; Dean, Tara; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Venter, Carina

    2016-08-01

    Dietary variety is defined as the number of different foods or food groups consumed over a given reference period, the consensus being that dietary variety and dietary quality are positively correlated. Recently there has been considerable interest in the association between infant dietary variety and atopic disease. This was a cross-sectional study of 8- to 27-month-old children from the Isle of Wight, UK, including two groups: a group of children consuming a cows' milk exclusion (CME) diet and a control group of children consuming an unrestricted diet. Parents completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, from which dietary variety and consumption of food groups were calculated. Growth measurements were recorded. A total of 126 participants of mean age 13.0 months were recruited. In addition to the expected differences in dairy and soya consumption, the CME group consumed sweet foods 1.6 times less frequently, non-water drinks seven times less frequently (p < 0.05) and ready-made baby foods 15 times more frequently (p < 0.01) than the control group. Overall dietary variety was significantly lower in the CME group (p < 0.01) as was variety of meat and sweet foods consumed. There was a greater concern with healthy eating in the CME group (p < 0.05). Children consuming an exclusion diet for cows' milk allergy have an overall less varied diet, including a less varied consumption of meat and sweet foods. Efforts should be made to ensure exclusion diets are as varied as possible to optimize nutritional intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bacteroides in the Infant Gut Consume Milk Oligosaccharides via Mucus-Utilization Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, A.; Barboza, M.; Sonnenburg, E.D.; Pudlo, N.; Martens, E.C.; Desai, P.; Lebrilla, C.B.; Weimer, B.C.; Mills, D.A.; German, J.B.; Sonnenburg, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mucus glycans, which are structurally similar to HMOs. Lacto-N-neotetraose, a specific HMO component, selects for HMO-adapted species such as Bifidobacterium infantis, which cannot use mucus, and provides a selective advantage to B. infantis in vivo when bi-associated with B. thetaiotaomicron in the gnotobiotic mouse gut. This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion. PMID:22036470

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  11. An analysis on how switching to a more balanced and naturally improved milk would affect consumer health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Roibás, Laura; Martínez, Ismael; Goris, Alfonso; Barreiro, Rocío; Hospido, Almudena

    2016-10-01

    This study compares a premium brand of UHT milk, Unicla, characterised by an improved nutritional composition, to conventional milk, in terms of health effects and environmental impacts. Unlike enriched milks, in which nutrients are added to the final product, Unicla is obtained naturally by improving the diet of the dairy cows. Health effects have been analysed based on literature findings, while the environmental analysis focused on those spheres of the environment where milk is expected to cause the higher impacts, and thus carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) have been determined. Five final products have been compared: 3 conventional (skimmed, semi-skimmed, whole) and 2 Unicla (skimmed, semi-skimmed) milks. As a functional unit, one litre of packaged UHT milk entering the regional distribution centre has been chosen. The improved composition of Unicla milk is expected to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and to protect consumers against oxidative damage, among other health benefits. Concerning the environmental aspect, CF of Unicla products are, on average, 10% lower than their conventional equivalents, mainly due to the lower enteric emissions of caused by the Unicla diet. No significant differences were found between the WF of Unicla and conventional milk. Raw milk is the main contributor to both footprints (on average, 83.2 and 84.3% of the total CF of Unicla and conventional milk, respectively, and 99.9% of WF). The results have been compared to those found in literature, and a sensitivity analysis has been performed to verify their robustness. The study concludes that switching to healthier milk compositions can help slowing down global warming, without contributing to other environmental issues such as water scarcity. The results should encourage other milk companies to commit to the development of healthier, less environmentally damaging products, and also to stimulate consumers to bet on them.

  12. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-03-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the "Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes" (2010) and the "Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data" (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities.

  13. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-01-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the “Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes” (2010) and the “Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data” (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities. PMID:27047756

  14. Short communication: Analytical method and amount of preservative added to milk samples may alter milk urea nitrogen measurements.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Holley L; Hristov, Alexander N

    2017-02-01

    Milk urea N (MUN) is used by dairy nutritionists and producers to monitor dietary protein intake and is indicative of N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Two experiments were conducted to explore discrepancies in MUN results provided by 3 milk processing laboratories using different methods. An additional experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol (bronopol) on MUN analysis. In experiment 1, 10 replicates of bulk tank milk samples, collected from the Pennsylvania State University's Dairy Center over 5 consecutive days, were sent to 3 milk processing laboratories in Pennsylvania. Average MUN differed between laboratory A (14.9 ± 0.40 mg/dL; analyzed on MilkoScan 4000; Foss, Hillerød, Denmark), laboratory B (6.5 ± 0.17 mg/dL; MilkoScan FT + 6000), and laboratory C (7.4 ± 0.36 mg/dL; MilkoScan 6000). In experiment 2, milk samples were spiked with urea at 0 (7.3 to 15.0 mg/dL, depending on the laboratory analyzing the samples), 17.2, 34.2, and 51.5 mg/dL of milk. Two 35-mL samples from each urea level were sent to the 3 laboratories used in experiment 1. Average analyzed MUN was greater than predicted (calculated for each laboratory based on the control; 0 mg of added urea): for laboratory A (23.2 vs. 21.0 mg/dL), laboratory B (18.0 vs. 13.3 mg/dL), and laboratory C (20.6 vs. 15.2 mg/dL). In experiment 3, replicated milk samples were preserved with 0 to 1.35 mg of bronopol/mL of milk and submitted to one milk processing laboratory that analyzed MUN using 2 different methods. Milk samples with increasing amounts of bronopol ranged in MUN concentration from 7.7 to 11.9 mg/dL and from 9.0 to 9.3 mg/dL when analyzed on MilkoScan 4000 or CL 10 (EuroChem, Moscow, Russia), respectively. In conclusion, measured MUN concentrations varied due to analytical procedure used by milk processing laboratories and were affected by the amount of bronopol used to preserve milk sample, when milk was analyzed using a mid-infrared analyzer

  15. Turbidity and color spectronephelometric measurements in consumable fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luis; Clemente, M. P.

    2003-10-01

    Spectronephelometric measurement techniques are in the order of the day. We can apply these techniques to monitor the production of consumable fluids and to verify their quality. Products like Wine, Beer and Olive Oil for instance, are widely consumed over the world. These products do have a major role in people"s dietary habits and their quality is of greater concern from day to day. If we can make use of a monitoring system that is able to perform measurements in situ, on line and in real time, then we will obviously have the capacity to improve quality. Particles that are suspended in consumable fluid samples interact with radiation by scattering it in almost all directions. If we can detect this scattered radiation, then we have information on the suspended particles. Making use on some Physical relations, we can transpose this information to physical parameters like Color and Turbidity.

  16. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  17. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Cordea, D. V.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ18O and δ2H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ18O and δ2H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  18. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  19. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-07-17

    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  20. Rapid screening of 90Sr activity in water and milk samples using Cherenkov radiation.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, K C; Ioannides, K G; Karamanis, D T; Patiris, D C

    2007-01-01

    A method for screening 90Sr in milk samples is proposed. This method is based on a liquid scintillation technique taking advantage of Cherenkov radiation, which is produced in a liquid medium and then detected by the photomultipliers of a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). Twenty millilitres of water and milk samples spiked with various concentrations of 90Sr/90Y in equilibrium were added in plastic vials and then were measured with an LSC (TriCarb 3170 TR/SL). The derived efficiencies were 49% for water samples and 14% for milk samples. The detection limit was 470 mBq L(-1)(90)Sr for water, without any pretreatment. Milk contains potassium, which also produces Cherenkov radiation due to the presence of 40K. For this reason, the interference of 40K in the measurements of 90Sr in milk samples was also investigated. The detection limit for milk was 1.7 Bq L(-1)90Sr.

  1. Hollow fiber membrane-coated functionalized polymeric ionic liquid capsules for direct analysis of estrogens in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-02-01

    Protein removal process is always time-consuming for the analysis of milk samples. In this work, hollow fiber membrane-coated functionalized polymeric ionic liquid (HF-PIL) capsules were synthesized and used as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent for direct analysis of estrogens in milk samples. The functionalized PIL monolith sorbent was obtained by copolymerization between 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium 4-styrenesulfonate IL monomer and 1,6-di(3-vinylimidazolium) hexane bishexafluorophosphate IL-crosslinking agent. A group of four capsules were installed as SPME device, to determine four kinds of estrogens (estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol) in milk samples, coupled to high performance liquid chromatography. Extraction and desorption conditions were optimized to get satisfactory extraction efficiency. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 5-200 μg L(-1). The limits of detection were 1 μg L(-1) for diethylstilbestrol and 2 μg L(-1) for 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, and hexestrol. The present method was applied to analyze the model analytes in different milk samples. Relative recoveries were in the range of 85.5-112%. The HF-PIL SPME capsules showed satisfactory extraction efficiency and high resistance to sample matrix interference.

  2. Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways.

    PubMed

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Sonnenburg, Erica D; Pudlo, Nicholas; Martens, Eric C; Desai, Prerak; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Weimer, Bart C; Mills, David A; German, J Bruce; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2011-11-17

    Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth, but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut, where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mucus glycans, which are structurally similar to HMOs. Lacto-N-neotetraose, a specific HMO component, selects for HMO-adapted species such as Bifidobacterium infantis, which cannot use mucus, and provides a selective advantage to B. infantis in vivo when biassociated with B. thetaiotaomicron in the gnotobiotic mouse gut. This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative analysis of human milk produced by women consuming a maize-predominant diet typical of rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; Butte, N F; Flores-Huerta, S; Thotathuchery, M

    1998-01-01

    The milk composition of women on a typical rural Mexican diet was compared with that secreted by American women, consuming a diet typical of affluent countries. Milk concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, total amino acids, and selected key minerals were analyzed at 4 or 6 months postpartum. The total milk fat concentration was lower in the Otomi (22.7 +/- 6.7 mg/g milk) than in the American women (31.3 +/- 5.4 mg/g milk, p = 0.001). Although the absolute concentration did not differ, cholesterol, expressed in terms of total lipid, was higher in the Otomi milk (3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.7 mg/g fat, p = 0.005). Saturated medium-chain (C10:0-C14:0) and unsaturated intermediate-chain fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:2) were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.03). The concentrations of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 were significantly lower in Otomi than in American milk. The milk concentrations of protein and nonprotein nitrogen were comparable between the two groups. The concentrations of serine, proline, cystine, methionine, and tryptophan were higher in the Otomi than in the American milk (p < 0.05-0.001). The concentrations of valine and isoleucine were significantly lower in the Otomi milk (p = 0.05). Expressed per gram of milk protein, the cystine, methionine, lysine, and tryptophan concentrations were higher, and the glutamine/glutamate, valine, isoleucine, and arginine levels were lower in the Otomi milk. The concentrations of phosphorus and copper were lower in the Otomi than in the American milk at 4 months postpartum (p = 0.05). These differences in milk fatty acid and amino acid patterns and mineral content are unlikely to affect infant growth, but may have other biological consequences yet to be ascertained.

  4. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples

    PubMed Central

    Deb, R.; Sengar, G. S.; Singh, U.; Kumar, S.; Raja, T. V.; Alex, R.; Alyethodi, R. R.; Prakash, B.

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer’s food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies. PMID:28775755

  5. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Lewis blood group-type epitopes, matching the maternal pattern. Previously, based on the Secretor and Lewis blood group system, four milk groups have been defined, i.e. Lewis-positive Secretors, Lewis-positive non-Secretors, Lewis-negative Secretors and Lewis-negative non-Secretors. Here, a rapid one-dimensional (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis method is presented that identifies the presence/absence of (α1-2)-, (α1-3)- and (α1-4)-linked fucose residues in HMO samples, affording the essential information to attribute different HMO samples to a specific milk group. The developed method is based on the NMR structural-reporter-group concept earlier established for glycoprotein glycans. Further evaluation of the data obtained from the analysis of 36 HMO samples shows that within each of the four milk groups the relative levels of the different fucosylation epitopes can greatly vary. The data also allow a separation of the Lewis-positive Secretor milk group into two sub-groups.

  6. Flavored Milk Consumers Drank More Milk and Had a Higher Prevalence of Meeting Calcium Recommendation than Nonconsumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol; Fulgoni, Victor, III

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some schools are removing flavored milk because of the perception that it negatively impacts children's overall diet. This study assessed the contribution of flavored milk to their diets. Methods: Individual usual intakes (IUI) were calculated from 24-hour dietary recalls of children 2-18 years (N = 20,329) participating in National…

  7. Flavored milk consumers drank more milk and had a higher prevalence of meeting calcium recommendation than nonconsumers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some schools are removing flavored milk because of the perception that it negatively impacts children's overall diet. This study assessed the contribution of flavored milk to their diets. Individual usual intakes (IUI) were calculated from 24-hour dietary recalls of children 2-18 years (N = 20,329) ...

  8. The effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water of livestock on its total levels in milk samples of different cattle: Risk assessment in children.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Talpur, Farah Naz; Akhtar, Asma

    2016-12-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the arsenic (As) levels in milk samples of different milch animals, sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes and camels in Tharparkar, Pakistan. The concentration of As in the milk samples of cows, buffalos, sheep, goats and camels were observed in the range of 15.1-18.4, 2.6-7.7, 25.7-33.2, 10.5-37.3 and 6.6-13.7 μg/L, respectively. The levels of As in livestock drinking water of each farms/flocks was found in the range of 238-2000 μg L(-1). A positive correlation with Pearson correlation coefficients, ranged as, 0.926-0.974 (p = 0.001-0.011) was observed between the As concentration in milk samples of cattle and in corresponding drinking water of farms/flocks. The high bio-transfer factor of As was occurred in the milk samples of sheep. The content of As in scalp hair of children was observed to be elevated, who consumed milk of lower cattle (sheep and goat) than cow and camel. The As content in scalp hair directly proportional to the age of children. The hazardous quotient value of As due to consumption of milk was observed in decreasing order as, sheep > goats > camels > cows. The total hazardous quotient or noncarcinogenic risk values for children consuming the milk of sheep, goat, cow and camels were found >1 of reference dose for As, creates adverse effects on health in childhood stage. The children of all three age group have higher carcinogenic risk factor who are consuming milk of goat and sheep than larger cattle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Effect of Pasteurization Temperature on Consumer Acceptability, Sensory Characteristics, Volatile Compound Composition, and Shelf-Life of Fluid Milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship among consumer acceptability, descriptive sensory attributes, and shelf-life was determined for 2% milk pasteurized at 77, 79, 82, and 85°C. Sensory descriptive attributes and volatile compound composition were monitored over the shelf-life of the products to determine if treatments...

  10. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Allmyr, Mats; Mueller, Jochen F; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; McLachlan, Michael; Murby, John; Harden, Fiona A

    2011-12-01

    Triclosan is a chlorinated phenol ether that has been in widespread use as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for four decades. When compared to the limited international data available on human body burden of triclosan, results from a pooled blood study suggested that triclosan concentrations in Australia were a factor two higher than observed in Sweden. This study determined triclosan levels in individual human milk samples (n=151) collected between 2002 and 2005 from primiparous Australian mothers. It provided the first report of population triclosan levels and individual variation in Australia and gave a measure of infant exposure via breast feeding. The distribution of triclosan concentration was positively skewed, with 7.2% of the samples below the LOQ, 66% with a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 ng g(-1)fresh weight and the remaining samples above 1 ng g(-1) reaching a maximum concentration of 19 ng g(-1)fresh weight. The mean and median triclosan concentrations were 1.3±2.7 ng g(-1)f.w. and 0.26 ng g(-1)f.w., respectively. The results of this study showed high variability in triclosan concentrations between individuals and no correlations with maternal age (p=0.094), maternal weight (p=0.971) or infant age at the time of sample collection (p=0.621). A large number of samples contained low or non-quantifiable concentrations of triclosan and so, in Australia, ubiquitous background exposure due to environmental sources is low. This means that body burden can be influenced by an individual's use of triclosan containing product. Given that triclosan containing product use is continuing, it is important that monitoring in both humans and the environment is continued and that triclosan containing products are adequately labeled so that an individual can choose to avoid exposure.

  11. Comparison of endotoxin levels in cow's milk samples derived from farms and shops.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor; Béres, Andrea; Bertók, Lóránd; Varga, Tamara; Bruckner, Geza

    2015-07-01

    The observations on the protective effect of bacterial endotoxin in farm-derived cow's milk on childhood asthma and allergy are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the endotoxin levels in 'farm-derived whole raw' and 'processed shop' sources of cow's milk, and to test how the temperature and storing conditions might alter their endotoxin concentrations. Milk was collected from farms and shops. The level of endotoxin was measured by micro (gel-clot) Limulus amebocyte lysate test expressed as EU/ml. The concentration ranges of endotoxin were much higher and more widely scattered in the samples of whole raw farm milk than in the processed shop milk. Cold storage or heating increased the endotoxin concentrations in all samples of farm milk, but not in the processed shop milk. These results show that elevated levels of endotoxin in raw farm milk samples can occur from the cowshed or be formed during storage. In processed shop milk, storage does not cause any changes in the amount of endotoxin. Therefore, it is consistent that the handling and storage of raw milk alters the endotoxin concentrations, which may explain previous contradictory findings regarding the beneficial modulating effects on innate immunity toward allergy prevention in early childhood.

  12. A laboratory investigation of consumer addition of UHT milk to lessen the erosive potential of fizzy drinks.

    PubMed

    Syed, J; Chadwick, R G

    2009-02-14

    Much recent attention has been given to the erosive potential of carbonated beverages. Some have shown that the risks of developing erosion, if such drinks are consumed once daily and four times daily, are respectively 2.2 and 5.13 times greater than if they are not consumed at all. The addition of ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk to such beverages has been identified by a survey as common practice in Pakistan. It is known that the addition of calcium to orange juice and acidic candies reduces the capacity of these dietary items to produce dental erosion by the law of mass action. While potentially helpful, such a practice at manufacture may affect adversely product stability and flavour, thus compromising market share. As a result an alternative approach is for the consumer to carry out such modification. The addition of milk is one such potential means.Objective To assess the capacity of six brands of carbonated drinks to bring about dental erosion and determine if consumer modification by the addition of milk affected this. In vitro study. For each drink in both manufactured and consumer modified (25 ml of drink with 6.25 ml UHT milk) states, the pH and titratable acidity were measured. These assessments were also made for distilled water dilution of the manufactured drinks in the ratio of 1 part drink to 0.25 parts water. In addition, the effects of a 60 min exposure to the drinks in manufactured and consumer modified states, upon the surface microhardness and profile of human molar buccal tooth substance were determined. The addition of milk significantly increased the mean pH (p <0.001) and decreased the mean titratable acidity (p <0.001). Its addition had significantly more (p <0.001) than a simple dilution effect upon these values. Milk addition significantly lessened (p <0.001) the reductions in surface microhardness of tooth substance when exposed to the drinks except in the case of one beverage. There was, however, no significant effect (p = 0.0732) of its

  13. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ilahi, Houcine; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2004-01-01

    Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene) and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively). The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25). Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking) is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle. PMID:15339633

  14. Mothers' views of milk banking: sample of İzmir.

    PubMed

    Ekşioğlu, Aysun; Yeşil, Yeşim; Turfan, Esin Çeber

    2015-06-01

    The studies on human milk banking in Turkey, has being carried out at a hospital in Izmir province. There are different point of views about milk banking. The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge and the views of the mothers towards milk banking. This study is a cross-sectional survey. The study was carried out with 404 mothers who gave birth in a two maternity hospitals and one university hospital in İzmir using the face-to-face interview technique between March 2014 and June 2014. The study data were collected using a 30-item socio-demographic questionnaire. The mothers' mean age was 28.4 years (16-46 years). Of the mothers, 45.5% were primary school graduates, 80.2% were members of a nuclear family, 75.7% had less than three children, 63.4% gave birth by caesarean section and only 79.5 percent were able to breastfeed before being discharged. Of the mothers, 41.6% were aware of milk banking, 71.3% were willing to receive milk bank services and 68.8% were willing to donate breastmilk. 62.2% of those who did not want to make donation stated risk of contagion as a reason, 8.2% of the participants had worked as wet-nurse before. Most mothers revealed positive approaches and opinions about establishment of milk banking and milk donation. However, there were some concerns due to the risk of infectious diseases and religious beliefs. Efforts should be made to raise awareness and mothers should be informed about the importance of breast milk and breastfeeding so that milk banks can be regarded as an additional choice.

  15. Mothers’ views of milk banking: sample of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Ekşioğlu, Aysun; Yeşil, Yeşim; Turfan, Esin Çeber

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The studies on human milk banking in Turkey, has being carried out at a hospital in Izmir province. There are different point of views about milk banking. The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge and the views of the mothers towards milk banking. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey. The study was carried out with 404 mothers who gave birth in a two maternity hospitals and one university hospital in İzmir using the face-to-face interview technique between March 2014 and June 2014. The study data were collected using a 30-item socio-demographic questionnaire. Results: The mothers’ mean age was 28.4 years (16–46 years). Of the mothers, 45.5% were primary school graduates, 80.2% were members of a nuclear family, 75.7% had less than three children, 63.4% gave birth by caesarean section and only 79.5 percent were able to breastfeed before being discharged. Of the mothers, 41.6% were aware of milk banking, 71.3% were willing to receive milk bank services and 68.8% were willing to donate breastmilk. 62.2% of those who did not want to make donation stated risk of contagion as a reason, 8.2% of the participants had worked as wet-nurse before. Conclusions: Most mothers revealed positive approaches and opinions about establishment of milk banking and milk donation. However, there were some concerns due to the risk of infectious diseases and religious beliefs. Efforts should be made to raise awareness and mothers should be informed about the importance of breast milk and breastfeeding so that milk banks can be regarded as an additional choice. PMID:26265891

  16. Fecal Microbiota Composition of Breast-fed Infants is Correlated with Human Milk Oligosaccharides Consumed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Li, Min; Wu, Shuai; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Ivanov, Ivan; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that the fecal bacterial genera of breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants differ and that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) modulate the microbiota of BF infants. Methods Fecal samples were obtained from BF (n = 16) or FF (n = 6) infants at 3-month postpartum. Human milk were collected on the same day when feces were collected. The microbiota was assessed by pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. HMO were measured by HPLC-Chip time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results The overall microbiota of BF differed from that of FF (P = 0.005). Compared to FF, BF had higher relative abundances of Bacteroides, lower proportions of Clostridium XVIII, Lachnospiracea incertae sedis, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Veillonella (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium predominated in both BF and FF infants, with no difference in abundance between the two groups. The most abundant HMO were lacto-N-tetraose + lacto-N-neotetraose (LNT + LNnT, 22.6%), followed by 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL, 14.5%) and lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I, 9.5%). Partial least squares regression of HMO and microbiota showed several infant fecal bacterial genera could be predicted by their mothers’ HMO profiles and the important HMO for the prediction of bacterial genera were identified by variable importance in the projection scores. Conclusions These results strengthen the established relationship between HMO and the infant microbiota, identify statistical means whereby infant bacterial genera can be predicted by milk HMO. Future studies are needed to validate these findings and determine if supplementation of formula with defined HMO could selectively modify the gut microbiota. PMID:25651488

  17. Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.

    PubMed

    Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2012-06-01

    Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. False-positive outcome and drug residue in milk samples over withdrawal times.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H; Jin, J H; Kondo, F

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over withdrawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the Delvotest SP assay. Reading time was 150, 165, and 180 min, and results of samples were recorded according to the color of the well containing the control milk sample. There were 24, 20, and 12 positive samples at the reading times of 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. All 24 positive milk samples were heated at 82 degrees C for 5 min and retested to verify that the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. Twenty-one samples that exhibited positive results were negative after heat treatment, and drug residues were not identified by LacTek and Charm tests. However, 3 samples that exhibited positive results from heat treatment of 82 degrees C were positive for drugs. In our study, most positive results (89%) in the milk samples over withdrawal times were false-positive results by natural inhibitors. Moreover, the heat treatment is a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to remove false-positive results and has no effect on positive samples containing drugs. We suggest that heat treatment before screening tests is an effective way to reduce false-positive results in the milk samples.

  19. Aflatoxin binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Duarte E; Hagler, Winston M; Blackwelder, John T; Eve, Julie A; Hopkins, Brinton A; Anderson, Kevin L; Jones, Frank T; Whitlow, Lon W

    2004-02-01

    Sequestering agents bind dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and reduce absorption from an animal's gastrointestinal tract. As a result, they protect an animal from the toxic effects of AFB1 and reduce transfer of the metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), into milk. Three experiments, using late-lactation Holstein cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed, were conducted to evaluate several potential sequestering agents for their abilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of AFM1 into milk. Six agents previously tested in our laboratory for AFB1 binding in vitro were evaluated in these experiments. These were: SA-20, an activated carbon (AC-A); Astra-Ben-20, a sodium bentonite (AB-20); MTB-100, an esterified glucomannan (MTB-100); Red Crown, a calcium bentonite (RC); Flow Guard, a sodium bentonite (FG); and Mycrosorb, a sodium bentonite (MS). Five of the six sequestering agents significantly (P < 0.01) reduced AFM1 contamination of milk (AB-20, 61%; FG, 65%; MS, 50%; MTB-100, 59%; and RC, 31%); whereas, AC-A, activated carbon, had no effect on AFM1 transmission at 0.25% of feed. By the first milking (1 day after cows consumed contaminated feed), AFM1 appeared in milk, then reached maximum levels after three days, and was absent from milk within four days after AFB1 was removed from the feed. Sodium bentonites at 1.2% of feed showed good potential as AFB1 binders; MTB-100, a yeast cell wall product, was equally effective at 0.05% in feed. Potential AFB1 binding agents should be evaluated experimentally to demonstrate efficacy. Our data show that sequestering agents can reduce AFM1 in milk of cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed.

  20. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  1. Occurrence of flunixin residues in bovine milk samples from the USA.

    PubMed

    Kissell, L W; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Smith, G W

    2013-01-01

    5-Hydroxy-flunixin concentrations in milk samples were quantified by two commercially available screening assays--CHARM® and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)--to determine whether any concentrations could be detected above the tolerance limit of 2 ng g⁻¹ from different regions in the United States. Milk samples came from large tanker trucks hauling milk to processing plants, and had already been screened for antibiotics. Positive results for flunixin residues based on a screening assay were confirmed by ultra-HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. Of the 500 milk samples analysed in this study, one sample was found to have a 5-hydroxy-flunixin concentration greater than the tolerance limit. The results of this study indicate that flunixin residues in milk are possible. Regulatory agencies should be aware that such residues can occur, and should consider incorporating or expanding flunixin screening tests as part of routine drug monitoring in milk. Larger studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of flunixin residues in milk from other regions in the United States as well as different countries.

  2. Determination of fluorine in milk samples via calcium-monofluoride by electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2013-05-01

    The determination of fluorine in milk samples via the molecular absorption of calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) was performed using a HR-CS-ETAAS. For this purpose, calcium was pipetted to graphite furnace together with samples. The amount of Ca and the graphite furnace program were optimised. Fluorine was determined in pyrolytically coated platforms at 606.440 nm applying a pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C and a molecule forming temperature of 2250 °C. Finally, applying standard addition technique, F contents of several milk samples were determined. The results obtained by linear calibration and standard addition techniques were significantly different which can be attributed to non-spectral interferences in milk due to matrix concomitants. Therefore, in order to tolerate the errors, the F contents of several milk samples were determined applying standard addition technique. However, since the ingredients of milk samples change for different kinds, the F in each sample was determined from its own standard addition curve. The range of F content for the milk samples were 0.027-0.543 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection and characteristic mass of the method were 0.26 and 0.13 ng of F, respectively.

  3. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  4. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical abstract: The continued popularity of organic and natural foods has generated interest in organic milk, and use of pasture for dairy cattle is a requirement for organic production. This process may improve the health benefits of fluid milk via increases in the unsaturated fatty acid cont...

  5. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  6. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  7. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups.

  8. Determination of penicillins in milk of animal origin by capillary electrophoresis: is sample treatment the bottleneck for routine laboratories?

    PubMed

    Piñero, María-Ysabel; Bauza, Roberto; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is increasingly being used not only for research purposes but also for routine analyses. The latter, however, are especially difficult when the analytes are present at very low concentrations in complex food samples (e.g. penicillins in milk of animal origin). No study of the difficulties encountered in daily practice in sample treatments for the determination of penicillins (PENs) in milk by CE has to our knowledge been reported. Rather than reviewing the main uses of CE for determining PENs in different types of samples, this paper focuses on the weaknesses of available methods for this purpose, which originate in sample treatment rather than in a lack of robustness of the CE technique. Some problems which, based on our own experience, often confront sample treatment and method development in this context are discussed here. Clearly, the greatest source of error in this context is sample processing, which must provide optimal extraction and preconcentration of analytes, and extracts compatible with the separation technique to be used. In this respect, using time-consuming procedures can cause the loss of variable amounts of analytes in different steps. Interestingly, dramatically simplifying the sample preparation process can detract from sensitivity but lead to increased recoveries. As with any methodological development in routine analysis, acceptable results can only be obtained by considering all potentially influential factors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Calibration of the complex matrix effects on the sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples using solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Wei, Songbo; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-08-24

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME), a simple, fast and promising sampling technique, has been widely used for complex sample analysis. However, complex matrices could modify the absorption property of coatings as well as the uptake kinetics of analytes, eventually biasing the quantification results. In the current study, we demonstrated the feasibility of a developed calibration method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in complex milk samples. Effects of the complex matrices on the SPME sampling process and the sampling conditions were investigated. Results showed that short exposure time (pre-equilibrium SPME, PE-SPME) could increase the lifetime of coatings, and the complex matrices in milk samples could significantly influence the sampling kinetics of SPME. In addition, the optimized sampling time, temperature and dilution factor for PAHs were 10 min, 85 °C and 20, respectively. The obtained LODs and LOQs of all the PAHs were 0.1-0.8 ng/mL and 1.4-4.7 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the accuracy of the proposed PE-SPME method for milk sampling was validated by the recoveries of the studied compounds in two concentration levels, which ranged from 75% to 110% for all the compounds. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the screening of PAHs in milk samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  11. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway - the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway - the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  13. Complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses reveal regulatory mechanisms of milk protein production in dairy cows consuming different forages

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenting; Chen, Qiong; Wang, Quanjuan; White, Robin R.; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-01-01

    Forage plays a critical role in the milk production of dairy cows; however, the mechanisms regulating bovine milk synthesis in dairy cows fed high forage rations with different basal forage types are not well-understood. In the study, rice straw (RS, low-quality) and alfalfa hay (AH, high-quality) diets were fed to lactating cows to explore how forage quality affected the molecular mechanisms regulating milk production using RNA-seq transcriptomic method with iTRAQ proteomic technique. A total of 554 transcripts (423 increased and 131 decreased) and 517 proteins (231 up-regulated and 286 down-regulated) were differentially expressed in the mammary glands of the two groups. The correlation analysis demonstrated seven proteins (six up-regulated and one down-regulated) had consistent mRNA expression. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts/proteins suggested that enhanced capacity for energy and fatty acid metabolism, increased protein degradation, reduced protein synthesis, decreased amino acid metabolism and depressed cell growth were related to RS consumption. The results indicated cows consuming RS diets may have had depressed milk protein synthesis because these animals had decreased capacity for protein synthesis, enhanced proteolysis, inefficient energy generation and reduced cell growth. Additional work evaluating RS- and AH-based rations may help better isolate molecular adaptations to low nutrient availability during lactation. PMID:28290485

  14. The effect of a cannula milk sampling technique on the microbiological diagnosis of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Friman, M; Hiitiö, H; Niemi, M; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S; Simojoki, H

    2017-08-01

    Two methods of collecting milk samples from mastitic bovine mammary quarters were compared. Samples were taken in a consistent order in which standard aseptic technique sampling was done first, followed by insertion of a sterile cannula through the teat canal and collection of a second sample. Microbiological results of those two sampling techniques were compared. Milk samples were analysed using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cannula technique produced a reduced number of microbial species or groups of species per sample compared with conventional sampling. Staphylococcus spp. were the most common species identified and were detected more often during conventional sampling than with cannula sampling. Staphylococcus spp. identified in milk samples could also have originated from the teat canal without being present in the milk. The number of samples positive for Trueperella pyogenes or yeasts in the conventional samples was twice as high as in the cannula samples, indicating that the presence of Trueperella pyogenes and yeast species should not necessarily be interpreted as being the causative agents of bovine intra-mammary infections (IMI). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are

  16. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition (mm) and acceptable minimum inhibitory concentration were observed with azithromycin, and thus it could be the first choice of a treatment. Overall, the presence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes strains in the raw milk of Rajasthan region is an indicator of public health hazard and highlighting the need of consumer awareness in place and implementation of stricter food safety regulations at all levels of milk production.

  18. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  19. Analysis of oxytocin in milk samples and intake pattern in different age groups of Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manjari; Ali, Shakir; Das, Mukul

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) injections have been indiscriminately used to milk cattle in dairy industries. There is no study available regarding surveillance of OT in market milk samples. OT from milk samples was extracted by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and passed through the solid phase extraction column. OT was eluted and evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was either dissolved in milli Q water or buffer for analysis through HPLC or EIA. The intake assessment of OT through milk was assessed through the Food Frequency Recall method employing a Food Frequency Questionnaire. On the basis of milk consumption and the values of OT in milk, the actual intake of OT was calculated. In the present study, a total of 55 milk samples (39 milkman and 16 branded) were analyzed for occurrence of OT by EIA and UV-HPLC from different locations of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). OT contamination in milkman samples was found to be 21 pg/mL to 18.9 ng/mL with the mean value of 8.9 ng/mL. The average daily intake of OT in terms of µg/day/person was highest (2.3-2.4 µg/day/person) in 1-3-year age group. Since there is no prescribed level of OT in milk and the intake of OT through this commodity is quite high there is need to implement regulatory laws so that non-physiological OT exposure may not occur in children which may have deleterious effects.

  20. Assessment of AflatoxinM1 Contamination in UHT Flavored Milk Samples in Karaj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mashak, Zohreh; Jafari Sohi, Hadi; Heshmati, Ali; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 30 UHT flavored milk samples in Karaj, Alborz province, Iran. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to analyze AFM1 in the samples. The results showed that aflatoxin M1 was detected in all the UHT flavored milk samples, the AFM1 concentration ranged from 0.015 to 0.14 µg/L. Also, 10 samples (33.3%) were contaminated with more than 0.05 µg/L of European Union regulations for aflatoxin M1. Wherease, according to the proposed Iranian national standard and FDA (0.5 µg/L), none of the samples has not been contaminated more than the maximum AFM1 concentrations threshold. This is the first report discovering the fact that UHT flavored milk is an important contributor to the dietary intake of AFM1 in Iran. PMID:27980575

  1. Taste preference, food neophobia and nutritional intake in children consuming a cows' milk exclusion diet: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Maslin, K; Grimshaw, K; Oliver, E; Roberts, G; Arshad, S H; Dean, T; Grundy, J; Glasbey, G; Venter, C

    2016-12-01

    Taste exposure in infancy is known to predict food preferences later in childhood. This is particularly relevant in children with cows' milk allergy who consume a substitute formula and/or a cows' milk exclusion (CME) diet early in life. This prospective study aimed to show whether there is a long-term effect of consuming a substitute formula and CME diet on taste preferences and dietary intake. Children were predominantly recruited from two large birth cohort studies in the UK. Two groups were recruited: an experimental group of children who had consumed a CME diet during infancy and a control group who had consumed an unrestricted diet during infancy. Parents completed a food neophobia questionnaire and an estimated prospective food diary. Children completed a taste preference test and their growth was assessed. One hundred and one children with a mean age of 11.5 years were recruited (28 CME and 73 controls). Children in the CME group had a significantly higher preference for bitter taste than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the groups with respect to the intake of some micronutrients, including riboflavin, iodine, sodium and selenium. Food neophobia did not differ between groups. Some 28% of the CME group were overweight/obese compared to 15% of the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Consuming a substitute formula and/or a CME diet in infancy has a long-term effect on the preference for bitter taste. Differences exist with respect to the intake of some micronutrients, but not macronutrients. There was a nonsignificant trend towards being overweight and obese in children in the CME group. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a method for the detection of beta-lactamases in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shenghui; Li, Jingyun; Hu, Changqin; Jin, Shaohong; Ma, Yue

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the dairy industry and the establishment of strict antimicrobial residue limits in the People's Republic of China's (PRC) milk supply, a beta-lactamase product known as "antimicrobial destroyer" was introduced into dairy production without regulatory review. We developed a method for detecting this product in milk samples based on a modified cylinder plate method. The presence of beta-lactamase is defined as a difference between the inhibitory zones of the test samples (supplemented with 25 microg/mL sulbactam plus 0.5 microg/mL penicillin G) and control samples (supplemented only with 0.5 microg/mL penicillin G) > or = 3 mm. Using this method, 77 individually packaged milk samples were randomly collected from 5 retail stores in 3 cities over a 4-month period (May to August 2006). Of the 77 samples, 49 were found to be beta-lactamase-positive. In 2 undiluted milk samples showing extremely high beta-lactamase activity, 25 microg/mL sulbactam could not inhibit penicillin G activity. Because there is a lack of safety data on beta-lactamases in milk products, these data indicated a potentially serious safety concern for the dairy industry in the PRC.

  4. Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-09-01

    Milk and dairy products have been recognized all over the world for their beneficial influence on human health. The levels of toxic metals (TMs) are an important component of safety and quality of milk. A simple and efficient microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for the determination of TMs (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb), in raw and processed milk samples. A Plackett-Burman experimental design and 2(3)+star central composite design, were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for MAE. Concentrations of TMs were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by standard addition method and conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM), for comparative purpose. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05), when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE method and CDM (paired t-test). The average relative standard deviation of the MAE method varied between 4.3% and 7.6% based on analyte (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of understudy TMs in milk samples. The results of raw and processed milk indicated that environmental conditions and manufacturing processes play a key role in the distribution of toxic metals in raw and processed milk.

  5. Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; Minim, Luis Antônio; de Souza Barcellos, Edilton; da Silva Júnior, Willer Ferreira; Detmann, Edenio; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the detection and quantification of the adulteration of milk powder by the addition of whey was assessed by measuring glycomacropeptide protein using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). Fluid milk samples were dried and then spiked with different concentrations of GMP and whey. Calibration models were developed using multivariate techniques, from spectral data. For the principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, excellent percentages of correct classification were achieved in accordance with the increase in the proportion of whey samples. For partial least squares regression analysis, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the best model were 0.9885 and 1.17, respectively. The rapid analysis, low cost monitoring and high throughput number of samples tested per unit time indicate that MIR spectroscopy may hold potential as a rapid and reliable method for detecting milk powder frauds using cheese whey.

  6. Visual scoring of milk mixed with blood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Sorting of normal and abnormal milk at time of milking is done visually for conventional milking systems, but more concrete standards are needed when milking is done in automatic milking systems (AMS). Several panel tests were carried out to find out how different consumer groups, milkers and advisors look at and respond to the visual appearance of milk mixed with blood, in order to set a limit for what they think is acceptable. It is concluded from the test panel results that milk samples with 0.4% or more of blood all will be scored as pink and samples with 0.1% blood (about 6 microM-haemoglobin or 100 mg/l) can be visually detected if they are compared with milk samples without blood. The consumer group scored fewer of the samples with 0-1% blood as normal than did the professional groups. The test panel scored 65% of the samples with 1% blood as normal when milk was presented in a black strip cup, which is the reference method when foremilking takes place in a conventional parlour. Only 2% of the milk samples with 2% blood (about 120 microM-haemoglobin or 2000 mg/l) were scored as normal in a black strip cup and should consequently be detected by conventional as well as automatic systems. One model of AMS was tested for its ability to detect and separate milk coloured by blood. The model separated milk with > or = 6 microM-haemoglobin. Milk mixed with blood injected into the milk stream for a short time at the beginning of milking was not separated. We lack data on how blood is naturally expelled into milk and in what amount. We propose that cow composite milk with > 6 microM-haemoglobin should be separated because at this level milk will have a red tinge.

  7. The Chocolate Milk Crisis: A Consumer Economics Simulation Unit for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrico, Patricia; Karsotis, A. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)

  8. The Chocolate Milk Crisis: A Consumer Economics Simulation Unit for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrico, Patricia; Karsotis, A. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)

  9. Changes in milk composition in obese rats consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bautista, C J; Montaño, S; Ramirez, V; Morales, A; Nathanielsz, P W; Bobadilla, N A; Zambrano, E

    2016-02-14

    Maternal obesity programmes offspring development. We addressed maternal obesity effects induced by high-fat diets on maternal mammary gland (MG) structure and function and offspring brain, liver and fat outcomes. Mothers were fed control (C, n 5) or obesogenic (MO, n 5) diet from the time they were weaned through pregnancy beginning at 120 d, through lactation. At offspring postnatal day (PND) 20, milk leptin and nutrients were determined. At the end of lactation, maternal liver and MG fatty acid profile were measured. Desaturase (Δ6D and Δ5D) and elongase (ELOVL 5 and ELOVL 2) protein was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting (WB) in the liver and WB in the MG. In mothers, liver, MG and milk fat content were higher in MO than in C. Liver arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA and MG EPA were lower in MO than in C. Liver desaturases were higher in MO. The MG was heavier in MO than in C, with decreased Δ5D expression in MO. Desaturases and elongases were immunolocalised in parenchymal cells of both groups. Milk yield, water, carbohydrate content, EPA and DHA were lower, whereas milk leptin and AA were higher in MO than in C. At PND 21 and 36, brain weight was less and fat depots were greater in MO offspring than in C. MO decreased male absolute brain weight but not female absolute brain weight. In conclusion, maternal obesity induced by an obesogenic diet negatively affects maternal liver and MG function with the production of significant changes in milk composition. Maternal obesity adversely affects offspring metabolism and development.

  10. Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in a sample of 28 nations.

    PubMed

    Lassek, William Day; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2015-10-01

    Convergent evidence from neuronal biology and hominin brain hypertrophy suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a limiting resource for neural and cognitive development in Homo sapiens, and therefore that children from populations with higher omega-3 availability should display superior cognitive performance. Using multiple regression, we tested this prediction in a sample of 28 countries, with Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) math scores in 2009 as an index of cognitive performance, and country-specific breast milk levels of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as an index of omega-3 availability. Breast milk DHA makes a highly significant contribution to math scores (β = 0.462, P = 0.006), greater in magnitude than the control variables of per capita Gross Domestic Product (PCGDP) and educational expenditures per pupil. Together, dietary fish (positively) and total fat (negatively) explain 61% of the variance in maternal milk DHA in a larger sample of 39 countries.

  11. Determination of naturally occurring oestrogens and androgens in retail samples of milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    Courant, F; Antignac, J P; Maume, D; Monteau, F; Andre, F; Le Bizec, B

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of the main steroid hormones (oestrone, 17alpha-oestradiol, 17beta-oestradiol, 17alpha-testosterone, 17beta-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 4-androstenedione), especially in milk and eggs, was investigated. An analytical method based on GC-MS/MS was developed for steroid measurement at an ultra-trace level in food products. The limits of detection for oestrogens were about 5 and 30 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. For androgens, the limits of detection were around 10 and 50 ng kg(-1) in milk and eggs, respectively. The method was applied to milk and egg samples collected in a French supermarket. In milk, oestrone was found at levels between 100 and 300 ng l(-1), while 17beta-oestradiol levels were estimated to be near 20 ng l(-1). 17alpha-testosterone was found to be from 50 ng l(-1) in skimmed milk to 85 ng l(-1) in whole milk. In egg samples, oestrone and 17beta-oestradiol were found at 1.5 and 0.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, while 17alpha-oestradiol was found to be in lower concentrations (i.e. around 0.55 microg kg(-1)). Regarding androgens, 17alpha- and 17beta-testosterone were estimated at 1.9 and 1.3 microg kg(-1), respectively. These results represent a first attempt to estimate the food exposure to steroid hormones. In the future, the collection of additional data should permit the comparison between this exogenous dietary intake and the daily endogenous production in pre-pubertal children as a basis of risk assessment regarding endocrine disruption linked to these molecules for this critical population.

  12. Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L; Llebaria, Xavier; Nadal, Martí; Bigas, Esther; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those

  13. Expressing breast milk at home for 24-h periods provides viable samples for macronutrient analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Sven-Harald; Løvlund, Emma E; Nygaard, Egil A; Selberg, Terje R; Størdal, Ketil

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of macronutrient measurements of domestic pooled human milk from mothers with preterm infants and to see how the results affected human milk fortifications. We asked 28 new mothers to express their breast milk for 24 h on two consecutive days and repeat the process at weekly intervals. The samples were analysed using mid-infrared technology to calculate the differences between the milk collected on two consecutive days for reproducibility and the total protein supply with standard fortification. There was a significant linear correlation between the two consecutive days with regard to protein (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), lipids (r = 0.86, p < 0.001), lactose (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and 24-h volume (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). The percentage of the samples that would provide a protein supply of 3.5-4.5 g/kg/d with a fortification of 0.6 and 1.2 g protein/100 mL at a volume of 170 mL/kg were 28% and 41%, respectively. The domestic pooling of 24-h expressed human milk for macronutrient analysis was a simple and reliable way of obtaining representative data. Standard fortification implies there is a risk of under- and over-nutrition, and individual fortification may improve the nutrition of preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A method for estimation of urea using ammonia electrode and its applicability to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Kaur, Sumandeep; Tomar, Sudhir K

    2008-11-01

    A method for the estimation of urea in milk using ammonia electrode is described. Urea is first degraded by urease enzyme into ammonium ion and carbon dioxide at neutral pH. The ammonium ion is then converted into ammonia at alkaline pH. A linear inverse relationship was observed between logarithmic concentration of ammonia or urea and electrode response. Repeatability, expressed as a coefficient of variation, was 1.77% at a level of 8.92 mm-urea in milk. The method was validated in milk samples spiked with between 2 x 10-3 and 10 x 10-3 m-urea and recovery of added urea was quantitative. Whereas, preservative sodium azide at 0.5 g/l or 2 g/l level did not affect results, lower values of urea concentration in presence of Bronopol at 0.5 g/l were observed. Urea levels in milk samples estimated by this method were comparable to standard enzymatic method. The method is simple, fast and is not prone to interference from other milk constituents.

  15. Iodine in the feed of cows and in the milk with a view to the consumer's iodine supply.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Friedrich; Spörl, Kathrin; Leiterer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows. In six Thuringian cow herds, the total cow diets (51 total mixed rations, TMR) as well as the bulk milk (n=77) were analysed for iodine. Cereal and legume grains and extracted meals from oilseeds had very low native iodine contents at<9-43μg iodine/kg dry matter (DM). Silages showed higher contents than the concentrates. In grass silage, the median amounted to 173μg iodine/kg DM. The significant relationship between the silages' ash and iodine content indicates contamination of grass during harvesting by soil. With regard to supplements, dairy cows received via premixes a mean of 1.2mg iodine/kg diet DM and this was in the magnitude of 0.8mg iodine/kg DM determined in TMR on farm. However, the resulting mean milk concentration of 105μg iodine/kg, median 100μg/kg, is only a half of that in dose-response experiments with 200μg iodine/kg milk at 1mg iodine/kg cow feed DM. The decrease of iodine transfer into the mammary gland and milk is caused by rapeseed meal (RSM) with the glucosinolates and their degradation compounds, e.g. isothiocyanates. By compensating for the iodine antagonist effects of diets containing RSM, more iodine should be added. Twice the current mean feed iodine supplement would optimize the contribution of animal-source food to the human iodine supply in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Short communication: Effects of high-pressure processing on the inactivity of Cronobacter sakazakii in whole milk and skim milk samples.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Rui; Gao, Jina; Li, Yinxiang; Zhang, Xiyan; Zhang, Maofeng; Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Fan, Hongying

    2016-10-01

    Powdered infant formula is considered as the main transmission vehicle for Cronobacter sakazakii infections including meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The effects of high-pressure processing treatment on inactivation of C. sakazakii ranging from 100 to 400 MPa for 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 min in whole milk and skim milk were studied. Significant differences in inactivation of C. sakazakii were observed in milk samples under different pressures for 3 to 7 min compared with untreated samples, and C. sakazakii was not detected after 400 MPa for 3 min. The lethality rates of C. sakazakii cells in whole and skim milk with an initial level of 10(4) cfu/mL after 100 and 200 MPa treatments were not significantly different, but relatively higher lethality rates were found in whole milk after 300 MPa treatment than in skim milk. Finally, the scanning electron micrographs indicated that cellular envelope and intracellular damage of C. sakazakii cells were apparent after 300 and 400 MPa for 5.0 min compared with the untreated cells, and a progressive increase of injured cells with increased pressure treatment was found. It was concluded that C. sakazakii was sensitive to high-pressure processing treatment and that high-pressure processing treatment with 400 MPa for 3.0 min can be used to control C. sakazakii contamination in milk samples. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the Delvo-X-Press assay for detecting antibiotic residues in milk samples from individual cows.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, A S; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S

    1999-10-01

    Performance of the Delvo-X-Press beta-lactam antibiotic assay was examined using bulk-tank milk samples and milk samples from individual cows. Bulk-tank milk samples fortified with bovine lactoferrin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml or more consistently tested positive. False-positive results were also obtained from bulk-tank milk samples fortified with bovine plasma at concentrations of 20 and 40%. The assay yielded positive results for milk with antibiotic concentrations as low as 2 ppb. Individual milk samples were collected from 144 healthy lactating cows and from 34 cows with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Specificity estimates for samples from healthy and mastitic cows were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82, 0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.86, 1.00), respectively. Individual milk samples were collected from three cows with experimentally induced mastitis for 21 consecutive days. False-positive results occurred as late as 12 days postchallenge. A moderate but significant (P < 0.01) positive linear correlation (r = 0.61) was observed between test result and somatic cell count (SCC) values in milk samples with SCCs of >10(6)/ml.

  18. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  19. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Saishu, Nobukazu; Morimoto, Kazutaka; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good's buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis.

  20. Characterization of Aerococcus viridans isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis and manure samples

    PubMed Central

    SAISHU, Nobukazu; MORIMOTO, Kazutaka; YAMASATO, Hiroshi; OZAKI, Hiroichi; MURASE, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-eight Aerococcus viridans isolates were obtained from milk from 478 cows with clinical mastitis in a farm during the periods between November 2011 and February 2012, and between December 2012 and March 2013. Additional isolates were obtained from processed manure (a mixture of composted manure, straw and hydrated lime) and bedding materials. The processed manure was later used to cover the floor of the stalls in barns as bedding materials. The temperatures recorded in the composted and processed manure were not as high as those generally observed during satisfactory composting. To reveal the association of A. viridans in manure-related products with intramammary infection in cows, isolates were characterized by their DNA fragment patterns as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolates obtained from milk, processed manure and bedding materials had identical DNA fragment patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined for 29 isolates from milk, processed manure and bedding materials. Of these, 26 (89.7%) were resistant to clindamycin, whereas virtually all the isolates were susceptible to 12 other antimicrobials including cefalosporins that have been used to treat bovine mastitis in Japan. In vitro, three A. viridans isolates from milk and an isolate from processed manure survived for 3 hr in Good’s buffer (pH 9) at high temperature (50°C). The results suggest that the processed manure and bedding materials in this farm were possible sources of A. viridans that caused infection in the cows with mastitis. PMID:25843745

  1. An effective self-control strategy for the reduction of aflatoxin M1 content in milk and to decrease the exposure of consumers.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Kata; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Piva, Silvia; Zambrini, Vittorio; Canever, Alessandra; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-12-01

    The study reports the results of testing the sensitivity of an early warning sampling plan for detecting milk batches with high aflatoxin AFM1 concentration. The effectiveness of the method was investigated by the analysis of 9017 milk samples collected in Italian milk processing plants that applied control plans with different action limits (AL). For those milk processing plants where 30 ng kg(-1) AL has been applied, the AFM1 contamination was significantly lower at or above the 95th percentile of the milk samples when compared with plants that used 40 ng kg(-1) AL. The results show that the control plan can be used effectively for early warning of occurrence of high AFM1 contamination of milk and to carry out pro-active measures to limit the level of contamination. Estimation of dietary exposure was also carried out, based on the aflatoxin M1 content of the milk samples and on Italian food consumption data. Estimated Daily Intakes (EDI) and Hazard Indices (HI) were calculated for different age groups of the population. HIs show that no adverse effects are expected for the adult population, but in the case of children under age three, the approximate HI values were considerably higher. This underlines the importance of the careful monitoring and control of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

  2. Detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Botaro, B G; Cortinhas, C S; Março, L V; Moreno, J F G; Silva, L F P; Benites, N R; Santos, M V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based method to detect and quantify Staphylococcus aureus in bronopol-preserved milk samples from subclinical intramammary infections (IMI). Serial dilutions of milk artificially inoculated with Staph. aureus ATCC 29213 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) of the qPCR assay targeting the Staph. aureus thermonuclease-encoding gene nuc according to the strain plate count. The analytical sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. A total of 60 milk samples, collected from mammary quarters without abnormal appearance and with positive isolation of Staph. aureus, were submitted to both the qPCR protocol and Staph. aureus plate counting and results from both methods were compared. Staphylococcus aureus from bronopol-preserved, subclinical IMI milk samples were not accurately enumerated by qPCR compared with plate counting of the nonpreserved, raw milk sample. The detection limit of the qPCR protocol of inoculated Staph. aureus ATCC 29213 in bronopol-preserved milk samples was 1.04 × 10(1) cfu/mL. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect Staph. aureus IMI from bronopol-preserved milk samples compared with a traditional culturing method. However, the proposed qPCR protocol is not accurate for counting of Staph. aureus in bronopol-preserved milk samples from naturally infected mammary glands.

  3. Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Lisa M; Roper, Catherine E; Hamilton, Bridget E; Tellez, Juan José; McSherry, Bernadette M

    2016-03-03

    Objective This paper examines the perspectives of consumers and their supporters regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Methods Five focus groups for consumers and five focus groups for supporters were conducted in four Australian cities and in one rural location. The 66 participants were asked about strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Results All participants supported the reduction of the use of seclusion and restraint. Barriers to reducing these practices related to the environment, the effects of drug and alcohol issues, lack of a human rights focus and poor recognition of trauma, stigma and discrimination. Strategies for reducing or eliminating seclusion and restraint included workforce development, environmental and cultural changes.Conclusions Participants clearly identified that the status quo needs to change and conveyed urgency for action. Participants suggested that the involvement of supporters and a range of consumer roles are integral to reducing the use of seclusion and restraint. The findings support the current policy emphasis of working towards the elimination of these practices.What is known about the topic? Mental health policies across many jurisdictions support the reduction and elimination of restraint and seclusion. Evidence suggests those subjected to restraint and seclusion largely experience a range of harmful consequences. No studies focus on the views of supporters of consumers regarding the reduction and elimination of seclusion and restraint, whereas the views of consumers appear in a minority of international studies.What does this paper add? The research enabled an opportunity to hear from people who have been personally affected by and/or have lived experience of these coercive practices. Participants identified local reforms that can uphold the human rights of consumers. They suggested practices to increase accountability, peer support and

  4. Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with in-store sampling of an aged raw-milk Gouda cheese, 2010.

    PubMed

    McCollum, J T; Williams, N J; Beam, S W; Cosgrove, S; Ettestad, P J; Ghosh, T S; Kimura, A C; Nguyen, L; Stroika, S G; Vogt, R L; Watkins, A K; Weiss, J R; Williams, I T; Cronquist, A B

    2012-10-01

    In 2010, 41 patients ill with Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates determined to be indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were identified among residents of five Southwestern U.S. states. A majority of patients reported consuming complimentary samples of aged raw-milk Gouda cheese at national warehouse chain store locations; sampling Gouda cheese was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio, 9.0; 95 % confidence interval, 1.7 to 47). Several Gouda samples yielded the O157:H7 outbreak strain, confirming the food vehicle and source of infections. Implicated retail food-sampling operations were inconsistently regulated among affected states, and sanitation deficiencies were common among sampling venues. Inspection of the cheese manufacturer indicated deficient sanitation practices and insufficient cheese curing times. Policymakers should continue to reexamine the adequacy and enforcement of existing rules intended to ensure the safety of raw-milk cheeses and retail food sampling. Additional research is necessary to clarify the food safety hazards posed to patrons who consume free food samples while shopping.

  5. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  6. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Simon, Alan E.; Herrick, Kirsten A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow’s milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow’s milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow’s milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow’s milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  7. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels.

  8. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Kuroda, Naotaka; Akiyama, Syuzo; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2003-06-15

    This paper describes a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in milk samples. The method involves a liquid-liquid extraction procedure after saponification of milk samples with sodium hydroxide. Reproducible determination with highly sensitive detection was attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection using 1,2-bis(9-anthryl)ethane as an internal standard. The detection limits of 12 kinds of PAHs ranged from 1.3 to 76 ng/kg milk at a signal/noise ratio of 3. By the proposed method, the presence of 12 and 11 kinds of PAHs could be confirmed in commercial milk and human milk samples, respectively. The average concentrations of total PAHs (mean+/-SD, micro g/kg) were found to be 0.99+/-0.37 for commercial milk (n=14), 2.01+/-0.30 for infant formula (n=3) and 0.75+/-0.47 for human milk (n=51). High correlation coefficients between the concentrations of total PAHs and triglyceride were observed for commercial milk (r=0.659) and human milk (r=0.645).

  10. Consumers' behavior in quantitative microbial risk assessment for pathogens in raw milk: Incorporation of the likelihood of consumption as a function of storage time and temperature.

    PubMed

    Crotta, Matteo; Paterlini, Franco; Rizzi, Rita; Guitian, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne disease as a result of raw milk consumption is an increasing concern in Western countries. Quantitative microbial risk assessment models have been used to estimate the risk of illness due to different pathogens in raw milk. In these models, the duration and temperature of storage before consumption have a critical influence in the final outcome of the simulations and are usually described and modeled as independent distributions in the consumer phase module. We hypothesize that this assumption can result in the computation, during simulations, of extreme scenarios that ultimately lead to an overestimation of the risk. In this study, a sensorial analysis was conducted to replicate consumers' behavior. The results of the analysis were used to establish, by means of a logistic model, the relationship between time-temperature combinations and the probability that a serving of raw milk is actually consumed. To assess our hypothesis, 2 recently published quantitative microbial risk assessment models quantifying the risks of listeriosis and salmonellosis related to the consumption of raw milk were implemented. First, the default settings described in the publications were kept; second, the likelihood of consumption as a function of the length and temperature of storage was included. When results were compared, the density of computed extreme scenarios decreased significantly in the modified model; consequently, the probability of illness and the expected number of cases per year also decreased. Reductions of 11.6 and 12.7% in the proportion of computed scenarios in which a contaminated milk serving was consumed were observed for the first and the second study, respectively. Our results confirm that overlooking the time-temperature dependency may yield to an important overestimation of the risk. Furthermore, we provide estimates of this dependency that could easily be implemented in future quantitative microbial risk assessment models of raw milk pathogens.

  11. Presence of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk samples from Colombian women.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Squella, Ximena; Santos, Laura; Baumann, Wolfram; Landaeta, Diana; Jaimes, Adriana; Correa, Juan C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    The presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in biological and environmental samples has been studied for decades in many countries. Nonetheless, studies in Latin American countries like Colombia have been scarce. Determining the presence of OCPs in breast milk will be of relevance to assess exposures, potential health risks, and for surveillance among Latin American populations. Thirty-two breast-feeding mothers were selected to voluntarily participate in the study. Breast milk samples were analyzed for 10 OCPs (α-, β-, γ-, δ-HCH, Heptachlor, α-, γ-Chlordane, 4,4' DDT, 4,4' DDE, 4,4' DDD). Milk samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by sulfuric acid clean-up, and quantified using GC/μECD. Results were confirmed by GC/MS. OCPs concentrations were normalized using fat content. In all but one sample, 4,4' DDE was quantified in concentrations ranging between<17 and 14948 ng g(-1) (ng of OCP per g of lipids), with a mean value of 203 ng g(-1). One woman had 4,4' DDE concentrations that were orders of magnitude above the average concentrations observed worldwide. Concentrations of 4,4' DDE in a second breast milk sample collected in a different time period of lactation from a sub-group of 13 women from the original participants, showed no statistically significant difference with the concentrations found in the first sample. Based on the results obtained from the Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Monitoring Plan report of 2009 of the Stockholm Convention, Colombia ranks fourth from bottom to top in terms of 4,4' DDE average concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Boeren, S; de Vries, S C; van Valenberg, H J F; Vervoort, J; Hettinga, K

    2011-12-10

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as environmental factors. It is therefore important to study the qualitative and quantitative differences of bovine milk samples. Proteins in milk can be present in casein micelles, in the serum (the water soluble fraction) or in fat globules. These fat globules have a double membrane layer with proteins being bound to or being incapsulated in the membrane layer. The identification and molecular composition of the milk proteins have gained increased interest in recent years. Proteomic techniques make it now possible to identify up to many thousands of proteins in one sample, however quantification of proteins is as yet not straightforward. We analyzed the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane using dimethyl labeling methods combined with a filter-aided sample preparation protocol. Using these methods, it is now possible to quantitatively study the detailed protein composition of many milk samples in a short period of time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective

  14. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in milk samples by saponification-solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Llompart, M; Pazos, M; Landin, P; Cela, R

    2001-12-15

    A saponification-HSSPME procedure has been developed for the extraction of PCBs from milk samples. Saponification of the samples improves the PCB extraction efficiency and allows attaining lower background. A mixed-level fractional design has been used to optimize the sample preparation process. Five variables have been considered: extraction time, agitation, kind of microextraction fiber, concentration, and volume of NaOH aqueous solution. Also the kinetic of the process has been studied with the two fibers (100-microm PDMS and 65-microm PDMS-DVB) included in this study. Analyses were performed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector working in MS-MS mode. The proposed method is simple and rapid, and yields high sensitivity, with detection limits below 1 ng/mL, good linearity, and reproducibility. The method has been applied to liquid milk samples with different fat content covering the whole commercial range, and it has been validated with powdered milk certified reference material.

  15. The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.

  16. Nisin-Producing Lactococcus lactis Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ribotyping, and green fluorescent protein-based nisin bioassay revealed that 6 of 20 human milk samples contained nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis bacteria. This suggests that the history of humans consuming nisin is older than the tradition of consuming fermented milk products. PMID:15294850

  17. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched samples of human milk, dust and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Hearn, Laurence; Kennedy, Karen; Harden, Fiona; Bartkow, Michael; Temme, Christian; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic, persistent pollutants found worldwide in environmental and human samples. Exposure pathways for PBDEs remain unclear but may include food, air and dust. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of PBDE exposure and human body burden using 10 matched samples of human milk, indoor air and dust collected in 2007-2008 in Brisbane, Australia. In addition, temporal analysis was investigated comparing the results of the current study with PBDE concentrations in human milk collected in 2002-2003 from the same region. PBDEs were detected in all matrices and the median concentrations of BDEs -47 and -209 in human milk, air and dust were: 4.2 and 0.3 ng/g lipid; 25 and 7.8 pg/m(3); and 56 and 291 ng/g dust, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of BDE-99 in air and human milk (r=0.661, p=0.038) and BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in human milk (r=0.697, p=0.025). These correlations do not suggest causal relationships - there is no hypothesis that can be offered to explain why BDE-153 in dust and BDE-183 in milk are correlated. The fact that so few correlations were found in the data could be a function of the small sample size, or because additional factors, such as sources of exposure not considered or measured in the study, might be important in explaining exposure to PBDEs. There was a slight decrease in PBDE concentrations from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 but this may be due to sampling and analytical differences. Overall, average PBDE concentrations from these individual samples were similar to results from pooled human milk collected in Brisbane in 2002-2003 indicating that pooling may be an efficient, cost-effective strategy of assessing PBDE concentrations on a population basis. The results of this study were used to estimate an infant's daily PBDE intake via inhalation, dust ingestion and human milk consumption. Differences in PBDE intake of individual

  18. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  19. Advanced sample preparation for the molecular quantification of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially and naturally contaminated milk.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Walcher, Georg; Schelin, Jenny; Hein, Ingeborg; Norling, Börje; Rådström, Peter; Nicolau, Anca; Wagner, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Sample treatment is an essential element when using real-time PCR for quantification of pathogens directly on food samples. This study comparatively evaluated three different principles of sample treatment, i.e. immunomagnetic separation based on phage-derived cell wall binding molecules, matrix solubilization and flotation, in order to establish their suitability for quantifying low numbers of Staphylococcus aureus in milk. All three procedures succeeded to remove S. aureus from the milk matrix, either raw or pasteurized, and, as a result of the concentration of the target cells, minimized the effect of milk associated PCR inhibitors. Sample preparation based on immunomagnetic separation albeit of being user friendly, specific and rapid, failed to allow quantification of low and medium numbers (<10(4)CFU) of S. aureus. In a mastitic milk model cell wall binding domain (CBD)-based target cell extraction revealed results most closely matching those derived from culture-based quantification. Both matrix lysis and flotation allowed quantification of S. aureus at a level of 1-10 cells per ml. Both methods resulted in higher numbers of bacterial cell equivalents (bce) than plating could reveal. Since both methods harvest cells that have been subjected to either mechanical and chemical stresses before quantification, we concluded that the higher bce numbers resulted from a disaggregation of S. aureus clusters initially present in the inoculum. Conclusively, since likely each S. aureus cell of a toxigenic strain contributes to enterotoxin production, molecular quantification could provide an even more realistic impact assessment in outbreak investigations than plating does.

  20. Proteomic characterization of intermediate and advanced glycation end-products in commercial milk samples.

    PubMed

    Renzone, Giovanni; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-03-18

    The Maillard reaction consists of a number of chemical processes affecting the structure of the proteins present in foods. We previously accomplished the proteomic characterization of the lactosylation targets in commercial milk samples. Although characterizing the early modification derivatives, this analysis did not describe the corresponding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which may be formed from the further oxidation of former ones or by reaction of oxidized sugars with proteins, when high temperatures are exploited. To fill this gap, we have used combined proteomic procedures for the systematic characterization of the lactosylated and AGE-containing proteins from the soluble and milk fat globule membrane fraction of various milk products. Besides to confirm all lactulosyl-lysines described previously, 40 novel lactosylation sites were identified. More importantly, 308 additional intermediate and advanced glyco-oxidation derivatives (including cross-linking adducts) were characterized in 31 proteins, providing the widest qualitative inventory of modified species ascertained in commercial milk samples so far. Amadori adducts with glucose/galactose, their dehydration products, carboxymethyllysine and glyoxal-, 3-deoxyglucosone/3-deoxygalactosone- and 3-deoxylactosone-derived dihydroxyimidazolines and/or hemiaminals were the most frequent derivatives observed. Depending on thermal treatment, a variable number of modification sites was identified within each protein; their number increased with harder food processing conditions. Among the modified proteins, species involved in assisting the delivery of nutrients, defense response against pathogens and cellular proliferation/differentiation were highly affected by AGE formation. This may lead to a progressive decrease of the milk nutritional value, as it reduces the protein functional properties, abates the bioavailability of the essential amino acids and eventually affects food digestibility. These aspects

  1. Preparation and characterization of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the extraction of hexamethylenetetramine in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-15

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were synthesized as the sorbents for extracting hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) from milk samples. Molecular simulations were used to calculate the interaction energies of the template monomers. The physical properties of M-MIPs were characterized. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the amount of HMT residue in milk samples. In the optimized method, a linear calibration curve was obtained using a matrix-matched standard in the range of 1.0-50.0μgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.3μgkg(-1) and 1.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day assay ranged from 2.6% to 5.2%, while that of the inter-day assay ranged from 3.6% to 11.5%. The recovery of HMT in milk samples ranged from 88.7% to 111.4%.

  2. Serosurveillance of Schmallenberg virus in Switzerland using bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Sandra; Vögtlin, Andrea; Thür, Barbara; Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Houmard, Matthias; Danuser, Jürg; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-10-15

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus transmitted by biting midges, can cause abortions and malformations of newborns and severe symptoms in adults of domestic and wild ruminants. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the virus in a certain territory is important for the control and prevention of the disease. In this study, seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV and the spatial spread of the virus was investigated in Swiss dairy cattle applying a milk serology technique on bulk milk samples. The seroprevalence in cattle herds was significantly higher in December 2012 (99.5%) compared to July 2012 (19.7%). This high between-herd seroprevalence in cattle herds was observed shortly after the first detection of viral infections. Milk samples originating from farms with seropositive animals taken in December 2012 (n=209; mean 160%) revealed significantly higher S/P% ratios than samples collected in July 2012 (n=48; mean 103.6%). This finding suggests a high within-herd seroprevalence in infected herds which makes testing of bulk tank milk samples for the identification farms with past exposures to SBV a sensitive method. It suggests also that within-herd transmission followed by seroconversion still occurred between July and December. In July 2012, positive bulk tank milk samples were mainly restricted to the western part of Switzerland whereas in December 2012, all samples except one were positive. A spatial analysis revealed a separation of regions with and without positive farms in July 2012 and no spatial clustering within the regions with positive farms. In contrast to the spatial dispersion of bluetongue virus, a virus that is also transmitted by Culicoides midges, in 2008 in Switzerland, the spread of SBV occurred from the western to the eastern part of the country. The dispersed incursion of SBV took place in the western part of Switzerland and the virus spread rapidly to the remaining territory. This spatial

  3. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  4. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  5. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  6. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  7. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  9. Visual detection of melamine in milk samples based on label-free and labeled gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Li, Li; Zhou, Guohua; Liu, Zhihong; Ma, Qiao; Feng, Yuqi; Zeng, Guoping; Tinnefeld, Philip; He, Zhike

    2011-08-15

    Melamine that can cause serious damage to the organs of animal or human beings was found to bind to polythymine via hydrogen bonding. With this novel discovery, colorimetric detection of melamine based on label-free and labeled gold nanoparticles was developed, respectively. Both of the methods revealed good selectivity for melamine over other components that may exist in milk and good anti-influence ability. The raw milk samples were pretreated according to the National standard method combined with a solid phase extraction monolithic column. The accurate quantification of melamine as low as 41.7 nM and 46.5 nM was obtained, respectively. It also guarantees fast and reliable readout with naked eyes, making visual detection possible. Further comparison between label-free and labeled based methods was discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  11. Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngasala, J Uma Bukuku; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa Madundo Angelo

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of raw milk and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks and factors for poor milk hygiene in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania between October and December 2012. A total of 105 smallholder dairy farmers, milk vendors and milk retailers were interviewed, and milk samples were collected for physical, microbial and antibiotic residue analysis using standard procedures. Questionnaire results indicated high level of awareness (94 %) that drinking raw milk can predispose consumers to milk-borne diseases; nevertheless, 65 % of respondents consumed raw milk. Physicochemical analyses showed some of the milk had sediments (20 %), bad smell (21 %) and had clotted on alcohol test (27 %). About 36 % of milk samples had pH below 6.6, and 25 % had specific gravity below 1.028 g/ml. The mean total viable count (TVC) of milk from vendors is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from retailers and smallholder dairy farmers. Generally, 65 % of milk samples assessed had a higher TVC than the level recommended (2.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml) by the East African Community (EAC) standards. Up to 91 % of the milk samples had bacterial growth that included Eschericia coli (66 %), Staphylococcus aureus (33 %), Corynebacterium (11 %) and Pseudomonas (10 %). All smallholder dairy farmers were aware of drug residues, but majority (57 %) were unaware of human health effects caused by veterinary drug residues in milk. Up to 97 % of respondents reported to comply with drug withdrawal periods. This possibly led to all milk samples analysed to be negative from detectable levels of antibiotic residues. It is concluded that the level of awareness on milk quality is high, although practices associated with milking and post-harvest handling predispose milk to bacterial contamination which is a public health risk to milk consumers.

  12. Evaluation of Petrifilm for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples.

    PubMed

    Silva, B O; Caraviello, D Z; Rodrigues, A C; Ruegg, P L

    2005-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate (3M, Minneapolis, MN) for diagnosis of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine the sensitivity of Petrifilm compared with results of standard and augmented microbiological techniques, and the objective of experiment 2 was to compare microbiological results of composite and quarter milk samples processed using Petrifilm. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine the specificity of the Petrifilm method based on different interpretation parameters, and the objective of experiment 4 was to determine the repeatability of reading Petrifilm Staph Express plates. Results of standard microbiological techniques used for experiments 1 and 2 were compared with results of samples preprocessed using centrifugation or preincubation. The prevalence of recovery of Staph. aureus from milk samples processed using Petrifilm was significantly greater than the prevalence of milk samples processed using standard microbiological techniques. The sensitivity of isolation of Staph. aureus was 65.6, 75.0, 84.4, and 87.5% for standard, centrifugation, incubation, and Petrifilm methods, respectively. The occurrence of a distinct pink zone surrounding a colony was highly specific for Staph. aureus, and the specificity was 98.5 and 96.0% for experiments 3 and 4, respectively. The use of a weak pink zone to diagnose Staph. aureus resulted in a high rate of false-positive results. The interpretation of results of Petrifilm Staph Express was associated with the person that read the plates. Results from all 4 experiments indicate potential for the Petrifilm products as a diagnostic tool in some herd situations when Staph. aureus is the pathogen of interest. Results also indicate the need for standardization of interpretive criteria for personnel working with the products.

  13. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Alysia M.; House, John K.; Hazelton, Mark S.; Bosward, Katrina L.; Sheehy, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required. PMID:28264012

  14. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alysia M; House, John K; Hazelton, Mark S; Bosward, Katrina L; Sheehy, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required.

  15. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  16. Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Donachie, Willie; Macaldowie, Colin; Keefe, Greg

    2004-07-01

    Milk samples from 50 sheep on a single Scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. Samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (SCC) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. A total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. Statistical analysis on complete SCC and culture data showed no association between SCC and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were present. Only 3.6% of the samples were simultaneously positive for high count (> 10 colonies from 0.01 mL of milk) of any one bacterial species and high SCC (> 1 x 10(6)/mL). The bacteria recovered were: Staphylococcus equorum (19 times), S. xylosus (7 times), S. simulans (6 times), Streptococcus uberis (3 times) and other streptococci (4 times), Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (2 times), Staphylococcus aureus (1 time), S. capitis (1 time), and Enterococcus faecium (1 time). There was an association between the test day and SCC, with higher SCC values in the first 2 wk. In addition, significantly higher SCC values were found in the oldest animals compared to the other age groups.

  17. Evaluation of Three Bacterial Identification Systems for Species Identification of Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Bulk Tank Milk Samples.

    PubMed

    Savage, Emily; Chothe, Shubhada; Lintner, Valerie; Pierre, Traci; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Miller, Dawn; Tewari, Deepanker; Jayarao, Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Sensititre(®) Automated Reading and Incubation System 2x System (ARIS), API(®) (API), and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI) bacterial species identification systems using 132 diverse bacterial isolates from bovine milk samples and bulk tank milk received at the Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. The results were compared with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, which served as the reference method for species identification. The ARIS, API, and MALDI identified 0%, 40%, and 33.4% of species classified as Gram-positive rod isolates belonging to genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium, respectively. It was observed that 76.5%, 93.9%, and 96.9% of catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci (n = 33; Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus) were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively, while 33.4%, 84.5%, and 97.7% of catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci (n = 45; Kocuria, Staphylococcus) were correctly identified to their species by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. A total of 48 isolates (Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pasteurella, Providencia, Pseduomonas, Serratia) of Gram-negative bacteria were examined, of which 85.4%, 93.7%, and 95.8% of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level by ARIS, API, and MALDI, respectively. In our laboratory, the MALDI had the least costs associated with consumables and reagents compared to ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification methods. Identification of bacterial species was accomplished in <2 h using MALDI and 24 h for ARIS, API, and 16S rRNA identification systems.

  18. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  19. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95...

  20. Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from bulk tank milk and cull dairy cow fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Ivey, S J; Gillespie, B E; Almeida, R A; Draughon, F A; Oliver, S P

    2002-07-01

    The consumption of meat from cull dairy cows and of raw milk has been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. This survey was conducted to establish the prevalence of Salmonella in cull dairy cow fecal samples and bulk tank milk and to determine the proportion of Salmonella-positive dairy farms (n = 30) in east Tennessee. Food and Drug Administration bacteriological analytical protocols were generally used for Salmonella isolation. Primary enrichment was performed with lactose broth, and secondary enrichment was conducted with tetrathionate broth. Eosin methylene blue, hektoen enteric, xylose lysine desoxycholate, bismuth sulfite, and brilliant green (BG) were used as isolation agars. BG agars supplemented with individual antibiotics and/or sulfur compounds were also evaluated. Six of 268 (2.24%) bulk tank milk samples and 9 of 415 (2.17%) fecal samples from 7 of 30 (25.3%) dairy farms were Salmonella-positive. Most isolates (11 of 15) were obtained between September and December. Salmonella isolates were further characterized using polyvalent somatic O Salmonella antiserum, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG), and Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E strips for Enterobacteriaceae. Serological evaluation of presumptive positive Salmonella isolates resulted in substantial numbers of false positives (41.2%). ONPG and API 20E tests enabled further biochemical distinction of the majority of Salmonella spp. from Salmonella Arizonae and closely related members of Enterobacteriaceae like Citrobacter youngae. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-digested Salmonella DNA was used to subtype isolates. The isolates grouped into four clusters. The baseline information generated in this survey is being used to develop preharvest pathogen reduction programs on selected farms.

  1. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  2. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  3. Ion-exchange preconcentration and determination of vanadium in milk samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-García, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Romero-Romero, Rafael; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-06-15

    A new method for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of vanadium in milk and infant formulas using suspensions to avoid the need for previous dissolution of samples is described. Sensitivity is improved by a procedure based on preconcentration and removal of the matrix, using ion-exchange (Dowex 1X8-100). Suspensions of 15% (m/v) infant formula samples were prepared in a medium containing 0.05M sodium citrate (pH 7.2) and passed through the ion exchange column. Vanadium was eluted from the column using 1M hydrochloric acid and injected in the graphite furnace using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid plus magnesium nitrate as chemical modifiers. Calibration was carried out using multiple injection and aqueous standards prepared in the same medium. Detection limits were 0.2 ng g(-1) for infant formulas and 0.02 microg L(-1) for cow milk samples. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained with those found using a previous mineralization stage and by analyzing five certified reference materials.

  4. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  5. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  6. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  7. Predicting the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production of dairy cattle in Canada using an Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA from individual milk samples.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Sithole, Fortune; Keefe, Gregory; Stryhn, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Ostertagia ostertagi and several species of Cooperia, are ubiquitous in temperate climates and have been shown to have detrimental effects on production in adult dairy cattle. A published meta-analysis demonstrated that overall, producers lose approximately 0.35 kg of milk per parasitized cow per day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have the ability to quantify nematode infections in cattle, and thus, could be used to estimate the amount of milk production loss due to differing levels of parasitism at the individual cow level. ELISA results from individual cow milk samples were used to predict milk production response following a randomized anthelmintic treatment in a large field trial. To increase statistical power, the data collected from this field trial was pooled with data from two other published field trials to form an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA). The ability to predict the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production depends on the level of parasitism quantified by an ELISA measuring milk antibodies against O. ostertagi, and reported as optical density ratios (ODRs). Therefore, the estimates from the interaction between ODR and treatment on milk production were used to determine how well the ODR predicted the response of the treatment. It was anticipated that the relationship between milk production and ODR was unlikely to be linear, so fractional polynomials were applied to the continuous ODR values. The interaction in the field trial showed a trend (p=0.138) toward a beneficial treatment effect when the individual ODR values, measured in late lactation and using Svanovir(®), were greater than 0.12. When individual data from two other similar studies were included in an IPDMA, the interaction terms became statistically significant (p=0.009) indicating that there is a beneficial treatment effect when ODR values are slightly elevated. A graph was used to demonstrate the treatment

  8. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Helena; Barchesi, Luciana; Filho, Antonio Nader; Ferreira, Luciano Menezes; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3%) milk samples: 14 (6.7%) from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8%) from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3%) and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested. PMID:24031507

  9. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  10. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring.

  11. How much human milk do infants consume? Data from 12 countries using a standardized stable isotope methodology.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Teresa H M; Haisma, Hinke; Wells, Jonathan C K; Mander, Adrian P; Whitehead, Roger G; Bluck, Leslie J C

    2010-12-01

    The WHO has developed new growth curves based on breast-fed infants. Recommendations for energy intake have been adopted based on measurements of total energy expenditure. Data on human milk (HM) intake are needed to estimate the energy intake from this food source. However, objective HM data from around the world have not been available, because these measurements are difficult to obtain. Stable isotope methods have been developed to provide objective measurements over a 14-d period. A pooled analysis of 1115 data points of HM intake, obtained using the dose to the mother deuterium oxide turnover method, was undertaken in infants aged 0-24 mo from 12 countries across 5 continents. A hierarchical model was needed to estimate mean HM intake and its variance within and between countries given the complexity of the data. The overall mean HM intake was 0.78 (95% CI = 0.72, 0.84) kg/d, and the age-specific estimates indicated that intake increased over the first 3-4 mo and remained above 0.80 kg/d until 6-7 mo. The variability of intake increased in late infancy. Boys consumed 0.05 kg/d more than girls (P < 0.01). HM intake was strongly, inversely associated with non-HM water intake [r = -0.448 (95% CI -0.511 to -0.385); P < 0.0001]. These objective isotope values of HM intake improve our understanding of the magnitude and variability of HM intake within and across populations and help to estimate nutrient intakes in breast-fed infants.

  12. How Much Human Milk Do Infants Consume? Data from 12 Countries Using a Standardized Stable Isotope Methodology12

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Teresa H. M.; Haisma, Hinke; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Mander, Adrian P.; Whitehead, Roger G.; Bluck, Leslie J. C.

    2010-01-01

    The WHO has developed new growth curves based on breast-fed infants. Recommendations for energy intake have been adopted based on measurements of total energy expenditure. Data on human milk (HM) intake are needed to estimate the energy intake from this food source. However, objective HM data from around the world have not been available, because these measurements are difficult to obtain. Stable isotope methods have been developed to provide objective measurements over a 14-d period. A pooled analysis of 1115 data points of HM intake, obtained using the dose to the mother deuterium oxide turnover method, was undertaken in infants aged 0–24 mo from 12 countries across 5 continents. A hierarchical model was needed to estimate mean HM intake and its variance within and between countries given the complexity of the data. The overall mean HM intake was 0.78 (95% CI = 0.72, 0.84) kg/d, and the age-specific estimates indicated that intake increased over the first 3–4 mo and remained above 0.80 kg/d until 6–7 mo. The variability of intake increased in late infancy. Boys consumed 0.05 kg/d more than girls (P < 0.01). HM intake was strongly, inversely associated with non-HM water intake [r = −0.448 (95% CI −0.511 to −0.385); P < 0.0001]. These objective isotope values of HM intake improve our understanding of the magnitude and variability of HM intake within and across populations and help to estimate nutrient intakes in breast-fed infants. PMID:20980653

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimation of average daily intake by babies.

    PubMed

    Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M

    2017-01-02

    The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.

  14. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk for dairy metabolomics: a comparison of two sampling techniques and effect of homogenization.

    PubMed

    Aernouts, Ben; Polshin, Evgeny; Saeys, Wouter; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-10-31

    Milk production is a dominant factor in the metabolism of dairy cows involving a very intensive interaction with the blood circulation. As a result, the extracted milk contains valuable information on the metabolic status of the cow. On-line measurement of milk components during milking two or more times a day would promote early detection of systemic and local alterations, thus providing a great input for strategic and management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy to measure the milk composition using two different measurement modes: micro attenuated total reflection (μATR) and high throughput transmission (HTT). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of fat, crude protein, lactose and urea after preprocessing IR data and selecting the most informative wavenumber variables. The prediction accuracies were determined separately for raw and homogenized copies of a wide range of milk samples in order to estimate the possibility for on-line analysis of the milk. In case of fat content both measurement modes resulted in an excellent prediction for homogenized samples (R(2)>0.92) but in poor results for raw samples (R(2)<0.70). Homogenization was however not mandatory to achieve good predictions for crude protein and lactose with both μATR and HTT, and urea with μATR spectroscopy. Excellent results were obtained for prediction of crude protein, lactose and urea content (R(2)>0.99, 0.98 and 0.86 respectively) in raw and homogenized milk using μATR IR spectroscopy. These results were significantly better than those obtained by HTT IR spectroscopy. However, the prediction performance of HTT was still good for crude protein and lactose content (R(2)>0.86 and 0.78 respectively) in raw and homogenized samples. However, the detection of urea in milk with HTT spectroscopy was significantly better (R(2)=0.69 versus 0.16) after homogenization of the milk samples. Based on these

  15. Calcium from milk or calcium-fortified foods does not inhibit nonheme-iron absorption from a whole diet consumed over a 4-d period.

    PubMed

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Bukhave, Klaus; Jensen, Mikael; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Marianne

    2004-08-01

    Single-meal studies have indicated that calcium inhibits iron absorption in humans. However, numerous dietary factors influence iron absorption, and the effect of calcium may not be as pronounced when calcium is served as part of a whole diet. We investigated the effect of 3 sources of calcium served with the 3 main meals on nonheme-iron absorption from a 4-d diet. (59)Fe absorption was estimated from whole-body retention measurements in 14 women aged 21-34 y, each of whom consumed four 4-d diets in a randomized crossover design. The diets differed in the source of calcium as follows: a basic diet (BD) with a low content of calcium (224 mg Ca/d), a BD with a glass of milk served at each meal (826 mg Ca/d), a BD with calcium lactate (802 mg Ca/d), and a BD with a milk mineral isolate containing calcium (801 mg Ca/d). The 2 latter calcium sources were added to selected foods of the BD (rye bread, white bread, chocolate cake, and orange juice), and these foods were consumed with the 3 meals. All diets provided 13.2 mg Fe/d. No significant differences in nonheme-iron absorption were found between the BD and the BD supplemented with milk, calcium lactate, or the milk mineral isolate [7.4% (95% CI: 5.3%, 10.5%), 5.2% (3.5%, 7.9%), 6.7% (5.0%, 8.9%), and 5.1% (3.2%, 7.9%), respectively; P = 0.34]. Consumption of a glass of milk with the 3 main meals or of an equivalent amount of calcium from fortified foods does not decrease nonheme-iron absorption from a 4-d diet.

  16. Monoclonal antibody based inhibition ELISA as a new tool for the analysis of melamine in milk and pet food samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Li, Chun-Yuan; Li, Yan-Song; Ren, Hong-Lin; Lu, Shi-Ying; Tian, Xiang-Li; Hao, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Qing-Feng; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Meng, Xian-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Hui

    2012-12-15

    Stories of recent cases about melamine misuse to raise the false impression of a high protein content of milk in China emerged in September of 2008, have become an international health event. To meet the need for rapid and reliable monitoring of melamine in milk samples, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced and an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on the mAb. The standard curve was linear in the range from 0.03 to 9 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.35 ng mL(-1). The average recovery values of melamine in the liquid milk, powder milk, dog food and cat food were 99%, 96%, 9% and 98%, respectively and the coefficient of variation (CV) values of all samples were less than 10%. The obtained results showed a potential method as a tool for the rapid and reliable monitoring of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder samples (158 words). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of six methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for PCR-based genotyping applications using ovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Banos, Georgios

    2010-04-01

    Isolation of amplifiable genomic DNA is a prerequisite for the genetic assessment of diseases and disease susceptibility in farm animals. Milk somatic cells are a practical, animal friendly and cost-effective source of genomic DNA in milking ruminants. In this study, six different DNA extraction methods were optimized, evaluated and compared for the isolation of DNA from ovine milk samples. Methods 1 and 2 were direct applications of two commercial kits, Nucleospin((R)) Blood and Nucleospin((R)) Tissue, respectively. Methods 3 and 4 were based on modified protocols of methods 1 and 2, respectively, aiming at increasing DNA recovery and integrity, and eliminating PCR inhibitors. Method 5 was a standard Phenol-Chloroform protocol application and method 6 was based on an in-house developed protocol using silica as the affinity matrix. Spectrophotometer, gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR measurements were used as criteria for evaluating quantity and quality of the extracted DNA. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results suggested that methods 1-4 were considered suitable for molecular downstream applications and performed better than methods 5 and 6. Modifications of protocols 3 and 4 increased the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA from ovine milk samples. Method 3 was proved to be highly efficient and robust for large scale use as demonstrated by its successful application to 1000 individual ovine milk and 50 bulk milk samples.

  18. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Milk Samples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liqiang; Luo, Liju; Suryoprabowo, Steven; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for testing residues of ciprofloxacin (CIP). A specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) for CIP was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with well-characterized CIP-Keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Under the optimized conditions, the cut-off limits of test strips for CIP were found to be 5 ng/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 2.5 ng/mL in milk samples. Each test can be evaluated within 3 min. The cross-reactivities of the CIP test strip to enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), nadifloxacin (NDF), danofloxacin (DANO), pefloxacin (PEX), lomefloxacin (LOME), enoxacin (ENO), and sarafloxacin (SAR) were 71.4%, 71.4%, 66%, 50%, 33%, 20%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, respectively. The data indicate that the method is sensitive, specific, and has the advantages of simplicity and speed, therefore, this test strip is a useful screening method for the detection of CIP residues in milk samples. PMID:25211194

  19. MALDI Q-TOF CID MS for Diagnostic Ion Screening of Human Milk Oligosaccharide Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Marko; Tyldesley-Worster, Richard; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) represent the bioactive components of human milk, influencing the infant’s gastrointestinal microflora and immune system. Structurally, they represent a highly complex class of analyte, where the main core oligosaccharide structures are built from galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, linked by 1–3 or 1–4 glycosidic linkages and potentially modified with fucose and sialic acid residues. The core structures can be linear or branched. Additional structural complexity in samples can be induced by endogenous exoglycosidase activity or chemical procedures during the sample preparation. Here, we show that using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) collision-induced dissociation (CID) as a fast screening method, diagnostic structural information about single oligosaccharide components present in a complex mixture can be obtained. According to sequencing data on 14 out of 22 parent ions detected in a single high molecular weight oligosaccharide chromatographic fraction, 20 different oligosaccharide structure types, corresponding to over 30 isomeric oligosaccharide structures and over 100 possible HMO isomers when biosynthetic linkage variations were taken into account, were postulated. For MS/MS data analysis, we used the de novo sequencing approach using diagnostic ion analysis on reduced oligosaccharides by following known biosynthetic rules. Using this approach, de novo characterization has been achieved also for the structures, which could not have been predicted. PMID:24743894

  20. Quantitative separation of oxytocin, norfloxacin and diclofenac sodium in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Solangi, Amber R; Memon, Saima Q; Mallah, Arfana; Khuhawar, M Y; Bhanger, M I

    2009-09-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid method has been developed for simultaneous separation and quantification of three different drugs: oxytocin (OT), norfloxacin (NOR) and diclofenac (DIC) sodium in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV detection at 220 nm. Factors affecting the separation were pH, concentration of buffer and applied voltage. Separation was obtained in less than 9 min with sodium tetraborate buffer of pH 10.0 and applied voltage 30 kV. The separation was carried out from uncoated fused silica capillary with effective length of 50 cm with 75 microm i.d. The carrier electrolyte gave reproducible separation with calibration plots linear over 0.15-4.0 microg/mL for OT, 5-1000 microg/mL for NOR and 3-125 microg/mL for DIC. The lower limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 50 ng/mL for OT, and 1 microg/mL for NOR and DIC. The method was validated for the analysis of drugs in milk samples and pharmaceutical preparations with recovery of drugs within the range 96-100% with RSD 0.9-2.8%.

  1. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of ciprofloxacin in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqiang; Luo, Liju; Suryoprabowo, Steven; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2014-09-10

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for testing residues of ciprofloxacin (CIP). A specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) for CIP was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with well-characterized CIP-Keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Under the optimized conditions, the cut-off limits of test strips for CIP were found to be 5 ng/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 2.5 ng/mL in milk samples. Each test can be evaluated within 3 min. The cross-reactivities of the CIP test strip to enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), nadifloxacin (NDF), danofloxacin (DANO), pefloxacin (PEX), lomefloxacin (LOME), enoxacin (ENO), and sarafloxacin (SAR) were 71.4%, 71.4%, 66%, 50%, 33%, 20%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, respectively. The data indicate that the method is sensitive, specific, and has the advantages of simplicity and speed, therefore, this test strip is a useful screening method for the detection of CIP residues in milk samples.

  2. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using milk samples as a potential screening test of bovine tuberculosis of dairy cows in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Je, Sungmo; Kwak, Jeongyeon; Cho, Jang-Eun; Woo, Jong-Tae; Seo, Sangkyo; Shim, Hang-Sub; Park, Byoung-Ok; Lee, Sung-Sik; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2010-06-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using bulk tank milk samples was evaluated as a screening test for bovine tuberculosis (TB), a contagious chronic disease of cattle. An ELISA with MPB70, a major antigen of Mycobacterium bovis was performed using paired sets of milk and sera samples from 33 tuberculin-positive and 43 tuberculin-negative cattle. Anti-MPB70 antibodies were detected in milk samples and there was a significant correlation between seroreactivities of milk and sera samples (R(2)=0.83). Using the tuberculin skin test as the reference test, the sensitivities of ELISA using milk and sera samples were 87.8% and 81.8%, respectively, and the specificities were 97.7% and 100%, respectively. In the screening test using bulk tank milk samples from 931 dairy herds in Whasung, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, the positive rate for anti-MPB70 antibody was 4.5% (42/931) and the tuberculin-positive rate was 2.8% (26/931). Individual milk samples (n=253) were collected from randomly selected 8 problematic and 3 negative herds (positive and negative in the screening test by MPB70 ELISA using bulk tank milk samples, respectively) and tested by MPB70 milk ELISA. In the problematic herds, positive rates were 10.5% (20/190) for anti-MPB70 antibodies in milk ELISA and 2.1% (4/190) in the tuberculin skin test. More than one dairy cows were positive by milk ELISA among the problematic herds, and all tuberculin-positive dairy cows were positive in the milk ELISA. Further, no positive cows were detected in negative herds both by milk ELISA and tuberculin skin test. These results suggest that an ELISA, using bulk tank milk samples, might be a potential efficient screening test for bovine TB of dairy cows. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; Sabia, Serena; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Anastasio, Aniello; Ragosta, Maria; Paino, Salvatore

    2005-09-01

    We measured Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb levels in samples of fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues collected from 12 ovine farms in the regions of Campania and Calabria (Southern Italy). The areas in which the farms are located show different levels of anthropogenic pressure. The main purpose of this study is the identification and the analysis of relationships among metal concentrations observed in samples representative of different links in the food chain. Particularly, we apply univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques to identify the correlation structure of our data set and to evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activity. We discuss the results, focusing the analysis on the spatial and the temporal patterns of metal concentrations.

  4. Dioxins and furans in the Jordanian environment. Part 2: Levels of PCDD and PCDF in human milk samples from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alawi, M A; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W; Bahadir, M

    1996-12-01

    Thirty individual human milk samples were gathered from five main towns in Jordan. They were mixed to six pooled samples and analyzed for PCDD and PCDF. All examined samples were contaminated with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD (3.2-96.0 ng/kg fat) and OctaCDD (29.0-147 ng/kg fat). The calculated TEQ (BGA)-values range between 0.26 and 60.32 ng TEQ/kg fat, which are all above the calculated tolerable concentration of 0.19 ng TEQ/kg milk fat.

  5. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  6. Children consuming milk cereal drink are at increased risk for overweight: The IDEFICS Sweden study, on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium.

    PubMed

    Wiberger, Maja; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Papoutsou, Stalo; Hunsberger, Monica

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize milk cereal drink (MCD) consumption among Swedish children and to investigate the association between MCD and overweight in a longitudinally followed cohort of children over 2 years of age. In the Swedish cohort from IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) we examined early feeding practices and weight status when children were aged 2-9 years (2007/2008) and at 2-year follow-up. Weight and height were measured at both time points in 1077 children. Characteristics of MCD consumers were explored with logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores at both time points and weight status at follow-up were regressed on explanatory factors using mixed linear and logistic regression, respectively. Nearly 69% of children had consumed MCD. The MCD consumers were more likely than never-consumers to have two native Swedish parents, parents with less than 2 years of post-secondary education, and a shorter period of breastfeeding. MCD consumers had a higher BMI z-score at follow-up compared with baseline (difference in BMI z-score=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.07, 0.17), while the average BMI z-score in non-consumers remained stable over time (0.00, 95% CI= -0.07, 0.07). MCD consumers were nearly five times more likely than non-consumers to become overweight during the follow-up (odds ratio (OR)=4.78, 95% CI=1.68, 13.59), independent of breastfeeding. MCD was consumed by the majority of children in this study. MCD consumption is associated with an increased risk for overweight and less exposure to breastfeeding. Our findings motivate future research aimed at investigating how MCD should be recommended. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level.

  8. Selective extraction and determination of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk samples with montmorillonite magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Yanqing; Wei, Shoulian; Yao, Su; Zhang, Jiali; Huang, Huichang

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method for separating fluoroquinolones (FQs) from bovine milk samples was successfully developed using montmorillonite magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMMIPs) as adsorbents. MMMIPs were prepared using montmorillonite as carrier, fleroxacin (FLE) as template molecule, and Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component. MMMIPs possessed high adsorption capacity of 46.3 mg g(-1) for FLE. A rapid and convenient magnetic solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with capillary electrophoresis was established with MMMIPs as adsorbents for simultaneous and selective extraction of four FQs in bovine milk samples. Limits of detection ranged between 12.9 and 18.8 μg L(-1), and the RSDs were between 1.8% and 8.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied to spike bovine milk samples with recoveries of 92.7%-108.6%.

  9. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed.

  10. Determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples by polymer inclusion membrane separation coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Silva, Irma; Rodríguez, José A; Ramírez-Silva, Ma Teresa; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2012-03-09

    The determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples using a polymer inclusion membrane concept with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was studied. The membranes developed are composed by cellulose acetate as polymer base, Cyanex 923 as carrier and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer. In the optimal conditions, the method exhibits good linearity in the range 0.03-0.20 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection and quantification of 8.2 and 27.3 μg L(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of milk samples with high selectivity.

  11. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in cow's milk samples from tropical regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. Their residues accumulate in lipid-rich tissues due to their chemical stability and persistence. In the body they circulate throughout all compartments, deposit themselves in adipose fat and can be excreted during lactation. These pesticides are applied in tropical zones and drift to areas where cattle graze. Therefore, analyses of cow's milk samples can serve as an indicator of environmental and cows' exposure to them. One hundred and fifty milk samples were taken each year in 1998 and 2001 and analysed to determine concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH, pp"-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT. Results obtained indicate that beta-HCH is one of the main contaminants (0.106 and 0.087 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.078 and 0.037 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis) and pp'-DDE (0.051 and 0.033 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). The HCB and op'-DDT were detected in lower quantities respectively (0.008 and 0.006 mg x kg(-1), and 0.031 and 0.010 mg x kg(-1) on fat basis). When comparing the results obtained with those from the previous study, it was noted that DDT levels decreased significantly in 2001 as a result of the substitution of the organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids sprayed by the Mexican Ministry of Health to combat malaria since 1999.

  12. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Björklund, J A; Sellström, U; de Wit, C A; Aune, M; Lignell, S; Darnerud, P O

    2012-08-01

    Household dust from 19 Swedish homes was collected using two different sampling methods: from the occupant's own home vacuum cleaner after insertion of a new bag and using a researcher-collected method where settled house dust was collected from surfaces above floor level. The samples were analyzed for 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Significant correlations (r = 0.60-0.65, Spearman r = 0.47-0.54, P < 0.05) were found between matched dust samples collected with the two sampling methods for ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE but not for ∑PentaBDE or HBCD. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of all PBDE congeners were found in the researcher-collected dust than in the home vacuum cleaner bag dust (VCBD). For HBCD, however, the concentrations were significantly higher in the home VCBD samples. Analysis of the bags themselves indicated no or very low levels of PBDEs and HBCD. This indicates that there may be specific HBCD sources to the floor and/or that it may be present in the vacuum cleaners themselves. The BDE-47 concentrations in matched pairs of VCBD and breast milk samples were significantly correlated (r = 0.514, P = 0.029), indicating that one possible exposure route for this congener may be via dust ingestion. The statistically significant correlations found for several individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE between the two dust sampling methods in this study indicate that the same indoor sources contaminate both types of dust or that common processes govern the distribution of these compounds in the indoor environment. Therefore, either method is adequate for screening ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE in dust. The high variability seen between dust samples confirms results seen in other studies. For hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), divergent results in the two dust types indicate differences in contamination sources to the floor than to above-floor surfaces

  13. Mammary candidiasis: molecular-based detection of Candida species in human milk samples.

    PubMed

    Mutschlechner, W; Karall, D; Hartmann, C; Streiter, B; Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective and monocentric study, we investigated the performance of a commercialized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test system for the specific detection of DNA from Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis in human milk samples of patients suspicious of mammary candidiasis. For this purpose, 43 breast-feeding women with characteristic symptoms of mammary candidiasis and 40 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. By culture, Candida spp. were detected in 8.8 % (4/46) and 9.3 % (4/43) of patient and control samples, respectively. Candida albicans (2/46), C. parapsilosis (1/46), and C. guilliermondii (1/46) were present in patient samples, and C. lusitaniae (3/43) and C. guilliermondii (1/43) were present in the controls. After RT-PCR was applied, Candida spp. were found to be present in 67.4 % (31/46) and 79.1 % (34/43) of patient and control samples investigated, respectively. PCR detection of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis revealed only a low sensitivity and specificity of 67.4 % and 41.9 %, respectively. Our data do not support the use of Candida RT-PCR for sensitive and specific diagnosis of mammary candidiasis.

  14. Associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in bulk tank milk, season of sampling and protocols for managing infected cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify associations between the concentration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in bulk milk and potential risk factors in herd management and herd characteristics, explaining high MAP antibody titers in milk. An extensive questionnaire was administered to 292 organic and conventional dairy farms from New York, Wisconsin and Oregon. Bulk milk samples were taken from each farm for MAP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A general linear model was constructed with MAP ELISA value as the outcome variable and the management factors and herd characteristics as independent variables, while at the same time controlling for the study design variables of state, herd size, and production system (organic or conventional). High bulk tank MAP ELISA value may be due to either a high prevalence of MAP in a herd with many cows contributing to the antibody titer or due to a few infected cows that produce large quantities of antibodies. Results Results of the regression models indicated that bulk milk ELISA value was associated with season of sampling and the presence or absence of protocols for managing MAP-positive cows. The concentration of MAP antibodies in bulk milk varied seasonally with a peak in the summer and low concentrations in the winter months. When compared to farms that had never observed clinical Johne’s disease, keeping MAP-positive cows or only culling them after a period of delay was associated with an increase in optical density. Conclusions The seasonal variation in MAP antibody titers, with a peak in the summer, may be due to a seasonal increase in MAP-bacterial load. Additionally, seasonal calving practices may contribute to seasonal fluctuations in MAP antibody titers in bulk tank milk. Keeping MAP-positive cows increases the antibody titer in bulk milk, likely due to direct antibody production in the infected cow and indirect triggering of antibody production in herdmates

  15. [Quantitative determination of the protein content of milk by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 3. Determination of proteins in preserved milk samples].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, W; Schüler, E; Sieber, L; Schüler, E

    1987-01-01

    It is reported upon the results of the quantitative estimation of protein content from preserved milk by means of ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In addition to the preservation by boric acid, bronopol, copper sulphate, potassium dichromate and ammonium peroxodisulphate storage at temperatures below 0 degrees C and freeze drying were tested. Besides bronopol and copper sulphate especially physical preservation methods proves fit for the protein estimation by measurements of absorbance at 210 nm, 235 and 280 nm or 210 and 220 nm. It is recommended to use solutions and filters of quartz with evaluated absorbance in daily calibrating of the spectrophotometer.

  16. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  17. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Maria; Ehresman, David J; Bignert, Anders; Butenhoff, John L; Olsen, Geary W; Chang, Shu-Ching; Bergman, Ake

    2011-01-01

    The widespread presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in human general populations and their slow elimination profiles have led to renewed interest in understanding the potential human neonatal exposures of perfluoroalkyls (PFAs) from consumption of human milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk samples obtained in Sweden between 1972 and 2008 (a period representing the most significant period of PFA production) and to see whether the time trend of these analytes parallels that indicated in human serum. Chemical analysis of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA was performed on pooled Swedish human milk samples from 1972 to 2008 after methodological refinements. The 20 samples which formed the 2007 pool were also analyzed individually to evaluate sample variations. Analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS. Due to the complexities of the human milk matrix and the requirement to accurately quantitate low pg/mL concentrations, meticulous attention must be paid to background contamination if accurate results are to be obtained. PFOS was the predominant analyte present in the pools and all three analytes showed statistically significant increasing trends from 1972 to 2000, with concentrations reaching a plateau in the 1990s. PFOA and PFOS showed statistically significant decreasing trends during 2001-2008. At the end of the study, in 2008, the measured concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk were 75 pg/mL, 14 pg/mL, and 74 pg/mL, respectively. The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine milk and lung samples.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hugh Y; Bell-Rogers, Patricia; Parker, Lois; Prescott, John F

    2005-11-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using hybridization probes on a LightCycler platform was developed for detection of Mycoplasma bovis from individual bovine mastitis milk and pneumonic lung tissues. The detection limit was 550 colony forming units (cfu)/ml of milk and 650 cfu/25 mg of lung tissue. A panel of bovine Mycoplasma and of other bovine-origin bacteria were tested; only M. bovis strains were positive, with a melting peak of 66.6 degrees C. Mycoplasma agalactiae PG2 was also positive and could be distinguished because it had a melting peak of 63.1 degrees C. In validation testing of clinical samples, the relative sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99.3% for individual milks and 96.6% and 100% for the lung tissue. Using M. bovis real-time PCR, the M. bovis culture-positive milk samples were estimated to contain between 5 x 10(4) and 7.7 x 10(8) cfu/ml and the M. bovis culture-positive lungs between 1 x 10(3) and 1 x 10(9) cfu/25 mg. Isolation, confirmed with the real-time PCR and colony fluorescent antibody test, showed that at the herd level, the proportion of samples positive for M. bovis isolation in mastitis milk samples submitted to the Mastitis Laboratory, Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, was 2.4% (5/201). We conclude that this probe-based real-time PCR assay is a sensitive, specific, and rapid method to identify M. bovis infection in bovine milk and pneumonic lungs.

  19. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  20. Variation in the composition of selected milk fraction samples from healthy and mastitic quarters, and its significance for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Baljinder K; Hamann, Joern; Grabowskit, Nils Th; Singh, Krishan B

    2005-05-01

    Seven variables--electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactose, protein, fat and pH--were compared in four quarter milk fractions (MF1: strict foremilk; MF2: first 12-15 ml foremilk; MF3: subsequent 40-45 ml milk; MF4: strippings) and in one cow composite milk sample (CC) per cow. The study used 142 quarters from 37 lactating cows of the German Black Pied breed. To rule out any possible effect due to management, animal physiology and analytical procedures, the collection and processing of milk samples from each cow was repeated for three consecutive days, and the means of 3-d values were used. All variables were affected significantly by milk fraction and udder health. Compared with foremilk, EC, lactose and protein levels in strippings decreased, while SCC, NAGase and fat increased. The pH of foremilk and strippings did not differ significantly in healthy or in mastitic quarters. The difference between MF1 and MF2 was significant for EC in mastitic quarters, and for SCC in healthy quarters only. In general, mastitis resulted in a significant increase in EC, SCC, NAGase and protein but in a decrease in lactose and fat contents of milk in one or more of the milk fractions studied. Comparison of cow composite milk samples from healthy and mastitic cows revealed the significance (P < 0.01) of udder health for EC, SCC and lactose. Of the different parameters that can distinguish between healthy and mastitic quarters or cows, EC could be used to classify 76% of quarters and 73% of cows correctly, while the lactose content permitted correct identification of 81% of quarters and 76% of cows. NAGase and pH could be used to determine the status of 73% and 61% of quarters, respectively. In general, the correlation observed in strippings was higher than in foremilk for almost all the variables studied. Surprisingly, EC, SCC, NAGase and lactose in milk from healthy quarters of mastitic cows (with at least one mastitic

  1. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (<0.008-0.032 µg/L) in 27% (34 out of 126) of the buffalo milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  2. NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS IN BREAST MILK

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Gardner, Alexandra L.; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Walter, Peter J.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants’ milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  3. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications.

  4. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  5. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30): -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  6. Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥30): −36% and −62% in men and −42% and −48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Conclusions Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers. PMID:24204721

  7. Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes of Listeria monocytogenes by PCR in artificially contaminated milk samples.

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, K J; Nishibori, T; Xiong, H; Matsuyama, T; Fujita, M; Mitsuyama, M

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of milk in the PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes could be overcome by washing the contaminated milk sample with phosphate-buffered saline and concentrating the bacteria to 1/10 of the original volume. In order to avoid a possible failure in the detection of virulent L. monocytogenes, a one-step procedure which enabled demonstration of three virulence-associated genes, prfA, hlyA, and plcB, simultaneously in a single PCR mixture was developed. Images PMID:8085838

  8. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-09-26

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  9. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers.

  10. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in relation to the somatic cell count in quarter, cow composite and bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Maria; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2007-05-01

    Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is the gold standard in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, and is also an important parameter in quality programmes of dairy cooperatives. As routine SCC analysis is usually restricted to central laboratories, much effort has been invested in the search for alternative biomarkers of mastitis and milk quality, including the presence in the milk of the acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA). The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between Hp, SAA and SCC in quarter, cow composite, and bulk tank milk samples. Cows (n=165), without any clinical signs of disease or abnormalities in the milk or udder, from three different dairy farms, were used. Cow composite milk samples from all cows delivering milk at the sampling occasion were taken once in each herd. In one of the farms, representative quarter milk samples (n=103) from 26 cows were also collected. In addition, bulk tank milk samples from 96 dairy farms were included in the study. Samples were analysed for Hp, SAA and SCC, and relationships between the parameters were evaluated at quarter, cow and tank milk levels using Chi-square analysis. Milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, and the presence, or no presence, of SAA and Hp, based on the detection limits of the screening methods (0.3 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l for SAA and Hp, respectively). Hp and SAA were found in milk at quarter, cow composite and bulk tank levels. A large proportion (53%) of the animals had detectable milk concentrations of APP, and SAA was detected more frequently, and at higher concentrations than Hp, regardless of sample type. SAA was detected in as many as 82% of the bulk tank milk samples. Significant relationships were found between Hp, SAA and SCC at quarter and cow composite milk levels, but only between SAA and SCC at bulk tank milk level. Detectable levels of APP were more common at high SCC.

  11. Technical note: Identification of Prototheca species from bovine milk samples by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Pozzi, F; Ricchi, M; Castiglioni, B; Luini, M; Chessa, S

    2012-12-01

    We report the development of a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method to identify Prototheca spp. responsible for bovine mastitis: P. zopfii and P. blaschkeae. The method was set up using reference strains belonging to P. zopfii genotype 1, P. zopfii genotype 2, and P. blaschkeae as target species and P. stagnora, and P. ulmea as negative controls. The assay was applied on 50 isolates of Prototheca spp. isolated from bovine mastitic milk or bulk-tank milk samples, and all isolates were identified as P. zopfii genotype 2. We conclude that the described PCR-SSCP approach is accurate, inexpensive, and highly suitable for the identification of P. zopfii genotype 2 on field isolates but also directly on milk, if preceded by a specific DNA extraction method.

  12. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both

  14. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  15. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human milk, soil, water, and food samples collected from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate.

    PubMed

    Dogheim, S M; Mohamed el-Z; Gad Alla, S A; el-Saied, S; Emel, S Y; Mohsen, A M; Fahmy, S M

    1996-01-01

    Pesticide residues in human milk and environmental samples from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate in Egypt were analyzed. This governorate is located near one of the biggest pesticide factories in Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were monitored, including those that have been prohibited from use in Egypt. Human milk samples (31 samples) from Kafr El-Zayat were compared with 11 samples collected from Cairo. Data were compared with results from studies performed in 1987 and 1990. The present study showed that aldrin and dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and endrin residues have been eliminated from human milk. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDT complex and gamma-HCH by breast-fed infants in Kafr El-Zayat were 85.96 and 3.1% of the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). beta-HCH residues showed an increasing pattern, especially in human milk samples from Cairo. DDT complex and HCH isomers in orange, spinach, lettuce, potatoes, and clover samples ranged from undetectable to very low concentrations. Higher levels of DDT and HCH were detected, but aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the heptachlors were not detected in food of animal origin. Residues in fish samples were below maximum residue limits established by some developed countries. Those in animal milk samples approached the extraneous residue limits of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. HCH residues in soil were negligible, but DDT residues in soil were somewhat higher. Among water samples, groundwater samples had the highest residues of HCHs and DDTs, followed by Nile River water and then tap water. However, the organochlorine pesticide residues were found at concentrations below the maximum allowable limits set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Among 12 organophosphorus pesticides monitored as parent compounds, dimethoate, malathion, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos residues were detected in low concentrations in soil samples from a pesticide factory. No

  16. Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Joseph S.; McNamara, Kelly A.; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Geraghty, Sheela R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). RESULTS: Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >104 colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = −0.36 [95% confidence interval: −0.55 to −0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs. PMID:24144714

  17. Microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; Hogan, Joseph S; McNamara, Kelly A; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E; Kwiek, Jesse J; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2013-11-01

    To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >10(4) colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = -0.36 [95% confidence interval: -0.55 to -0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs.

  18. Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was significantly increased in the presence of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. In milk, the solubility of EOCs was lower than in water, with lower solubility in higher-fat milk. EOCs applied to milk as stock solutions (in 95% aqueous ethanol) enabled quicker dissolution and higher solubility in milk serum than other methods of mixing, such as end to end, and greater reductions of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after 0 and 24 h. When the EOC concentration detected in milk serum was above the minimum bactericidal concentration, complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth resulted. Therefore, the antilisterial properties in milk could be correlated with the solubility by comparison to the minimum inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations of EOCs. While the EOCs applied using ethanol generally had solubility and activity characteristics superior to those of other mixing methods, ethanol is not used to a great extent in nonfermented foods. Therefore, mixing methods without an organic solvent may be more readily adaptable to enhancing the distribution of EOCs in complex food systems. PMID:24271170

  19. The lactoferrin receptor may mediate the reduction of eosinophils in the duodenum of pigs consuming milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin; Nonnecke, Eric; Lönnerdal, Bo; Murray, James

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin is part of the immune system and multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung contain receptors for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has many functions, including antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and iron binding. Additionally, lactoferrin inhibits the migration of eosinophils, which are constitutively present in the GI tract, and increase during inflammation. Lactoferrin suppresses eosinophil infiltration into the lungs and eosinophil migration in -vitro. Healthy pigs have a large population of eosinophils in their small intestine and like humans, pigs have small intestinal lactoferrin receptors (LFR); thus, pigs were chosen to investigate the effects of consumption of milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk) on small intestinal eosinophils and expression of eosinophilic cytokines. In addition, LFR localization was analyzed in duodenum and circulating eosinophils to determine if the LFR could play a role in lactoferrin's ability to inhibit eosinophil migration. In the duodenum there were significantly fewer eosinophils/unit area in pigs fed rhLF-milk compared to pigs fed control milk (p = 0.025); this was not seen in the ileum (p = 0.669). In the duodenum, no differences were observed in expression of the LFR, or any eosinophil migratory cytokines, and the amount of LFR protein was not different (p = 0.386). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that within the duodenum the LFR localized on the brush border of villi, crypts, and within the lamina propria. Circulating eosinophils also contained LFRs, which may be a mechanism allowing lactoferrin to directly inhibit eosinophil migration.

  20. Development of a specific immunomagnetic capture-PCR for rapid detection of viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sanna, G; Lecca, V; Foddai, A; Tola, S

    2014-12-01

    To develop an immunomagnetic capture (IMC) to detect viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in routine ovine milk samples. Polyclonal antibodies against two M. agalactiae membrane surface proteins (P80 and P55) were covalently conjugated to magnetic beads (MBs) to form MB-Ab80 and MB-Ab55. Mycoplasma agalactiae cells were captured by a specific antigen-antibody reaction and magnetic separation. Immunomagnetic capture (IMC) was used to isolate and concentrate M. agalactiae in serial decimal dilutions and in artificially contaminated milk to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR. A 375-bp fragment of M. agalactiae was amplified using a pair of M. agalactiae-specific primers in PCR. The limit of detection of IMC-PCR method ranged from 10 to 10(2)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in PBS and from 10(2) to 10(3)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in uncontaminated ovine milk. This study also describes the application of IMC-PCR method to test for M. agalactiae in 516 milk samples collected from sheep with suspected contagious agalactia. Its performance was evaluated relative to culture. This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMC combined with PCR assay for the detection of viable M. agalactiae. The method IMC-PCR provides an alternative to conventional microbiological detection, method and it could be applied to quick detection of M. agalactiae in routine sheep milk samples. © 2014 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

    PubMed

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Kato, Masaru; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-07-18

    Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Lewis Blood Group: Individual High-Throughput Sample Profiling to Enhance Conclusions From Functional Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Dennis; Dotz, Viktoria; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are discussed to play a crucial role in an infant’s development. Lewis blood group epitopes, in particular, seem to remarkably contribute to the beneficial effects of HMO. In this regard, large-scale functional human studies could provide evidence of the variety of results from in vitro investigations, although increasing the amount and complexity of sample and data handling. Therefore, reliable screening approaches are needed. To predict the oligosaccharide pattern in milk, the routine serological Lewis blood group typing of blood samples can be applied due to the close relationship between the biosynthesis of HMO and the Lewis antigens on erythrocytes. However, the actual HMO profile of the individual samples does not necessarily correspond to the serological determinations. This review demonstrates the capabilities of merging the traditional serological Lewis blood group typing with the additional information provided by the comprehensive elucidation of individual HMO patterns by means of state-of-the-art analytics. Deduced from the association of the suggested HMO biosynthesis with the Lewis blood group, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiles of oligosaccharides in individual milk samples exemplify the advantages and the limitations of sample assignment to distinct groups. PMID:22585923

  3. Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite for highly sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in food samples milk, honey and powdered milk.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Umamaheswari, Rajaji; Joseph Santhanaraj, K; Sathiyan, Anandaraj

    2017-01-01

    We have described a hybrid material that consists of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (MoS2) coated on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for sensitive and selective determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a hydrothermal process and its structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite holds excellent electrochemical properties and it displays excellent electrocatalytic ability to CAP. Under optimized working conditions, the nanocomposite film modified electrode responds linearly to CAP in the concentration range of 0.08-1392μM. The detection limit was obtained as 0.015μM (±0.003). The electrode has high level of selectivity in presence of large excess concentrations of interfering species. In addition, the modified electrode offers satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility and stability. The practical applicability of the electrode was demonstrated in food samples such as, milk, powdered milk and honey samples and the recoveries are agreeable which clearly revealed its practical feasibility in food analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR analysis and bacteriological culture of milk samples for identification of intramammary infections in dairy cows using latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Emanuelson, U; Frössling, J

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR analysis of milk samples is a fast method to identify intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows, and has the potential to be used for routine analysis of test milking composite milk samples. However, the results of the PCR analysis can be difficult to interpret. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of PCR analysis of composite milk samples, and conventional bacteriological culturing (BC) of quarter milk samples, when used to identify cows with IMI. The comparisons were performed for IMI with four common udder pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Str dysgalactiae), Str uberis and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). The Se and Sp of real-time PCR (SePCR; SpPCR) and BC (SeBC; SpBC) was simultaneously estimated using latent class analysis (LCA), studying one pathogen at the time. Milk samples from 970 dairy cows from 25 herds were included. Aseptically collected quarter milk samples taken at the day before test milking (TM), at the day of TM, and at the day after TM, were analyzed using BC. Non-aseptically collected composite milk samples taken at the day of TM were analyzed using PCR. Moreover, the composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) was recorded and summarized by diagnostic test and bacterial finding. LCA was first performed using only test results from samples taken at the day of TM, but in a second analysis BC results from the three consecutive samplings, interpreted in parallel, were included. The SePCR was significantly higher than the SeBC for S aureus, Str dysgalactiae and CoNS in the first analysis, but only for CoNS in the second analysis. The SpPCR was significantly lower than the SpBC for Str dysgalactiae and CoNS. In conclusion, using PCR analysis of composite milk samples, as a diagnostic tool for identifying cows with IMI increased the Se for all the pathogens investigated (although not always significantly), while Sp in general remained on a

  5. Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria in feces of children consuming milk fermented by yoghurt symbiosis and Lactobacillus casei (Danone strain DN 114 001).

    PubMed

    Faure, G C; Morisset, M; Gobert, B; Guérin, C; Pedone, C; Bouley, C; Béné, M C

    2001-01-01

    An immunoreactive role of lactic acid bacteria established in animals has seldom been investigated in humans. In a large-scale clinical study, children from day-care centers received either yoghurt (Y), milk fermented by yoghurt symbiosis and Lactobacillus casei (DN 114 001) (YC), or gelified milk (GM) as diet supplements during two 30-day supplementation periods separated by one 30-day period without supplementation. Feces samples were collected before, during, and after the 2nd supplementation period. Proteins were extracted in a buffer containing enzymatic inhibitors. IgA levels were assessed and adjusted to the weight of feces samples. Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria strains (Streptococcus thermophilus 8901A, 8902A; Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Lactobacillus casei) present in Y and YC were assayed in ELISA and adjusted to individual IgA levels. Mean levels of fecal IgA were within reported ranges for pediatric populations of similar age. IgA levels decreased significantly but transiently in children receiving Y, and increased significantly in children receiving GM, but did not vary in the group of children who were given YC. Specific IgA to the 4 strains tested increased significantly during the supplementation period only in the group of children receiving GM, while it was transient and not significant in children receiving YC. No variation was noted in children given Y Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria can be assayed in feces. Supplementation with fermented milks might induce a mucosal tolerance to environmental flora.

  6. Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means to understand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Joanna S; Gorden, Patrick J; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1-V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease.

  7. Facile synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and its application in magnetic solid phase extraction for fluoroquinolones in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Mo, Jie-Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Ding, Jun; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we proposed a simple co-mixing method to fabricate magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs). MIPs were commercial products while magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical oxidation and solvothermal methods. When MNPs and MIPs (with mass ratio 1:1) were co-mixed and vortexed evenly in methanol, they could assemble into magnetic composites spontaneously and thus be magnetically separable. To testify the feasibility of the magnetic composites in sample preparation, the resultant magnetic MIPs were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in milk samples. Under optimized conditions, a rapid, convenient, and efficient method for the determination of three FQs in milk samples was established by magnetic MIPs based MSPE coupling with high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The limits of detection (LODs) for three FQs were found to be 1.8-3.2ng/g. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 9.5% and 12.5%, respectively. The recoveries of FQs for two spiked milk samples were in the range from 94.0% to 124.4% with the RSDs less than 11.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  9. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.

  10. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of rice samples with different countries of origin and prices.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun-Hee; Lim, Seung-Taik; Kim, Sang Sook

    2012-06-01

    Rice is the only food item which is not liberalized in Korea. To prepare for future liberalization of the rice market in Korea, the physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of four domestic rice samples were compared with those of 11 foreign rice samples. Additionally, the influences of country of origin (CO) and price on purchase intent (PI) and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Consumer acceptance of rice samples from Japan was generally higher than that of rice samples from other countries. In an informed test, PI was affected by price and CO, while WTP was affected mostly by price. The PI decreased with the price provided while the WTP increased. In a blind test, consumers evaluated PI and WTP according to sensory liking. The PI was higher in the informed test than in the blind test in all domestic samples. Generally, consumer acceptance was highly correlated with fat acidity (r = - 0.76), protein content (r = - 0.72), and b value (r = - 0.64) of the rice samples. Further efforts to increase the quality of rice are recommended for survival in the global market after liberalization of rice, even though consumers showed loyalty for PI of domestic samples. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Bacteria detection based on the evolution of enzyme-generated volatile organic compounds: determination of Listeria monocytogenes in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Tait, Emma; Perry, John D; Stanforth, Stephen P; Dean, John R

    2014-10-27

    The rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in food is essential to prevent food-borne illness in humans. The aim of this study was to differentiate non-contaminated milk from milk contaminated with L. monocytogenes using enzyme substrates coupled with the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The method is based on the activity of β-glucosidase and hippuricase enzymes and the detection of a specific VOC i.e. 2-nitrophenol and 3-fluoroaniline, respectively. VOCs were extracted, separated and detected by headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS). This approach required the inclusion of the selective agent's cycloheximide, nalidixic acid and acriflavine HCl in the growth medium to inhibit interfering bacteria. The VOCs were liberated by L. monocytogenes provided that samples contained at least 1-1.5×10(2) CFU ml(-1) of milk prior to overnight incubation. This approach shows potential for future development as a rapid method for the detection of L. monocytogenes contaminated milk.

  12. Comparison of C18-Carboxypropylbetaine and Glass Bead DNA Extraction Methods for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Bovine Milk Samples and Analysis of Samples by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Brandon J.; Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Thornton, Charles G.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L. Garry

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare two different milk preparation methods to assay for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis by PCR. Detection by a C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18)-based sample processing method was compared to extraction of DNA from milk with glass beads. Samples from 17 skin test-positive cattle were analyzed. Following CB-18 processing and glass bead extraction, the sensitivity of IS6110-based PCR was 94.1 and 58.8%, respectively (P < 0.025). Because CB-18 processing will permit the proficient use of PCR for diagnosis and surveillance of bovine tuberculosis, it will contribute to the more efficient detection and control of tuberculosis. PMID:9687483

  13. Sample preparation followed by HPLC under harmless 100% aqueous conditions for determination of oxytetracycline in milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2004-05-01

    A simple and hazardous chemical-free method for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in milk and eggs has been developed. Sample preparation consists in homogenization with an aqueous solution by means of a handheld ultrasonic homogenizer followed by centrifugal ultrafiltration. HPLC is performed with an isocratic aqueous mobile phase and a photodiode array detector. Average recoveries of OTC (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg mL(-1) for milk; 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg mL(-1) for eggs) were > or =84% with relative standard deviations of < or =2.3%. The total time required for the analysis of one sample and LOQs were <30 min and <0.1 microg mL(-1), respectively. In all the processes, no organic solvents or hazardous reagents were used.

  14. Chronic Infection With Camelid Hepatitis E Virus in a Liver Transplant Recipient Who Regularly Consumes Camel Meat and Milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Huei; Tan, Boon-Huan; Teo, Esmeralda Chi-Yuan; Lim, Seng-Gee; Dan, Yock-Young; Wee, Aileen; Aw, Pauline Poh Kim; Zhu, Yuan; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Tan, Chee-Kiat; Purdy, Michael A; Teo, Chong-Gee

    2016-02-01

    There have been increasing reports of food-borne zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, which causes chronic infections in immunosuppressed patients. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the HEV sequence (partial and full-length) from 1 patient from the Middle East who underwent liver transplantation, and compared it with other orthohepevirus A sequences. We found the patient to be infected by camelid HEV. This patient regularly consumed camel meat and milk, therefore camelid HEV, which is genotype 7, might infect human beings. Our finding links consumption of camel-derived food products to post-transplantation hepatitis E, which, if detected at early stages, can be cured with antiviral therapy and reduced administration of immunosuppressive agents.

  15. [The effect of milk products consumption in mothers during breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Uribe-Medina, Aída; Ogando-Suárez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that milk products consumption by mothers during the nursing period induce colic in the newborns. However, when mothers interrupt milk consumption, the colic of the newborns disappears. to analyze milk composition in Mexican women according to maternal milk products consumption. Seven women were studied in puerperal period, three of them consumed milky products and four not. All were healthy; they gave a five cc milk sample, which was frozen until the moment of the analysis. A double dimension electrophoresis in polyacrilamide gels was carried out. The protein levels were determined by Lowry's method. Total lipid extraction and cromatography in thin plaque was carried out. Total carbohydrate content was quantified. No differences were found in protein electrophoresis neither in the chromatographic lipid analysis. Carbohydrate content was similar in both groups. Colic in newborn depends on the idiosyncrasy of each one, and not in the supposed induced modifications of milk products on maternal milk consumption.

  16. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring. PMID:23985065

  17. Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci from bovine mastitis milk samples in Finland.

    PubMed

    Gindonis, Veera; Taponen, Suvi; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Pyörälä, Satu; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lindholm, Laura; Rantala, Merja

    2013-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillin-resistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.

  18. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  19. Within-herd prevalence thresholds for herd-level detection of mastitis pathogens using multiplex real-time PCR in bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Soltau, J B; Einax, E; Klengel, K; Katholm, J; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Donat, K

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the value of quantitative multiplex real-time PCR examination of bulk tank milk samples for bovine mastitis pathogens as a tool for herd level diagnosis. Using a logistic regression model, this study is aimed at calculating the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by quarter milk sample cultivation of all lactating cows, thus allowing the detection of a herd positive for a specific pathogen within certain probability levels. A total of 6,335 quarter milk samples were collected and cultured from 1,615 cows on 51 farms in Germany. Bulk tank milk samples were taken from each farm and tested by bacterial culture as well as the commercial PCR assay Mastit 4A (DNA Diagnostic A/S, Risskov, Denmark) identifying Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis. In addition, PCR was performed on pooled herd milk samples containing milk aliquots from all lactating cows in each of the 51 herds. Only 1 out of the 51 herds was found PCR positive for Streptococcus agalactiae in bulk tank and pooled herd milk samples, and cultured quarter milk samples. Spearman's rank correlations between the cycle threshold value of bulk tank milk PCR and the apparent within-herd prevalence were calculated in regard to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis. For these pathogens, significant correlations were found. If 1 bulk tank milk sample per herd was tested, the estimated within-herd prevalence thresholds for 90% probability of detection were 27.6% for Staphylococcus aureus, 9.2% for Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 13.8% for Streptococcus uberis on the cow level. On the quarter level, the within-herd prevalence had to be at least 32.6% for Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7% for Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 4.3% for Streptococcus uberis to detect a herd as positive using a single bulk milk sample. The results indicate that mastitis

  20. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  1. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  2. Enzyme-antibody dual labeled gold nanoparticles probe for ultrasensitive detection of κ-casein in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, J Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, N N; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S

    2014-11-15

    A dual labeled probe was synthesized by coating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with anti-κ-CN monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme on their surface. The McAb was used as detector and HRP was used as label for signal amplification catalytically oxidize the substrate. AuNPs were used as bridges between the McAb and HRP. Based on the probe, an immunoassay was developed for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk samples. The assay has a linear response range within 4.2-560 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.2 ng mL(-1) which was 10 times lower than that of traditional McAb-HRP based ELISA. The recoveries of κ-CN from three brand bovine milk samples were from 95.8% to 111.0% that had a good correlation (R(2)=0.998) with those obtained by official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity and as simple as the traditional ELISA, the developed immunoassay could provide an alternative approach for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk sample.

  3. Determination of flavor enhancers in milk powder by one-step sample preparation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; Hou, Xiaofang; He, Langchong

    2014-04-01

    Maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin are important food additives as flavor enhancers. To quantify the four additives in milk powder, a novel 2D liquid chromatographic (2DLC) method was developed in this article. In such a 2DLC system, the target fractions eluted from the first dimensional column (C4) are stored onto the trapping column (C8) for subsequent analysis; after that, they were switched into the second dimensional column (C18) by a two-position six-port switching valve. A one-step sample preparation method was used prior to 2DLC chromatographic analysis, which was easy and convenient. After optimization of all experimental parameters, the new method was validated in terms of linearity, LODs, and LOQs, intra- and interday precision, and accuracy. A conventional single-dimensional liquid chromatographic method was also proposed in this work for comparison. In order to evaluate the applicability of the new 2DLC method, five brands of commercial milk powder samples (n = 8) were analyzed. Vanillin and ethyl vanillin were detected in two samples, respectively. It is showed that the 2DLC method is effective in quality control programs of milk powder products.

  4. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration.

  5. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  6. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration.

  7. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of phytoestrogens as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: Identification in soy milk and wastewater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method for the identification of eight plant phytoestrogens (biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, glycitein, genistein and prunetin) in soy products and wastewater samples was developed using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). The phytoestrogens were derivatized as their trimethylsilyl ethers with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The phytoestrogens were isolated from all samples with liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Daidzein-d4 and genistein-d4 labeled standards were used as internal standards before extraction and derivatization. The fragmentation patterns of the phytoestrogens were investigated by isolating and fragmenting the precursor ions in the ion-trap and a typical fragmentation involved the loss of a methyl and a carbonyl group. Two characteristic fragment ions for each analyte were chosen for identification and confirmation. The developed methodology was applied to the identification and confirmation of phytoestrogens in soy milk, in wastewater effluent from a soy-milk processing plant, and in wastewater (influent and effluent) from a treatment plant. Detected concentrations of genistein ranged from 50,000 ??g/L and 2000 ??g/L in soy milk and in wastewater from a soy-plant, respectively, to 20 ??g/L and <1 ??g/L for influent and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  9. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disruptors. 2. Determination of steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat samples.

    PubMed

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Laille, Julie; Monteau, Fabrice; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2008-05-14

    In the present study, the occurrence of the main sex steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat was evaluated on the basis of a highly specific gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement method. Globally, the results indicated that targeted estrogens and androgens occurred at similar levels (concentration levels in the 10-100 ng kg (-1) range) in the analyzed muscle and milk samples. The same compounds occurred at about 10-fold higher concentrations (i.e., in the 100-1000 ng kg (-1) range) in eggs and kidney samples. More precisely, egg and milk appeared as a non-negligible sources of estradiol (i.e., 2.2 +/- 0.8 and 3.1 +/- 2.0 ng day (-1), respectively), whereas testosterone exposure is caused by ingestion of meat and/or egg (i.e., 12.2 +/- 48.2 and 5.2 +/- 2.3 ng day (-1), respectively). The provided exposure data will be further exploited in the scope of a risk assessment study regarding endocrine disruption associated with these molecules.

  10. Improved method for rapid determination of vitamin A in small samples of breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Strobel, M; Heinrich, F; Biesalski, H K

    2000-11-17

    Employing a short, potassium hydroxide (KOH) saponification (25 min) and rapid extraction with n-hexane-toluene (1:1) and a <4-min retention time, a convenient, rapid, accurate and precise determination of vitamin A in breast milk was developed. The recovery rate was 102.3 +/- 2.5% and the small relative standard deviation (intra-assay 1.9%, inter-assay 2.3%) resulted in high precision. The amount of breast milk needed is very low (1 ml) which makes the method suitable for the use in free field studies with large sample sizes. The simple extraction and separation steps allow a high throughput screening under routine laboratory conditions.

  11. Types of drinks consumed by infants at 4 and 8 months of age: a descriptive study. The ALSPAC Study Team.

    PubMed

    Emmett, P; North, K; Noble, S

    2000-06-01

    To document the type and volume of drinks given to infants and investigate whether giving supplementary drinks leads to reduced milk consumption. Carers were asked to record all drinks consumed by the infants in a 24-hour period at two ages, detailing the types and volume taken. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). A randomly chosen population sample of over 1000 infants at 4 and 8 months of age. The different types of milk feed were used to group infants, compare volumes consumed and look at the use of non-milk drinks. The average volume of drinks consumed over 24 hours at 4 months was 861 ml and at 8 months was 662 ml. At 4 months 69.7% consumed infant formula and 43.0% breast milk. The mean volume of milk consumed by those having only formula was 802 ml and for those having only breast milk was estimated at 850 ml. The volumes of milks consumed were slightly lower in the groups who also had supplementary drinks. A quarter of infants were given fruit drinks and 14.6% herbal drinks. Supplementary drinks and solids were more likely to be given to formula-fed than breast-fed infants. At 8 months, formula milk was consumed by 71.4% and breast milk use had decreased (22.9%) but fruit drink use had increased (squash/cordial: 55.8%, fruit juice: 14.9%), with 13.9% of infants having no infant milk at all. More infants were fed formula milk and less were fed cows' milk compared with a nationally representative British study conducted 5 years earlier. Many infants were given supplementary drinks by 4 months; there is some evidence that this led to a small reduction in milk intake. A minority were not being given infant milks at all by 8 months, contrary to British infant feeding recommendations.

  12. Occurrence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged raw milk.

    PubMed

    Castro, Hanna; Ruusunen, Marjo; Lindström, Miia

    2017-08-23

    The increased availability of packaged raw drinking milk necessitates the investigation of the occurrence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk during distribution and storage. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes in 105 retailed raw milk bottles, 115 bulk tank milk samples, 23 in-line milk filter socks and in 50 environmental samples collected from an on-farm dairy establishment were investigated. Growth of inoculated low-level L. monocytogenes contamination was also investigated in two types of raw milk packaging, namely in 1-litre plastic bottles and 3-litre bag-in-boxes, both stored at three different storage temperatures of 6, 8 and 10°C. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was higher (4.8%) in bottled raw milk stored until the use-by-date of the package compared to fresh bulk tank milk (1.7%). L. monocytogenes counts were ≤13CFU/ml in bottled raw milk and ≤1CFU/ml in bulk tank milk. L. monocytogenes was not detected in the packaging facility, but occurred very frequently (39%) in the milk filter socks. Subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates using pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis revealed seven pulsotypes, of which two occurred in multiple samples. Targeted inoculum levels of 1-2CFU/ml yielded L. monocytogenes counts≥100CFU/ml within seven days of storage in 22% of the raw milk packages stored at 6°C, and in all of the raw milk packages stored at 8°C. The frequent occurrence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and the ability of a low-level L. monocytogenes contamination to grow at refrigeration temperatures highlight the importance of consumer education regarding the appropriate raw milk storage and handling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, N; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2008-06-01

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 degrees C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L(-1) were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies.

  14. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples.

    PubMed

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K

    2015-03-20

    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDs<2.8%), limits of detection and quantification (7 and 23mg/L milk), repeatability of sample work-up (RSDs≤2.6%) and method recovery (103%). In total, 71 commercial liquid milk samples produced using different preservation techniques (e.g., thermal or mechanical treatment), hence featuring different applied heat loads, were profiled for their intrinsic undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin levels. As expected, pasteurized milk showed the highest concentrations clearly above 3000mg/L due to pasteurization being the mildest thermal treatment, while in contrast, ultra-high temperature heated milk featured the lowest amounts (<200mg/L). For extended shelf life (ESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU.

  15. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis.

  16. Detection of sheep and goat milk adulterations by direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of milk tryptic digests.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; De Ceglie, Cristina; Monopoli, Antonio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    In dairy field, one of the most common frauds is the adulteration of higher value types of milk (sheep's and goat's) with milk of lower value (cow's milk). This illegal practice has an economic advantage for milk producers and poses a threat for consumers' health because of the presence of hidden allergens as, for example, cow milk proteins, in particular, α(s1)-casein and β-lactoglobulin. The urgent need of sensitive techniques to detect this kind of fraud brought to the development of chromatographic, immunoenzymatic, electrophoretic and mass spectrometric assays. In the current work, we present a fast, reproducible and sensitive method based on the direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of milk tryptic digests for the detection of milk adulteration by evaluating specie-specific markers in the peptide profiles. Several pure raw and commercial milk samples and binary mixtures containing cows' and goats', cows' and sheep's and goats' and sheep's milk (concentrations of each milk varied from 0% to 100%) were prepared, and tryptic digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The use of the new MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid allowed to detect cow and goat milk peptide markers up to 5% level of adulteration. Finally, from preliminary data, it seems that the strategy could be successfully applied also to detect similar adulterations in cheese samples.

  17. Monitoring iodine-129 in air and milk samples collected near the Hanford Site: an investigation of historical iodine monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brad G; Patton, Gregory W

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of (129)I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operating between 1983 and 1990, during which time (129)I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of chemical processing, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8-year period. An evaluation of (129)I and (127)I concentration data in air and milk spanning the PUREX operation and post-closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below the levels that could result in a potential annual human dose greater than 1 mSv. There was a measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of (129)I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of (129)I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were the major source of (129)I measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operations were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany. After the PUREX Plant stopped operating, (129)I concentration measurements made upwind of Hanford were similar to the results from Seville, Spain.

  18. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  19. Bacterial Community Profiling of Milk Samples as a Means to Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Joanna S.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J.; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1–V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease. PMID:23634219

  20. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Consumption of milk and dairy products: Facts and figures.

    PubMed

    Zingone, Fabiana; Bucci, Cristina; Iovino, Paola; Ciacci, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of milk has been declining sharply in recent decades, particularly in developed countries. One of the reasons for this decline is the diagnosis or perception of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate average consumption of milk and dairy products in the Campania region of Italy, one of the main producers of dairy products in the country. Individuals aged 18 to 75 y and living in Campania were invited to answer an online questionnaire regarding their average consumption of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire was posted on the public access hospital site, as well as on several Facebook pages of friends and hospital personnel. The study found that 22.2% (260 of 1173) of responders from Campania do not drink milk, and 18.1% (213 of 1173) drink lactose-free milk, mainly because of gastrointestinal symptoms. The vast majority of the sample population chose to avoid consuming milk without undergoing the breath test for lactose intolerance or consulting a doctor. Women and underweight people drink more lactose-free milk than milk containing lactose. The population sample does not avoid dairy products; rather, they seem to be consumed quite frequently. The data support the need for mandatory implementation of a nutritional campaign to increase understanding regarding, for example, unnecessary avoidance of milk and excessive consumption of cheese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl(-1), respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl(-1).

  3. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    PubMed

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  4. A label-free and portable multichannel surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for on site analysis of antibiotics in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Fátima; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Piliarik, Marek; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Homola, Jiří; Marco, M-Pilar

    2010-12-15

    Techniques for immunosensing like surface plasmon resonance (SPR) may respond to the need for rapid screening methods to improve food safety. This paper describes the development of a novel portable six channel SPR biosensor based on the plasmon of gold diffraction grating surface for simultaneous multianalyte antibiotic detection in milk samples. Representative congeners from three important antibiotic families (FQs: fluoroquinolones, SAs: sulfonamides and CAP: phenicols) were chosen for this study. The chips are covalently biofunctionalized with haptenized proteins by means of a previously formed mixed self assembled monolayer (m-SAM) prepared using two types of mercapto alkyl reagents containing polyethyleneglycol (PEG) units. The samples or standards are mixed with specific polyclonal antibodies and injected into the sensor device. The detectability accomplished is very good (i.e. in buffer, enrofloxacin, 0.30 μg L(-1); sulfapyridine, 0.29 μg L(-1); and chloramphenicol, 0.26 μg L(-1)) and whole milk samples can be analyzed directly without clean-up steps, by just diluting the sample five times with water to remove non-specific interferences caused by the matrix. Although the detectability of CAP regarding the MRPL (minimum required performance limit) is slightly compromised by the dilution, the detectability accomplished by FQs and SAs was far below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D content and variability in fluid milks from a US Department of Agriculture nationwide sampling to update values in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.

    PubMed

    Patterson, K Y; Phillips, K M; Horst, R L; Byrdwell, W C; Exler, J; Lemar, L E; Holden, J M

    2010-11-01

    This study determined the vitamin D(3) content and variability of retail milk in the United States having a declared fortification level of 400 IU (10 μg) per quart (qt; 1 qt=946.4 mL), which is 25% daily value per 8 fluid ounce (236.6 mL) serving. In 2007, vitamin D(3) fortified milk (skim, 1%, 2%, whole, and 1% fat chocolate milk) was collected from 24 statistically selected supermarkets in the United States. Additionally, 2% milk samples from an earlier 2001 USDA nationwide collection were reanalyzed. Vitamin D(3) was determined using a specifically validated method involving HPLC with UV spectroscopic detection and vitamin D(2) as an internal standard. Quality control materials were analyzed with the samples. Of the 120 milk samples procured in 2007, 49% had vitamin D(3) within 100 to 125% of 400 IU (10 μg)/qt (label value), 28% had 501 to 600 IU (12.5-15 μg)/qt, 16% had a level below the label amount, and 7% had greater than 600 IU (15 μg)/qt (>150% of label). Even though the mean vitamin D(3) content did not differ statistically between milk types, a wide range in values was found among individual samples, from nondetectable [<20 IU (0.5 μg)/qt] for one sample to almost 800 IU (20 μg)/qt, with a trend toward more samples of whole milk having greater than 150% of the labeled content. On average, vitamin D(3) in 2% milk was higher in 2007 compared with in 2001 [473 vs. 426 IU (11.8 vs. 10.6 μg)/qt]. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    2001-07-14

    The consumption of flavoured milk increased by 50% between 1992 and 1999 and dental health educators need to know if these and other sugar and fruit juice sweetened milk products, such as fruit yoghurts, are acceptable as snack items. Available evidence suggests that their cariogenicity is negligible to low and consumed in moderation they are a preferable alternative to similarly sweetened soft drinks.

  7. The effect of sampling time and sample handling on the detection of Staphylococcus aureus in milk from quarters with subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Godden, Sandra M.; Jansen, Jocelyn T.; Leslie, Ken E.; Smart, Nonie L.; Kelton, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is an important cause of economic loss for the dairy industry. Control programs rely on the timely and accurate identification of positive quarters. The effects of sampling time and sample handling were examined in an attempt to improve the accuracy of detection of S. aureus. Premilking and postmilking milk samples were collected from 55 lactating quarters with subclinical S. aureus infection. Each sample was divided into 2 aliquots; one of which was cultured fresh, the other was frozen at -20°C for 14 days before being cultured. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of sampling time (premilking vs postmilking) and sample handling (fresh vs frozen) on the detection of S. aureus, as measured by the mean category for colony-forming units per millilitre (cfu/mL). A stratified analysis was required, due to interaction between sampling time and sample handling. Only a fresh postmilking sample was inferior, yielding a lower mean category for cfu/mL (P < 0.05). The ability to detect S. aureus in quarters with subclinical intramammary infection, as measured by the mean category of cfu/mL, was maximized in fresh or frozen premilking samples and in frozen postmilking samples. PMID:11802668

  8. Efficient sample clean-up and online preconcentration for sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-ling; Chen, Xiao-wei; Zhang, Zhu-bao; Li, Jing; Xie, Tian-yao

    2014-10-01

    Based on an efficient sample clean-up and field-amplified sample injection online preconcentration technique in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, a new analytical method for the sensitive determination of melamine in milk samples was established. In order to remove the complex matrix interference, which resulted in a serious problem during field-amplified sample injection, liquid-liquid extraction was utilized. As a result, liquid-liquid extraction provides excellent sample clean-up efficiency when ethyl acetate was used as organic extraction by adjusting the pH of the sample solution to 9.5. Both inorganic salts and biological macromolecules are effectively removed by liquid-liquid extraction. The sample clean-up procedure, capillary electrophoresis separation parameters and field-amplified sample injection conditions are discussed in detail. The capillary electrophoresis separation was achieved within 5 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 12 mM HAc + 10 mM NaAc (pH = 4.6) as running buffer, separation voltage of +13 kV, electrokinetic injection of +12 kV × 10 s. Preliminary validation of the method performance with spiked melamine provided recoveries >90%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.015 and 0.050 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were below 6%. This newly developed method is sensitive and cost effective, therefore, suitable for screening of melamine contamination in milk products.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shivani; Brahmbhatt, M N; Chatur, Y A; Nayak, J B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  10. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Luminescent determination of quinolones in milk samples by liquid chromatography/post-column derivatization with terbium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yánez-Jácome, G S; Aguilar-Caballos, M P; Gómez-Hens, A

    2015-07-31

    The usefulness of terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb4O7NPs) as post-column derivatizing reagent for the liquid chromatographic determination of residues of quinolone antibiotics in milk samples has been studied. Seven quinolones of veterinary use have been chosen as model analytes to develop this method. The derivatization step is based on the formation of luminescent chelates of quinolones with Tb4O7NPs, which are monitored at λex=340nm and λem=545nm. Another relevant feature of the method is that the use of a 10-cm column and a ternary mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and acetic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution mode allow the chromatographic separation of the quinolones in about 13min, whereas previously described chromatographic methods require about 20min. The dynamic ranges of the calibration graphs and limits of detection are, respectively: 65-900ngmL(-1) and 35ngmL(-1) for marbofloxacin, 7.2-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 6-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for danofloxacin, 50-900ngmL(-1) and 20ngmL(-1) for enrofloxacin, 35-900ngmL(-1) and 12ngmL(-1) for sarafloxacin, 5-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for oxolinic acid, and 7-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for flumequine. The precision, established at two concentration levels of each analyte and expressed as the percentage of the relative standard deviation is in the range of 1.9-8.1% using standards, and of 3.4-10.7% in the presence of milk samples. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk samples, with recoveries ranging from 89.0 to 106.5%.

  12. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  13. Quinolones control in milk and eggs samples by liquid chromatography using a surfactant-mediated mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Rambla-Alegre, M; Collado-Sánchez, M A; Esteve-Romero, J; Carda-Broch, S

    2011-05-01

    Four quinolones (danofloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and marbofloxacin) were determined in milk and egg samples by a simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure using a micellar mobile phase. No extraction was needed to precipitate the proteins from the matrices since they were solubilised in micelles. The only pretreatment steps required were homogenisation, dilution and filtration before injecting the sample into the chromatographic system. An adequate resolution of the quinolones was achieved by a chemometrics approach where retention was modelled as a first step using the retention factors in only five mobile phases. Afterwards, an optimisation criterion was applied to consider the position and shape of the chromatographic peaks. Analytical separation involved a C18 reversed-phase column, a hybrid micellar mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 10% (v/v) butanol and 0.5% (v/v) triethylamine buffered at pH 3 and fluorimetric detection. Quinolones were eluted in less than 15 min without the protein band or other endogenous compounds from the food matrices interfering. The calculated relevant validation parameters, e.g., decision limit (CC(α)), detection capability (CC(β)), repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility, recoveries and robustness, were acceptable and complied with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed in quantifying the four quinolones in spiked egg and milk samples.

  14. Magnetic spherical carbon as an efficient adsorbent for the magnetic extraction of phthalate esters from lake water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juanjuan; Wang, Chenhuan; Liang, Xinyu; Yang, Xiumin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2017-03-29

    Magnetic spherical carbon was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal carbonization procedure with biomass glucose as the carbon precursor and nanoclusters iron colloid as magnetic precursor. The textures of the as-prepared magnetic spherical carbon were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Results indicated that the magnetic spherical carbon possessed high surface area as well as strong magnetism, which endows the material with good adsorption capability and easy separation property. To assess its absorption performance, the magnetic spherical carbon was employed as adsorbent for the extraction and preconcentration of phthalate esters from lake water and milk samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Some key parameters that could influence the enrichment efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was achieved with the linear correlation coefficients higher than 0.9973. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.05-0.08 ng mL(-1) for lake water and 0.1-0.2 ng mL(-1) for milk samples. The recoveries of the analytes for the method were in the range 80.1-112.6%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1 infection associated with raw milk consumption, Finland, spring 2014.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Hallanvuo, Saija; Salmenlinna, Saara; Pihlajasaari, Annika; Heikkinen, Seija; Telkki-Nykänen, Hanna; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Ollgren, Jukka; Huusko, Sari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YP) outbreak was detected by a municipal authority in southern Finland. We conducted epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. We defined a case as a person with YP infection notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry between February and April 2014, or their household member, with abdominal pain and fever≥38 °C or erythema nodosum. Healthy household members were used as household-matched controls. We identified 43 cases and 50 controls. The illness was strongly associated with the consumption of raw milk from a single producer. The odds ratio of illness increased with the amount of raw milk consumed. Also previously healthy adults became infected by consuming raw milk. Identical YP strains were identified from cases' stool samples, raw milk sampled from a case's refrigerator and from the milk filter at the producer's farm. The producer fulfilled the legal requirements for raw milk production and voluntarily recalled the raw milk and stopped its production. We advised consumers to heat the raw milk to 72 °C for 15 s. Current legislation for raw milk producers should be reviewed and public awareness of health risks linked to raw milk consumption should be increased.

  16. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products.

  17. Application of a convenient DNA extraction method and multiplex PCR for the direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A; Padmapriya, B P; Chrashekar, A; Varadaraj, M C

    2002-08-01

    The application of PCR for the direct and sensitive detection of food-borne pathogens is largely affected by the quality of the template DNA prepared from food samples. In the present study, a chemical extraction method of bacterial DNA from spiked milk samples for the direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica was evaluated by PCR. Gene specific primers were designed to target the nuclease (nuc) and the attachment invasion locus (ail) genes of S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica, respectively and used in PCR. A combination of organic solvents, detergents and alkali in the DNA extraction method permitted a detection limit of 10 cfu ml(-1) milk for both the pathogens. When equal numbers of S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica were spiked in milk samples, the individual detection limit was determined to be 10(3) cfu ml(-1) milk. Simultaneous amplification of 482 and 359 bp fragments of the nuc and ail genes was obtained using the primer pairs in a single reaction. Multiplex PCR enabled the detection of 10(4) cfu ml(-1) milk of S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica without any pre-enrichment step. A combination of conventional isolation technique and PCR using DNA extracted by the proposed method was used to test raw milk samples for possible contamination with S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica. The presence of S. aureus in the tested samples was indicated by both the methods while Y. enterocolitica could not be detected in any of the samples. The template DNA extraction method developed in this study is rapid, sensitive and avoids interference from potential PCR inhibitors and demonstrates the potential of detecting multiple pathogens in milk samples without any enrichment. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 1: a baseline for the development of a tool to assist the milk industry in designing sampling plans for controlling aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, Marcello; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Serraino, Andrea; Zambrini, Angelo Vittorio; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Giacometti, Federica; Ámbrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk was assessed in Italy in the framework of designing a monitoring plan actuated by the milk industry in the period 2005-10. Overall, 21,969 samples were taken from tankers collecting milk from 690 dairy farms. The milk samples were representative of the consignments of co-mingled milk received from multiple (two to six) farms. Systematic, biweekly sampling of consignments involved each of the 121 districts (70 in the North, 17 in the Central and 34 in the South regions of Italy). AFM1 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method (validated within the range of 5-100 ng kg(-1)) whereas an HPLC method was used for the quantification of levels in the samples that had concentrations higher than 100 ng kg(-1). Process control charts using data collected in three processing plants illustrate, as an example, the seasonal variation of the contamination. The mean concentration of AFM1 was in the range between 11 and 19 ng kg(-1). The 90th and 99th percentile values were 19-34 and 41-91 ng kg(-1), respectively, and values as high as 280 ng kg(-1) were reached in 2008. The number of non-compliant consignments (those with an AFM1 concentration above the statutory limit of 50 ng kg(-1)) varied between 0.3% and 3.1% per year, with peaks in September, after the maize harvest season. The variability between different regions was not significant. The results show that controlling the aflatoxins in feed at farm level was inadequate, consequently screening of raw milk prior to processing was needed. The evaluation of the AFM1 contamination level observed during a long-term period can provide useful data for defining the frequency of sampling.

  19. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Gurakan, G Candan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21 h) compared to the traditional culture method (90 h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I--The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II--The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III--The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves.

  20. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  1. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  2. Four-year monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Peli, Angelo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Fustini, Mattia; Mion, Renzo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Rosmini, Roberto; Rugna, Gianluca; Tamba, Marco; Tonucci, Franco; Bolzoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culture-based method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption.

  3. Cyromazine imprinted polymers for selective stir bar sorptive extraction of melamine in animal feed and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenying; Gao, Mingqi; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-06-21

    In this work, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coated stir bar was prepared using a self-designed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mold and in situ polymerization, with cyromazine as the dummy template for the target melamine. The prepared MIP coated stir bar presented a uniform and porous surface as well as good chemical stability and selectivity for melamine. Based on it, a method of MIP coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for the quantification of melamine in food samples. Significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency of melamine by MIP-SBSE, such as the extraction solvent and time, stirring rate, desorption solvent and time, were investigated thoroughly. Under the optimal conditions, the analytical performance of this method was evaluated. The detection limit of the developed method was 0.54 μg L(-1) for melamine with an enrichment factor of 42-fold and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.1% (c = 5 μg L(-1), n = 7), and the linear range was 2-200 μg L(-1). The established method was applied for the determination of melamine in a variety of real samples including cat food, dog food, chicken feed A, chicken feed B and milk powder, and the recoveries for melamine in the spiked samples were in the range of 76.2-98.2%, 80.0-85.5%, 89.5-113%, 85.0-95.5% and 65.0-111%, respectively. The proposed method presented a good specific recognition ability and matrix interference resistance, and was demonstrated to be effective and sensitive for the analysis of melamine in animal food and milk samples.

  4. ASSAYS FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK: COMPARISON OF FRESH AND FROZEN SAMPLES AND CORRESPONDING ANALYTES IN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collect...

  5. ASSAYS FOR ENDOGENOUS COMPONENTS OF HUMAN MILK: COMPARISON OF FRESH AND FROZEN SAMPLES AND CORRESPONDING ANALYTES IN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breast milk is a primary source of nutrition that contains many endogenous compounds that may affect infant development. The goals of this study were to develop reliable assays for selected endogenous breast milk components and to compare levels of those in milk and serum collect...

  6. Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Raw Milk Consumption--Utah, 2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth R; Dunn, Angela C; Burnett, Cindy; McCullough, Laine; Dimond, Melissa; Wagner, Jenni; Smith, Lori; Carter, Amy; Willardson, Sarah; Nakashima, Allyn K

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) notified the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) of specimens from three patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni yielding indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All three patients had consumed raw (unpasteurized and nonhomogenized) milk from dairy A. In Utah, raw milk sales are legal from farm to consumer with a sales permit from the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF). Raw milk dairies are required to submit monthly milk samples to UDAF for somatic cell and coliform counts, both of which are indicators of raw milk contamination. Before this cluster's identification, dairy A's routine test results were within acceptable levels (<400,000 somatic cells/mL and <10 coliform colony forming units/mL). Subsequent enhanced testing procedures recovered C. jejuni, a fastidious organism, in dairy A raw milk; the isolate matched the cluster pattern. UDAF suspended dairy A's raw milk permit during August 4-October 1, and reinstated the permit when follow-up cultures were negative. Additional cases of C. jejuni infection were identified in October, and UDAF permanently revoked dairy A's permit to sell raw milk on December 1. During May 9-November 6, 2014, a total of 99 cases of C. jejuni infection were identified. Routine somatic cell and coliform counts of raw milk do not ensure its safety. Consumers should be educated that raw milk might be unsafe even if it meets routine testing standards.

  7. Rapid preparation of expanded graphite by microwave irradiation for the extraction of triazine herbicides in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengshuang; Zhao, Qi; Yan, Xu; Li, Huiyu; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Long; Zhou, Tianyu; Li, Yi; Ding, Lan

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we proposed a rapid and efficient method for the preparation of the expanded graphite (EG). The exfoliation process was accelerated by microwave irradiation, and the preparation time was greatly shortened. The obtained EG was worm-like in shape and exhibits well exfoliated structure. It was successfully applied as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent to extract and clean up the triazine herbicides in milk, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the performance of extraction and LC-MS analysis were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of triazines are in the range of 0.03-0.12 ng mL(-1). At the spiked level (0.4 ng mL(-1)), the recoveries of triazines are in the range of 82.5±2.5% to 97.5±7.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine six triazines in six milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective determination of ampicillin in cow milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent for sample preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Soledad-Rodríguez, B; Fernández-Hernando, P; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with ampicillin (AMP) and to evaluate the feasibility of these materials for being used as solid phase extraction sorbent for the selective preconcentration and determination of AMP in cow milk samples. MIPs were synthesized by bulk polymerization using methacrylic acid or methyl methacrylate as monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker at different ratios. Characterization of the MIPs were carried out by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The variables affecting the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure were optimized. AMP recoveries were higher than 98%, and RSD less than 7%. A preconcentration factor of 20 was reached, which was sufficient to determine AMP at levels allowed by the EU (4μgkg(-1)) in cow milk. The selectivity of the AMP-MIP was evaluated in presence of other structurally related β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of ELISA, HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS/MS Methods for Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Natural Contaminated Milk Samples.

    PubMed

    Kos, Jovana; Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Jajić, Igor; Krstović, Saša; Mastilović, Jasna; Šarić, Bojana; Jovanov, Pavle

    2016-12-01

    Presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk should be continuously controlled in order to protect the population from risks associated with its proven toxicity and carcinogenicity. During recent years, there has been an increase in demand for development of sensitive, accurate, simple and fast method which is reliable for detection of AFM1 at low concentrations found in milk samples. For that purpose, enzyme linked immunosorbent asssay (ELISA), high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were optimized and validated in order to apply them for AFM1 analysis in naturally contaminated milk samples, and to assess the closeness of agreement between results of three different methods. The obtained validation parameters indicate that all three methods are suitable for determination of AFM1 in milk samples. The statistical analysis of variance between the methods and the obtained correlation coefficients indicate that there is a strong correlation between methods. All three methods are satisfactory in meeting the requirements for official control purposes. To the best of author's knowledge, this study represents the first report of an investigation and comparison of ELISA, HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS/MS methods for determination of AFM1 in naturally contaminated milk samples.

  10. CombiSimilarity, an innovative method to compare environmental and health data sets with different attribute sizes example: eighteen Organochlorine Pesticides in soil and human breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, Rainer; Scherb, Hagen; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Cok, Ismet; Voigt, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    Human health and the health of the environment have entwined. In this paper we underpin this position by presenting a modeling approach named CombiSimilarity, which has been developed by the first author in the software tool PyHasse comprising a wide variety of partial ordering tools. A case study of 18 Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) detected in soil as well as in human breast milk samples in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey is carried out. Seven soil samples and 44 breast milk samples were measured. We seek to answer the question whether the contamination pattern in breast milk is associated with the contamination pattern in soil by studying the mutual quantitative relationships of the chemicals involved. We could demonstrate that there is a similarity with respect to the concentration profiles between the soil and breast milk pollution. Therefore the hypothesis may be formulated that the concentrations of chemicals in the milk samples are strongly related to the soil contamination. This supports the concept that soil could be a surrogate for human exposure at background locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advances on determination of milk adulterants.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carina F; Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2017-04-15

    Milk adulteration is a current fraudulent practice to mask the quality parameters (e.g. protein and fat content) and increase the product shelf life. Milk adulteration includes addition of toxic substances, such as formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, dichromate, salicylic acid, melamine, and urea. In order to assure the food safety and avoid health risks to consumers, novel analytical procedures have been proposed for detection of these adulterants. The innovations encompass sample pretreatment and improved detection and data processing, including chemometric tools. This review focuses on critical evaluation of analytical approaches for assay of milk adulteration, with emphasis on applications published after 2010. Alternatives for fast, environmentally friendly and in-situ detection of milk adulterants are highlighted.

  12. [Relation of long-term consumption of school milk to bone density in children].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuechan; Hu, Yuming; Ma, Zheng; Zhao, Xianfeng; Yin, Shi'an

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the status of bone density of children consumed school milk for relative long-term period. According to the frequency and duration that children had consumed school milk, cluster sampling of 435 children (10-12 years old, including 188 boys and 247 girls.) were sampled to divided into two groups, that is milk consumption group and seldom milk consumption group, the children in milk consumption group had consumed the school milk 4 time weekly and duration for more than 1 year or 1-3 times weekly and duration for more than 3 years and this group included 220 children. Right forearm length, bone width of 1/3 distal end of radius and ulna, bone mineral content, bone density, serum calcium and phosphorus contents were determined. The research was carried out from July to August (2009) in Changsha, Hunan Province. Right forearm length of the milk consumption group boys 22.53 cm +/- 1.63 cm) was significantly longer than that of seldom milk consumption group (21.95 cm+/- 1.75 cm, P < 0.05, radius width (1.37 +/- 0.237 cm) was significantly larger than that of seldom milk consumption group (1.300 cm +/- 0.176 cm), P < 0.05, bone mineral content (0.690 +/- 0.270) was significantly higher than that of seldom milk consumption group (0.599 +/- 0.090) , P < 0.01, bone density of radius (0.498 +/- 0.135) was significantly higher than that of seldom milk consumption group (0.469 +/- 0.081), P < 0.05. Bone density of radius of girls (0.489 +/- 0.076) was significantly higher than that of seldom milk consumption group (0.469 +/- 0.081), P < 0.05, bone mineral content of ulna (0.564 +/- 0.176) was significantly higher than that of seldom milk consumption group (0.512 +/- 0.100), P < 0.01, bone density of ulna (0.470 +/- 0.129) was significantly higher than that of seldom milk consumption group (0.439 +/- 0.059), P < 0.05. The state of children consumed school milk was correlative closely with type and characteristics of milk. The long-term consumption of school milk

  13. Adenosine triphosphate in milk.

    PubMed

    Zulak, I M; Patton, S; Hammerstedt, R H

    1976-08-01

    Freshly secreted goat's milk contains a number of viable metabolic pathways including those for the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Toward understanding this matter, amounts of the fundamentally important energy substrate, adenosine triphosphate, in goat's milk were evaluated. Milk left in the goat udder overnight had less adenosine triphosphate (12.4 muM) than fresh secreted milk (37.6 muM). In similar experiments the skim milk derived from whole accumulating in the udder overnight was lower in adenosine triphosphate (14.2 muM) than skim milk from freshly secreted milk (26.0 muM). To determine changes in quantities of adenosine triphosphate after milking, milks were divided into two parts, one containing only milk and the other milk plus 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium arsenate, inhibitors of oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation. Adenosine triphosphate in milk decreased during 4-h in vitro incubations, and the rate of decline was markedly greater in the presence of the inhibitors. Thus, freshly secreted goat's milk contains significant amounts of adenosine triphosphate, and more can be synthesized therein after removal from the udder. In limited samples human and bovine milks contained much lower concentrations of the compound than those in goat's milk.

  14. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  15. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  16. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  17. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  18. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human and animal milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in animal milk. In addition, exposure of infants to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and lactating mothers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined using AFM1 in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure to AFB1. In total, 100 samples of fresh animal milk and fermented milk (buttermilk) and 80 samples of human breast milk were collected during the period 2011-2012. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. AFM1 was detected in all animal fresh and fermented milk samples. The concentrations of AFM1 in 70 samples of fresh and fermented milk were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 50 ng/kg. In human milk samples the average concentration of AFM1 was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 25 ng/kg. Logistic regression analysis failed to show a correlation between AFM1 and type and amount of dairy consumption, vegetables, fruits, and meat. However, an association between AFM1 and cereal consumption was detected. This study is the first to report on the occurrence of AFM1 in milk consumed by the Jordanian population.

  19. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  20. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    PubMed Central

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  1. Determination of vitamins A and E in milk powder using supercritical fluid extraction for sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Mathiasson, L

    2000-04-07

    A method for the analysis of the natural contents of vitamins A and E in milk powder has been developed. The method utilises supercritical fluid extraction, a miniaturised alkaline saponification procedure and reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection. Modifications of the sample matrix, combinations of static and dynamic modes of extraction and effects of changes in extraction parameters such as temperature, flow-rate, time, collection solvent and collection temperature were studied to optimise the extraction efficiency and selectivity. Supercritical CO2 at 80 degrees C and 37 MPa, modified with 5% methanol and pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min, gave recoveries of 99 and 96% for vitamins A and E, respectively, using a 15 min static followed by a 15 min dynamic extraction. The measurements gave a within-day RSD of 4% for both vitamin A and E, and between-day RSDs of 4 and 8% for vitamins A and E, respectively.

  2. Isolation of Streptococci from milk samples of normal, acute and subclinical mastitis cows and determination of their antibiotic susceptibility patterns.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Nikookhah, Farzaneh; Nikpour, Saeed; Majiian, Farya; Gholami, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Streptococci are frequently isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy cows with only limited information available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms. A total of 42 Streptococci isolated from 148 milk samples of normal, sub acute and acute bovine mastitis cases. Overall, 35% of the strains tested were Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae 26%, Streptococcus uberis 18 and 4% were Enterococcus sp. Differences between the number of isolations in acute and sub acute groups were statistically significant, (p<0.5). The antimicrobial susceptibility for these organisms was determined for the following antimicrobial agents: cephalexine, penicillin, clindamycin, cloxaciline, gentamicin, streptomycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and Enterococci demonstrated high level of resistance against streptomycin, penicillin and cloxaciline. Low level of sensitivity to other tested antimicrobials was demonstrated.

  3. Effects of milk type, production month, and brand on fatty acid composition: A case study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Inmyoung; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the difference in fatty acid (FA) composition of organic and conventional milk at the retail market level in Korea for different milk production months and brands. The essential FA contents of the milk vary significantly under the combined effects of milk type, production month, and brand. Chemometric analysis reveals a greater difference between milk types than between production months and identifies significantly different levels of nutritionally desirable FAs-notably C18:3 n-3, C18:2 n-6 c and t-in the organic and conventional milks. Notwithstanding the limited sampling size and period, the results from this study may provide a better understanding of the nutritional quality of organic milk to consumers who are interested in organic milk intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of natural sorbent based micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Alsharaa, Abdulnaser; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al Qahtani, Mohammed; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud Shaheen

    2016-06-14

    In the present study, a natural sorbent based micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) was developed for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples. For the first time, an efficient and cost effective natural material (seed powder of Moringa oleifera) was employed as sorbent in μ-SPE. The sorbent was found to be naturally enriched with variety of functional groups and having a network of interconnected fibers. This method of extraction integrates different steps such as removal of proteins and fatty stuff, extraction and pre-concentration of target analytes into a single step. Thirteen phthalate esters were selected as target compounds for the development and evaluation of method. Some key parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, including selection of membrane, selection and amount of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time and effect of salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, very good linearity was achieved for all the analytes with coefficient of determinations (R(2)) ranging between 0.9768 and 0.9977. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 μg L(-1). Proposed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6% to 10.2% (n = 7). Finally, the developed method was applied to tetra pack and bottled milk samples for the determination of phthalate esters. The performance of natural sorbent based μ-SPE was better or comparable to the methods reported in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located in the southern Turkey. Twenty (12.5%) of the samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 40 isolates from the 20 positive samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by multiplex PCR based on 16S rRNA and nuc gene. The mec A gene was not detected in any of the S. aureus strains. In the present study, 39 out of 40 (97.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was detected in penicillin (95%) and ampicillin (92.5%), followed by tetracycline (30%), erythromycin (20%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%). Nine major patterns were determined by PFGE. In 6 of these patterns, thirty-six strains (90%) had identical PFGE profiles. PMID:28515641

  6. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  7. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples.

    PubMed

    Can, Hayriye Yeşim; Elmalı, Mehmet; Karagöz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located in the southern Turkey. Twenty (12.5%) of the samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 40 isolates from the 20 positive samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by multiplex PCR based on 16S rRNA and nuc gene. The mec A gene was not detected in any of the S. aureus strains. In the present study, 39 out of 40 (97.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was detected in penicillin (95%) and ampicillin (92.5%), followed by tetracycline (30%), erythromycin (20%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%). Nine major patterns were determined by PFGE. In 6 of these patterns, thirty-six strains (90%) had identical PFGE profiles.

  8. How acceptable is it for HIV positive African, Caribbean and Black women to provide breast milk/fluid samples for research purposes?

    PubMed

    Kapiriri, L; Tharao, W; Muchenje, M; Khatundi, I M; Ongoiba, F

    2017-01-03

    The African, Caribbean and Black communities have been found to be reluctant to participate in health research in North America. This is partly attributed to historical experiences as well as their cultural beliefs. Cultural beliefs about the uses of breast milk/fluids could further hinder the participation of African, Caribbean, and Black communities in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids samples. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews and three group interviews (n = 10) with HIV+ African, Caribbean and Black women living in Ontario, Canada to explore their cultural beliefs about breast milk/fluids and their acceptance of participating in research that involves the provision of breast fluid samples. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews. Our respondents believed that breast milk/fluids should be used for infant feeding and for curative purposes for a variety of children's health ailments as well as ailments experienced by other family members. The cultural belief that breast milk/fluids could be used to bewitch the baby and mother and the perception that it is intrusive (equating breast milk/fluids research to DNA testing), could prevent African, Caribbean and Black women from participating in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids. Despite these fears, some respondents expressed that they would participate if the research results would benefit them directly, for example, by finding a cure for HIV, enabling HIV+ mothers to breastfeed, or contributing to developing new drugs or vaccines for HIV. Women's recommendations to facilitate successful recruitment included giving incentives to participants, and employing a recruiter who was trustworthy, informed, and culturally sensitive. Cultural beliefs could present barriers to recruitment and participation of Africa, Caribbean and Black communities in health research involving breast milk/fluid samples. Successful recruitment for future studies would necessitate researchers

  9. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  10. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  11. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid are not detectable in human milk.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Goldstein, Daniel A; Jensen, Pamela K; Vicini, John L

    2016-05-01

    Although animal studies have shown that exposure to glyphosate (a commonly used herbicide) does not result in glyphosate bioaccumulation in tissues, to our knowledge there are no published data on whether it is detectable in human milk and therefore consumed by breastfed infants. We sought to determine whether glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) could be detected in milk and urine produced by lactating women and, if so, to quantify typical consumption by breastfed infants. We collected milk (n = 41) and urine (n = 40) samples from healthy lactating women living in and around Moscow, Idaho and Pullman, Washington. Milk and urine samples were analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA with the use of highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods validated for and optimized to each sample matrix. Our milk assay, which was sensitive down to 1 μg/L for both analytes, detected neither glyphosate nor AMPA in any milk sample. Mean ± SD glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in urine were 0.28 ± 0.38 and 0.30 ± 0.33 μg/L, respectively. Because of the complex nature of milk matrixes, these samples required more dilution before analysis than did urine, thus decreasing the sensitivity of the assay in milk compared with urine. No difference was found in urine glyphosate and AMPA concentrations between subjects consuming organic compared with conventionally grown foods or between women living on or near a farm/ranch and those living in an urban or suburban nonfarming area. Our data provide evidence that glyphosate and AMPA are not detectable in milk produced by women living in this region of the US Pacific Northwest. By extension, our results therefore suggest that dietary glyphosate exposure is not a health concern for breastfed infants. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02670278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Development of a semi-nested PCR for the improved detection of Mycoplasma bovis from bovine milk and mucosal samples.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Bernadette; Hirst, Robert

    2003-02-02

    A new forward primer, Mb-F, was designed to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of the Mycoplasma bovis-specific PCR developed by Ghadersohi et al. [Vet. Microbiol. 56 (1997) 87] for testing clinical samples. A semi-nested (SN) PCR configuration was developed and this provided enhanced sensitivity and reproducibility. The detection limit of the SN PCR was in the range of 10-100cfu/ml and the correct amplicon was amplified from 9.15pg/microliter of total extracted DNA (mixture of M. bovis and bovine cellular DNA). A dot blot assay was also developed and compared with the SN PCR on a number of randomly selected milk and mucosal samples. The dot blot had the same level of detection as the SN PCR. The specificity of the SN configuration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and automated sequencing of the PCR product. The results from the tests on the samples from cattle, together with those from sheep, provided evidence that M. bovis is host-specific and that most cattle are colonised. The assay was shown to be specific, sensitive and reproducible and could be used successfully to detect M. bovis directly from clinical material without pre-enrichment.

  13. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water.

  14. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001).

  15. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based identification of bacteria in milk samples from bovine clinical mastitis with no growth in conventional culturing.

    PubMed

    Taponen, S; Salmikivi, L; Simojoki, H; Koskinen, M T; Pyörälä, S

    2009-06-01

    In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time PCR-based commercial reagent kit. The assay targets the DNA of the 11 most common bacterial species or groups in mastitis and the staphylococcal blaZ gene (responsible for penicillin resistance) and can identify and quantify bacterial cells even if dead or growth-inhibited. A study was made of 79 mastitic milk samples with no-growth bacteria in conventional culture, originating from cows with clinical mastitis. Of the 79 samples, 34 (43%) were positive for 1 (32 samples) or 2 (2 samples) of the target bacteria. The positive findings included 11 Staphylococcus spp. (staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus), 10 Streptococcus uberis, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 6 Corynebacterium bovis, 3 Staph. aureus, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterococcus, and 1 Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The positive samples contained as many as 10(3) to 10(7) bacterial genome copies per milliliter of milk. This study demonstrates that in nearly half of the clinical mastitis cases in which conventional culture failed to detect bacteria, mastitis pathogens were still present, often in substantial quantities. The clearly elevated N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase activity values of the milk samples, together with clinical signs of the infected cows and quarters, confirmed the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and indicated that real-time, PCR-based bacterial findings are able to reveal bacteriological etiology. We conclude that all common mastitis bacteria can occur in large quantities in clinical mastitis samples that exhibit no growth in conventional culture, and that the real-time PCR assay is a useful tool for bacteriological diagnosis of such

  16. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  17. Distribution of animal drugs among curd, whey, and milk protein fractions in spiked skim milk and whey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labelled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and...

  18. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  19. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  20. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.

  1. Selective solid-phase extraction of artificial chemicals from milk samples using multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yan-li; Wang, Ling-ling; Ma, Jin-qin; Zhang, Zhi-qi

    2015-08-01

    A novel multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MTMIP) was synthesized using ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol as templates and modified monodispersed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA ) beads as the support material. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer templates and their structural analogs. The maximum binding capacities of ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol on the MTMIP were 9.0 and 6.6 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the corresponding nonimprinted polymer, the MTMIP exhibited a much higher adsorption performance and selectivity toward three quinolones and three estrogens, which are common drug residues in food. The MTMIP served as a simple and effective pretreatment method and could be successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of multiple target components in complex samples. Furthermore, the MTMIP may find useful applications as a solid-phase absorbent in the simultaneous determination of trace quinolones and estrogens in milk samples, as the recoveries were in the range 77.6-98.0%.

  2. New School Meal Regulations and Consumption of Flavored Milk in Ten US Elementary Schools, 2010 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rachel K.

    2015-01-01

    Milk is a source of shortfall nutrients in children’s diets, but most children do not consume recommended amounts. We measured consumption of milk by elementary-schoolchildren (grades 3–5) in a diverse sample of schools before and after implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s updated meal regulations requiring flavored milk to be fat-free. Flavored milk consumption did not change from 2010 to 2013; 52.2% of students in 2010 and 49.7% in 2013 consumed 7 ounces or more of an 8-ounce container. Updated regulations succeeded in lowering the amount of fat, added sugars, and calories in school milk but did not change overall milk consumption, thus improving children’s diet quality. PMID:26425870

  3. New School Meal Regulations and Consumption of Flavored Milk in Ten US Elementary Schools, 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2015-10-01

    Milk is a source of shortfall nutrients in children's diets, but most children do not consume recommended amounts. We measured consumption of milk by elementary-schoolchildren (grades 3-5) in a diverse sample of schools before and after implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's updated meal regulations requiring flavored milk to be fat-free. Flavored milk consumption did not change from 2010 to 2013; 52.2% of students in 2010 and 49.7% in 2013 consumed 7 ounces or more of an 8-ounce container. Updated regulations succeeded in lowering the amount of fat, added sugars, and calories in school milk but did not change overall milk consumption, thus improving children's diet quality.

  4. What FDA Learned About Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates What FDA Learned About Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... firm. back to top Milk Detected in Individual Dark Chocolate Products Label/Package Statement Total number of dark ...

  5. Manipulating dietary anions and cations for prepartum dairy cows to reduce incidence of milk fever.

    PubMed

    Block, E

    1984-12-01

    Twenty preparturient dairy cows were in a 2-yr switchover design to test effects of dietary ions on incidence of milk fever. In yr 1, cows were blocked and assigned randomly 45 days prepartum to one of two diets; one diet contained an excess of anions, and the second diet contained an excess of cations. In yr 2, cows were changed to the opposite diet. Both diets were equivalent for crude protein (11%), calcium (.65%), phosphorus (.25%), and energy on a dry basis but differed for quantities of chlorine, sulfur, and sodium. Both diets were chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, high moisture corn, and vitamin-mineral mix. Diets were available ad libitum as complete rations. There were no differences in dry matter intake of the diets. Cows consuming the anionic diet had no milk fever, but cows consuming the canionic diet had 47.4% incidence. Samples of blood plasma showed that cows consuming the anionic diet maintained calcium and phosphorus through parturition, whereas cows consuming the cationic diet decreased in these minerals around calving. Hydroxyproline was higher for cows consuming the anionic diet during the peripartal period compared to cows consuming the cationic diet. Milk produced in the lactation subsequent to prepartum treatment was 6.8% less for cows offered the cationic diet. When milk production of paretic and nonparetic cows offered the cationic diet was compared, milk was reduced 14% with milk fever.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Biyun; Yang, Hong; Song, Juan; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-11-15

    The adulteration of food products with melamine has led to an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, rapid and reliable quantitative/screening methods. To enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples, rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations were adopted. Three melamine derivatives with different length of carboxylic spacer at the end were synthesized and linked to carrier proteins for the production of immunogens and coating antigens. Monoclonal antibody against melamine was produced by hybridoma technology. Under optimal experimental conditions, the standard curves of the ELISAs for melamine were constructed in range of 0.1-100 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity was 10-300 times enhanced compared to those in the published literatures. The cross-reactivity values of the ELISAs also demonstrated the assays exhibited high specificity. Five samples were spiked with melamine at different concentrations and detected by the ELISA. The recovery rates of 72.8-123.0% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 0.8-18.9% (n=3) were obtained. The ELISA for milk sample was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9902 (n=6). The proposed ELISA was proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for melamine analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to further validate a SYBR PCR protocol for Mycoplasma spp. by comparing it with standard microbial culture in the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Additionally, we identified Mycoplasma spp. present by analysis of PCR-generated amplicons [dissociation (melt) temperature (T(m)), length, and DNA sequence]. The research presented herein tests the hypothesis that the SYBR PCR protocol is as sensitive as conventional culture for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Mycoplasmas cause several important disease syndromes in cattle, including mastitis in dairy cows. The standard diagnostic method at the herd level has been microbial isolation of mycoplasmas on 1 of several specialized media and speciation through biochemical or immunological techniques; repeated sampling schemes are recommended. The development of a real-time SYBR PCR protocol offers advantages in decrease of time to detection, cost, and complexity. The T(m) of the double-stranded DNA generated from the PCR reaction was used to detect the presence of and tentatively identify the species of mycoplasmas other than Mycoplasma bovis. In the SYBR PCR protocol, the presence of multiple species of mycoplasmas is indicated by an atypical dissociation curve. Gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the amplicons was used to confirm the mycoplasma species present when a non-M. bovis organism was detected (T(m) not equal to M. bovis) and used to identify all the mycoplasma species present for the samples with atypical dissociation curves. Mycoplasma bovis was identified in 83% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank samples. Another mycoplasma was identified either alone or in addition to M. bovis in 25% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank milk samples. Four species of mycoplasma other than M. bovis (Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Mycoplasma gateae) were identified in bulk tank milk samples

  8. Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as a model for captive rearing milk formula.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Gail E; Derocher, Andrew E; Andersen, Magnus; Rogers, Quinton R; DePeters, Edward J; Lönnerdal, Bo; Mazzaro, Lisa; Chesney, Russell W; Hollis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D(3), 25(OH)D(3), vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), protein, and amino acids. Total lipids in milk did not differ for cubs (mean ± SEM = 26.60 ± 1.88 g/100 ml vs. yearlings 27.80 ± 2.20 g/100 ml). Milk lipids were of 23.6% saturated fatty acid for cubs and 22.4% for yearlings. Milk consumed by cubs and yearlings contained 43.8 and 42.0% mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 23.4 and 21.9% polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Carbohydrate content was higher in milk for cubs (4.60 ± 0.64 g/100 ml) than for yearlings (2.60 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Vitamin D(3) concentration of milk was 18.40 ± 5.00 ng/ml in early lactation compared with 7.60 ± 2.00 ng/ml for mid-lactation. 25(OH)D(3) was lower in milk consumed by cubs (162.00 ± 6.70 pg/ml) than in milk consumed by yearlings (205.00 ± 45.70 pg/ml). Vitamin A concentrations were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/ml for cubs and yearlings, respectively. Vitamin E was higher in milk consumed by cubs (20.16 ± 4.46 µg/ml) than by yearlings (7.30 ± 1.50 µg/ml). Protein content did not differ in milk available to cubs (11.40 ± 0.80 g/100 ml compared with milk for yearlings 11.80 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Taurine was the most abundant free amino acid at 3,165.90 ± 192.90 nmol/ml (0.04% as fed basis). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm-management practices.

    PubMed

    Vicini, John; Etherton, Terry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Ballam, Joan; Denham, Steven; Staub, Robin; Goldstein, Daniel; Cady, Roger; McGrath, Michael; Lucy, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    A trend in food labeling is to make claims related to agricultural management, and this is occurring with dairy labels. A survey study was conducted to compare retail milk for quality (antibiotics and bacterial counts), nutritional value (fat, protein, and solids-not-fat), and hormonal composition (somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], estradiol, and progesterone) as affected by three label claims related to dairy-cow management: conventional, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)-free (processor-certified not from cows supplemented with rbST), or organic (follows US Department of Agriculture organic practices). Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states were collected. Based on a statistical analysis that reflected the sampling schema and distributions appropriate to the various response variables, minor differences were observed for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk labels. Conventionally labeled milk had the lowest (P<0.05) bacterial counts compared to either milk labeled rbST-free or organic; however, these differences were not biologically meaningful. In addition, conventionally labeled milk had significantly less (P<0.05) estradiol and progesterone than organic milk (4.97 vs 6.40 pg/mL and 12.0 vs 13.9 ng/mL, respectively). Milk labeled rbST-free had similar concentrations of progesterone vs conventional milk and similar concentrations of estradiol vs organic milk. Concentrations of IGF-1 in milk were similar between conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free. Organic milk had less (P<0.05) IGF-1 than either conventional or rbST-free milk (2.73 ng/mL vs 3.12 and 3.04 ng/mL, respectively). The macronutrient profiles of the different milks were similar, except for a slight increase in protein in organic milk (about 0.1% greater for organic compared to other milks). Label claims were not related to any meaningful differences in the milk compositional variables measured. It is important for food and nutrition professionals to know that

  10. Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1.8 (sd 0.1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment, eleven subjects consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150 % of their sweat loss. Urine samples were collected before and for 5 h after exercise to assess fluid balance. Urine excretion over the recovery period did not change during the milk trials whereas there was a marked increase in output between 1 and 2 h after drinking water and the sports drink. Cumulative urine output was less after the milk drinks were consumed (611 (sd 207) and 550 (sd 141) ml for milk and milk with added sodium, respectively, compared to 1184 (sd 321) and 1205 (sd 142) ml for the water and sports drink; P < 0.001). Subjects remained in net positive fluid balance or euhydrated throughout the recovery period after drinking the milk drinks but returned to net negative fluid balance 1 h after drinking the other drinks. The results of the present study suggest that milk can be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink and can be considered for use after exercise by everyone except those individuals who have lactose intolerance.

  11. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  12. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  13. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  14. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  15. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  16. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  17. β-Cyclodextrin decorated nanocellulose: a smart approach towards the selective fluorimetric determination of danofloxacin in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-05-21

    An innovative and versatile strategy of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) is shown by using a new type of β-cyclodextrin-modified nanocellulose (CD-NC) as a sorbent material. β-cyclodextrin (used as an inclusion-type selector) was covalently bonded to amine-modified nanocellulose by an amidation reaction. Such novel nanocavities were successfully applied to the selective recognition of danofloxacin (DAN), an antibiotic used to treat animal diseases, via supramolecular host-guest interactions. The SPME methodology, using a platform based on β-cyclodextrin-"decorated" nanocellulose as a sorbent material, showed a wide linear fluorimetric response against DAN from 8 to 800 μg L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.5 μg L(-1). The specific recognition of DAN has been proven to be highly selective and efficient against this metabolite and other fluoroquinolones. The reusability and the high efficiency in the extraction and preconcentration of DAN in milk samples allow recoveries of 94%.

  18. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  19. Biocompatible phosphatidylcholine bilayer coated on magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengxiao; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junshen; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Xiaole; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-05-18

    In this work, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was coated on magnetic nanoparticles to form lipid bilayer as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water and milk samples. The lipid bilayer was coated on Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles using a modified dry lipid film hydration method. The resulted Fe(3)O(4)/PC could be readily isolated from solution with a magnet, and exhibited excellent adsorption performance to organic pollutants. Only 0.1g of sorbents was enough to extract PAHs from 500 mL aqueous solution, and 6 mL of acetonitrile was required to desorb them. The method was fast and relied on 10 min extraction time and 5 min magnetic separation. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine PAHs in some environmental water and milk samples. The detection limit was in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the spiked water samples ranged from 89% to 115% with relative standard deviations (RSD) varying from 1% to 8%. For spiked milk samples, RSD was satisfactory (1-9%), but the recoveries were relatively low (42-62%). We show the potentials of Fe(3)O(4)/PC sorbents in environmental water and biological sample analyses.

  20. Vitamin content of camel milk.

    PubMed

    Farah, Z; Rettenmaier, R; Atkins, D

    1992-01-01

    The content of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and fat-soluble vitamins E and A in camel milk was studied. The milk samples were collected from 20 individual camels (Camelus dromedarius) in two different occasions. The study showed that camel milk contains considerably less vitamin A and B2 than cow milk while the content of vitamin E was about the same level. The level of vitamin C was in average three times higher than that of cow milk.

  1. Quantification and size characterisation of silver nanoparticles in environmental aqueous samples and consumer products by single particle-ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Ramón; Barahona, Francisco; Geiss, Otmar; Ponti, Jessica; José Luis, Tadeo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa

    2017-12-01

    Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) is a promising technique able to generate the number based-particle size distribution (PSD) of nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous suspensions. However, SP-ICPMS analysis is not consolidated as routine-technique yet and is not typically applied to real test samples with unknown composition. This work presents a methodology to detect, quantify and characterise the number-based PSD of Ag-NPs in different environmental aqueous samples (drinking and lake waters), aqueous samples derived from migration tests and consumer products using SP-ICPMS. The procedure is built from a pragmatic view and involves the analysis of serial dilutions of the original sample until no variation in the measured size values is observed while keeping particle counts proportional to the dilution applied. After evaluation of the analytical figures of merit, the SP-ICPMS method exhibited excellent linearity (r(2)>0.999) in the range (1-25) × 10(4) particlesmL(-1) for 30, 50 and 80nm nominal size Ag-NPs standards. The precision in terms of repeatability was studied according to the RSDs of the measured size and particle number concentration values and a t-test (p = 95%) at the two intermediate concentration levels was applied to determine the bias of SP-ICPMS size values compared to reference values. The method showed good repeatability and an overall acceptable bias in the studied concentration range. The experimental minimum detectable size for Ag-NPs ranged between 12 and 15nm. Additionally, results derived from direct SP-ICPMS analysis were compared to the results conducted for fractions collected by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation and supernatant fractions after centrifugal filtration. The method has been successfully applied to determine the presence of Ag-NPs in: lake water; tap water; tap water filtered by a filter jar; seven different liquid silver-based consumer products; and migration solutions (pure water

  2. Herd-level prevalence of Map infection in dairy herds of southern Chile determined by culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR.

    PubMed

    Kruze, J; Monti, G; Schulze, F; Mella, A; Leiva, S

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, an infectious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is an economically important disease in dairy herds worldwide. In Chile the disease has been reported in domestic and wildlife animals. However, accurate and updated estimations of the herd-prevalence in cattle at national or regional level are not available. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd-level prevalence of dairy herds with Map infected animals of Southern Chile, based on two diagnostic tests: culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR. Two composite environmental fecal samples and one bulk-tank milk sample were collected during September 2010 and September 2011 from 150 dairy farms in Southern Chile. Isolation of Map from environmental fecal samples was done by culture of decontaminated samples on a commercial Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) with and without mycobactin J. Suspicious colonies were confirmed to be Map by conventional IS900 PCR. Map detection in bulk-tank milk samples was done by real time IS900 PCR assay. PCR-confirmed Map was isolated from 58 (19.3%) of 300 environmental fecal samples. Holding pens and manure storage lagoons were the two more frequent sites found positive for Map, representing 35% and 33% of total positive samples, respectively. However, parlor exits and cow alleyways were the two sites with the highest proportion of positive samples (40% and 32%, respectively). Herd prevalence based on environmental fecal culture was 27% (true prevalence 44%) compared to 49% (true prevalence 87%) based on bulk-tank milk real time IS900 PC. In both cases herd prevalence was higher in large herds (>200 cows). These results confirm that Map infection is wide spread in dairy herds in Southern Chile with a rough herd-level prevalence of 28-100% depending on the herd size, and that IS900 PCR on bulk-tank milk samples is more sensitive than environmental fecal culture to detect

  3. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Glycaemic Properties of Commercial Plant-Based Milk Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Stephanie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-03-01

    The market for plant-based dairy-type products is growing as consumers replace bovine milk in their diet, for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. A screening of 17 different commercial plant-based milk substitutes based on different cereals, nuts and legumes was performed, including the evaluation of physicochemical and glycaemic properties. Half of the analysed samples had low or no protein contents (<0.5 %). Only samples based on soya showed considerable high protein contents, matching the value of cow's milk (3.7 %). An in-vitro method was used to predict the glycaemic index. In general, the glycaemic index values ranged from 47 for bovine milk to 64 (almond-based) and up to 100 for rice-based samples. Most of the plant-based milk substitutes were highly unstable with separation rates up to 54.39 %/h. This study demonstrated that nutritional and physicochemical properties of plant-based milk substitutes are strongly dependent on the plant source, processing and fortification. Most products showed low nutritional qualities. Therefore, consumer awareness is important when plant-based milk substitutes are used as an alternative to cow's milk in the diet.

  4. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  5. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy.

  6. Determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water and milk samples treated with stir cake sorptive extraction based on a boron-rich monolith.

    PubMed

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction using a boron-rich monolith as the adsorbent was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene. The effect of preparation parameters, including the ratio of vinylboronic anhydride pyridine complex and divinylbenzene, monomer mixture, and porogen solvent, on extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, a convenient and sensitive method for the determination of trace fluoroquinolones residues in water and milk samples was established by coupling stir cake sorptive extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The limits of detection for the target compounds were 0.10-0.26 and 0.11-0.22 μg/L for water and milk samples, respectively. In addition, the developed method showed good linearity, repeatability, and precision. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the detection of trace fluoroquinolones residues in environmental water and milk samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for the determination of fluoroquinolones in spiking samples that ranged from 68.8 to 120%, with relative standard deviations below 10% in all cases.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  8. New methodology for the determination of phthalate esters, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and nonylphenol in commercial whole milk samples.

    PubMed

    Casajuana, Neus; Lacorte, Sílvia

    2004-06-16

    This paper reports a new methodology aimed at determining dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in commercial whole milk. These compounds are used as plastic additives, lacquers, resins, or surfactants and can be found in milk due to contact with plastic materials during food processing and storage. They are all suspected endocrine disrupters or mutagens. A multiresidue method based in solid-phase extraction with C-18 cartridges followed by a cleanup step using disposable cartridges was developed. Detection and quantification were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection using an appropriate surrogate (4-n-nonylphenol) and internal standard [deuterated bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate]. Limits of detection were from 0.06 to 0.36 microg/kg and intraday variation from 3 and 27%, with recoveries between 73 and 119%. Five brands of commercial whole milk processed and packed in different ways were analyzed. All samples contained target compounds at concentrations between 0.28 and 85.3 microg/kg, and the total concentration ranged between 79.3 and 187.4 microg/kg, the levels being higher in sterilized milks. Nonylphenol, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were the major contributors.

  9. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption.

  10. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow’s milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5.6% of goat and 3.9% sheep milk samples, with 33.3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  11. Diagnosing intramammary infections: comparison of multiple versus single quarter milk samples for the identification of intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, I; Andersen, S; Dingwell, R; Hand, K; Kelton, D; Leslie, K; Schukken, Y; Godden, S

    2011-11-01

    The objective was to examine the potential benefits of using different combinations of multiple quarter milk samples compared with a single sample for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle. Data used in the analyses were derived from 7,076 samples from 667 quarters in 176 cows in 8 herds in 4 locations (Minnesota/Wisconsin, n=4; Prince Edward Island, n=2; Ontario, n=1; New York, n=1). Duplicate quarter milk samples were collected at morning milking for 5 consecutive days. Cows were evenly distributed between early postparturient and mid- to late-lactation cows. All samples were frozen for shipping and storage, thawed once, and cultured in university laboratories using standardized procedures consistent with National Mastitis Council guidelines. The presence of specific pathogens was confirmed and identified using the API identification system (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) in each laboratory. A previously developed gold standard was applied to the first sample from d 1, 3, and 5 to classify infected quarters. The data were analyzed separately for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus spp. Various combinations of test results from d 2 and 4 were used in the test evaluation. These consisted of single samples (n=4), 2 sets of duplicate samples (2 samples collected on the same day), 2 sets of consecutive samples (2 samples collected 2 d apart), and 2 sets of triplicate samples (2 samples on the same day and a third sample 2 d apart). Series interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=same pathogen isolated from both samples) resulted in the highest specificity (Sp; CNS Sp=92.1-98.1%; Streptococcus spp. Sp=98.7-99.6%), but lowest sensitivity (Se; CNS Se=41.9-53.3%; Streptococcus spp. Se=7.7-22.2%). Parallel interpretation of duplicate or consecutive samples (i.e., positive=pathogen isolated from either) resulted in the highest Se (CNS Se=70.8-80.6%; Streptococcus spp. Se=31.6-48.1%), but lowest Sp (CNS

  12. Simultaneous enantioselective quantification of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk by direct sample injection using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvim-Jr, Joel; Lopes, Bianca Rebelo; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-06-17

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (2D LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneously quantification of fluoxetine (FLX) and norfluoxetine (NFLX) enantiomers in human milk by direct injection of samples. A restricted access media of bovine serum albumin octadecyl column (RAM-BSAC18) was used in the first dimension for the milk proteins depletion, while an antibiotic-based chiral column was used in the second dimension. The results herein described show good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with limits of quantification in the order of 7.5ngmL(-1)for the FLX enantiomers and 10.0ngmL(-1) for NFLX enantiomers. Furthermore, it represents a practical tool in terms of sustainability for the sample preparation of such a difficult matrix.

  13. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  14. Assessment of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their effect on the essential elemental status in the biological samples of Irish hypertensive consumers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, H I; Talpur, F N; Kazi, T G; Brabazon, D

    2015-05-01

    Cigarette smoking causes an acute increase in blood pressure and heart rate and has been found to be associated with malignant hypertension (HT). A significant flux of toxic metals among other toxins reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between essential (zinc and selenium) and toxic element (TE; cadmium and mercury) and HT incidence in smoker and nonsmoker population living in Dublin, Ireland was investigated. The zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients. For comparison purposes, healthy age- and sex-matched subjects as referents residing in the same city were also selected. The different brands of cigarette consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for Cd and Hg. The concentrations of essential trace and TEs in all studied samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using certified reference materials (CRMs). The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.7% of certified values of CRMs. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg and Cd concentrations in the range of 9.55-12.4 ng and 1.70-2.12 μg per cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Hg were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of hypertensive patients as compared with healthy controls, whereas Zn and Se concentrations were found to be lower in hypertensive patients, the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (P < 0.001). The levels of both TEs were 2-3-folds higher in scalp hair and blood samples of nonhypertensive smoker subjects as compared with nonsmoker controls. It was observed that exposure of TEs via cigarette smoking may be synergistic with other risk

  15. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Study on quality detection of milk powder based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Zhu; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Chao; Xu, Yun

    2007-09-01

    The traditional NIR model was usually built according to various parameters of an individual type of milk powder so that it's really time-consuming. To simplify the application of NIR in real-time quality detection of milk powder, it was proposed in the present paper to build NIR models for a sample set composed of different types of milk powder. With 70 samples provided by one manufacturer, 6 NIR models including acidity, fat, lactose, sucrose, protein and ash, were built by optimizing algorithms. The results indicated that these NIR models except the acidity model have good stability and high prediction ability (RSD<10%, RPD>3).

  17. Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus along milk value chain and its public health importance in Sebeta, central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Yodit; Gutema, Fanta Desissa; Edao, Bedaso Mamo; Girma, Robel; Tufa, Takele Beyene; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Tadesse, Fanos; Geloye, Mesula; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa

    2017-06-27

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis acquired from contaminated foods such as milk and milk products. However, such information is limited in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the contamination of milk with S. aureus and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of actors along the milk value chain in Sebeta, Central Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 291 samples collected from dairy farms, milk collection centers (MCCs) and processing plant were examined using standard microbiological techniques. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates were also investigated. The KAP of actors in milk value chain were evaluated through a structured questionnaire. Overall, 23.4% (n = 68) of the samples were positive for S. aureus. The prevalence of S. aureus was 19.6% (95% CI: 14.5-25.6) and 80.0% (95% CI: 14.5-25.6) at farm level and MCCs, respectively. Higher isolation rate was observed in the MCCs (p = 0.000) than the farms. The contamination rates of hands of milkers' and milking buckets with S. aureus were 32% and 11.1%, respectively. S. aureus was not isolated from pasteurized milk samples. The isolates were found to be resistant to cefoxitin (100%), penicillin G (98.5%), and streptomycin (77.9%). Among 23 interviewed farmers, 35% of them consumed raw milk, none of them wash their hands and 82.6% did not wash udder and teat before milking. Six percent of consumers had the habit of raw milk consumption. Eighty seven percent of dairy farmers and 54% of consumers had no awareness about milk borne diseases and staphylococcal food poisoning. The study revealed a high prevalence of S. aureus along the milk value chain, poor milk handling practices, raw milk consumption behavior, lack of awareness about milk borne diseases and occurrence of antimicrobials resistant S. aureus. S. aureus seems to pose a public health risk in Sebeta. Authors recommended the urgent need of public awareness creation about the

  18. Quantitation of tetrabromobisphenol-A from dust sampled on consumer electronics by dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli-Davis, Gina; Owens, Janel E

    2013-09-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant used worldwide. Despite its widespread use, there are few data concerning environmental concentrations of TBBPA. Thus, the objective of this work was to optimize an ultrasound-assisted dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method to analyze swabbed surfaces of consumer electronics to determine TBBPA concentrations. Upon sample preparation with DLLME, TBBPA was derivatized with acetic anhydride and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using a (13)C12-TBBPA internal standard to improve precision and quantitation, a recovery study was performed. At concentrations of 250-1000 ng/mL, recoveries were 104-106%. Sample preparation with solid phase extraction had comparable recoveries, although overall, improved analyte recovery and precision were achieved with DLLME. In a small survey study, TBBPA concentrations in dust collected from 100 cm(2) areas on electronic surfaces (monitor, microwave, refrigerator, and TV) were determined to range from less than the LOQ to 523 ng/mL.

  19. Estrone and estrone sulfate concentrations in milk and milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Macrina, Ann L; Ott, Troy L; Roberts, Robert F; Kensinger, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Dairy products naturally contain estrogens, and some consumer groups contend these estrogens cause adverse health effects. The objectives of this research were to characterize estrone (E(1)) and estrone sulfate (E(1)S) concentrations in milk from a large number of individual cows, in skim and fat fractions of milk, and in retail milk to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate potential consumption. Milk was from Holstein cows. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in E(1) and E(1)S content of whole milk and its skim and fat fractions. Mean E(1) and E(1)S concentrations (n=173 cows) were 7.0±12.7 and 46.7±62.1 pg/mL (25.89±46.96 and 172.74±229.71 pmol/L), respectively. Analysis of milk fractions (n=50 samples) demonstrated that 55% of E(1) and 14% of E(1)S were associated with the fat fraction with the remainder associated with the skim fraction. Concentrations of E(1) and E(1)S in pasteurized-homogenized whole milk (n=8) averaged 10.3±0.6 and 85.9±7.3 pg/mL (38.09±2.22 and 317.74±27.00 pmol/L), respectively. Production rates of E(1) plus estradiol in human beings range from 54,000 to 630,000 ng/day. US Food and Drug administration guidelines state that no physiologic effects occur when consumption is ≤1% of the endogenous quantities produced by the segment of the population with the lowest daily production. This threshold value for intake would be 540 ng/day. Estimated total E(1) intake from three servings of whole milk was 68 ng/day, which represents 0.01% to 0.1% of daily production rates in human beings. These findings support levels below the current guidelines for safe consumption.

  20. Facile synthesis of magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulfonamides from water and milk samples before their HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Furletov, Aleksei A; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Zolotov, Yury A

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HCP/Fe3O4), was prepared and used for preconcentration of four sulfonamides (sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine) from natural water and milk samples. This material was prepared by sorption of pre-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) onto HCP. A number of sorbents with varying Fe3O4NPs content were prepared, and their structural, magnetic and sorption properties were studied. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the amount of the magnetic nanocomposite, extraction time, pH of the sample solution and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, a convenient and efficient method for the determination of sulfonamides in water and milk samples was developed by combining MSPE and high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. The results showed that the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 84-105% with the relative standard deviations ranging between 3% and 10%; the limit of detection were in the range of 0.21-0.33 ng mL(-1) for water and 2.0-2.5 ng mL(-1) for milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  2. Determination of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk samples using a pipette-tip SPE step based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes prior to CE separation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Valeria; Jacksén, Johan; Ek, Patrik; Lista, Adriana G; Emmer, Asa

    2014-01-01

    A simple CE-UV method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin in milk samples. The optimum separation was obtained using a 20 mM ammonium dihydrogenphosphate solution with 2 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at pH 3.0 as the BGE. Satisfactory resolution for structurally very similar analytes, like norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, was achieved without including any organic solvent. Milk samples were prepared using a simple/extraction procedure based on acidic protein precipitation followed by an SPE step using only 5 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the sorbent material. The LODs for the three compounds were between 7.5 and 11.6 μg/L and the RSDs for the peak areas were between 2.6 and 4.9%. The complete method was applied to spiked real milk samples with satisfactory recoveries for all analytes (84-106%). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Extraction of quinolones from milk samples using bentonite/magnetite nanoparticles before determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Wu, Hao; Gao, Nannan; Chen, Xiaodan; Lai, Huajie; Zheng, Jinfeng; Du, Liming

    2016-02-01

    In this work, bentonite magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a typical coprecipitation method were used as the adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of six quinolones (ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, sarafloxacin, and lomefloxacin) from milk samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Under the optimized conditions, the linear quantitation range for the six quinolones was 0.3-200 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9994 to 0.9999. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 ng/mL. Recoveries of quinolones from pure and low-fat spiked milk samples varied from 80.4 to 92.7% and from 81.3 to 93.5%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the proposed method for the determination of six quinolones in milk samples was rapid, reliable, and efficient. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted surfactant-improved dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of aminoglycosides in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Zhuang; Zhao, Xin; Su, Rui; Zhang, Yupu; Shi, Jiayuan; Zhao, Yajing; Wu, Lijie; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2013-02-01

    A green and simple method, ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted surfactant-improved dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization was developed for the determination of aminoglycosides in milk samples. Nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were used as the disperser and extraction solvent, respectively. Extraction, preconcentration, and derivatization of aminoglycosides were carried out in a single step. Several experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of surfactant, microwave power and irradiation time, concentration of derivatization reagent, and pH value and volume of buffer were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearities for determining the analytes were in the range 0.4-10.0 ng/mL for tobramycin, 1.0-25.0 ng/mL for neomycin, and 2.0-50.0 ng/mL for gentamicin, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. The LODs for the analytes were between 0.11 and 0.50 ng/mL. The present method was applied to the analysis of different milk samples, and the recoveries of aminoglycosides obtained were in the range 96.4-105.4% with the RSDs lower than 5.5%. The results showed that the present method was a rapid, convenient, and environmentally friendly method for the determination of aminoglycosides in milk samples.

  5. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.

  6. Determination of phospholipids in milk samples by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Cichello, Filomena; Russo, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-09-16

    The combined use of the state-of-the-art hybrid mass spectrometers together with high efficient liquid chromatography could surely be a useful tool for such a challenging task, as phospholipids (PLs) analysis. In this research, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (150 mm×2.1 mm I.D., 2.7 μm d.p. partially porous column) to achieve the separation of major PLs classes in cow's and donkey's milk samples. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed in order to pre-concentrate minor PLs from non polar lipids (triacylglycerols) and the recovery for the extraction method was assayed on a milk sample, fortified with 5 μg/mL of SM pure standard, and analyzed in triplicate. A value of 89.99% was calculated, with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 1.93. A 70-min long stepwise gradient of water/acetonitrile afforded baseline separation of PLs classes, at 50 μL/min flow rate. Accurate detection by an ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometer (in both positive and negative ionization mode) allowed to fully characterize the distinctive phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition of cow's and donkey's milk, the latter being analyzed for the first time. Evaporative light scattering detection was further employed to attain the quantitative evaluation of major PLs classes identified, by the external calibration method using reference material solutions in the 5-200 μg/mL concentration range. Major difference between the two analyzed samples consisted in the total PLs amount, which in cow's milk was determined as over 20-fold higher than the donkey's.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and milk fat, respectively. PCB congeners -153, -138, -180 and -170 dominated in the PCB profiles, while p,ṕ-DDE was the most abundant OCP. PCB-126 was the most abundant non-ortho PCB, while among mono-ortho PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution to the study of staphylococcus contamination of cows' milk on a number of farms in Algiers: its impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Hamiroune, M; Berber, A; Boubekeur, S

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe a survey and screening programme for staphylococcus. The study covers 14 dairy farms in the Algiers region, from which 203 samples of cows' milk were taken for bacteriological testing. The survey results show that poor husbandry conditions are the main cause of staphylococcus in cows' milk. Staphylococcus was found in the milk of 30% of the cows sampled. These results were influenced by a variety of factors, in that: the contamination rate rose with the number of pregnancies, age, and volume of milk output of the cow, as well as the bedding thickness; the milk contamination rate was greater when milking occurred outside a milking parlour and when it was performed by machine; higher rates of staphylococcus infection were found in the milk of cows at the end of lactation, in red and white breeds, and in those with cylindricalteats. Identification of the bacteria found (staphylococcus) showed that coagulase- negative staphylococci were present in 67.21% of samples, whereas coagulase- positive staphylococci were present in only 32.79%. The average count for the latter was equal to 0.54 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Seventy percent of the milk analysed was free from staphylococci and most of the bacteria identified were not pathogenic to consumers (coagulase- negative staphylococci); nevertheless, consuming fresh milk still presents a degree of risk.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  10. Tobacco Metabolites and Caffeine in Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Rogers, Lynette; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Augustine, Molly; Keim, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. Materials and Methods: We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols. Results: No sellers indicated smoking in their advertisement. Many of the milk samples (58%) had detectable nicotine or cotinine; four (4%) of the samples had nicotine or cotinine levels high enough to indicate active smoking. Twelve (12%) sellers said in their advertisements that they specifically limit (4%) or avoid (8%) caffeine entirely. Five (5%) of the samples had caffeine levels consistent with consuming at least 1 cup of coffee 2 hours prior to milk expression. Detectable amounts of caffeine were found in almost all of the samples (97%). Conclusions: In 102 milk samples, we detected evidence of active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, and almost ubiquitous caffeine consumption. Buyers of human milk on the Internet should be aware that advertisements do not always include accurate information as to what substances may be present. Sellers may misrepresent their health behaviors or be unaware of lifestyle factors that can lead to exposure to nicotine and caffeine. PMID:26394021

  11. Tobacco Metabolites and Caffeine in Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J; Rogers, Lynette; Klebanoff, Mark A; Augustine, Molly; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols. No sellers indicated smoking in their advertisement. Many of the milk samples (58%) had detectable nicotine or cotinine; four (4%) of the samples had nicotine or cotinine levels high enough to indicate active smoking. Twelve (12%) sellers said in their advertisements that they specifically limit (4%) or avoid (8%) caffeine entirely. Five (5%) of the samples had caffeine levels consistent with consuming at least 1 cup of coffee 2 hours prior to milk expression. Detectable amounts of caffeine were found in almost all of the samples (97%). In 102 milk samples, we detected evidence of active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, and almost ubiquitous caffeine consumption. Buyers of human milk on the Internet should be aware that advertisements do not always include accurate information as to what substances may be present. Sellers may misrepresent their health behaviors or be unaware of lifestyle factors that can lead to exposure to nicotine and caffeine.

  12. Caries protective agents in human milk and bovine milk: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vabitha; Hegde, Amitha M; Nandan, S; Shetty, Suchetha

    2011-01-01

    To estimate Calcium and Phosphorus withdrawal from hydroxyapatite in the presence of bovine milk and human milk from which the following protective fractions namely Casein, Whey protein, Lactose and Milk fat have been individually removed and to compare the above protective fractions in human and bovine milk. Human milk obtained from lactating mothers in the labor ward of Kshema hospital was subjected to immediate analysis. Bovine milk was obtained from a local dairy. Equal quantities of human milk and bovine milk (1 ml) were separately subjected to the systematic removal of the four milk fractions. As each fraction was removed, the remaining milk samples were subjected to testing. Powdered hydroxyapatite from human dental enamel was subjected to demineralization with the addition of the milk sample under test for 20 minutes. This mixture was then centrifuged. Aliquots of the supernatant were taken for calcium and Phosphorus analysis using photospectrometry. Ten demineralization tests were similarly carried out for every milk fraction for both human and bovine milk separately. Equal samples of whole bovine milk and whole human milk were also subjected to similar testing. The calcium and phosphorus dissolution values were higher when the individual fractions were eliminated from both human milk/enamel samples and bovine milk/enamel samples as compared to the values obtained from whole human milk/whole bovine milk/enamel samples. Further higher calcium and phosphorus dissolution values were observed when the fractions were individually and separately removed from the whole human milk/enamel samples as compared to the corresponding values obtained when these fractions were removed from bovine milk/enamel samples. The evaluated milk fraction in bovine milk namely casein, whey protein, lactose and milk fat were individually more caries protective when compared to the corresponding fractions in human milk.

  13. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer as in-line concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of quinolones in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, David; Lara, Francisco J; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2014-09-19

    In this work molecularly imprinted polymers have been evaluated as sorbent for the construction of an in-line solid phase extraction analyte concentrator in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for the determination of the eight regulated veterinary quinolones in bovine milk samples. Different parameters affecting the analyte concentrator performance, such as sample pH, volume and composition of the elution plug and injection time, were studied. Sample volumes of 22μL (2bar for 15min) were loaded on the MISPE microcartridge and the retained analytes were eluted by injecting a plug of MeOH/H2O/NH3 (60/37/3 by volume) for 125s at 50mbar (60nL). The proposed method is simple for the monitoring of these antibiotic residues in milk samples, allowing the direct injection of the samples with minimum sample pretreatment, achieving limits of detection between 3.8 and 4.7μgkg(-1) and unequivocal identification of the compounds working in tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries ranging from 70.0 to 102.3% were obtained and satisfactory intra-day and inter-day RSDs were achieved (≤12% and 15% respectively). Reproducibility among different constructed analyte concentrators showed RSD≤11%.

  15. Comparison of the epidemiological behavior of mastitis pathogens by applying time-series analysis in results of milk samples submitted for microbiological examination.

    PubMed

    Fernández, G; Barreal, M L; Pombo, M B; Ginzo-Villamayor, M J; González-Manteiga, W; Prieto, A; Lago, N; González-Palencia, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and compare the trends of mastitis pathogens in quarter milk samples (n = 240,232) submitted for microbiological examination at the Milk Analysis Laboratory (L.I.G.A.L.) at Galicia, Spain from June 2005 to September 2011. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models and multivariate statistical techniques such as Cluster Analysis were used in order to detect seasonal trends and similarities between the series trends and to classify mastitis pathogens into relatively homogeneous groups. The decrease of bulk milk somatic cell counts achieved by the mastitis control program, developed in recent years in this region, is the result of the decrease in IMI caused by a limited number of mastitis pathogens. The obtained results reflect a greater complexity in the behavior of mastitis pathogens, unlike the traditional classification into contagious or environmental. Staphylococcus aureus showed a trend similar to Streptococcus dysgalactiae, a mastitis pathogen can behave in both a contagious and an environmental manner. Among the traditionally considered environmental mastitis pathogens, Strep. uberis showed a different behavior to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species and Streptococcus other than Strep. agalactiae showed differences in the trend model. Time-series analysis and multivariate statistical techniques, such as Cluster Analysis, could be powerful tools to assess the isolation trend of mastitis pathogens because of their ability to cope with stochastic dependence of consecutive data. Furthermore, they could be used to identify the epidemiological behavior of mastitis pathogens using the results of milk samples submitted for routine microbiological examination, by classifying them into relatively homogeneous groups.

  16. Risk assessment due to ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in the milk samples: a case study from a proposed uranium mining area, Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2011-04-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides and heavy metals through drinking water and food intake represents one of the important pathways for long-term health considerations. Milk and milk products are main constituents of the daily diet. Radionuclides and heavy metals can be apprehended in the ecosystem of the East Singhbhum region which is known for its viable grades of uranium, copper and other minerals. For the risk assessment studies, samples of milk were collected from twelve villages around Bagjata mining area and analysed for U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th, 210Po, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the geometric mean of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po was 0.021, 0.24, 0.23 and 1.08 Bq l(-1), respectively. The ingestion dose was calculated to be 12.34 μSvY(-1) which is reflecting the natural background dose via the route of ingestion, and much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new ICRP recommendations. The excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 1.72×10(-4) which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1×10(-4). The geometric mean of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni was 4.91, 0.29, 4.77, 0.56 and 0.48 mgl(-1), respectively; whereas the daily intake was computed to be 0.44, 0.03, 0.43, 0.05 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively. Pb was not detected in any of the samples. The hazard quotient revealed that the intake of the heavy metals through the ingestion of milk does not pose any apparent threat to the local people as none of the HQ of the heavy metals exceeds the limit of 1.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    PubMed

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  18. Estimation of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their effect on the essential elemental status in the biological samples of Irish smoker rheumatoid arthritis consumers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland, is investigated. The trace {zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se)} and toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, who are smokers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmoker controls. The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter, and ash) consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The concentrations of trace and TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.8% in certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 9.55-12.4 ng, 0.432-0.727 μg, 1.70-2.12 μg, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compare to healthy controls, while Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se concentrations were found to be lower in rheumatoid arthritis patients, the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p<0.001). The levels of four toxic elements were 2-3-folds higher in scalp hair and

  19. The association between Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in bulk tank milk samples and parameters linked to cattle reproduction and mortality.

    PubMed

    Delafosse, Arnaud

    2013-10-18

    In Western Europe, gastrointestinal nematodes are widespread in dairy cattle. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between optical density ratio (ODR) measured on bulk tank milk with an indirect Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA and reproduction/mortality parameters. Data were collected between 2008 and 2010 from monitoring carried out on 1643 dairy herds (Normandy, Western France). ODR values of 3 samples from each farm taken from November 2008 to 2010 were averaged and then transformed into a categorical variable. Reproductive and mortality data were obtained from 1444 herds using cow records from government databases. Statistical analysis was carried out using ordinary logistic regression (OLR). The outcome variables were the case-control status of a herd for reproductive factors, age at first calving and inter-calving intervals, and mortality ratios of various age classes. The effect of the categorical ODR variable was studied and several potential confounder herd factors were used to improve the model fit. A significant relationship was found between high Ostertagia ODR levels and a late age at the first calving (>34.5 months) (odds ratio (OR)=1.94, p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed with OLR for inter-calving intervals although bivariate analysis showed that herds with high ODR levels had longer inter-calving intervals than herds with low ODR level (first inter-calving interval in herds with low vs. high ODR levels=412 days vs. 422 days, p<0.001; other inter-calving intervals=408 days vs. 413 days, p<0.01). A high ODR level was also associated with high mortality of calves between 0 and 30 days of life (mortality ratio>6%) (OR=1.43, p<0.05) and between 91 and 365 days (ratio>3%) (OR=1.72, p<0.01). No significant relationship was observed with multivariate approach for mortalities in other classes by age, but bivariate analysis showed that herds with high ODR level had higher mortalities than herds with low ODR levels (mortality

  20. Composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota in consumers and non-consumers of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Elise; Andrieux, Claude; Rochet, Violaine; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Lepercq, Pascale; Sutren, Malène; Galan, Pilar; Duval, Yvonne; Juste, Catherine; Doré, Joël

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a regular consumption of yogurt on the composition and metabolism of the human intestinal microbiota. Adult subjects were selected on the basis of daily food records and divided into two groups: yogurt consumers (at least 200 g yogurt consumed per d, n 30); non-consumers (no yogurt, n 21). Their faecal microbiota was analysed using molecular methods (in situ hybridisation and PCR amplification combined with separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis) and its metabolic characteristics were assessed by measuring glycosidase, P-glucuronidase and reductase activities and profiling SCFA, neutral sterols and bile acids. The yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (identity confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing) was detected in 73% of faecal samples from fermented milk consumers v. 28% from non-consumers (P=0.003). In yogurt consumers, the level of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower (P=0.006) and 13-galactosidase activity was significantly increased (P=0.048). In addition, within this group, 3-galactosidase activity and the Bifidobacterium population were both positively correlated with the amount of fermented milk ingested (r 0.66, P<0.0001 and r 0.43, P=0.018, respectively). Apart from these effects, which can be considered beneficial to the host, no other major differences could be detected regarding the composition and metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota.

  1. Effect of chlorpyrifos on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase by cross-linking in water-supply samples and milk from dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Catalina Rodríguez, Diana; Carvajal, Stephanie; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2013-07-15

    A methodology for the determination of chlorpyrifos in water-supply samples and in milk from dairy cattle was developed. An amperometric biosensor was used to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which was immobilized by the cross-linking method (crosslinks between the enzyme and the sensor). The potential applied, the amount of enzyme to be immobilized and the acetylthiocholine (ACTh) concentration were optimized before calibration and analysis of the samples was performed. The concentration of chlorpyrifos was determined in the range of 1.0×10(-6) M to 5.0×10(-2) M with a detection limit of 5.0×10(-6) M. Spiked water samples showed high recoveries (91.32% and 93.98% for low and high chlorpyrifos levels, respectively), while milk samples exhibited a matrix effect with recoveries of 82.81% and 79.77% for high and low chlorpyrifos levels, respectively. The average concentration of chlorpyrifos in the water supply samples (5.11×10(-6) M), determined using the biosensor, was compared using gas chromatography and gave an average value of 3.04×10(-6) M. The results allow it to be concluded that although chromatographic methods are still more exact, biosensors are promising tools for the determination of analytes in the field, as they have a low cost, a reduced analysis time and good reproducibility in the data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of a New Mass Spectrometry Method for Measurement of Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations and an Assessment of the Effect of Analytic Method and Timing of Within-Feed Sample Collection on Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zeder, Christophe; Krzystek, Adam; Osei, Jennifer; Haldimann, Max; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Andersson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) may be an indicator of iodine status during lactation, but there are few data comparing different analytical methods or timing of sampling. The aims of this study were: (i) to optimize a new inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method; and (ii) to evaluate the effect of analytical method and timing of within-feed sample collection on BMIC. Methods: The colorimetric Sandell–Kolthoff method was evaluated with (a) or without (b) alkaline ashing, and ICP-MS was evaluated using a new 129I isotope ratio approach including Tellurium (Te) for mass bias correction (c) or external standard curve (d). From iodine-sufficient lactating women (n = 97), three samples were collected within one breast-feeding session (fore-, mid-, and hind-feed samples) and BMIC was analyzed using (c) and (d). Results: Iodine recovery from NIST SRM1549a whole milk powder for methods (a)–(d) was 67%, 24%, 105%, and 102%, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for ICP-MS comparing (c) and (d) were 1.3% versus 5.6% (p = 0.04) and 1.1% versus 2.4% (p = 0.33). The limit of detection (LOD) was lower for (c) (0.26 μg/kg) than it was for (d) (2.54 μg/kg; p = 0.02). Using (c), the median [95% confidence interval (CI) obtained by bootstrap] BMIC (μg/kg) in foremilk (179 [CI 161–206]) and in mid-feed milk (184 [CI 160–220]) were not significantly different (p = 0.017), but were higher than in hindmilk (175 [CI 153–216]; p < 0.001). In foremilk using (d), BMIC was 199 ([CI 182–257]; p < 0.001 vs. (c)). The variation in BMIC comparing (c) and (d) (13%) was greater than variation within feeding (5%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Because of poor recoveries, (a) and (b) should not be used to measure BMIC. Compared with (d), (c) has the advantages of higher precision and a lower LOD. In iodine-sufficient women, BMIC shows low variation within a breast-feeding session, so timing

  3. Health behaviour beliefs and physical health risk factors for cardiovascular disease in an outpatient sample of consumers with a severe mental illness: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Brunero, Scott; Lamont, Scott

    2010-06-01

    Consumers with a mental illness have a significantly higher risk of physical health problems than the general population. The role of health behaviour beliefs and their part in the health of consumers with a mental illness has been poorly explored in the literature. To understand the relationship between physical health risk factors and health behaviour beliefs in consumers with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey study design using the European Health and Behaviour Survey and assessing (n=99) consumer's blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, smoking history, exercise levels, demographics, family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease was used. The study was conducted in a 76-bed psychiatric facility located within a 550-bed metropolitan generalist hospital in Sydney, Australia. Patients attending an outpatient clozapine clinic at the mental health service were asked to participate in the survey by a nurse working in the clinic during the study period. Of the 163 consumers asked to be involved in the study, n=99 agreed to participate. Mean waist circumference and body mass index for both males and females were significantly above normal population limits. Overall, consumer's beliefs toward their health on the European Health and Behaviour Survey were positive, having statistically significantly more positive attitudes to the statements 'avoiding too much sugar', 'drinking no alcohol' and 'yearly blood pressure checks' than a previously published non-mental health consumer sample. Whilst having positive attitude toward their healthcare, consumers' physical health risk parameters were higher than general population norms. Consumers with a mental illness have a significantly higher risk for serious physical health problems, yet possess high positive attitudes toward their physical health care. Models of care need to explore this contradiction within mental health services to improve patient outcomes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products.

  5. Effect of frequency of milking on yield, composition and processing quality of milk.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Bernadette; Ryan, Gerard; Meaney, William J; McDonagh, David; Kelly, Alan

    2002-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of once-daily milking (ODM) and omitting one evening milking each week (13TWM), in late lactation on milk production, composition and processability. Seventy-two cows were assigned to three treatments (ODM, 13TWM and twice-daily milking [TDM]) from 4 October to 12 December. Cows were on average 218 d into lactation at the start of the trial, and all cows were managed similarly throughout the trial. Milk yields and gross milk composition of cows on all treatments were measured, and milk samples for detailed compositional and processability analysis were collected from TDM and ODM treatments at two consecutive milkings and at one milking each week, respectively. Milk yield was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) and milk fat and protein concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) with ODM compared with TDM. Milk yield and fat and protein concentrations of milk from TDM and 13TWM herds were similar. Casein concentrations in ODM and TDM milks were similar, but ODM milk had a higher (P < 0.05) whey protein content. Somatic cell count of ODM and TDM milks was similar. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (A60) of milk were not affected by milking frequency. However, rate of curd aggregation (K20) of ODM milk was reduced (P < 0.05) compared with that of TDM milk. Plasmin activity in ODM milk was numerically higher than in TDM milk, but the effect was not significant. ODM milk had higher NAGase activity than TDM milk (P < 0.01). In conclusion, once daily milking reduced milk yield by 29% and did not adversely affect the processability of milk. Moreover, one evening milking per week could be eliminated without adverse effects on milk yield or composition.

  6. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  7. Label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in milk without any sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Rau, Sabrina; Hilbig, Urs; Gauglitz, Günter

    2014-05-01

    A label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of diclofenac in bovine milk has been developed. This was achieved by using reflectometric interference spectroscopy as detection method. In a first step, the immunosensor was developed and optimised in buffer concerning sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. By comparing recovery rates—not only the good intra- but also the good inter-chip—reproducibility could be proven. Consequently, the assay was transferred in the more complex matrix milk. By utilising an optimised surface modification and evaluation method, matrix effects could successfully be prevented or circumvented. As a result, the developed immunosensor does not need sample pretreatment at all. By obtaining a limit of detection of 0.112 μg L(−1) (0.108 μg kg(−1)), the capability of the developed biosensor is comparable or better than those of standard detection methods. Moreover, the presented biosensor reaches the range of the maximum residue limit (0.1 μg kg(−1)) set by the European Union. Thus, for the first time, diclofenac was successfully quantified at relevant levels in milk by using an optical biosensor.

  8. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2014-08-20

    In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE-AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE-AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE-AMIIDB-HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N=3) for target compounds were 0.020-0.072 μg L(-1), 0.035-0.10 μg L(-1) and 0.026-0.076 μg L(-1) in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII-SCSE-HPLC/DAD method was successfully applied for the determination of benzimidazoles residues in milk, honey and environmental water samples. Recoveries obtained for the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiking samples ranged from 70.2% to 117.6%, with RSD below 12% in all cases.

  9. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P < 0.0001); at site 2, 40% of the variance in intention was explained by expectancy beliefs. The TPB variables of expectancy beliefs predicted intention to consume soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake.

  10. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P < 0.0001); at site 2, 40% of the variance in intention was explained by expectancy beliefs. The TPB variables of expectancy beliefs predicted intention to consume soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake. PMID:24611108

  11. Absorption of calcium from milks enriched with fructo-oligosaccharides, caseinophosphopeptides, tricalcium phosphate, and milk solids.

    PubMed

    López-Huertas, Eduardo; Teucher, Birgit; Boza, Julio J; Martínez-Férez, Antonio; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Baró, Luis; Carrero, Juan J; González-Santiago, María; Fonollá, Juristo; Fairweather-Tait, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Adequate intakes of calcium are required for optimal bone health and protection against chronic disease. Dairy products are an excellent source of calcium. The absorption of calcium from a range of fortified milks was measured in humans with the use of stable isotopes. Fifteen volunteers participated in a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study. Five types of semi-skimmed (1.9% fat) milk drinks were administered with a light breakfast: standard milk (control milk); milk enriched with calcium from milk solids and tricalcium phosphate [(TCP) MSS milk]; milk enriched with calcium from concentrated milk (CON milk); milk with added fructo-oligosaccharides [(FOSs) FOS milk]; and milk with added caseinophosphopeptides [(CPPs) CPP milk]. All the milks were labeled with 42Ca as CaCl2. The MSS milk was also labeled with 44Ca as TCP. The quantity of calcium in each drink was kept the same by varying the volume given. Calcium absorption did not differ significantly between the control milk and the calcium-fortified milks (MSS and CON milk) or the FOS and CPP milks. However, calcium absorption from the TCP added to the MSS milk was significantly higher than that from the control milk (27.5 +/- 7.6% and 24.5 +/- 7.3%, respectively; P = 0.003). Calcium-enriched milks are a valuable source of well-absorbed calcium. Absorption of added calcium as TCP was higher than that of calcium from the control milk, but the addition of FOSs or CPPs did not significantly increase calcium absorption. Further research is needed to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and public health benefits of consuming fortified milks.

  12. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.

    2017-02-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and breast milk samples from residents of a schistosomiasis area with Na-PCP application in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Zhao, Xingru; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Bing; Fang, Liping; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2010-04-01

    Schistosomiasis has prevailed in some areas of China for a long time. Chinese technical sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP) has been used to control the spread of snail-borne schistosomiasis since the 1960s. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), impurities contained in the Na-PCP, enter the soil and may accumulate in the food chain. In order to evaluate their potentially harmful effects on local residents, 50 breast milk samples and 20 blood samples were collected in 2004 from residents in the Dongting Lake area, one of China's known schistosomiasis areas. Levels of 17 PCDD/F congeners were measured in all samples, and DNA damage was simultaneously assessed in blood samples. The PCDD/F congener distribution patterns in human tissue samples from the Dongting Lake area were similar to those in Na-PCP, and the octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD) congener was predominant in all samples. We also had a primary investigation that the breast milk WHO-TEQ associated with some factors such as: age, dietary habit, body mass index (BMI) and the total menses times. In blood samples, the samples with higher OCDD level had higher DDS (DNA damage score) values than those samples with low OCDD level, which indicated that the higher DNA damage value in general population might be caused directly or indirectly by PCDD/Fs. The results also indicated that the WHO-TEQ values in blood were associated with age (r=0.6, p=0.007). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a sparse sampling study design to assess transfer of tramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite into transitional breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Ilett, Kenneth F; Paech, Michael J; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Sy, Sherwin K; Kristensen, Judith H; Goy, Raymond; Chua, Sebastian; Christmas, Tracey; Scott, Karen L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the transfer of rac-tramadol and its rac-O-desmethyl metabolite into transitional milk, and assess unwanted effects in the breastfed infant. METHODS Tramadol HCl (100 mg six hourly) was administered to 75 breastfeeding mothers for postoperative analgesia on days 2–4 after Caesarian section. Milk and plasma samples were collected after administration of four or more doses. Rac-tramadol and rac-O-desmethyltramadol were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Milk : plasma ratio (M : P) and infant doses were calculated by standard methods. The behavioural characteristics of the exposed breastfed infants and a matched control group of infants not exposed to tramadol were also studied. RESULTS At steady-state, mean (95% CI) M : P was 2.2 (2.0, 2.4) for rac-tramadol and 2.8 (2.5, 3.1) for rac-O-desmethyltramadol. The estimated absolute and relative infant doses were 112 (102, 122) μg kg−1 day−1 and 30 (28, 32) μg kg−1 day−1, and 2.24% (2.04, 2.44)% and 0.64% (0.59, 0.69)% for rac-tramadol and rac-O-desmethyltramadol, respectively. The exposed infants and control breastfed infants had similar characteristics, including Apgar scores at birth and Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Scores. CONCLUSIONS The combined relative infant dose of 2.88% at steady-state was low. The similarity of NACS in exposed infants and controls suggests that there were no significant behavioural adverse effects. We conclude that short-term maternal use of tramadol during establishment of lactation is compatible with breastfeeding. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT There are presently no published data on tramadol transfer into breast milk or on its effects in the breastfed infant. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS We have provided quantitative data on the absolute and relative infant doses of rac-tramadol and it rac-O-desmethyl metabolite for the breastfed infant. We have also demonstrated a novel sparse sampling data collection method for investigating infant

  15. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  16. Analysis and Risk Assessment of Seven Toxic Element Residues in Raw Bovine Milk in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xue-Yin; Zheng, Nan; Zhou, Xue-Wei; Li, Song-Li; Wang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2017-08-19

    The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.

  17. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  18. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  19. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  20. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  1. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  2. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an...

  3. Raw milk from vending machines: Effects of boiling, microwave treatment, and refrigeration on microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Falasca, Luisa; Capilongo, Valeria; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the sale of raw milk from vending machines has been allowed since 2004. Boiling treatment before its use is mandatory for the consumer, because the raw milk could be an important source of foodborne pathogens. This study fits into this context with the aim to evaluate the microbiological quality of 30 raw milk samples periodically collected (March 2013 to July 2013) from 3 vending machines located in Molise, a region of southern Italy. Milk samples were stored for 72 h at 4 °C and then subjected to different treatments, such as boiling and microwaving, to simulate domestic handling. The results show that all the raw milk samples examined immediately after their collection were affected by high microbial loads, with values very close to or even greater than those acceptable by Italian law. The microbial populations increased during refrigeration, reaching after 72 h values of about 8.0 log cfu/mL for Pseudomonas spp., 6.5 log cfu/mL for yeasts, and up to 4.0 log cfu/mL for Enterobacteriaceae. Boiling treatment, applied after 72 h to refrigerated milk samples, caused complete decontamination, but negatively affected the nutritional quality of the milk, as demonstrated by a drastic reduction of whey proteins. The microwave treatment at 900 W for 75 s produced microbiological decontamination similar to that of boiling, preserving the content in whey proteins of milk. The microbiological characteristics of raw milk observed in this study fully justify the obligation to boil the raw milk from vending machines before consumption. However, this study also showed that domestic boiling causes a drastic reduction in the nutritional value of milk. Microwave treatment could represent a good alternative to boiling, on the condition that the process variables are standardized for safe domestic application.

  4. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. Methods A microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaken by evaluating 59 samples of milk from selling points (collecting centres =15), bicycle boys (12) and kiosks/restaurants (32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005. Quality and milk-borne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence of Brucellosis (milk ring test), Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 (culture), the coliform bacteria as well as standard plate count (SPC). Specific gravity (SG) determination was used as an indicator of adulteration. Results The mean coliform plate count (c.f.u/mL) of milk handled by bicycle boys (4.2×106) was significantly higher than that handled by collecting centres (3.0×106) and kiosk/ restaurants (1.4×106), respectively (P < 0.05). Of the 59 milk samples collected, 33 (56%) were Brucella milk ring test (MRT)-positive and 78% and 17% of the samples graded satisfactorily based on SG and coliform plate counts as prescribed by East African Community standards for raw milk. There was no verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) O157: H7 in any of the milk samples collected and analysed during the present study. Conclusions It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp.) and other harmful microorganisms. PMID:23569762

  5. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L. M.; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Frese, Steven A.; Robinson, Randall C.; Mills, David A.; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Scope The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Methods and results Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1,500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. Conclusion The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. PMID:26616950

  6. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L M; Kalanetra, Karen M; Frese, Steven A; Robinson, Randall C; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela

    2016-04-15

    The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofilm in milking equipment on a dairy farm as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The quality and safety of raw milk are important attributes for consumers of milk and dairy products. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of a L. monocytogenes biofilm in milking equipment as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination on a dairy farm. Weekly tests to monit...

  8. Stir-membrane solid-liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human breast milk samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Rocío; Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2014-08-08

    In this article, stir-membrane solid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SM-SLLME) is tailored for the analysis of solid matrices and it has been evaluated for the determination of parabens in l breast milk samples. A three-phase microextraction mode was used for the extraction of the target compounds taking advantage of their acid-base properties. The unit allows the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds from the solid sample to an organic media and the subsequent transference of the analytes to an aqueous acceptor phase. The method includes the identification and quantification of the analytes by ultra high performance liqu